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PREFACE

M
athematical modelling of the boundary-value problems associ-
ated with the scattering of acoustic or electromagnetic waves by
bounded obstacles has been a subject of great interest during
the last few decades. This is primarily due to the fact that particle scatter-
ing analysis is encountered in many practical applications as, for example,
aerosol analysis, investigation of air pollution, radiowave propagation in the
presence of atmospheric hydrometers, weather radar problems, analysis of
contaminating particles on the surface of silicon wafers, remote sensing,
etc. Many techniques have been developed for analyzing scattering prob-
lems. Each of the available methods generally has a range of applicability
that is determined by the size of the scattering object relative to the wave-
length of the incident radiation. Scattering by objects that are very small
compared to the wavelength can be analyzed by the Rayleigh approxima-
tion, and geometrical optics methods can be employed for objects that are
electrically large. Objects whose size is in the order of the wavelength of
the incident radiation lie in a range commonly called the resonance region,
and the complete wave nature of the incident radiation must be considered
in the solution of the scattering problem. Classical methods of solution
in the resonance region such as the finite-difference method, finite-element
method or integral equation method, owing to their universality, lead to
computational algorithms that are expensive in computer resources. This
significantly restricts their use in studying multiparametric boundary-value
IX
X PREFACE
problems, and in particular in analyzing inverse problems which are mul-
tiparametric by nature. In the last few years, the discrete sources method
and the null-field method have become efficient and powerful tools for solv-
ing boundary-value problems in scattering theory.
The physical idea of the discrete sources method is linked with Huy-
gens' principle and the equivalence theorem. The obstacle, being a source
of secondary (scattered) field, is substituted with a set of fictitious sources
which generate the same secondary field as does the actual obstacle. These
global principles have led to a variety of numerical methods, such as the
multiple multipole technique (Hafner [66], [67]), discrete singularity method
(Nishimura et al [119]), method of auxiliary sources (Zaridze [169]), Ya-
suura method (Yasuura and Itakura [167]), spherical-wave expansion tech-
nique (Ludwig [95]) and fictitious current models (Leviatan and Boag [92],
Leviatan et al. [94]). The difference between these approaches relates to
the type of sources used. Essentially, the approximate solution to the scat-
tering problem is constructed as a finite linear combination of fields of
elementary sources. The discrete sources are placed on a certain support
in an additional region with respect to the region where the solution is re-
quired and the unknown discrete sources amplitudes are determined from
the boundary condition.
In the null-field method (otherwise known as the extended boundary
condition method, Schelkunoff equivalent current method, Eswald-Oseen
extinction theorem and T-matrix method) developed by Waterman [155],
one replaces the particle by a set of surface current densities, so that in the
exterior region the sources and the fields are exactly the same as those ex-
isting in the original scattering problem. A set of integral equations for the
surface current densities is derived by considering the bilinear expansion
of the Green function. The solution of the scattering problem is then ob-
tained by approximating the surface current densities by the complete set
of partial wave solutions to the Helmholtz (Maxwell) equation in spherical
coordinates. A number of modifications to the null-field method have been
suggested, especially to improve the numerical stability in computations for
particles with extreme geometries. These techniques include formal modi-
fications of the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method (Iskan-
der et al [76], Bostrom [15]), different choices of basis functions and the
application of the spheroidal coordinate formalism (Bates and Wall [11],
Hackman [64]) and the use of discrete sources (Wriedt and Doicu [165]).
The strategy followed in the null-field method with discrete sources is to
derive a set of integral equations for the surface current densities in a va-
riety of auxiliary sources and to approximate these densities by fields of
discrete sources.
These considerations, combined with the continued cooperation be-
tween the Department of Process Technology at the Institute for Material
Science Bremen and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Com-
PREFACE XI
puter Science at the University of Moscow, have motivated us to attempt to
present a rigorous and self-contained treatise on the use of discrete sources
in scattering theory.
The goals concerning the content of the present monograph are influ-
enced by our own research interests. In view of the overwhelming amount
of literature in the field, we have decide to emphasize the following themes:
1. The analysis of regularity properties for acoustic and electromag-
netic potentials with square integrable densities.
2. The construction of complete and linear independent systems of
functions using discrete sources.
3. The formulation of the null-field equations in terms of discrete
sources.
4. The elaboration of the basic concepts of the discrete sources method
including the analysis of convergent projection schemes, the investi-
gation of the optimal position of the support of discrete sources, the
choice of stable numerical algorithms for amplitude determination
and the evaluation of the accuracy of the results.
5. The foundation of the null-field method with discrete sources includ-
ing the analysis of convergence and the construction of convergent
projection schemes.
Although references are made throughout the text to papers concerned
with the numerical implementation of our methods, we have decided to
include only our own research results. In this context we present numerical
experiments computed in the framework of the discrete sources method
with distributed vector multipoles and the conventional null-field method
with discrete sources.
This volume is intended for engineering and physics students as well as
researchers in scattering theory, and therefore we have decided to assume
only a minimal background in functional analysis for an understanding of
the material on scattering theory.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

would like to express my sincere thanks to Professor Klaus Bauckhage,

head of Department of Process Technology at the Institute for Material
Science Bremen for his constant help by providing me with the technical
support necessary to complete this manuscript. During much of the writing
of this book Professor Klaus Bauckhage was an incisive critic and a fertile
source of ideas. In fact, the development of computer programs in the
framework of the null-field method with discrete sources was motivated by
practical problems: measurement of spheroidal particles, agglomerates and
rough particles using the Phase Doppler Anemometer. Without Professor
Klaus Bauckhage's constant encouragement the writing of this book would
not have been possible.
XIII
I
ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL
ANALYSIS
In this chapter we will recall some fundamental results of functional anal-
ysis. We firstly present the notion of a Hilbert space and discuss some
basic properties of the orthogonal projection operator. We then introduce
the concepts of closeness and completeness of a system of elements which
belong to a Hilbert space. The completeness of the system of elementary
sources is a necessary condition for the solution of scattering problems in
the framework of the discrete sources method. After this discussion, we will
briefly present the notions of Schauder and Riesz bases. We will use these
concepts when we will analyze the convergence of the null-field method.
We then consider projection methods for the operator equation
Au = / ,
where A is a linear bounded and bounded invertible operator from a Hilbert
space H onto itself. We will consider the equivalent variational problem
B{u, x) = J^*{x) for all x e H,
where B is a bounded and strictly coercive sesquilinear form and J" is a
linear and continuous functional. Convergent projection schemes will be
2 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
constructed by appealing on the fundamental theorem of discrete approx-
imation. Later, we will particularize these results for the space of square
integrable tangential vector functions. We conclude this chapter by analyz-
ing projection methods for a linear operator A acting from a Hilbert space
H onto a Hilbert space G, and for the operator equation
where JB is a compact operator.
1 HILBERT SPACES. ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OPERATOR
Let if be a complex vector space (linear space). The function.(, )j^ :
H X H -^ C is called a Hermitian form if
(a) {au 4- /3v, w)j^ = a {u,w) fj -\- f3 {v, w)jj , (linearity)
(b) (w, v)fj = {v, u)]^ , (symmetry)
for all u,v,w e H and all a,/3 E C. Here, a* denotes the complex conju-
gate of a. A Hermitian form with the properties
(a) ( w, i x) ^>0, (positivity)
(b) (u, u)ff=Oii and only ii u = 9HI (definiteness)
where ^H stands for the zero element of H, is called a scalar product or an
inner product. The vector space with a scalar product specified is called a
inner product space or a pre-Hilbert space.
In terms of the scalar product in /if, a norm
\HH = \fM~H (1-1)
can be introduced, after which H becomes a normed space. The follow-
ing important inequality is the basis for the statement that inner product
spaces contain all the elements of Euclidean geometry, while normed spaces
have length, but nothing corresponding to angle. It is the Cauchy-Schwarz
inequality and is given by
| (u, i ; )^| < \\u\\tj \\V\\H for all u.veH. (L2)
The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and the definition of scalar product imply
that the norm properties:
1. HILBERT SPACES. ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OPERATOR 3
(a) \\u\\fj > 0, (positivity)
(t>) ll^ll// = 0 if and only \i u = 0//, (definiteness)
(c) ||aix||^ = \a\ \\u\\jj , (homogeneity)
(d) ||u + v\\f^ < \\u\\ff -f | | i;| | ^ , (triangle inequality)
for all u,v e H and all a C are satisfied. Therefore any scalar prod-
uct induces a norm, but in general, a norm || | | ^ is generated by a scalar
product if and only if the parallelogram identity
ll + v\\l + \\u - v\f = 2 {\\u\\l + Ml) (1.3)
holds.
Given a sequence {un) of elements of a normed space X, we say that
Un converges to an element u of H if \\un u\\^ -+ 0 as n oo. A se-
quence (un) of elements in a normed space X is called a Cauchy sequence
if \\un UmWx * 0 as n, m ^ oc.
A subset M of a normed space X is called complete if every Cauchy
sequence of elements in M converges to an element in M. A normed space
is called a Banach space if it is complete. An inner product space is called
a Hilbert space if it is complete.
A sequence (un) in a Hilbert space H converges weakly to u H if for
any v E H, {un,v)fj > (u, i; )^ as n >> oo. Ordinary (norm) convergence is
often called strong convergence, to distinguish it from weak convergence.
The terms 'strong' and 'weak' convergence are justified by the fact that
strong convergence implies weak convergence, and, in general, the converse
implication does not hold. If a sequence is contained in a compact set,
then weak convergence implies strong convergence. Note that every weakly
convergent sequence in a Hilbert space is bounded and every bounded
sequence in a Hilbert space has a weakly convergent subsequence.
Two elements u and v of an inner product space H are called orthogonal
if {u,v)fj = 0; we then write uv. If an element u is orthogonal to each
element of a set M, we call it orthogonal to the set M and write uM.
Similarly, if each element of a set M is orthogonal to each element of the set ,
K, we call these sets orthogonal, and write MK. The Pytagora theorem
states that
\\uv\\l^\\u\\l + \\v\\l (1.4)
for any orthogonal elements u and v.
A set in a Hilbert space is called orthogonal if any two elements of the
set are orthogonal. If, moreover, the norm of any element is one, the set is
called orthonormal.
4 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
A subset M of a normed space is said to be closed if it contains all
its limit points. For any set M in a normed space, the closure of M is
the union of M with the set of all limit points of M, The closure of M is
written M. Obviously, M is contained in M, and M = M if M is closed.
Note the following properties of the closure:
(a) For any set M, M is closed.
(b) If_A/ C K, then M C F .
(c) M is the smallest closed set containing A/; that is, '\{ M <Z K and
K is closed, then JI C K.
Complete sets are closed and each closed subset of a complete set is
complete.
Next, we define the orthogonal projection operator. Let J/ be a Hilbert
space and M a subspace of H (i.e. a complete vector subspace of H).
Let u E H. Since for any v M we have ||^/ ^||// > 0, we see that
the set {\\u vW^^ / t ' G A/} posses an infimum. Let d = mi^^^M ||^ ~" ^IIH
and let {vn) be a minimizing sequence, i.e. (f^,) C M and \\u - VUWH ~^
dasn V oo. Since M is a vector subspace, ^{vn + v^n) G Af, whence
11 !L___!Ii|| > d^ Using this and the parallelogram identity
H
,,||5, = 2(| | 7i-i; , | | ^, + | | u- i ; , n| | ^) - 4
Vn 4-1;,,
H
(1-5)
gives
\\V - Vr,,\\l < 2 (||U - VnWl + II" " ^mll) ' ^d^\ (1-6)
whence, by letting n, m oo, ||i; I'mll// * 0 follows. Thus, {vn) is
a Cauchy sequence and since M is complete, there exists w M such
that \\vn 'w\\f^ > 0 as n > oo; moreover \\u i^n||// ^ ||^ - ?^||// = rfas
n 00. Suppose now that there exists another element w' for which the
function \\u u| | ^ attains its minimum; then d = \\u - if | | ^ = ||w vj'^n
Clearly, $$w \- w') E M and we have d inf \U - l^llrr < w + w H (1.7) Thus, u - w -\- w' d, and by the parallelogram identity H \\W - w'W^j = 2 (||n - xot + \\u - w't^^) - 4 I L w ^-w' = 0, (1.8) 1. HILBERT SPACES. ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION OPERATOR 5 we find w = w'. The vector w gives the best approximation of u among all the vectors of M. Note that d is called the distance from u to M and is also noted by p(u, M). The operator P : H ^ M mapping u onto its best approximation, i.e. Pu=: us (1.9) where ||t/ t/;||j^ = d miy^M 11^ "" ^11// ' ^^ ^ bounded Hnear operator with the properties: P^ = P and {Pu.v)jj {u,Pv)ff for any u,v H. It is called the orthogonal projection operator from H onto M, and w is called the projection of u onto M. The following statements characterizing the projection are equivalent: (a) \\U-W\\H < \\u-v\\ff, (b) Re{u- w,v - w)fj < 0, (c) Re{u-v,w- v)fj > 0, toT ue H, w ^ Pu e M and any v M, Let M be a subset of a Hilbert space / / . The set of all elements or- thogonal to M is called the orthogonal complement of M, M^ = {ueH/uM}. Clearly, M-^ is a subspace of H, To show this we firstly observe that A/-^ is a vector subspace, since for any scalars a and /? and any u.v A/-^, {au-\- (3v,(fi)^ = 0 for all (^ G A/; whence au -{- f3v e A/-^ follows. To prove that Af-*- is complete, let us choose a Cauchy sequence {n) C A/-^; it converges to some u H because H is complete. We must show that u E M^. Since for any v e H, and in particular for any v e A/, we have {uny v)fj > (w, v)fj as n > oc and (un? ^' )H = 0, n = 1,2,..., it follows that (w, i^)// = 0 for any v G A/. Hence, tz G A/-'- and so Af-^ is complete. Now, let if be a Hilbert space, M a subspace of if, and P the or- thogonal projection operator of H onto M. Let u e H. From the prop- erties of the projection we see that Re{u - Pu.v Pu)fj < 0 for any t; G Af. Choose v = Pu (p with (p being an arbitrary element of A/. Then Re {u Pu, i ^) / f < 0, whence Re {u Pu, ^)fj = 0 . Replacing in the last relation (f by J V (J^ = 1) we get Re(w ~ Pu,j(f)ff ~ Re [ - j ( w- Pu,(f)fj] = Im(w - Pu,ip)ff = 0. (LIO) Thus, for a given u e H the projection u; = Pu satisfies u w 1 M. Therefore, any element u H can be uniquely decomposed as u = w-^w^, ( Ll l ) 6 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS where w e M and w^ G M-^. This result is known as the theorem of orthogonal projection. The operator Q : H -^ M-^ given by Qu = u-Pu (1.12) is the orthogonal projection operator from H onto M^. 2 CLOSED AND COMPLETE SYSTEMS IN HILBERT SPACES. BASES Let X be a normed space and M a subset of X. M is dense in X if for any u e X and any > 0 there exist u^ E M such that \\u u^W^ < e. Equivalently, M is.dense in X if and only if for any u e X there exists a sequence {un) C M such that \\un w||x 0 as n > oo. Every set is dense in its closure, i.e. M is dense in M. M is the largest set in which M is dense; that is, if M is dense in K, then K C M.li M is dense in a Hilbert space if, then M H. Conversely, if M = i / , then M is dense in H. Let H he Si Hilbert space. If M is dense in H and u is orthogonal to M, then u = 6H- Indeed, let uJLM and choose an arbitrary v E H. Since M = H there exists a sequence (vn) C M such that \\vn v| | ^ > 0 as n > GO. Consequently, {u^Vn)^ (^?^)// as n > oo. From {u,Vn)ff = 0, n = 1,2,..., it follows that (w, v)^ = 0 for any v e H. Thus, u H. The element w is orthogonal to any element of H and in particular is orthogonal to itself, i.e. {u,u)ff = | | u| | ^ = 0. Hence, u = OH- Elements V^i,^2' "">'^N ^f ^ vector space X are called linearly depen- dent if there exists a linear combination Yli^i ^i'^i = 0 in which the co- efficients do not vanish, i.e. Yli=i l^^l > ^- ^^^ vectors are called linearly independent if they are not linearly dependent, or equivalently, if there exists no non-trivial vanishing linear combination. If any finite number of elements of an infinite set {t / ^J^i is linearly independent, the set {V'Ji^i is called linearly independent. A system of elements {V^jj^i is called closed in H if there are no elements in H orthogonal to any element of the set except the zero element, that means (w,V^,)^ = 0 , z = 1,2,..., implies IX = 0H- A system of elements {ipi}^i is called complete in H if the linear span CX) 1 =1 of {ipi}^i or the set of all finite linear combinations of {ipi}^ Sp{^i , ^2. } = lu = J ^ a . ^ ^ Qi G C,7V = 1,2,... i 2. CLOSED AND COMPLETE SYSTEMS IN HILBERT SPACES. BASES 7 is dense in H, i.e. Bp {-^j, ip2^ } = H. Equivalently, if {t/^J^i is complete in H then for any u e H and any e > 0 there exist an integer N = N{e) and a set {ttr}^_i such that \\u X)i=i ^f^^i "^ ^ Let us observe that the closure of the linear span of any set {T/^^}^! is a subspace of H. It is a vector subspace by its very definition and it is also complete as a closed subset of a complete set. Obviously, if the system {V^J^i is complete in H, then the only ele- ment orthogonal to {ipi}^i is the zero element of H] thus the set {0i}i^i is closed in H. The converse result is also true. To show this let { ^ J ^ i be a closed system in H. Let us denote by W the linear span of {ipi}^i - Then any element u H can be uniquely represented as w = Pu 4- Qu, where P is the orthogonal projection operator from H onto W^ and Q is the orthog- onal projection operator from H onto W . Since Qu G W and \l)i W, 2 = 1,2,..., we get {Qu, il^^)u = 0, i = 1,2,.... The closeness of {V^J^i in H implies Qu = 6H-> and therefore for any element u H we have u = Pu W. Thus, H C W, and since W C H we get W = H; therefore W is dense in H. We summarize this result in the following theorem. THEOREM 2. 1: Let H be a Hilbert space. A systetn of elements {'4^i}^i is complete in H if and only if it is closed in H. A set {ipi }?=i is called a finite basis for the vector space X if it is linearly independent and it spans X. A vector space is said to be n-dimensional if it has a finite basis consisting of n elements. A vector space with no finite basis is said to be infinite-dimensional. Let HN be a finite-dimensional vector subspace of a Hilbert space H with orthogonal basis {<f>i}^-i. Then the orthogonal projection operator from H onto HN is given by N PNU = Y2 (^' ^t)H ^i^ ueH. t = l For the time being we note a simple but important result characterizing the convergence of the projections. Let {ipi}^i be a complete and linear independent system in a Hilbert space /f, let H^ stand for the linear span of {ipi}i^i, and let us denote by PN the orthogonal projection operator from H onto HN. We have \\u - PN+I ^ I I H = inf \\u - t;||^ Vfc/lN + l < inf ||u - v\\fj = ||u - PNU\\H vriN (1.13) for any u e H; thus the sequence ||n - PN'^WH ^^ convergent. Since {^J ^i is complete in H we find a subsequence (uiv) C HN^ such that ||u - UNn \\H 8 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS > 0 as n * oo. Then, from 0 < \\u PN^'^^'WH ^ N ^iVnll// we get ||u PNa'^Wn ^ 0 as n > oc; thus the convergent sequence \\u PNU\\H possesses a subsequence which converge to zero. Therefore, for any xi H we have \\u - PNU\\U -^Oas N -^OO. (1.14) A map i4 of a vector space X into a vector space Y is called linear if A transforms linear combinations of elements into the same linear combina- tions of their images, i.e. if ^ ( a i ^ i -]-a2U2 +...) = aiA{ui)-ha2A{u2)-{-.." Linear maps are also called linear operators. In the linear algebra one usu- ally writes arguments without brackets, A{u) = Au. Linearity of a map, is for normed spaces, a very strong condition which is shown by the following equivalent statements: (a) A transforms sequences converging to zero into bounded sequences, (b) A is continuous at one point (for instance at tx = 0), (c) A satisfies the Lipschitz condition ||i4u||y < c||u||;^ for all u e X and c independent on tx, (d) A is continuous at every point. Each number c for which the inequality (c) holds is called a bound for the operator A. Let C{X, Y) be the linear space of all linear continuous maps of a normed space X into a normed space Y. The norm of an operator uex,uy^0x \m\x l|u|lx=i satisfies all the axioms of the norm in a normed space, whence the linear space (X, Y) is a normed space. Note that the number \\A\\ is the smallest bound for yl. It is not difficult to prove that the space C{X, Y) is complete if the space Y is such. A map of a vector space into the space C of scalars is called a functional. The above statements are valid for linear functional. The space {X^ C) is called the conjugate space of X and is denoted by X*. It is always a Banach space. A system {xpj}^^ is called minimal if no elements of this system belongs to the closure of the linear span of the remaining elements. In order that the system {V^l^i be minimal in a Banach space X, it is necessary and sufficient that a system of linear and continuous functional defined on X exist forming with the given system a biorthogonal system; that is, a system of Hnear and continuous functionals {^j j ^j such that ^j ( ^J = 6ij^ where 6ij is the Kronecker symbol. If the system {V^^ j ^ j is complete and minimal, then the system of functionals {^j}Jli is defined in a unique manner. In 2. CLOSED AND COMPLETE SYSTEMS LN HILBERT SPACES. BASES 9 a Hilbert space H, by Riesz theorem (see section 1.3), there exists ipj such that J'j (u) = (^,^j) for any u / / ; therefore (tj^^j)^ = 6ij. In this case the system ^^^^^ _ is called biorthogonal to the system {t''j}^_|. A system {^J ^j is called a Schauder basis of a Banach space X if any element u e X can be uniquel}^ represented as u = X]^^l ^?^^n where the convergence of the series is in the norm of X. Every basis is a complete minimal system. However, a complete minimal system may not be a basis in the space. For example, the trigonometric system I/JQ (t) = 1/2, 02n-i(^) = sin(n;^), ^2M (^) cos(?if),n = 1,2, ...,is a complete minimal system in the space C([TT, TT]) but it does not form a basis in it. In an arbitrarily separable Hilbert space if, every complete orthogonal systems of elements forms a basis. Thus, the trigonometric system of functions forms a basis in L2([-;r,7r]). The system { 0 j ^ j is called an unconditional basis in the Banach space A' if it remains a basis for an arbitrary rearrangement of its elements. Let T : X -^ X hea bounded linear operator with a bounded inverse. If the system {ipi}^i is a basis, then the system { T^ j j ^ j is a basis. If {u%}^^ is an unconditional basis, then {Tu'i}^i is an unconditional basis. In a Hilbert space, every orthogonal basis is unconditional. It can be shown that an arbitrary unconditional basis in a Hilbert space is representable in the form {T0^}^j , where {0^}J^i is an orthonormal basis oi H. Such bases are called Riesz bases. If {' 0j ^i is a Riesz basis then the biorthogonal system \pi > is also a Riesz basis. A complete system {i^i}^i forms a Riesz basis of H if the Gramm matrix G = [Gij], Gjj = {^i^'^'j)ff > generates an isomorphism on /^. The system {t' ^jj^i forms a Riesz basis of H if the inequalities N ci^\o^if < i=l l ] ^ i ^ ^ N < C 2 ^ K | ' (1.15) H *=1 hold for any constants QJ and for any iV, where the positive constants cj and C2 should not depend on A^ and a^. Equivalently, {^ J ^ i forms a Riesz basis of H if there exist the positive constants ci and C2 such that oo oo \'<\\u\\l<C2'\{u,i>,)i/ (1.16) ? = 1 1 = 1 for arbitrary u E H. Note that if {t\}^i is a Riesz basis, then sup^ 11^/11// < C2, infj ll^^llj:^ > ci and similar inequalities hold for the biorthogonal system {*'}:, 10 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS 3 PROJECTION METHODS One of the most important result of the theory of Hilbert spaces is the Riesz theorem. This theorem states that if J^ is a hnear and continuos functional on a Hilbert space i / , then there exists an unique element u/ e H such that J^{v) = {v,Uf)fj for all v e H, (1.17) and IIJ^II^. 11^/11// Conversely, any element u e H define a linear and continuous functional on H by the relation J^u{v) = {v,u)fj for all v e H, (1.18) and we have | | ^W| IH* ~ \W\\H- Let ^ be a linear and continuous functional defined on a Hilbert space H and {un) a weak convergent sequence with limit u e H. Then by the Riesz theorem, J-^{un) ^{u) as n oo. Let H he a, Hilbert space. The function B : H x H -^ C is called a sesquilinear form on H if it is linear in the first argument and antilinear in the second one, i.e. B{ax-\-py,z) = aB(x, ^) +/?B(y, ^), (1.19) B{x,ay-\-f3z) = a'B{x,y)-h0'B(x,z), for all x^y^z G H and all a,/? G C. A sesquilinear form B is bounded, if there exists a constant M > 0 such that \B{x,y)\ <M\\x\\ff \\y\\f, for all x,y e H, (1.20) and strictly coercive, if there exists a constant c > 0 such that ReB{x,x) > c| | x| | ^ for all x e H. (1.21) Let H he a. Hilbert space and B a bounded sesquilinear form on H. With X being an element of H we define the functional T: i / C by J^{y) = B*{x^ y). Then f E H^. According to Riesz theorem there exists an unique element x/ G i / , such that J-^{y) = {yi^f)f{ for all y H. We define the operator A : H -^ H hy Ax x/ .Then B*{x^y) = {y,Ax)ff , and further B{x^y) = {Ax^y)ff for all x^y e H. Let us now prove that A G C{H,H). The linearity of -<4 is a consequence of the linearity in the first argument of B. The boundedness of A follows from the boundedness of B, i.e. from \\Ax\\l = {Ax, Ax)f, = B{x, Ax) < M ||a:||^ \\Ax\\^ (1.22) we obtain ma;||;^ < M| | a:| | ^ for all x e H. The operator A is uniquely determined. To show this we suppose that there exist two operators Ai and 3. PROJECTION METHODS 11 A2 such that B{x^y) = {Aix,y)jj = {A2X,y)fj for all x,y 6 H. Then, we have {Aix A2X, y)fj = 0 for all x^y e H, which implies Aix = A2X for all X E H. Therefore, for any bounded sesquilinear form B : H x H -^ C there exists an uniquely determined linear and bounded operator A : H ^ H such that B{x, y) = {Ax, y)fj for all x,y e H. (1.23) In a similar manner we can prove the existence of a linear and bounded operator A^ : H -^ H such that B{x, y) = (x, A \ \ for all x,y H. (1.24) The operator A^ is called the adjoint operator of A. Note that if B is strictly coercive then A is strictly coercive, that is Re{AXyX)ff > c||rr||;^ for sll X H and c > 0. The Lax-Milgram lemma states that if B is a bounded and strictly coercive sesquilinear form on a Hilbert space H, then the strictly coercive bounded operator A : H ^ H generated by B has a bounded inverse A-^ :H -^ H. As a consequence of Riesz theorem and Lax-Milgram lemma if 6 is a bounded and strictly coercive sesquilinear form and / " a bounded linear functional on a Hilbert space H then the variational problem B{%x) = T*{x) for all x e H, (1.25) is unique solvable and the solution solves the operator equation Au = / , (1.26) where A is the operator generated by B and / is the uniquely determined element corresponding to J^. We are now well prepared to present the main result of this chapter, namely the fundamental theorem of discrete approximation. This theo- rem is frequently used in the finite-element method for solution of various boundary-value problems by discrete schemes. THEOREM 3.2: (fundamental theorem of di screte approxi ma- ti on) Let H be a Hilbert space and B a bounded sesquilinear form on H satisfying \B{x, x)\>c \\x\\]j for all xeH, (1.27) Let T be a linear and continuous functional on H and {^i}^x ^ complete and linearly independent system in H. Then 12 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS (a) the algebraic system of equations N Y,B{^,,iPj)a^=T*{i^j), j = l,...,iV, (1.28) possess a unique solution^ (b) the sequence N UN = Y^ a^il^i (1.29) is convergent; if \\UM u\\fj > 0 as N -^ oo, then u is the unique solution to the variational problem ^*(x) = B{u,x) for all x G H, (1.30) Proof: Before we present the proof we note that condition (1.27) is weaker than the coerciveness condition (1.21). Coming now to the proof of (a) we define the matrix B = [Bij] by Bij B{'tl)^^ ipj)^ z, j = 1,2,..., N. Let HN = Sp{^i,...,i/^;v} ^^d let PN be the orthogonal projection operator from H onto Hjsf. With A standing for the operator generated by the sesquilinear form B, i.e. B{x,y) = {Ax,y)fj , we have Bij = 5 ( ^i , ^, ) = ( M, ^ i > H = (A^i.PN'ipj),, = (PNAiPi.tlj^)^ . (1.31) For any x HN we use c\M]t < \Bix,x)\ = \{Ax,x)ff\ = \{Ax,PNx)f,\ = \{PNAx,x)jf\ < WPNAXWJ, \\X\\H (1.32) to obtain ||P/v>la:||^ > c| | x| | ^ . Consequently, the operator PjsfA : H^ ^ HN is invertible. Since {t/^jl^^^x form a basis of H^ we see that the vectors (fi = PisfAtp^, i =. l,...,iV, form a basis of f//^. Let us denote by T = [Tij] , z, j = 1,2,..., A/', the nonsingular transition matrix passing from the basis {t/^jjli to the basis {iPi}^^i, i.e. (p^ = Ylk^i^ik^k^^^ ^ = 1,...,A^. Then, we have N N k=l k=l where  = [*ij] , *i j = {'^ii'^j)fj ^h j =" 1? 2,..., AT, is the Gramm matrix of the linearly independent system {ipi}^^i - The matrix B is expressed as a product of two nonsingular matrices. Hence, B is nonsingular. 3. PROJECTION METHODS 1 3 For proving (b) we rewrite (1.28) as B{uN,i^j)^r{i^j), j-l,...,Ar. (1.34) Multiplying the above relations by a^* and summing over j we obtain B{UNJUN) = T*{UN). Then from c|| ^ ||^ <\B{UN,UN)\ = \r{uN)\ < WTWH' I KI I H (1.35) we deduce that {UN) is bounded; thus we can pick up a weak convergent subsequence {uNk) Let u be the weak limit of this subsequence. Prom (1.34) we get B{uNk^'^j) = T*{tl)j), j = l,,..,Nk. Since for any fixed j the mapping x G i / , x -* B{x^ ipj) is a linear and continuous functional on H^ and since u^^ ~> u weakly as fc -^ oo, we obtain B{u,il)j) = J^*{tpj) for any j = 1,2,.... Next, the completeness of the system {^ J ^ i gives B{u,x) = J^*{x) for any a: e H, Let us prove that u is unique. Assume that there exists u' ^ u such that B{u\x) ^*{x) for any x E H. Then B{u w', a:) = 0 for any x E H and from 0 = \B{u -u'.U'- u')\ >c\\u- u'tfj > 0 (1.36) the conclusion readily follows. Thus, all weak convergent subsequences have the same weak limit; whence UN -^ u weakly as AT > oo (cf. Dinca [43]). Let us now prove the more stronger result, namely that \\UN u\^ 0 as iV > oo. Using (1.37) < 15(1*AT, WAT) - S(tiAr, u) - B{u, UN) -f B(u, u)\ and the identities B{U^UN) = T*{UN) and B{UN,UN) = J^*{UN) we get c \\UN - u\\]j < \B[uN.u) - B{u, u)\. (1.38) Since UN -^ u weakly as AT -> oo and the mapping x 6 if, a; H-> B{X, U) defines a linear and continuous functional on H we obtain B{UN^U) B{u^ u) as N * oo, and the conclusion readily follows. Evidently, the fundamental theorem of discrete approximation is also valid for a strictly coercive sesquilinear form B. In this context, the unique solution to the the variational problem (1.30) coincides with the unique solution to the operator equation (1.26). The projection relations (1.28) may be written as <^wj v~/ , ^^) ^ = 0, i = l,...,iV, (1.39) 14 CHAPTER I ELEMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS or equivalently as PNAPNUN = PN/^ (1.40) where P/v is the orthogonal projection operator from H onto Hjsf and HN = Sp{V^i,..,V^^}. The above projection method is also called the Galerkin method. The strongest condition which guarantee the conver- gence of the projection scheme is the strictly coercivity of the sesquilinear form B. According to (1.32) we see that this condition implies WPNAPNUW^^ > c \\PNU\\H for all ueH. (1.41) Let us generalize the above results when A is a. linear bounded and boundedly invertible operator from a Hilbert space H onto a Hilbert space G. Let HN C HN^I with dimHN = AT be a sequence of subsets limit dense in H, i.e. for any u H, P{U^HN) 0 as iV ^ OO, and let PN stands for the orthogonal projection operator onto HN. Analogously, let GN C Giv+i with dim GAT = AT be a sequence of subsets limit dense in G and let QN stands for the orthogonal projection operator onto GN. The projection method giving the approximate solution u^ of (1.26) is QNAPNUN = QN/- (1.42) Then we can formulate the following result (cf. Ramm [128]). THEOREM 3.3: Let A : H -^ G be a linear bounded and. boundedly invertible operator. Equation (1.4^) is unique solvable for all sufficiently large N, and \W - '^NWH - 0 as AT - 00, (1.43) if and only if WQNAPNUW^ > c \\PNu\\fj for all w ^ and AT > A^o, (1-44) where NQ is some integer and c > 0 does not depend on N and u. Proof: Let us prove the necessity. Assume that (1.43) holds and (1.42) is unique solvable. Then for / G G we have \\UN u\\ff > 0 as N -^ oo, where UN = {QNAPN)~^ QNf and u = A~^f. Thus sup N {QNAPNr'QN\\ < c < o o . (1.45) Since QNAPNU = Q^QNAP^U and P^PN'^ = PNU we have QNQNAPMU = QNAPNPNU. (1.46) 3. PROJECTION METHODS 15 Thus, \\PNU\\H = WiQNAPNr^ QNQNAPNU\\ <c\\QNAPNu\\a (1.47) II I I H and (1.44) is proved. For proving the sufficiency we assume (1.44). Con- sequently, the operator Q^APN \ P^H -^ QNG is an injective mapping between two A/'-dimensional spaces and therefore this mapping is surjective. Hence, (1.42) is unique solvable for N > No. From QNA [PNU -f (/ - PN) U] = Qiv/, QNAPNUN = QN/I (1.48) we obtain QNAPN {UN - PNU) = QNA (/ - PN) U. (1.49) Since HN is limit dense in i l , it follows that \\u P/v^||// > 0, iV -* oo. Then, from \\UN-PNU\\U = \\PN{UN -PNy)\\u < '\\QNAPN{UN-PNU)\\G^-\\QNA{I^PN)U\\C c c < l\\A{I-PN)u\\a<^\\u-PMu\\j, (1.50) we see that \\UN -Pivw||^ ^ 0 as A^ ^ oo; whence, by the triangle in- equality, we find that ||t* i^ivll// * 0 as iV > oo. This finishes the proof of the theorem. The following theorem will also be used many times in the sequel. THEOREM 3.4: Let A : H ^ G he a linear hounded and houndedly invertible operator satisfying (1.44)- Let B : H ^ G be a compact operator and A-\- B he hounded invertihle. Then, ^QN{A + B)PNu\\ci>c\\PNu\\jj f o r a l UG^ a n d i V> i Vo , (1.51) where NQ is some integer and c > 0 does not depend on N and u. Proof: For the proof we refer to Ramm [128]. Theorems 3.3 and 3.4 show that the equation QN{A-i-B)PNUN = QNf (1.52) is unique solvable for all sufficiently large AT and \\u UNWH ~^ 0 as iV > oo, where u is the exact solution to the operator equation [A -f B)u = / . II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION This chapter is devoted to presenting the foundations of obstacle scattering problems for tintie-harmonic acoustic waves. We begin with a brief discus- sion of the physical background of the scattering problem, and then we will formulate the boundary-value problems for the Helmholtz equation. We will synthetically recall the basic concepts as they were presented by Colton and Kress [32], [35]. However, we decided to leave out some details in the analysis. In this context we do not repeat the technical proof for the jump relations and the regularity properties for single- and double-layer potentials with continuous densities. Leaving aside these details, however, we will present a theorem given by Lax [90] which enables us to extend the jump relations from the case of continuous densities to square integrable densities. We then establish some properties of surface potentials vanish- ing in sets of R^. These results play a significant role in our completeness analysis. Discussing the Green representation theorems will enable us to derive some estimates of the solutions. We will then analyze the general null-field equation for the exterior Dirichlet and Neumann problems. In particular, we will establish the existence and uniqueness of the solutions and will prove the equivalence of the null-field equations with some bound- ary integral equations. 17 18 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION 1 BOUNDARYVALUE PROBLEMS IN ACOUSTIC THEORY Acoustic waves are associated only with local motions of the particles of the fluid and not with bodily motion of the fluid itself. The field variables of interest in a fluid are the particle velocity v' = v'(x,^), pressure p' = p' (x,t), mass density p' = p\x.^t) and the specific entropy 5' = 5' (x, t ). To derive the diff^erential equations describing acoustic fields we assume that each of these variables undergoes small fluctuations about their mean values: Vo = 0, P05 Po and SQ. Generally, quadratic terms in particle velocity, pressure, density and entropy fluctuations are neglected and conservation laws for mass and momentum are linearized in terms of the fluctuations V = v(x,^), p = p(x,t), p = p{x^t) and S = 5(x, t). In this context the motion is governed by the linearized Euler equation dv 1 ^ + - V p = 0, (2.1) and the linearized equation of continuity | ^ + PoV- v = 0. (2.2) From thermodinamics we can write the pressure as a function of density and entropy. If we assume that the acoustic wave propagation is an adiabatic process at constant entropy and the changes in density are small, we have the linearized state equation ^ = g; ^( Po, 5o) ^. (2.3) Defining the speed of acoustic waves via c^ = f^{pSo) (2.4) we see that the pressure satisfies the time-dependent wave equation Taking the curl of the linearized Euler equation we get V X V = 0 (2.6) and therefore we can take V = V[/ , (2.7) Po 1. BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS IN ACOUSTICS 19 where f/ is a scalar field called the velocity potential. We mention that the above equation is a direct consequence of the assumption of a nonviscous fluid. Further, substituting (2.7) in (2.1) we obtain and clearly the velocity potential also satisfies the time-dependent wave equation :^-^ = ^u. (2.9) For time-harmonic acoustic waves of the form U{x,t) = Re {i/(x)e-^^*} (2.10) with frequency a; > 0, we deduce that (2.9) can be transformed to the well-known reduced wave equation or Helmholtz equation Au-j-k^u^O, (2.11) where the wave number k is given by the positive constant k = u/c. If we consider the acoustic wave propagation in a medium with damping coefficients C then the wave number is given by fc^ = a; (a; + jQ /c^- We choose the sign of k such that Im fc > 0. Before we consider the boundary-value problems for the Helmholtz equation let us introduce some normed spaces which are relevant for acous- tic scattering. Let Gbe a closed subset of R^. By C{G) we denote the linear space of all continuous complex-valued functions defined on G. C{G) is a Banach space equipped with the supremum norm llllcx),G =S^P I^WI- xG By L^{G) we denote the Hilbert space of all square integrable functions on G, i.e. ' dGexists L'^{G) = < a/ a : G -^ C, a measurable, / \a\ I G L^{G) is the completion of C{G) with respect to the square-integral norm IHl2,G=(/N'dG 20 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION induced by the scalar product G The H5lder space or the space of uniformly Holder continuous functions C^'"(G) is the linear space of all complex-valued functions defined on G which are bounded and uniformly Holder continuous with exponent a. A function a : G > C is called uniformly Holder continuous with Holder exponent 0 < a < 1 if K x ) - a ( y ) | < C | x - y r for all X, y G G. Here, C is a positive constant depending on a but not on x and y. The Holder space C^'"(G) is a Banach space endowed with the norm l | a | U =sup |a(x)H- sup '"^.^^ y . Going further, the Holder space C^''{G) of uniformly Holder contin- uously differentiable functions is the space of all differentiable functions a for which Va (or the surface gradient V^a in the case G is a closed surface) belongs to C^'^{G). C^'^{G) is a Banach space equipped with the norm IHIl,a,G = lllloo,G + l | Va| UG. For vector fields the above definitions remain valid but instead of ab- solute values we take Euclidian norms. Actually, G stands for the bounded set Dj, the unbounded set Dg R^ - Di or the boundary S = dDi, There are a few commonly considered classes of surfaces, which are general enough to be a versatile and useful tool in constructing physically relevant model surfaces, and which at the same time are restricted enough to yield useful results, such as Lyapunov surfaces (see, e.g. Smirnov [135]) and twice continuously differentiable surfaces (see, e.g. MuUer [114] and Colton and Kress [32]). Let S be the boundary of a bounded domain Di C R^ (a bounded, open and connected subset of R^). We say that the surface S is of class C^ if for each point x G 5 there exists a neighborhood V^ of x such that the intersection V^ fl 5 can be mapped bijectively onto some domain U C'R? and this mapping is twice continuously differentiable. We will express this property also by saying that Di is of class G^. In order to guarantee the validity of Green's theorems it is necessary to define an additional linear space. For any domain G with boundary dGof 1. BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS IN ACOUSTICS 2 1 class C^ we introduce the linear space 9?(G) of all complex-valued functions a e C^{G)nC{^) which possesses a normal derivative on the boundary in the sense that the limit | ^ ( x ) = lim n (x) Va (x -- /in (x)) .xedG, (2.12) a n /i-^o+ exists uniformly on dG, Here the unit normal vector to the boundary dG is directed into the exterior of G. Next we will consider formulations of acoustic scattering problems for penetrable and impenetrable objects. Let Di be a bounded domain with boundary S and exterior Ds- In the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic waves by a sound-soft obstacle, the pressure of the total wave vanishes on the boundary. This leads to the direct acoustic obstacle scattering problem: given UQ as an entire solution to the Helmholtz equation representing an incident field, find the total field u =Ug -{- UQ satisfying the Helmholtz equation in Dg and the boundary condition u = OonS. (2.13) In addition, the scattered field should satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condition " V . - , ^ . . o ( ) . | x H o o , (2.14, X| uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . The direct acoustic scattering problem is a particular case of the fol- lowing Dirichlet problem Exterior Dirichlet boundary-value problem. Find a function Us C^iDs) nC{Ds) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in Ds, the Sommerfeld radiation condition at infinity and the boundary condition Us==fonS, (2.15) where f is a given continuous function defined on S. The interior Dirichlet boundary-value problem has a similar formu- lation but with the radiation condition excluded. It is known that this boundary-value problem is not uniquely solvable. If this problem has an unique solution, we say that k is not an eigenvalue of the interior Dirichlet problem. The countable set of positive wave numbers fc for which the in- terior Dirichlet problem in A admits nontrivial solutions or the spectrum of eigenvalues of the interior Dirichlet problem in Di will be denoted by P( A) . 2 2 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATTON In the above formulations we require Us to be continuous up to the boundary. However, assuming / G C{S) means that in general the normal derivative will not exists. Imposing some additional smoothness condition on the boundary data we can overcome this situation. Taking / G C^'^{S) we guarantee that Ug C^'^{Ds)' In particular, the normal derivative dus/dn belongs to C^' ^(5), and is given by ^ ^ Af . (2.16) where A : C^' "(5) -^ C^^'^iS) is the Dirichlet to Neumann map. In the case of a sound-hard obstacle, the normal velocity of the acous- tic wave vanishes on the boundary. This leads to a Neumann boundary condition du/dn = 0 on 5, where n is the unit outward normal to S and u is the total field. After renaming the unknown functions, we can formulate the following Neumann problem. Exterior Neumann boundary-value problem Find a function Us G 5R(J?s) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in Da, the Sommerfeld radi- ation condition at infinity and the boundary condition ^=gonS, (2.17) where g is a given continuous function defined on S. For the interior Neumann problem in Dt, there also exists a countable set r]{Di) of positive wave numbers k for which nontrivial solutions occurs. In the case when g G C^' "(5) then Ug G C^'^iDg). In particular, the boundary values Us on S are given by Us = Bg, (2.18) where B : C^'^(5) - C^'^(5) is the inverse of A. Note that A and B are bounded operators. It is known that the exterior Dirichlet and Neumann problems (with continuous boundary data) have an unique solution and the solution de- pends continuously on the boundary data with respect to uniform con- vergence of the solution in Dg and all its derivatives on closed subsets of Ds. For the scattering problems under examination the boundary values are as smooth as the boundary since they are given by the restriction of the analytic function UQ to S. In particular we will assume sufficient smoothness conditions on the surface S such that the scattered field Ug belongs to C^'"(Z^s). The regularity analysis given by Colton and Kress [35] shows that for domains Di of class C^ we have Ug G C^'^{Dg). 2. SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LAYER POTENTIALS 2 3 The above boundary conditions are ideal boundary conditions, which may not be reahzed in practice. But in many instances it may be possible to relate the pressure on the surface at any location to the normal velocity at the same location via a parameter, referred to as the acoustic impedance 7. This acoustic impedance is a particularly useful concept when we are dealing with thin walls, screens, etc. on which acoustic waves are incident. In these cases we are not interested in studying the details of the acous- tic field inside the thickness region. The interaction of such a surface with acoustic waves is particularly simple and can be described by the boundary condition u ^du/dn = 0. More generally, we will consider the following formulation of the exterior impedance boundary-value problem. Exterior impedance boundary-value problem Find a function Us ^{Ds) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in Ds, the Sommerfeld radi- ation condition at infinity and the boundary condition 7 ^ = / o n 5, (2.19) where f and 7 are given continuous functions defined on S. The exterior impedance boundary-value problem possesses a unique solution provided Im(fc7) > 0. We note here that one can pose and solve the boundary-value problems for the boundary conditions in an L^-sense. The existence results are then obtained under weaker regularity assumptions on the given boundary data. On the other hand, the assumption on the boundary to be of class C^ is connected with the integral equation approach which is used to prove the existence of solutions for scattering problems. Actually it is possible to allow Lyapunov boundaries instead of C^ boundaries and still have com- pact operators. The situation changes considerable for Lipschitz domains. Allowing such nonsmooth domains and 'rough' boundary data drastically changes the nature of the problem since it affects the compactness of the boundary integral operators. In fact, even proving the very boundedness of these operators becomes a fundamentally harder problem. A basic idea, going back to Rellich [130] is to use the quantitative version of some ap- propriate integral identities to overcome the lack of compactness of the boundary integral operators on Lipschitz boundaries. For more details we refer to Brown [17] and Dahlberg et al. [37]. 2 SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LAYER POTENTIALS We briefly review the basic jump relations and regularity properties for acoustic single- and double-layer potentials. 24 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION Let 5 be a surface of class C^ and let a be an integrable function. Then Ua(x) =y^a(y)p(x, y, fc)d5(y), x G R^ - 5, (2.20) 5 and t;(x) = j a{y)^^^^dS{y), x R^ - 5, (2.21) s are called the acoustic single-layer and acoustic double-layer potentials, respectively. They satisfy the Helmholtz equation in Di and in Dg and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. Here g is the Green function or the fundamental solution defined by ff(x,y,fc) = ^ ^ ^ ^ _ y ^ , x ^ y . (2.22) The single-layer potential with continuous density a is uniformly Holder continuous throughout R^ and ||walL,R3 < Ca | | a| U, 5 , 0 < a < 1. (2.23) For densities a G C^' "(S), 0 < a < 1, the first derivatives of the single- layer potential Ua can be uniformly extended in a Holder continuous fashion from Dg into Dg and from Di into Di with boundary values (Vt/a) (x) = ja(y)Vx^(x,y,fc)d5(y) T | a( x) n( x) , x 5, (2.24) s where {Vua)^ (x) = lim Vu(x ftn(x)) (2.25) in the sense of uniform convergence on S and where the integral exists as improper integral. The same regularity property holds for the double- layer potential Va with density a C^'^{S), 0 < a < 1. In addition, the first derivatives of the double-layer potential Va with density a 6 C^' "(5), 0 < a < 1, can be uniformly Holder continuously extended from Dg into Dg and from Di into Di. The estimates IIVUalU.D. < Ca | | a | U, s , (2.26) \\VaL,D, <Ca | | a| L, s (2-27) 2. SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LAYER POTENTIALS 25 and \\^VaL,Dr^Ca\\a\\,^^^S (2.28) hold, where t stands for s and i. In all inequalities the constant Ca depend on S and a. For the single- and double-layer potentials with continuous density we have the following jump relations: (a) lim [ua (x hn{x)) - Ua{x)] = 0, - / ' (^ ' ^g(x,y,fc)^^,.., _1 . . = 0, (c) lira (d) lim I Is = 0, ^ ( x + /in(x))-^(x-Mx)) = 0, (2.29) where x 5 and the integrals exist as improper integrals. The single- and double layer operators 5 and /C, and the normal derivative operator K.' will be frequently used in the sequel. They are defined by (5a) (x) = jaiy)gix,y,k)dS{y),xeS, s {Ka){x) = | o(y)^^^l^d5(y),xe5, (2.30) and {IC'a) (x) = I a{y)^i^^dS{y), x 6 5. (2.31) The operators 5, K and K' are compact in C{S) and C^'^{S) for 0 < a < 1. 5, /C and /C' map C{S) into C^^'^iS), and 5 and K map C^^'^iS) 26 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION into C^'^{S). We note that S is self adjoint and /C and /C' are adjoint with respect to the L^ biUnear form {a,b) = J abdS (2.32) that is and (5a, b) = (a, 56) {ICa.b) = {a.K'b) (2.33) (2.34) f oral l a, 6GC( 5) . As shown by Kersten [79] the jump relations in L^(5) can be deduced from the classical results through the use of a functional analytic tool pro- vided by Lax [90]. This result can be stated as follows. Let X\^ X2 be Banach spaces, and H\^ H2 be Hilbert spaces with continuous and dense embeddings X^ C i/t for i = 1,2. Let T : Xi-^ X2 and T^ : X2 -* Xi be two bounded linear operators such that T and T^ are adjoint to each other with respect to the scalar products of H\ and if2- Then T can be extended to a bounded operator from if 1 into ii2 and \\n C(Hi,H2) < \\n C{Xt,Xj) r^ii C(X2,Xi) (2.35) We are now in position to formulate the following jump properties for the single- and double-layer potentials in terms of L^-continuity. THEOREM 2.1: Let S be a closed surface of class C^ and let n denotes the unit outward normal to S. Then for square integrable densities the behavior of surface potentials at the boundary is described by the following jump relations : (a) lim ||ua(./in(.))-tia(.)ll2,5 = 0' (b) lim h-. 0+ dUg dn i.hn{.)) - I is ,M^.,i = 0, 2, 5 (c) lim Va{.hn{.)) - Is = 0, 2, 5 (d) lim ^i.+hn{.))-^(.-hn(.)) = 0. 2,S (2.36) 2. SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LAYER POTENTIALS 27 Proof: The proof of the theorem was given by Kersten [79]. We outhne the proof for easy reference. For a continuous density ao we rewrite the jump relations in compact form as lim ||Thao|U,5 = 0, (2.37) where (7^)o</i<ho -^ ' ^C*^) "^ ^('5')) is a family of bounded linear opera- tors. The adjoint operators T^ can formally be obtained by interchanging the arguments in the kernel of the corresponding integral representations. Direct calculations show that Prom (2.37) it follows that for each ao there exist a constant c, depending on ao, such that r hol L, s < c (2.39) for all h with 0 < h < ho. Using the uniform boundedness theorem we find that Th are uniformly bounded with respect to the H-H^^^-norm. Similar arguments hold for the adjoint operators TJj. Hence, from Lax's theorem we deduce that Th are uniformly bounded with respect to the ||.||2 5-norm, i.e. for each a L^{S) there exists M > 0 such that HT^aJIg 5 < M | | a| | 2^ for all h with 0 < h < ho- Now, let a 1/^(5), and choose e > 0. Since C{S) is dense in L'^{S) we find ao C{S) such that \\a aoHa 5 ^ ^- ^^^ us choose /IQ such that | | ^ oo| | ^ 5 < e for all h with 0 < h < HQ, Then, < C| | T^aom5-hM| | a-ao| | 2, 5 (2.40) < (C -f M). where the constants C and M do not depend on e and /IQ. Consequently, lim;i_^o+ 11^^112 5 = 0 and the theorem is proved. The analysis of the completeness of different systems of functions in L^(S) relies on the results of following theorems. THEOREM 2.2: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S. Let the single-layer potential Ua with density a L'^{S) satisfy Ua = 0 in Di, (2.41) 28 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION Then a ~ 0 on 5 (a vanishes almost everywhere on S). Proof: From the jump relations for the normal derivative of the single- layer potential with square integrable density lim dug hn{.))- 1 2 + /(y ) d9i.,y,k) an(.) d5(y) = 0 (2.42) 2,5 we find that the surface density a satisfies 0 (2.43) almost everywhere on 5. The above integral equation is a Predholm in- tegral equation of the second kind. The operator in the left-hand side of (2.43) is an elliptic pseudodifferential operator of order zero. According to Mikhlin [101] we find that a - ao 6 C{S). Since K' maps C{S) into C^^'^iS) we see that ao C^'"(5). Using the regularity results for the derivative of the single-layer potential we conclude that Uao belongs to C^'"(JDS). NOW the jump relations for the single-layer potential with continuous density show that Uao solves the homogeneous exterior Dirichlet problem. There- fore Uao = 0 in JD^) and hence, from duao^/On - duao^/dn ao ^ 0 we get a '^ 0 on 5. The theorem is proved. We mention that the equivalence a ^ ao C^'^{S) can be obtained directly by using the following regularity result: if A is an elliptic pseudodifferential operator of order zero then any solution in C^'^{S) of the inhomogeneous equation Aa = / inherits addi- tional smoothness from / , so that / G C'^^'^iS) implies that a 6 C"''"(5), where m > 0 and 0 < a < 1; in particular, if a solves the homogeneous equation Aa = 0, then a e nm>oC^''*(S') C C^( 5) . A similar result holds when Ua vanishes in the unbounded domain Dg. THEOREM 2.3: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and exterior Dg, Assume k ^ p( A) O'l^d let the single-layer potential Ua with density a G L^{S) satisfy Ua = 0 in Ds. (2.44) Then a ^0 on S. Proof: Repeating the arguments of the previous theorem we see that Uao y with a ~ ao G C^''{S)y solves the homogeneous interior Dirichlet problem. The assumption k ^ p{Di) implies Uao = 0 in A, and the proof can be completed as above. For the double-layer potential we can state the following results. THEOREM 2.4: Consider Dt a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S. Let the double-layer potential Va with density a G L^{S) satisfy Va =0 in Di, (2.45) 2. SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LAYER POTENTIALS 29 Then a^O on S. Proof: The jump relation for the double-layer potential with square integrable density Um Va( . - M- ) ) - LS shows that the surface density a satisfies = 0 (2.46) 2,5 (i/-A:) = 0 (2.47) almost everywhere on S, Using the same arguments as in theorem 2.2 we obtain a--ao e C{S). Then, since /C maps C{S) into C^^'^iS) and C^'"(5) into C^'^'iS) we deduce that ao E C^' "(5). Using the regularity results for the derivative of the double-layer potential we see that Vao belongs to C^'^{Ds)^ The jump relations for the normal derivative of the double-layer potential with continuous density shows that Vao solves the homogeneous exterior Neumann problem, and therefore Vao = 0 in Ds. Finally, from ^ao+ ~ '^ao- = ao = 0 we get a '^ 0 on 5. THEOREM 2.5: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and exterior Ds- Assume k ^ 'n{Di) and let the double-layer potential Va with density a L'^{S) satisfy Va = 0 in Ds. (2.48) Then a ^ 0 on 5. Proof: The proof proceeds as in theorem 2.4. Next we will consider combinations of single- and double-layer poten- tials. THEOREM 2.6: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S. Let the combined potential Wa = Ua Xva with density a L'^{S) and Im{Xk) > 0 satisfy Wa = 0 in Di. (2.49) Then a ~ 0 on S, Proof: The idea of the proof is due to Hahner [71]. The jump relations for the surface potentials with square integrable densities gives lim \\wa{.+hn{,)) + Aa|(2 c h^" -0+ lim dwg dn (. -f/in(. ))-f a 0, 0. (2.50) 2,S 30 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION Let us choose a parallel exterior surface 5^, Sh = { y / y = X -h /in(x), X G 5, /i > 0} . Then, we have \f\a\^dS = - lim fwa{.'^hn{.))a*{l'-2hH-hh'^K)dS J /i->o+ J s s = lim fwa^dS, Sh (2.51) where H denotes the mean curvature and K the Gaussian curvature of S. Let us now consider a spherical surface 5/? of radius R enclosing Di. Application of the first Green theorem in the region DhR , bounded by the surface Sh and the spherical surface SR, yields IrnLfwa^ds) = lm(k J Wards' -Im(A;) f (\kf\waf + \Vwaf)dV. (2.52) Letting /i 0+ and using (2.51) gives ImiXk) f\a\^dS = Imlk fwa^dS s \ SR . -lm{k) J {\kf\Wa\'' + \VWaf')dV, DR where ^lim^ j {\k\^ \wa\^ + \Vwa\^) dV= f (l^l" l^l^ + IVwal') dV.- (2.54) DhR DR ^^ ' (2.53) 2. SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-LAYER POTENTIALS Then, taking into account the radiation condition (weak form) 31 W^Kl Vl ^ lim / {"^ - jkwal dS = lim / < SR SR ^ (2.55) we see that 2Im(Afc) / \af dS = - ^lim^ { / ( |fc|^ |ti;a|^ -h dWa dn dS + 2 Im{k) J [\kf\Wa\'' + \\^Wa\^)dv\. DR ) (2.56) Now, if Im(AA:) > 0 the conclusion a ~ 0 on iS readily follows. If Im(Afc) = 0 and Im(A:) > 0 we obtain Wa = 0 in D^. Finally, if Im(Afc) = 0 and Im(A:) = 0 we get WxaR-^oo Js l^ol ^'^ "= ^' whence Wa = 0 in Dg follows. Application of the jump relations (2.50) finishes the proof of the theorem. It is noted that the same strategy can be used for proving theorems 2.2 and 2.4. For instance, let Ua be the single-layer potential with density a 1/^(5) satisfying Wa = 0 in A . Then lim ||tia(.4-M0)ll2,s = 0' Um ^{.+hni.)) + a (2.57) = 0. 2,S With Sh = { y / y = X -(- hn{x), x S, h > 0} being a parallel exterior sur- face we find that jua^dS = I uai.+hn{.))^{.+hn{.)) SH for sufficiently small ft, whence (2.58) X (1 - 2hH + h^K) dS SH < C\\Ua{.+hn{.))\Us ^(. -fft n(. )) 2,S (2.59) 32 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION follows. Consequently, lim fua^dS = 0 (2.60) h-^o^ J an and the conclusion follows as in theorem 2.6. THEOREM 2.7: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and exterior Dg, Let the combined potential Wa =^ Ua '\' Afa '^ith density a G i ^( 5) and Im{Xk) > 0 satisfy Wa = 0 in Dg. (2.61) Then a^Oon S. Proof: From the jump relations for the single- and double-layer po- tential we get lim \\wa{^-hn{.))-h Xa\\2 s = 0, lim /i0+ | | ^(.-M.))-| (2.62) = 0. Then, applying the first Green theorem in the region D^h bounded by the parallel interior surface 5_/i, S-h = { y / y = x - /in(x), x G 5, /i >0} , letting /i >0-1- and using -A / \a\^ dS = lim / Wa^dS, (2.63) J /1-.0+ J an we find that - Im(Afe) / |a|^ d5 = Im(A:) / (|A:|^ \wa\'^ -f \Vwaf) dV. (2.64) S Di Since Im(Afc) >0 and Im(fc) >0 we conclude that a ~ 0 on 5. 3 GREEN'S FORMULAS AND SOLUTION ESTIMATES A basic tool in studying the boundary-values problem for acoustic scatter- ing is provided by Green's formulas. Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and exterior >, and let n be the unit normal vector to S directed into D^. Let u ^{Ds) be a radiating solution to the Helmholtz equation in Dg. Then we have the Green formula 5 (2.65) 3. GREEN'S FORMULAS AND SOLUTION ESTIMATES 33 A similar result holds for solutions to the Helmholtz equation in bounded domains. With u 3?(I>t) standing for a solution to the Helmholtz equation in Di we have -.%}=/h ^tt?r-sw'-.'' d5(y) / x D . ' 1 X A (2.66) In the literature, Green's formulas are also known as the Helmholtz representations. Next we will derive some estimates for the solutions to the Dirichlet and Neumann problems. We begin with the exterior Dirichlet boundary-value problem. The departure point is the associated boundary-value problem for the Green function G^ = G^(x,y), y e Ds, consisting in the Helmholtz equation AxGHx, y) + k^G'{x,y) = -6{x ~ y), x G D. , (2.67) the boundary condition GHx, y) = 0 , x 5 , (2.68) and the radiation condition 1^ . VxGHx, y) - jfcGnx,y) = o (J^A as |x| -^ oo, (2.69) uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . The superscript indicates that we are dealing with the Green function satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition on S, Application of Green's second theorem in the domain Ds leads to ^^(y) = r^si X) dGHx,y) dn{x) d5(x), yDs (2.70) We use the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality to obtain the estimate ll^lloo,Gs =s up |tx(y)| = sup yGs yeGs ju. ( X) dG\yi,y) dn{x) dS(x) < sup \ aGMx.y) an(x) d5(x) \ f\u.(x)fdS{x) = Ch l l 2, 5' (2.71) 34 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION where Gs is a closed subset of Dg and C = sup i I dG\x,y) 9n(x) d5(x). (2.72) In order to derive a similar estimate for the solution to the exterior Neumann problem we consider the Green function G^ = G^(x,y), y e ), satisfying the Helmholtz equation in Da, the Neumann boundary condition dG\-K,y) dn{x) and the radiation condition. We get 0, X e 5, (2.73) us{y) = -J ^( x) G2( x, y) d5( x) , y >,; (2.74) thus the estimate KI UG, <^ dug dn (2.75) 2,5 holds in any closed subset Gg of Dg and for some constant C depending on 5 and Gg. Finally, for the exterior impedance boundary-value problem we con- sider the Green function G^ = G^(x,y), y e Dg^ satisfying the Helmholtz equation in JD^, the boundary condition G ( x , y ) - 7 Q^^^^ - 0 , x 5 , (2.76) and the radiation condition. As before, application of Green's theorem in the domain Dg gives the representation My)=J r^W""'>'^w| ag' (x, y) dn{x) d5(x), y G Dg. (2.77) Therefore, in any closed subset Gg of Dg the estimate IKIUG, <c Ug - 7 dug dn 2,5 (2.78) holds for some constant C depending on S and Gg. 3. GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ACOUSTICS 3 5 The above estimates show that small deviations in the boundary data in the square-integral norm ensure small deviations in the scattered field Us in the maximum norm on closed subsets of Da. In fact the solution of the boundary-value problems for the Helmholtz equation in the framework of the discrete sources method is based on the representation formulas (2.70), (2.74) and (2.77). 4 GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ACOUSTIC THEORY In this section we will discuss the general null-field equations for the Dirich- let and Neumann boundary-value problems. We will prove the unique solvability of these equations and will show their equivalence with some boundary integral equations. Let Us G C^{Ds) n C{Ds) be a radiating solution to the Helmholtz equation which possesses a normal derivative on the boundary. The repre- sentation formula in the region Di gives /[ "<^'^if^-^w<-. d5(y) = 0, x A. (2.79) Let no be an entire solution to the Helmholtz equation. Green's formula for the incident field UQ in the region Di yields s dS(y), X e A- (2.80) Addition of (2.79) and (2.80) gives /h s d5(y) = 0, X e Di, (2.81) where u ==Us -i- UQ is the total field. Let us consider the direct acoustic scattering problem with boundary condition u = Us -\- uo = 0 on S. For this boundary-value problem we can formulate the following general null-field equations. General Null-Field Equations for the Dirichlet Problem. Con- sider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and unit normal vector n directed into the exterior of Di. Given UQ as an entire solution to the Helmholtz equation find a surface field h satisfying the integral equation lio(x) - Jh{y)g{x,y,k)dS{y) = 0, x A , (2.82) 36 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION or equivalently, find a surface field hg satisfying the integral equation dg{x,y,ky J U.(yMx,y,fc)-f-wo(y)- g , . s where hg = h duo/dn. dS{y) = 0, k G Du (2.83) Once the surface fields h or hs have been determined the solution to the boundary-value problem can be constructed as us{x) = - y h{y)g{x,y,fc)d5(y), x G >., (2.84) s for h solving (2.82) and as ^^(x) = - / \hs (y).(x,y,f c)-f .o(y)^^^"' ^' ' ) 5n(y) d5(y), XGJ D, , (2.85) for hs solving (2.83). For the Neumann boundary condition du/dn = 0 on 5, the general null-field equations cah be formulated as follows. Q^iieMl Null-Field Equatibns for Neumann Probl em. Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and unit normal vector n directed into the exterior of Di. Given UQ as an entire solution to the Helmholtz equation find a surface field h satisfying the integral equation o(x)+ j Hy)^^^^dS{y) = 0, X A , (2.86) S or equivalently, find a surface field hs satisfying the integral equation n s d5(y) = 0, X e A , (2.87) where hg = h UQ. The solution to the Neumann boundary-value problem can be written as n, (x) = | / , ( y ) ^ ^ l M d 5 ( y ) , X D,, (2.88) 4. GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ACOUSTICS 3 7 for h solving the general null-field equation (2.86) and as dS(y), x e D . , (2.89) ^^(x) = / U. dg{x,y,k) du^ . for hs solving the general null-field equation (2.87). We note that the existence of solutions to the general null-field equa- tions is guaranteed by the existence of solutions to the Dirichlet and Neu- mann boundary-value problems. When the boundary values are the restric- tion of the analytic function UQ to S we see that hg = dug/dn C' "(5) solves the null-field equation for the Dirichlet problem, while for the Neu- mann problem the solution is hs =^ Ug C^'^{S). In this case from the regularity results for the derivatives of single- and double-layer potentials we see that Ug given by (2.85) and (2.89) belongs to C^'^{Ds), The unique- ness of solutions follows from theorems 2.2 and 2.4. The equivalence between the general null-field equations and some boundary integral equations is given by the following theorem THEOREM 4.8: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and unit normal vector n directed into the exterior of Di. (a) Let h solve the general null-field equation for the Dirichlet problem (2.82), Then, h solves the integral equation The converse theorem is also valid provided that k ^ rj{Di). (b) Let h solve the general null-field equation for the Neumann problem (2.86). Then, h solves the integral equation {\i->c)k = uo. (2.91) The converse theorem is also valid provided that k ^ p{Di). Proof: Let us define the fields i^(x) = ixo(x) - //i(y)^(x, y, fc)d5(y), x A , h C' "(5), (2.92) s for the Dirichlet problem, and tx(x) = txo(x) + y ft(y)M^lMdS(y), X A , ft G Ci ' (5), (2.93) for the Neumann problem. Letting x approach S along a normal direction we obtain the direct imphcation of the theorem. 3 8 CHAPTER II THE SCALAR HELMHOLTZ EQUATION For proving the converse theorem we debut by showing that \i h E L^{S) is a solution of (2.90) then h C^^'^iS). First we show that h e C{S), Recall that if he L^{S) solves the homogeneous equation (^/ + /C') /i = 0, that is /i G N{^I -h /C') , then h C^'^(5). Next, using the fact that the operators /C' : L^{S) y L^{S) and /C : L^{S) - 1/^(5) are compact and the equation (^/ + /C') h = f, with / = duo/dn, is solvable we see by the Fredholm alternative that {f,g) = 0 for all ^ 6 iV (^J -I- /C). Since /C' : C(5) C{S) is also compact we may employ the Fredholm alternative in the dual system {C{S), ^^(5)) and deduce the existence of some ho G C{S) such that (^/ + /C') ho = / . Consequently, from h = ho + {h-- fto), with ho e C{S) and {h - ho) e N {^I + /C'), we see that h e C(5). Now, since K' maps C(S) into C^j^(S) we get h e C^'"(5). Therefore u given by (2.92) belongs to C^'"(J9i). Equation (2.90) gives du/dn = 0 on 5, which together with k ^ r;(>t) yield u = 0 in Di. We note that the idea to employ the Fredholm alternative in two different dual systems for investigating the smoothness of a solution if the right side of the equation has a certain smoothness is due to Hahner [71]. In the case of the Neumann problem we may employ the same arguments to show that if /i G L'^{S) is a solution of (2.91) then h C^'"(5). Consequently, u given by (2.93) belongs to C^'"(jDi) and (2.91) gives u = 0 in A provided that k i p{Di). 5 NOTES AND COMMENTS Martin [99] showed that the null-field equations (2.82) and (2.86), are equiv- alent with some integral equations of the second kind, which possess an unique solution for all frequencies. These integral equations are similar to (2.90) and (2.91), but they contain a new symmetric fundamental solution gi (x, y,A;) instead of ^(x, y,k). Note that gi (x, y,A;) differs from p(x, y,fc) by a finite linear combination of products of radiating spherical waves. This equivalence allows Martin to conclude the unique solvability of the null- field equations. An approach similar to that given in Section 4 was taken by Colton and Kress [33]. Ill SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTIC THEORY For solving the acoustic scattering problems in the framework of the dis- crete sources method and the null-field method it is necessary to approx- imate the surface fields by a complete system of functions on the particle surface. In addition to the completeness, the system of functions should be linearly independent since only then can the matrices appearing in the numerical schemes be inverted. This chapter is devoted to the analysis of complete and linear indepen- dent systems of functions for the Helmholtz equation. As complete systems of functions we will discuss the systems of discrete sources. There is a close relation between the properties of the fields of discrete sources and the structure of their support. In particular if the supports are chosen as a point, a straight line, or a surface, then the corresponding systems of func- tions are the localized spherical wave functions, the distributed spherical wave functions and the distributed point sources, respectively. We begin this chapter by presenting some basic results on the com- pleteness of localized spherical wave functions. In order to preserve the completeness at irregular frequencies linear combinations of regular func- tions and their normal derivatives on the particle surface will be used. We then proceed to describe a general scheme for complete systems construc- 39 4 0 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS tion using radiating solutions to the Helmholtz equation. In particular, we will discuss the completeness of distributed radiating spherical wave func- tions. After that, we will provide a similar scheme using entire solutions to the Helmholtz equations. The next section then concerns the completeness of point sources. Here, we will discuss the systems of functions with singu- larities distributed on closed and open auxiliary surfaces. In addition, we will analyze the completeness of distributed plane waves. The last section of this chapter deals with the linear independence of these systems. 1 COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS The completeness properties of the sets of localized spherical wave functions and point sources have been studied exhaustively by means of different representations theorems. In this chapter we will present these basic results but our main concern is to enlarge the class of complete systems. 1.1 Localized spherical wave functions We begin our analysis by establishing the completeness of the spherical wave functions in L'^{S). These functions form a set of characteristic so- lutions to the scalar wave equation in spherical coordinates and are given by ul;,lM =zi^^{kr)PJr^{cose) e^'^^, n =0 , 1 , . . . , m =- n, . . . , n. (3.1) Here, (r, 0, (p) are the spherical coordinates of x, z^^ designates the spherical Bessel functions jn ^n stands for the spherical Hankel functions of the first kind hn , and Pn denotes the associated Legendre polynomials. Note that ulnn is an entire solution to the Helmholtz equation and u^^ is a radiating solution to the Helmholtz equation in R^ {0}. The expansion of the Green function in terms of spherical wave func- tions will frequently used in the sequel. It is ,A. ^ JL f ^-mn(y)^mnW, IYI >|x| ^(x,y,A:) =^ E E ^-M ' (^-^^ n=Om=-n [ ul^^{y)ul,^{x), |y| <|x| where the normalization constant Vmn is given by _ 2 n - f l (n - | m| )! ^"^""" 4 (n - f H)! ' ^^'^^ The main result of this section consists of the following theorem. 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 4 1 THEOREM 1,1: Let S be a closed surface of class C*^ and let n denote the unit outward normal to 5. Then each of the systems (a) {ul,ri^ n =0,1,..., m =-n, . . . , n} , | t / ^n ~ A ^ ^ , n =0, l,...,m =~n,...,n/ Im(AA:) > o | , (b) {wj^ni n =0,l,...,m =-n, . . . , n/ fc^p(Di )}, I ^ I S ^ ' n =0, l,...,m =- n, ...,n/fc ^ r / (A)| , {< -h A - ^ , n =: 0,1,..., m =-n, . . . , n/ Im(Afc) > 0 is complete in L^{S) . Proof: For proving the first part of (a) it suffices to show the closeness of the system {^mn^ n =0,l,...,m = ~n,...,n} in L^{S), Let a L^(5) and assume J(^" (y) t^mn (y)clS(y) =0, n =0,1, ...,m =- n, . . , n. (3.4) With Ua' (x) being the single-layer potential with density a' =a* we choose X 6 D[, where )[ is the interior of a spherical surface S^ enclosed in D^. For |y| > |x| we use the spherical waves expansion of the Green functions and deduce that Ua' vanishes in D[. The analyticity of Ua' gives Ua' =0 in Z?i, whence, by theorem 2.2 of Chapter 2, a ~ 0 on 5 follows. Analogously, theorems 2.4and 2.6 of the precedent chapter may be used to conclude the proof of (a). The proof of the second part of the theorem proceed in the same manner. For k G p{Di) the set of regular spherical wave functions {wmn ^ =0^ 1-M m =- n, . . . , n} is not complete in L^(5). The completeness can be preserved if a finite set of functions representing a basis of iV (^/ /C') is added to the original system. Before we prove this assertion let us recall some basic results. 4 2 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS The null-space of the operator ^ J /C' corresponds to solutions to the homogeneous interior Dirichlet problem, that means iV (^ J /C') = V, where V stands for the linear space V =i | ^ /ve^{Di),Av-^k^v = OmDuv = Oons\ . In addition dim N (h: - K'\ = dim AT (^i l - X:") =0, if k is not an interior Dirichlet eigenvalue, and d i m A r Q l - r ^ =AimN(h:-}C\ =mD, if k is an eigenvalue. If {Sj}^J[ is a basis for AT (^I /C) and Vj stands for the double-layer potential with density 6j, then 6j =Vj^ on S and the functions Xj =dv*^/dn on 5, j = 1, ...^TTIDI form a basis of N (^J /C') . Furthermore, the matrix T^ = M^^L Tj^j = (Xfc<5j), /c, j = l,...,mD, is nonsingular. Coming to the proof we observe that the closeness relations Jg a'uln^ dS = 0, n = 0 , 1 , . . . , m = n,..., n, leads to the vanishing of the single-layer potential Ua' in Dg- Then proceeding as in theorem 2.2 of the precedent chapter we find that a' ^ UQ e C^'^'iS)^ where (^J /C') a^ = 0. Therefore, GQ = Yljl^i^jXj- Now, conditions / ^a oXj d5 = 0, j = 1,..., m), gives ag = 0 on 5, whence a ~ 0 on 5 follows. On the other hand if instead of the system {xj} .^^ we consider the set {6j}^J[ we observe that from Jg a^Sj dS =0, j = 1,..., mo, we arrive at ^otkiXky^j) =0 , j = l , . . . , mD. (3.5) fc=i Using the fact that the matrix To is nonsingular we obtain a/c = 0, fc = 1,..., m), whence a ~ 0 on 5 follows. The same strategy can be used to preserve the completeness of the system ^ " ^ a / n =: 0 , l , . . . , m = - n , . . . , n i an when k e r]{Di). In this case a finite set of functions representing a basis for iV (^/ -h /C) should be added to the original system. Note that analogously to the interior Dirichlet problem if {0j} J! is a basis for iV(^I-| -/C' ) and Uj stands for the single-layer potential with density 0^, then 0^ = 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 4 3 dujj^/dn on 5, the functions ^^ = ""^^4- ^^ '^^J ~ l,...,mAr, form a basis of N {\l 4- K) , and the matrix Tjv = \T^} , I^^ = (^it, 0^) , A;, j = l,...,miv, is nonsingular. We will now formulate the null-field equations in terms of spherical wave functions. THEOREM 1.2: Let the surface field hg satisfy either the set of null- field equations for the Dirichlet problem n hs{y)nl,{y) + My)^iy) d5(y) =0, n =0 , 1 , . . . , m = - n, . . . , n, (3.6) or the set of null-field equation for the Neumann problem dS{y) = 0,n =0, l , . . . , m = - n , .,.,n. /[ ,^"mn/ -_x . 9uo,^_,_3 / . ( y ) ^ ( y ) + ^ ( y ) < ( y ) (3.7) Then kg solves either (2.83) or (2.87), and conversely. Proof: The proof proceed as in theorem 1.1 by making use on the spherical waves expansion of the scalar field given by (x )= y" [- /.(y)5(x,y,fc) + u o (y )^ ^ ^ ^ S d5(y), X A , (3.8) for the Dirichlet problem and by "(X) =/ [fe(y)^^^^'(y)^^ + ^{y)p(x,y,fc)] d5(y), X e A, (3.9) for the Neumann problem. 1.2 Distributed spherical wave functions In this section we will analyze the completeness properties of the spherical wave functions distributed on a segment of the j^-axis. For the moment we confine ourself to the system of functions consisting in radiating solu- tion to the Helmholtz equation. A specific scheme for complete systems construction can be formulated as follows: (a) Let { xn} ^ i C E represents the position vectors of the discrete sources. 4 4 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS (b) Let Ua be the single-layer potential with density a and let us consider the set of conditions (iXa) (xn) =0, n =l , 2 , . . . , (3.10) which provide that Ua =0 in Df. Here C is some operator whose significance will be clarified latter. Let us define the scalar functions fn by setting / n(y) =(x5)(xn, y), n =l , 2, . . . . (3.11) Since (Cua) (xn) =J a{y)fn{y)dS{y) ={fn, a*>2,5 (3.12) s we see that the closure relations for the system {/ n}^i are equivalent to the vanishing conditions (3.10). Thus, the following result is valid. THEOREM 1.3: Let S be a closed surface of class C^. Then the system {/ n}^i is complete in L'^{S) . Two parameters are essential for complete system construction: the support H of discrete sources and the vanishing conditions for the single- layer potential in Di. Both parameters determine the type of discrete sources. In general we can use as support a point, a curve, a surface, etc. Let E consists of the point O which coincides with the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system. Then, the corresponding complete system is the system of radiating spherical wave functions w^. This system was analyzed in the previous section. We intend now to derive necessary and sufficient conditions leading to the vanishing of the single-layer potential in A . In the sequel we will denote the half-plane (p = const by E. We will assume that O is the center of a sphere S^ enclosed in Di and will denote its interior by D[. For x G P[ , the single-layer potential Ua can be expressed as a Fourier series with respect to the azimuthal angle ip. The Fourier coefficients u^ = u^(r, 9) are given by <{r,9)= Y. 0nJnikr)Pir^icose), (3.13) n=|mj where /?- =^2)^ I a(y)3^(y)d5(y). (3.14) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 4 5 Let us formulate the vanishing conditions in terms of the Fourier coefficients lim - 5- i - l r i =0 for all m G Z, / > \m\ (3.15) ^-*o {kry and any 6 G [0, TT] . Note, that similar conditions can be provided by impos- ing that Ua vanish at the point x =0 together with all derivatives. Next, we will prove that the set of vanishing conditions (3.15) implies /Sr" =0 for all m G Z and / > |m|. (3.16) Fix m and construct ^ = t ^n'i^Pl-^i^^osO). (3.17) For / =| m| we pass to the limit when r 0 and use the asymptotic form of the Bessel function: jn{x) = j^J^" [1 + 0{x')] as X - . 0, (3.18) to obtain y\m\ / ? M< | (c o s 0 )=O. (3.19) Since the last relation is valid for any 0 [0,7r], it follows that 0"^^ =0. Taking / =| m| + 1 we arrive at /3|^j_j.i =0 and the same technique can be used to conclude. Thus, condition (3.15) yields t i ^ =0 in E fi Z)[ for all m Z; whence ita =0 in Di follows. The converse result is immediate. Evidently, arguing as in the precedent section the conclusion i^o =0 in Di follows directly from the closeness relations for the system of radiating spherical wave functions. However, we would like to draw attention to the above set of implications since this strategy will be used in the sequel. Vanishing conditions similar to (3.15) will be derived for the system of distributed spherical wave functions. Let the support of discrete sources be the segment F^ of the 2:-axis. Assume F^ C I>[ and choose a sequence of points {zn) C F^. The support of discrete sources is depicted in Figure 3.1. Before we state our next results, let us prove some auxiliary lemmas. LEMMA 1.1: Let u G 5ft(Di) he a solution to the Helmholtz equation in Di and let u^ be its Fourier coefficients with respect to (f. Then, the limit limw^(r;)/(M' ' "^^^Z, (3.20) p'-*0 46 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS 42 FIGURE 3.1 Illustration of the support of discrete sources. exists and represents an analytic function of z. Here {p,(p,z) are the cylin- drical coordinates ofx and t] = {p^ z) eH. Proof: For x D[, the Fourier coefficients are given by oo '"(?)= E 0nJnikr)PJr^{cos9), (3.21) n=|m| where /?- =-^P I [(y)^^(y) - ^(y)i_(y)] d5(y). s Let us express the associated Legendre polynomials in terms of the hyper- geometric function F: Pjr^icose) = 2 - ^ ' n l - t p ^ ^ ^ ^ (n-|m|)!|m|!rl^l T^(X \ I I . I I . 1 ~ COS ^\ cF f |m| - n, |m| + n -f 1, \m\ -f 1, 1 . (3.22) Then, using the relation F(|m| n, |m| -f- n -f 1, |m| +1,0) =1, we evaluate the limit when p 0 as lim w-Cr/)/ (M'*"' =v^{z) = f ; a - ^ M , (3.23) '' n=|m| ('^^) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 4 7 where a!!* =2"^^^^-^, .M. ../^r- Now, accounting of the series repre- "" (n-~| m| )!| m| ! "^ sentation of the spherical Bessel function we see that v^{z) is an analytic function of z. LEMMA 1.2: Let u e 3?(Di) be a solution to the Helmholtz equation in Di and let u^ be its Fourier coefficients with respect to ip. Define v^ by (3,23)y and assume v^{zn) =0, n =1,2,..., where {zn) CTz is a bounded sequence of points. Then u 0 in Di. Proof: The boundedness of the sequence {zn) implies the existence of a convergent subsequence {zn^) ^ fc =1,2,.... Then, since v^{z) is analytic and v^{znk) = 0, fc = 1,2,..., we use the uniqueness theorem of analytic function (cf. Chilov [28]) to obtain v'^iz) = Oior zeOzD i )[, i.e. y a^^^^^ =0, for zeOzn D[. (3.24) Using the technique previously described we arrive at a^ =0 for all m Z and n > | m| . Thus, u^ = 0 in E fl -D[ for all m G Z; whence by the analyticity of u the conclusion readily follows. We pay now attention to the system of distributed spherical wave func- tions which form a set of radiating solutions to the Helmholtz equation. They are defined by d n W = <|m|(x~ ^ne 3 ) (3.25) = h\'2i{krn)P):;:)(cosen)e^'^'', n =1,2,..., m G Z, where (r^, 6nr ^) are the spherical coordinates of x^ =x ^n^a, i.e. r^ = p^-^iz- Znf, P, 5' (cos^n) =(2|m| - l)!!sinl^' Qn and sin^n =pAn- The geometrical significance of the above notations is shown in Figure 3.2. We are now in position to give the main result of this section. THEOREM 1.4: Consider the bounded sequence (zn) C F^, where F^ is a segment of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ enclosing Tz' Replace in theorem l.ly part (a), the localized spherical wave functions w^^, n =0 , 1 , . . . , m =n,..., n, by the distributed spherical wave functions ^^n^ ^ ~ 1,2,..., m Z. Then^ the resulting systems of functions are complete in L^{S). Proof: We prove only the first part of the theorem. Let us establish the explicit form of the vanishing conditions C (^ n) =0, n =1,2,..., m Z, (3.26) 48 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS FIGURE 3.2 The vectors Xn and x in the half-plane E. where v^ is given by (3.23) with Ua standing for the single-layer potential with density a. To this end let us consider the ring currents Smi Smiv, ^y) "^ 27r / ^(^' ^' ^^ ^^P [-J'^i^ - ^y)] d<^ (3-27) 0 where T) ={p,z) and T}y = {Py,Zy), It is readily seen that the Fourier coefficients of the single-layer potential Ua with respect to <f are given by <iv) = Ja{y)Sm{v.rjy)exp {-JTrnpy) dS{y). (3.28) s Consider now the representation (cf. Eremin and Sveshnikov [55]) smirf ,v y) = cf : J 'y_^^! TL (fci^)-^^'^'-'^4; i,^,(fci? ), ^ /!(/ + |m|)!22'+l'"l (3.29) where B /^ = p^ + p^ + (z Zy)"^ and c is a constant. Then, Jim 5(7,r7y)/(M''"' =c/ig,(A;r,)Pg(cosd,), (3.30) where r^ = Py + {z - ^y)^, sin^^ =Py/r^j and Cm is a constant. It follows that C (^) = lim < ( ^ ) / ( M ' ' " ' =c | a (y)ui ^ | , (y - ^e3)d5(y) (3.31) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 4 9 and we see that (3.26) represents the closure conditions for the system of functions (3.25). The precedent lemma now conclude the proof of the first part of the theorem. Next, we formulate the null-field equations in terms of distributed spherical wave functions. THEOREM 1.5: Under the assumption of theorem 1.4 replace in the- orem 1.2 the localized spherical wave functions u^^^, n = 0,1,...,m = n,..., n, by the distributed spherical wave functions <;^, n =1,2,..., m G Z. Let hs solve the resulting null-field equations (3.6) and (3.7). Then hs solves the general null-field equations (2.83) and (2.87), and conversely. Proof: This is proved in the same manner as theorem 1.4with the roles of single-layer potential and scalar fields (3.8) and (3.9) interchanged. As we will see in the electromagnetic case an alternative proof of the- orems 1.4and 1.5 can be given by using the translation addition theorem for spherical wave functions. The above theorems deal with radiating solutions to the Helmholtz equation. These functions are suitable for analyzing exterior scattering problems. However, the conventional scheme can be used to treat interior scattering problems as well. Next, we will present completeness results for systems of functions consisting in entire solutions to the Helmholtz equation. We begin by considering the function sinffclx yl) ^o /^^x which is an entire solution to the Helmoltz equation. Let us define the modified single-layer potential Ua by Ua{x) - y a(y)x(x,y,A:)dS(y), x R^ (3.33) s Then the following theorem is valid. THEOREM 1.6: Consider Di a bounded domain with exterior Ds and let the modified single-layer potential Ua y^ith density a be given by (3.33). Then from Ua = 0 in Di it follows that the single-layer potential Ua with density a vanishes in Dg, that is Ua =0 in Dg^ Proof: Let 2a(x) =0, x A- For x E 5^, where S^ is an inscribed sphere, we use the expansion x{y.,y,k) =-J2 XI ^mnttL(y)LW (3.34) n=OTn=n 5 0 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS and the orthogonality of spherical wave functions to obtain a{y)y}_^^{y)dS{y) =0, n =0 , 1 , . . . , m =- n, . . . , n. (3.35) / Let S^ be a sphere enclosing Di and let us denote its exterior by D^. Multiplying (3.35) by n^^(x), where x G D^, summing over m and n, and using the spherical waves expansion of the Green functions for |y| < jx| , we see that the single-layer potential Ua with density a vanishes in D^. Consequently, by the analyticity oi Ua, Ua = 0 in Ds follows. The theorem is proved. We note that similar results can be proved for the modified double-layer potential Va and the modified combined potential Wa- As next we will consider systems of functions consisting of entire solu- tions to the Helmholtz equation. A specific scheme for complete systems construction can be given as follows: (a) Let {xn}^ i C E represents the position vectors of the discrete sources. (b) Let Ua be the modified single-layer potential with density a and let us consider the set of conditions (ua)(xn) =0, n =l , 2, . . . , (3.36) which provide that 2^ =0 in Df. In this context, let us define the scalar functions Qn by ^n(y) =(xx)(xn,y). (3.37) Since (Cua) (Xn) =J a{y)9n{y)dS{y) =(^n, a*)2,5 (3.38) dD we see that the vanishing conditions (3.36) represents the closure relations for the system{pn}^i- The following theorem is the analog of theorem 1.3 for the system of functions (3.37). THEOREM 1.7: Let S be a closed surface of class C^. Then the system {^n}^i is complete in L'^{S). We define the distributed spherical wave functions which form a set of entire solutions to the Helmholtz equation by (3.39) = J|m|(fern)P,5'(cosen)e^-^^, n =1,2,..., m G Z. 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 51 Analogous to theorem 1.4we can state the following result. THEOREM 1.8: Consider the bounded sequence (zn) C F^, where Fz is a segment of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ enclosing Fz' Replace in theorem 1.1, part (b), the localized spherical wave functions '^mn^ n = 0 , 1 , . . . , m = n,..., n, by the distributed spherical wave functions ^mn^ ^ ==1,2, ...,m G Z. Then, the resulting systems of functions are complete in L'^{S). Proof: For proving the first part of the theorem it suffices to establish the explicit form of the vanishing conditions l i m2 ^ (^ )/ (M' ' " ' =^ (. ^ n ) =0,n = l , 2 , . . . , me Z . (3.40) Using the representation (cf. Eremin and Sveshnikov [55]) oo lk?00 "l^Z+lml SA'n,riy) = g g ^.(i 4H )! 2 ^ ' + I " ' I (fe^)"^"' ' """ J2iMmm). (3.41) where Sm are the ring currents corresponding to x? we see that lini 5^(17,y)/ ( M ' " ' =Mm| (^ r , )Pg (c o s 0 , ). (3.42) The proof can now be completed as in theorem 1.4. 1.3 Distributed point sources (fundamental solutions) In this section we will present completeness results for systems of functions with singularities distributed on closed or open surfaces. We debut with the fundamental solutions <^n W =Sf(xn, x,A:), n = 1,2,..., (3.43) where {xn}^i is a set of points distributed on a closed surface of class C^. Let {<Pn}n=i denote the system of functions with the singularities { x ~ } ^ j distributed on the interior surface 5 " and let {v^n}^i denote the system of functions with the singularities {^n}^=i distributed on the exterior surface S^. The auxiliary surfaces are shown in Figure 3.3. Com- pleteness results for the system of distributed sources (3.43) are given by the following theorem. THEOREM 1.9: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^. Let the set { x ~ } ^ j be dense on a surface S~ enclosed in Di and let the set {'^t}^=i be dense on a surface S'^ enclosing Di. Assume k ^ p{D^)^ where D^ is the interior of S". Replace in theorem 1.1 the radiating spherical wave 52 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS FIGURE 3.3 Illustration of the support of distributed point sources. f un ction s u^^, n =0, l ,...,m = n, ...,n, by the f un ction s ip~, n = 1,2,..., an d the regular spherical wav e f un ction s u}^^^^ n = 0, l ,...,m = n, ...,n, by the f un ction s (^^, n = 1,2,.... Then , the resultin g systems of f un ction s are complete in L ^{S), Proof : Let us consider (a). It has to shown that for a G L ^{S) the set of closeness relations / a*{y)<p-{y)dSiy) = 0,n = l,2,. (3.44) implies a ^ 0 on 5. Prom(3.44) it follows that the single-layer potential Ua' with density a' = a* satisfies Uaf {x~) = 0, n = 1,2,.... Since { x~ } ^j is dense on S" we get Ua' = 0 on S". The assumption k ^ p{D^) gives Ua' = 0 in Dr, and going further, the analyticity of Ua' yields Ua' = 0 in Di. Theorem2.2 of Chapter 2 may now be used to conclude. Repeating the above arguments for the double-layer potential Va' and the combined potential Wa* = ' ^Va' we see that (a) is proved. The proof of the second part of the theoremis similar. The systemof functions given by theorem1.9, part (b), is suitable for approximating internal fields. However, for such kind of application we can also use a systemof discrete sources distributed on an interior surface. These functions are given by ^nW =x(Xn,x,fc), n = l ,2,. (3.45) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 53 where {x~}^j is a set of points distributed on an interior surface S~. The following theorem is the analog of theorem 1.9, part (b), for the system of functions (3.45). THEOREM 1.10: Un der the assumption s of theorem 1.9, replace in theorem L I, part (b), the regular spherical wav e f un ction s t/^^, n =0,1,..., m =n,..., n, by the f un ction s ^^, n =1,2,.... Then , the resultin g systems of f un ction s are complete in L ^{S), Proof: The closeness relations and the analyticity of the modified single-layer potential Ua' with density a' gives Ua' 0 in Di, Theorem 1.6 now yields Ua' =0 in D,, with Ua' being the single-layer potential with the same density a'. Finally, the proof can be completed as in theorem 1.9. The same arguments holds for the modified double-layer potential Va' and the modified combined potential Wa' - Formulations of the null-field equations in terms of distributed point sources are given by the following theorem THEOREM 1.11: Un der the assumption s of theorem 1.9, replace in theorem 1.2 the radiatin g spherical wav e f un ction s w^, n =0,1, ...,m = n, ...,n, by the f un ction s (^~, n =1,2,.... L et hg solv e the resultin g n ull- f ield equation s (3.6) an d (3.7). Then hs solv es the gen eral n ull-f ield equa- tion s (2.83) an d (2.87), an d con v ersely. Proof: Let kg solve the null-field equations for the Dirichlet problem /[ fts(yV;(y)-fuo(y)^(y) dS(y) =0, n =l,2,.... (3.46) Then, the scalar field u defined by (3.8) satisfies u{x:j^) =0, n =1,2,..., and the conclusion follows as in theorem 1.9. For the Neumann problem we proceed analogously. Now, with (p!n standing for the normal derivative of the Green function on the auxiliary surface at the point Xn, i.e. ^; ( x) = ^'^^^'^ dn (x') we construct the linear combination (3.47) ^n (x)=fl (x^,X,fc)TA dg{x',x,k) 5n(x') = <P(X)TA<* (X). (3.48) X' = X Then the following theorem holds. THEOREM 1.12: Con sider Di a boun ded domain of class C^. L et the set { x~} ^i be den se on a surf ace S" en closed in Di an d let the set 5 4 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS {^ nl ^ i ^^ dense on a surface 5"^ enclosing Di. Then each of the systems (a) {t / ; ; , n = l , 2, . . . / I m(f cA)>0 }, (b) {V^^, n =1,2,.../ Im(fcA) > 0, fc ^ p(A)} is complete in L'^{S). Proof: Let us consider (a). For a G L'^{S) the set of closeness relations gives ua.{^-) + \ - ^ (x; ) =0, n =1,2,..., (3.49) where Ua' is the single-layer potential with density a' =a*. By a density argument it follows that du / t ^ a ' - f A- ^ =0 o n 5 - . (3.50) Application of the first Green theorem in the region D~ yields ^ d5 =Im(fc) /" (|fc|2 | t i f + \Vua-f) AV. (3.51) s- D: Now, if Im(/c) > 0 we see that Ua' =0 in D^. If Im(A;) =0, from Im {kX) > 0, we deduce that dua'/dn =0 on 5~. Consequently, Ua' =0 on 5 " and by Greenes formula Ua' =0 in D~ follows. The proof can now be completed as in theorem 1.9. The second part of the theorem is proved in an analogous manner. The closeness relations imply that the single-layer potential Ua' satisfies the boundary conditions Ua'-X^=0 on S^. (3.52) an Then, by the uniqueness of the solution to the exterior impedance problem we find that Ua' =0 in D^ and further that Ua' =0 in Dg^ We mention that the system {V^n }n=i ^^ complete for all frequencies and no restrictions should be imposed for the support of discrete sources. Analogous to (3.47) we define the function ^,+ , . 5x (x ',x ,fc) P7(x ) = (3.53) a n (x ) and consider the linear combination = ^+ix) + X^'+{x). (3.54) rP (x) =x(x,x,fc) + A ^^-'^ ' a n (x ) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 55 The following result is a direct consequence of theorems 1.6 and 1.12. THEOREM 1.13: Under the assumptions of theorem 1.12 the system of functions [^l, n =1,2,.../ Im(fcA) > 0, fc ^ p{Di)] is complete in L^{S). We will now consider formulations of null-field equations in terms of the radiating functions ^~. THEOREM 1.14: Under the assumptions of theorem 1.12, replace in theorem 1.2 the radiating spherical wave functions n^, n =0,1,...,m = n, ...,n, by the functions ^^, n = 1,2,..., with Im(fcA) > 0. Let hs solve the resulting null-field equations (3.6) and (3.7). Then hg solves the general null-field equations (2.83) and (2.87), and conversely. Proof: This is proved in the same manner as part (a) of theorem 1.12. Instead of the single-layer potential Ua' we consider the scalar fields u given by (3.8) and (3.9). Next, we will consider complete systems of functions with singularities distributed on open surfaces. Before we state our results, let us note two theorems which are due to Mtiller [114]. THEOREM 1.15: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and unit outward normal n. Let u 3?(Z)i) be a solution to the Helmholtz equation in Di. If on a surface element SQ of S du ^ ,^ ^^. u = = 0, (3.55) then u vanishes identically. Proof: Green's formula and conditions (3.55) gives " w= - /hw^- >(- - ^' S-So and dS( y) , xA, (3.56) / h^)- ,ag(x,y,fc) du 5n(y) d^^y)9^''^y''') S-So ' dS{y), X e Ds, (3.57) where as usually Ds =R^Dj. Consider an interior point xi in the vicinity of So and choose a sphere S'' of radius r around xi , such that S'" does not intersects the surface S SQ. The radius of the sphere is taken sufficiently small such that >"", representing the interior of S^, is divided by 5o into 56 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS s- s. FIGURE 3.4 The aux iliary surface S** exactly two parts of which the one part DJ Hes in the interior of and the other D2 exterior to SQ. The position of the auxiUary surface is shown in Figure 3.4. Clearly, the integrals taken over S SQ are analytic inside D^, The representation formula (3.57) shows that the integral vanishes in Djj whence, by the analyticity of the integral in D^, it follows that uvanishes identically in D^and therefore in Di. THEOREM 1.16: L et Di be a boun ded domain of class C^ with boun d- ary S an d exterior D3. Den ote byn the un it n ormal v ector to S directed in to Dg. L et u ^{Dg) be a radiatin g solution to the Helmholtz equation in Ds. If on a surf ace elemen t So of S du (3.58) then u v an ishes iden tically. Now we will derive some completeness results for systems of functions with singularities distributed on open surfaces. THEOREM 1.17: Con sider Di a boun ded domain of class C^ with boun dary S an d exterior Dg- L et the set { x~ } ^j be den se on an open surf ace S" con tain ed in Di an d let the set {^n }^=i ^^ den se on an open surf ace SQ con tain ed Dg, Then each of the systems (a) {<^-,<p; -,n = l ,2,...} , (b) {(^^^; -^,n = l,2,.../fc^p(A)} is complete in L '^{S). 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 57 Proof : We prove only the first part of the theorem. Let a G L ?{S)* Then, the closeness relations ja*{y)<pZ{y)AS{y) = 0, s J a*{y)'p'-{y)dS{y) = 0, (3.59) n = 1,2,..., show that the single-layer potential Ua' with density a' = a* satisfies a'(x-) = ^( x- ) =0 , 71=1,2,.... (3.60) Since {x'}"^^^is dense on SQ it follows that "'(x) = ^( x) =0, xe^o", (3.61) whence, by theorem 1.15, Ua' = 0 in D~ follows. The proof can now be completed as in theorem1.9. Going further we see that theorems 1.6 and 1.17 account for the fol- lowing completeness result. THEOREM 1.18: Un der the assumption s of theorem 1.17 the system {tpl,tp': ,n = 1,2,.../kip{Di)} is complete in L ^{S). We conclude this section by formulating the null-field equations in terms of functions with singularities distributed on open surfaces. THEOREM 1.19: Un der the assumption s of theorem 1.17 let the sur- f ace f ield ha satisf y either the set of n ull-f ield equation s f or the Dirichlet problem 1} n hs{y)'PZiy) + My)^iy) hs{y)<p'n {y) + My)^iy) dS{y) = 0, (3.62) .(v \ I H.<7rv^ = n dn dS{y) = 0, 5 8 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS for n =1,2,..., or the set of null-field equations for the Neumann problem dS(y) = 0, /I /[ / ^. (y)^(y) + | f (y)^n(y) / i . (y )^ (y ) + ^ (y )/ n - (y ) (3.63) ci5(y) = 0, forn =1,2,.... Then hg solves either (2.83) or (2.87), and conversely. Proof: The null-field equations for the Dirichlet problem give " (x; ) =(x - ) =0, n =l , 2, . . . , (3.64) where the scalar field u is defined by (3.8). Theorem 1.15 now concludes the proof of the first part of the theorem. For the Neumann problem we proceed analogously. 1.4 Distributed plane waves Let us consider the plane wave 7^(x,k) =e^*^'^, (3.65) where the wave vector is given by k =k (a, /?) =/c (cos a sin /3ei -f- sin a sin /3e2 -f cos /Jea). (3.66) Let us choose the points Un = (an,/?^) ^^ ^he unit sphere Q and let us define the distributed plane waves by Vn{^) = 7^(x, kJ =e^'^-^ n =1,2,..., (3.67) where kn =k(an, ^n) Then, the following theorem is valid. THEOREM 1.20: Let the set {a; n}^i be dense on the unit sphere Cl. Replace in theorem 1.1, part (b), the localized spherical waves nj^^^, n = 0 , 1 , . . . , m =n,..., n, by the distributed plane waves Vm n =1,2,.... Then, the resulting system of functions is complete in L^{S). Proof: We prove only the first part of the theorem. It has to show that for a G L'^{S) the set of closeness relations Ia*{y)Viy)dS{y) =0, n =1,2,..., (3.68) s 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 59 gives a ~ 0 on 5. Since {u^n}n=i = fi we deduce that a*{y)P(y,k)dSiy) = 0 (3.69) / for any a [0,27r] and /? [0, TT]. Then, using the spherical waves expansion of the plane wave P = P(y, k), i.e. oo n P(y, k) = e^'^y = E E 4j"P^i^"' l(cos/3)e-^' "M^(y), (3.70) n =0 m=n and the orthogonality of the spherical harmonics on the unit sphere we find that / *(y)^mn(y)d5(y) =0, n =0 , 1 , . . . , m = - n, . . . , n. (3.71) s Since the system {tz^, n =0 , l , . . . , m = - n , . . . , n / f c ^ p (A)} is complete in L'^{S) it follows that a ~ 0 on 5 and the theorem is proved. We mention that we can consider a system of functions satisfying the radiation condition at infinity and having similar properties to the system of homogeneous plane waves. This system can be constructed on the basis of the quasi-plane waves Q(x, k) which are given by 27r Q(x, k) = / / A(a;,u;Oe^^'"'sin/?'d/?'da', (3.72) 0 C where - oo n A(a>,u;') = i E E I' mnf;l' "l(cos^)Pi' "l(cos^' )e^-("' -") (3.73) n=Om=n and the integration is over C^ ii z > 0 and over C_ if ^ < 0. The con- tours C+ and C- are integration paths in the complex /?' plane from 0 to 7r/2 joo, and n/2 4- joo to TT, respectively. Unlike the plane waves P(x, k) the quasi-plane waves Q(x, k) obey Sommerfeld's radiation condi- tion. Taking into account the expansion of quasi-plane waves in terms of radiating spherical waves (cf. Devaney [38]) cx) n Q(x,k) = E E 2j "2? / ^' "l (cos^)e-^' "uL(x) (3.74) n=Ofn=n 6 0 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS it seems to be possible to prove the completeness of the distributed quasi- plane waves Qn {x) = Q(x,k) using the same strategy as in the above theorem. Howeverj since the quasi-plane waves are difficult to compute, this systemis attractive only froma theoretical point of view. 2 LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS In this section we will prove the linear independence of the systems of discrete sources. We begin with the systems of localized spherical wave functions. THEOREM 2.21: L et S be a closed surf ace of class C^an d let n den ote the un it outward n ormal to S, Then each of the systems (a) {ul^^,n = 0,l,.,m==-n ,...,n }, < , n =0, l ,...,m= -n, ...,n>, UL ^ - A ^^, n =0,1,..., m= -n,..., n / Im(Afe) > o | , (b) [yL n ^n =0,1,..., m= -n,...,n / k ^ p{Di)} , (du^ ^ | - ^ , n =0,l ,...,m = -n,...,n/ fc^ry(A)|, | <n + A ^^, n =0,1,..., m= -n,..., n/ /m(Afc) > o | 15 lin early in depen den t in L ^{S) . Proof : We prove (a). Before we present the proof, we recall that a countably infinite family of functions is linearly independent if every finite subset is linearly independent. Let Y, S "mnuL(y) =0, y 5, (3.75) n=l Tn ='-n for some constants ocmn t n = 1,2, ...^Timax) ^ = ""^>...,n. Then, the field =5Z S """ (3.76) n=l m=n is a radiating solution to the Helmholtz equation which vanishes on S. Therefore, uvanishes in Dg and in particular on any spherical surface S^ 2. LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 6 1 enclosing 5. The orthogonality of spherical wave functions on S^ finishes the proof of the first part of (a). To prove the linear independence of the second system we define u in a similar manner. In this case u sat- isfies the homogeneous exterior Neumann problem, whence u =0 in D^ follows. Conversely, for the third system we see that the linear indepen- dence relation implies that u satisfies the homogeneous exterior impedance boundary-value problem in Ds and therefore u vanishes in Ds. The proof of the second part of the theorem proceeds analogously. Next, we show the linear independence of the system of distributed spherical wave functions. THEOREM 2.22: Consider the bounded sequence {zn) C F^, where Tz is a segment of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ en- closing Tg. Replace in theorem 2.21 the localized spherical wave functions w^}j, n =0,1,..., m =n,..., n, by the distributed spherical wave functions ^^ni ^ =" 1,2,..., m Z. Then the resulting systems are linearly indepen- dent in L^{S). Proof: Let us prove the linear independence of the system {4, n =l,2,..., mGZ} Suppose *^max '^max E E"'""^m(y) =0, ye5, (3.77) m=nimaxn=l for some constants amn, fn =mmax? ?^max ^ =1,2, ...,ninax' Then, the field ^'^max ''^max w= E E"'""^^" (^'^^^ in=nimax n=:l vanishes in D^. Since u is an analytic function we see that u vanishes in R^ {'2^ne3}n=r- "^^^ Orthogonality of the exp{jm(p) yields ''fnax E "-"'^M(^'-n)^!! (cos0n) =0 (3.79) n=l for all m =mmax? > ^max and any ?/ E {^inGa}^^!''. For each n we multiply (3.79) by rn '"'"^. Letting rn 0 and accounting for the asymp- totic form of the Hankel functions in the vicinity of 0, i.e. (3.80) 6 2 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS we see that the conclusion readily follows. The proof of the rest of part (a) proceed analogously. For proving the linear independence of the system {(rj,n = l ,2,..., m Z/ fc ^p (A)} we debut with mmax n max ''max Y, E "-"^mnCy) =0, y 5. (3.81) m=mmax n=l Let '^max 'T'max "= E E"-""^-"- (3.82) m=rumax n =l Prom(3.81) and the assumption fc ^ p{Di) it follows that n =0 in Di. Since uis an analytic function we deduce that u =0 in any bounded domain of R^. Choose now a spherical surface S^ enclosing S. Clearly, w =0 on 5^ and we may use the addition theoremfor regular spherical wave function ^J(x) =ui .|^|(x-^e3)= E ^l'^'(-^n)J-(x) (3.83) n '>\m\ to write this condition as mmax /y^max \ E E E"'""<1."'(-^") "mn'(x) =0 . , x 5 . (3.84) m=TTimaxn'>|m| \ n=l / The orthogonality of the spherical wave functions on S^ gives y^'max Y^ a^n^mL'^'(-^n) =0, m= -rrimax, ...,mmax, n' > |m|. (3.85) n=l Multiplying the above equation by u^^, (x), where x G -Df and Df is the exterior of 5^, summing over m and n' and accounting for the addition theoremfor radiating spherical wave functions we arrive at (max "-max E E "'n"4n(x) =0, X Df. (3.86) m=mmax n=l The proof can now be completed as in the first part of the theorem. In an analogous manner we can prove the rest of the theorem. We will now investigate the linear independence of the systems of dis- tributed point sources. 2. LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 6 3 THEOREM 2.23: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^. Let the set { x~ } ^i be dense on a surface S~ enclosed in Di and let the set {^n } ^ i ^^ dense on a surface 5"^ enclosing Di. Replace in theorem 2.21 the radiating spherical wave functions u^^, n =0 , 1 , . . . , m = n, ...,n, by the functions (p~, n = 1,2,...., and the regular spherical wave functions w^^, n = 0 , 1 , . . . , m = n,...,n, by the functions ^^, n = 1,2,.... Then, the resulting systems of functions are linearly independent in 1/^(5). Proof: We prove only the linear independence of the system {<Pn}^=i' Relying on our previous analysis it has to be proved that X ; a ^ - (x) =0, X R^ - {x-}lZ- , (3.87) n=l implies an =0, n =1,2,..., rimax- Since (p:^ is singular at x;;; the conclusion readily follows. We now pay attention to the system of functions {^n }n=i ^^^^ singu- larities distributed on an interior surface. THEOREM 2.24: Under the assumptions of theorem 2.23, replace in theorem 2.21, part (b), the regular spherical wave functions u\^^, n = 0 , 1 , . . . , m =n,..., n, by the functions ^^, n =1,2,.... Then, the resulting systems of functions are linearly independent in L'^{S). Proof: Let us prove the linear independence of the system {^n }=i Employing the same arguments as before we see that the field u^Y. ^^^n (3.88) n=l vanishes in any bounded domain of R^. In particular u vanishes on a spher- ical surface S^ enclosing S. Accounting for the spherical waves expansion of the entire solution x we rewrite this condition as ;^ E E ^ - " ' E c^nul^AK) i . n' W =0, X S. (3.89) n'= Om=-n' \ n=l / The orthogonality of the spherical wave functions on S^ gives ^max 5 3 anwL^n' (x-) =0, n' =0, 1, ...,m =- n ' , ...,n' . (3.90) n=l Multiplying the above relations by u^^, (x), where x Df and Df is the exterior of 5^, and summing over m and n' we find that ^max 5 ] a (^ ; (x ) =0, x e D f . (3.91) n=l 64 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS The proof can now be completed as in theorem 2.23. We turn to the systems {V^n }n=i ^^^{^n }n=i' "^^^following theorem establishes their linear independence. THEOREM 2.25: Con sider Di a boun ded domain of class C^. L et the set {x~}^_j be den se on a surf ace 5"" en closed in Di an d let the set {^n }n=i ^^ den se on a surf ace S'^ en closin g Di. Then each of the systems (a) {^~,n = 1,2,...}, (b) { ^+, n=l , 2 , . . . / fc ^p(A)} is lin early in depen den t in L '^{S). Proof : The proof proceeds as in theorem 2.23 by taking into account that the functions xp^and ^~ are singular at the points xj and x~ , respectively. The spherical wave expansion of xand theorem 2.25 accounts for the following result. THEOREM 2.26: Un der the assumption s of theorem 2.25 the system of f un ction s {Vin,n = l ,2,.../ A: ^P(D,)} is lin early in depen den t in L '^{S). The next theorem establishes the linear independence of systems of functions with singularities distributed on an open surface. THEOREM 2.27: Con sider Di a boun ded domain of class C^ with boun dary S an d exterior Dg. L et the set { x"} ^^ be den se on an open surf ace S" con tain ed in Di an d let the set {x; J"}^i be den se on an open surf ace SQ con tain ed Ds. Then each of the systems (a) {^n ^^'n ^ n=l , 2 , . . . } , (b) {^t.^'r^-. n = 1,2,.../k^p{Di)} is lin early in depen den t in L ^{S). Proof : We prove only (a). Repeating the steps of our previous anal- ysis we arrive at an^-{x)+/?<^;-(x) =0, X R3 - {x- }; ; : "; , (3.92) n=l 3. NOTES AND COMMENTS 65 for some constants an and (3^,71 = 1,2, ...,nmax- The proof is finished by showing that (p~ and (^J^" are Hnearly independent. Since ^-(x) =n(x-). n,,,, {jk |x; : - x| - 1) ^j ^^. (3.93) where n,^^- = (x x) / |Xy^- x|, we see that ip^and (/? J, have different order of singularity at x~. Hence, they are linearly independent. The following theoremis the analog of theorem2.26. THEOREM 2.28: Un der the assumption s of theorem 2.27 the system {? +,^; -^, n = l,2,.../fc^/>(A)} is lin early in depen den t in L '^{S). Proof : This follows fromthe spherical wave expansion of x and the- orem2.27. 3 NOTES AND COMMENTS Vekua [146] established the completeness of the sets of regular and radiating spherical wave functions on a Lyapunov surface. He showed that when k is an eigenvalue of the Dirichlet problemin Di the set of regular spherical wave functions is not complete, and that the completeness can be preserved by the addition of suitable functions. He also demonstrated that the solution to the Helmholtz equation which is continuous in Di can be approximated by a series of orthogonalized regular spherical wave functions. Kupradze [85] proved the completeness and the linear independence of the systemof fundamental solutions with singularities distributed on an auxiliary surface enclosed in Di. Hizal [72] and Aydin and Hizal [5] extended Vekua's results to doubly connected regions bounded by two Lyapunov surfaces, by considering the set formed by the union of regular and radiating spherical wave functions on such composite surfaces. A more general analysis for the solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equa- tions in R^was given by MtiUer and Kersten [116]. They demonstrated that the sets of functions obtained by separation of variables in various coordi- nate systems are complete in L ^{S) and that they may be used in solving Dirichlet and Neumann problems. In particular the authors discussed the completeness of the systemof point sources (fundamental solutions) with singularities distributed on closed and open surfaces. Millar [102] showed the completeness of the set of outgoing cylindrical wave functions and the set of their normal derivatives on C, which is a closed smooth curve in R^. In an subsequent paper [103], he made cor- rections, as well as improvements in the proof for the normal derivatives. 6 6 CHAPTER III SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ACOUSTICS Colton [29], [30] and Millar [103] also established the completeness in L^{C) of sets of functions formed from solutions of the Helmholtz equation, each function being a linear combination of solutions (obtained by separation of variables) and its normal derivative on C. One set is constructed from regular Bessel functions for use in interior problems and the other set con- tains the Hankel functions which satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condi- tion and is utilized in exterior problems. Millar [103] also dealt with the completeness of the union of these sets on the boundary of a doubly con- nected annular region. We note here that Yasuura and Itakura published a series of papers [167] dealing with the completeness of the above sets of wave functions, i.e. systems of functions for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. Ramm [128] discussed the completeness of the set of radiating and regular spherical wave functions and the set of their normal derivatives, and similar to Vekua showed that at irregular frequencies the system of regular spherical waves has a finite defect m, where m is the multiplicity of the eigenvalue. Furthermore, he proved that the spherical harmonics are complete and also form a Riesz basis on star-shaped surfaces. Eremin [48] developed a general scheme for complete systems construc- tion. Using this scheme, the system of distributed spherical wave functions has been introduced. IV DISCRETE SOURCES METHOD IN ACOUSTIC THEORY Within the analysis of the preceding chapters, we now are well prepared to present the mathematical justification of the discrete sources method (DSM). Only the exterior Dirichlet, Neumann and impedance boundary- value problems are discussed in detail since the basic concepts are fully represented in these cases. We include in our analysis a description of the smoothing procedure developed by Yasuura and Ikuno [166]. In addition to a strict mathematical model we also consider practical aspects of the method, such as the correct choice of the support of discrete sources, the determination of the amplitudes by a stable numerical algorithm and the estimation of the accuracy of the results. In particular, we will show that the convergence and the stability of the method depends on the position of the singularities of the scattered field. We then proceed to briefly analyze the acoustic scattering by axisymmetric particles. We will show that the use of distributed spherical wave functions located on the particle symme- try axis reduces the scattering problem to a sequence of one-dimensional approximation problems relative to the Fourier harmonics of the fields. Fi- nally, we will present a method for correlating the position of the support of discrete sources with the singularities of the scattered field. 67 68 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS 1 BASIC CONCEPTS Let us consider the boundary-value problem consisting in Helmholtz equa- tion /HiUs -f k'^Us = 0 in Ds, (4,1) the radiation condition r-T Vn^ - jkus = ^ f FT ) ^ |x| - oo, (4.2) uniformly for all directions x/ | x| , and the boundary condition C{us 4- tio) = 0 on S. (4.3) Here is a boundary operator given by = 1 for the Dirichlet problem, C = d/dn for the Neumann problem and =1 ^d/dn for the impedance problem. Let us construct the approximate solution to the boundary-value prob- lem (4.1)-(4.3) as a finite linear combination of elementary sources ,A,(x) = 5;a^V^(x), (4.4) t / =l where the functions V^^ satisfy the Helmholtz equation in ), the radia- tion condition at infinity and the systems { ^^} ^^j , that is {V^^}^^i ? [d'^^y/dn]^^^ and {V^^ - 'yd\l^l/dn}^^^ are complete and linear indepen- dent in L^(5). The functions V^^ represents the localized radiating spherical wave functions u^^, the distributed spherical wave functions <;^^ or the distributed point sources (p^. By construction USN is analytic everywhere in D^; thus the representation formulas (2.70), (2.74) and (2.77) are valid for the exact and the approximate solutions. Combining these relations we find the estimate \Ws - USNWOO.GS ^ ^ 11^ (^* "" '^SN)\\2,S = ^ 11^ K + USN)\\2,S (^-5) in any closed subset Gs of Dg, The estimate (4.5) is the key point in the discrete sources method and shows that the boundary-value problem (4.1)- (4.3) reduces to the approximation problem of the incident field on S. The standard technique for computing the vector of amplitudes a = [a^] , t/ = 1,2, ...AT, consists of the solution of the minimization problem a =argmin \\CUSN -f ^0II2,5 (4-6) by using the normal equations ^M/2,5 ~ \"""'"^'^M/2,5 {CusN. CrPl)^ , = - <uo, C^l)^ e , /^ = 1,2,..., N, (4.7) 1. BASIC CONCEPTS 69 In this case, CUSN is the projection of Cug = wo onto the iV-dimensional space HN Sp{Cipl,Cil)2^,,,,C'ip%}; whence \\C{u8'-USN)\\2,S -"* 0 as iV GO follows. The relative error of the approximate solution may be evaluated by computing the discrepancy on the scatterer's surface \\C{UQ-^USN)\\2,S ,.O\ W^uol I2,S Before going any further we will make some remarks concerning the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. Without going into details we men- tion that the results of the previous chapter remain valid after the funda- mental solution is replaced by ^ (x, y,fc) = | F ( ^ > (fc |X -- yI), X 7^ y, X, y R^ (4.9) and the Sommerfeld radiation condition by r-r Vu{x) - jku{x) = o { == j as | x| -* 00. (4.10) N \ vN/ Here HQ ^ denotes the Hankel function of the first kind of order zero. In this case the pertinent functions for solution construction are the localized two-dimensional cylindrical wave functions u^{x) = Hn {kr)e^^^, the dis- tributed two-dimensional point sources </? (x) = HQ (A: | x~ x|) and the multiple two-dimensional cylindrical wave functions u^p{x) = w^(x - xop). Here (r,0) are the polar coordinates of x and x~ C~, where C" is a two-dimensional curve enclosed in D^ Although the discrete sources method is complete in theory, the se- quence of approximate solutions given by (4.6) often converges so slowly that we cannot find a precise approximation of the true solution. An in- teresting procedure for accelerating the convergence of the discrete source method was given by Yasuura and Ikuno [166]. This method consists in a smoothing procedure and may be understood as a least-squares boundary matching method with a low-pass spatial filter. Following Okuno [121] we summarize below this procedure. Let us consider for simplicity the scattering by a perfectly conduct- ing cylinder. The cross-sectional contour in the xiX2-plane is denoted by C, and its exterior by Dg. A point on C is represented by the normal- ized arc length 5 measured from a fixed point SQ- Both s = 0 and s = 1 corresponds to 5o- For a polarized incident field Eo(x) = e^uo{x) we seek the scattered field in the form Eis{x) = e3Us(x). The scattering problem can be stated as follows: find the scalar function Us that satisfies the two- dimensional Helmholtz equation in D^, the radiation condition at infinity and the boundary condition Ug + Uo = 0 onC. Let {"^^j^^j be a complete 70 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS and linear independent system of radiating solutions to the Helmholtz equa- tion and let the approximate solution USN be given by (4.4) Similar to the three-dimensional case we assume the existence of the Green function G^ that satisfies the homogeneous boundary condition G\s,x) = 0, see. Then, application of Green's second theorem in Dg leads to dG^{s,x) c UaN{x) - W^W = / Q^^^) [UaN{s) "h Uo{s)] ds, X G D. (4.11) According to (4.11) we see that we may obtain the approximate solution by solving the minimization problem: a = argmin \\USN + UQWI^Q (^-l^) Next, we make some preliminary constructions. Let Xlix) = V^(x) - !f^l^^li^) (4.13) and h{s) = uo(.) - ^^^l{s), (4.14) where ip^ is that element of {^^}^_.j which is not orthogonal to constants, i.e. (ip^, ^)2C ^^' ^'^^ existence of tp^ is guaranteed by the completeness of {^^}^^j. Direct calculation shows that UsN + uo = (hsN + h) + 7 - 5 T^ ^ ^ , (4.15) where (U37V+U0,l)2,C,y.3 hsN = JZa^xl= E a^.xl (4.16) since x^ = 0- Let us impose the constraint (t^5N + txo,l)2,c = 0' (4-17) 1. BASIC CONCEPTS 71 which is equivalent to < = 1 ' ^ W.l>2 2 ai r(^^l >2, c + K, l >2, c (4-18) C \u=l,t/:^n This constraint may be understood as the strict agreement of the d.c. com- ponent of UsN with that of UQ. Then, clearly UsN +Uo = haN + h (4.19) and therefore (4.11) takes the form uM^) - us{x) = J ^^^f^y^ [hsNis) + h{s)] ds. (4.20) c Thus, we may construct an approximate solution by minimizing the bound- ary residual WhsN + '^Il2,c^^ a^ = arg min \\hsN + 'i|l2,c ("^-^l) where a^^ = [a^] , v 1,2,,.,,N,u i^ fi. Note that a^ is given by (4.18). For the time being we note the following remarks: 1. Let h be given by (4.14); then, for any e > 0 there exist N and N hsNix)^ J2 ^^XU^) (4.22) such that I|/i5iv4-/i||2,c<^- (4.23) For an arbitrary set {ci^}i,^i with AT > /x, we construct = (f:a^i,l + o) - j - j ^ ( Ea' ^ i > l +uo,l) t (4.24) and deduce that \\haN 4- h\\2 c ^^ LC! LI f)^V^^ + ^o with c > M n2fC' 0. Thus, choosing the set {af)^}^^^, such that ^1^=1 a^^^ H- tto II ll2,C < /c we get (4.23) and the statement is proved. 7 2 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS 2. If we define by LQ{C) the subset of L'^{C) which is orthogonal to constants, i.e. Ll{C) = {f/feL\C), if,1)2,0 = 0}, then the functions h^xt^^ 1>2,..., and hsN belongs to LQ{C). Clearly, LQ{C) is a subspace of L'^{C). To show this we firstly ob- serve that LQ{C) is a vector subspace, because for any a, /? C and any f,g e L(C), {af + /3p, l>2,c = 0 ; whence af + Pg e Ll{C). To prove that Ll{C) is complete let us choose a Cauchy sequence (/ n) C Ll{C); it converges to some / L'^{C) because JL^ (C) is complete. Now for any g e L?{C)^ we have (/ny)2,c "^ if^9)2,0 as n > 00. For ^ = 1 we have {fnA)2C = 0, n = 1,2,...; thus {/, 1)2^^ = 0 and s o / L2 ( C) . Next, we introduce the smoothing operator 1 {Kf){s) = I Ki{s,t)mdt, (4.25) 0 with the kernel Ki{s,t) = 0{s - f) - (5 - t) - i . (4.26) Here 6 stands for the unit step function. Direct calculations shows that ICf is an indefinite integral of the Lo'^omponent of / , ^ = / - ( / , l > 3 , c , (4-27) and that ICf belongs to Ll{C), Thus, the operator /C acting on LQ{C) gives the indefinite integral of the function. We call /C the smoothing operator since an indefinite integration usually increases the smoothness of a function. A higher-order smoothing operator is defined recursively by / CP+7 = /C(/CP/), p = 1,2,.... (4.28) By definition, it is obviously that / C^/ belongs to LQ{C) and that l i ^ = ; C / . (4.29) as Let us now integrate the right-hand side of (4.20) by parts. We obtain 2. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION 7 3 Further integration by parts yields uM^) - .(x) = (-1)" I ^ ( ^ 1 ^ ) C^" ihsN + h)) {s)ds (4.31) c for p = 1,2,.... Thus, we can construct an approximate solution by mini- mizing the boundary residual WlC^hgN -I- f^^h\\2Q , i.e. a^ = arg min WlC^hsN + IC^hWlc^ (4.32) We note that the systems {fC^xli 2^ = 1,2,..., i/^^fi}, p = 1,2,..., are complete in LQ{C). TO prove this we use the identity (/C5,/)2.c + (ff.'C/)2,c = 0, (4.33) which holds for any / , ^ L^{C). In the case p = 1 we start with (iCxli 7)2 c = 0 for 1/ = 1,2,..., t/ 7^ A^, and / E L(C). We get (x^ ^ / >2, c = ^ = 1,2,..., V ^ ii\ whence, by the completeness of the system {xj, 1/ = 1,2,..., u ^ yi)^ we arrive at /C/ = 0 on C Since d(/C/) / ds = 0 and / G L'Q{C) we deduce that / = 0 and the proof is complete. For p > 1 we proceed by induction. Since \\Kr>{KN + h)\\^^c < ^W-'ih.N+ h)\\^ ,.<... we see that the mean-square error of the pth order solution decreases faster than the mean-square error of the (p l)th order solution as the number of truncation index N increases. In fact, the convergence of solution becomes faster as we increase p. However, it is noted that we should not expect to have good solutions by this method with p greater than some po, which is decided by the nature of the problem and the accuracy of the numerical computation. This is because a higher-order smoothing procedure may neglect an important contribution of some space harmonics which closely relates a higher-order Fourier component. The practical range of p may be 1 < P < 5 . 2 NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION The implementation of the discrete sources method for a specific boundary- value problem requires the selection of the auxiliary surface and the de- termination of the amplitudes of discrete sources by a stable numerical algorithm. 7 4 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS 2.1 Support of discrete sources. Scattered field singularities The stability and convergence of the solution depend on the correct choice of the auxiliary surface, which in turn depends on the position of the sin- gularities of the scattered field. This problem can be investigated in the framework of the auxiliary current method (see Kyurkchan et al [87] for a detailed discussion). We mention that the discrete sources method can be regarded as finite-dimensional approximation of the auxiliary current method when {V^i/}j^_i is the system of distributed point sources {</^n } ^ i Next, we will consider in detail the relations between these two approaches. Let 5~ be a surface of class C^ enclosed in Di and let us represent the solution to the boundary-value problem (4.1)-(4.3) by My) = J a(x)^(x,y,fc)d5(x). (4.35) 5- Then, it is readily seen that the density a solves the integral equation of the first kind / a{x)Cy9{x, y,fc)d5(x) = ~yUo(y), y 5. (4.36) 5- Traditionally, the use of integral equations of the first kind for studying boundary-value problems in acoustic scattering theory leads to serious dif- ficulties since the integral equations of the first kind are improperly posed. Furthermore, there is a lack of a Riesz-Predholm theory for such equations and we have to use other concepts for analyzing the unique solvability of the integral equation (4.36). In this case we will apply the analytic contin- uation theory of wave fields. At this stage of our presentation we note some fundamental aspects of the analytic continuation theory of wave fields. From the mathematical point of view the idea of continuation of wave fields is quite natural. The wave field is a real-analytic function of the spatial variables and has no more that one continuation to the nonphysical region. This continuation is a ramifying real-analytic function which exists everywhere except for the set of singularities lying in the nonphysical region. The statement for the continuation problem is as follows: investigate the possibility of analytic continuation of the function u^ as a solution to the Helmholtz equation to inner points of the domain Di (the theoretical aspect of the problem) and locate the singularities of such continuation (the computational aspect of the problem). Firstly, we note that this solution is unique if the analytic continuation problem is solvable. This follows from the real analyticity of solutions to the Helmholtz equation and from the uniqueness theorem of analytic continuation. Secondly, the problem might have no solution. For example, the solution to the exterior Dirichlet problem with nonanalytic 2. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION 75 data UQ cannot be continued through the boundary. Thirdly, the analy- sis shows that the continuation of Ug inside the domain Di is in general a ramifying function having singularities at some points of A- Hence, for separating a single-valued solution one has to introduce a system of cuts, on which the obtained continuation will have jumps. To solve the ana- lytic continuation problem it is necessary to reduce the problem to some equivalent problem in the complex plane, to investigate the singularities of solutions to the complex plane, and to obtain the singularities of the initial real problem as the trace of the complex singularities for real values of the variables. Within recent years significant advances have been made in the continuation theory of wave fields. We mention here the works of Millar [104] based on the integral equation technique, of Khavinson and Shapiro [81] who used the method of unitary solution to the equation in question, and of Sternin and Shatalov [137] who used the method of integral transforms of complex-analytic functions for investigating the continuation problem in a general situation. The interested reader is referred to these references for further details. The problem of continuation of wave fields is theoretically solved, but in regard to the applicability of the corresponding theory to mathematical modelling, we are only at the beginning. In this context we mention that the Georgian group from the laboratory of Applied Electrodynamics of Tbilisi State University has developed and implemented in their computer codes various techniques for localizing the scattered field singularities (see, e.g. Karkashadze and Zaridze [77] and Zaridze et al [171]). These includes analytical approaches like the method of images of the given sources at the surface of the body and the Fourier analysis of the far-field pattern of the scattered field. As semi-analytical approaches we mention the analysis of the behavior of amplitudes and phases of the auxiliary sources when the auxiliary surface is deformed. However, for complicated structures and complex excitations this problem can be solved only by numerical approaches. A phenomenological method of continuation of the scattered field us- ing discrete sources will be now described. Let Us be the solution of a two-dimensional boundary-value problem for the Helmholtz equation in Ds. Assume that Us is known on a certain surface C which is exterior to C, and choose an auxiliary surface C"^ in the vicinity of C. The position of the auxiliary surfaces is shown in Figure 4.1. The aim of our analysis is to reconstruct the scattered field using sources distributed on the auxiliary surface C"*". Since the auxiUary sources will be used to describe the field coming to them, the phase velocity of the scattered field should be pointed to this sources. Thus, it is necessary to use sources which will behave as ab- sorbers, creating a field that comes to them. This construction consists of a linear combination of Hankel functions of the second kind HQ ^ (fc |X Xn|), 7 6 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS C e FIGURE 4.1 The surfaces C and C+. where {Xn}^=i is a set of points on C"^. Then, the known scattered field is tied up with the field of auxiliary absorbers on a set of matching points {yjljzri ^ ^> ^^^ ^he amplitudes of the absorbers are obtained by solution of the system of equation E anH^^^ (fc| y, -xn| ) = usiyj), j = 1,2,..., J. (4.37) n=l Analytic continuation arguments show that the field of auxiliary absorbers will restore the field up to the main singularities into the interior of C. The same strategy can be used for three-dimensional scattering. In this case, the field generated by the auxiliary absorbers is sought in the form En = l n C ( Mx - Xn | ) . Let us return to the auxiliary current method. We will show that the unique solvability of the integral equation (4.36) is guaranteed if the auxiliary surface encloses the set of singularities of the scattered field. THEOREM 2.1: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^; let the surface S" be enclosed in Di and assume k ^ p{D^)^ where D~ is the interior ofS". Then the integral equation (4-S6) has at most one solution. Proof: Let ^.(y) = / a(x)p(x,y,fc)d5(x), y G R^ - 5", (4.38) s- such that Cua = 0 on 5. By the unique solvability of the boundary-value problem (4.1)-(4.3) we see that Ua = 0 in Dg. Since u, is an analytic func- tion we conclude that Ua = 0 in D~, where Dj is the exterior of S". Theorem 2.3 of Chapter 2 may now be used to conclude. THEOREM 2.2: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ and let the surface S" be enclosed in Di. Then the integral equation (4-36) has solutions if and only if the surface S" encloses the set ofsingularities of the scattered field continued inside Di. Proof: Let a solve the integral equation (4.36). Then, the field Ua given by (4.35) solves the boundary value problem (4.1)-(4.3). The function 2. NUMERfCAL IMPLEMENTATION " " 7 7 Us is analytic outside 5~; thus 5~ encloses the singularities of scattered field continued inside Di. We prove now the sufficiency. Let Ug solve the boundary value problem (4.1)-(4.3). Assume that S~ encloses the singularities of the scattered field continued inside A, Us C^'^C^") and dus/dn G C^'**(5~). Then, Us can be expressed outside S~ by (cf. Kyurkchan et al. [87]) ,(x) = J | u , ( y ) ^ ^ ^ i ^ - ^ ( y) 5( x, y, f c) } d5(y), x 6 I>7- (4-39) Let Ui be the solution to the interior Dirichlet problem with boundary condition Ug -{- Ui = 0 on 5"". Since Us G C^'^(5"") it follows that Ui C^'^{Di ); thus the representation theorem gives 0 = J | , ( y ) 5 ^ ^ _ ^ ( y) 5( x, y, f c) | d5(y), X e Dr- (4.40) s~ Prom (4.39) and (4.40) we get 5- p(x,y,fc)d5(y),xD7, (4.41) and, since, by assumption, C{ua -f uo) = 0 on 5 we see that solves the integral equation (4.36). This concludes the proof of the theorem. Theorems 2.1 and 2.2 show that Ua given by (4.35) is the unique solu- tion to the boundary value problem (4.1)-(4.3) if and only if the auxiliary surface 5~ encloses the singularities of the scattered field continued inside A. Let us define the operator ^ : L^(S ) - L^(5) by (aa)(y) = J a{x)Cyg{x, y,fc)d5(x), y 5. (4.42) 5- Note that Cus = Sa. We can prove the following result. THEOREM 2.3: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^; let the surface S~ be enclosed in Di and assume k ^ p{D^), where D^ is the interior of S", Then the operator Q has a dense range, i.e. Q{L^{S'')) = LHS). 7 8 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS Proof: In order to prove that Q{L'^[S~)) = L'^{S) it suffices to show that N{Q^) = { 0}, where Q^ is the adjoint operator of G and N{G^) is the null-space of Q^. The adjoint operator Q : L'^{S) > L'^iS") satisfying {Qa,h)2^s = (^'^^'^)2,5- '^ Siven by (a^/ i)(x) =| / i ( y) ( ^ y^ ( x, y, f c) ) *d5( y) , x 5 - . (4.43) Let C?t/i = 0. Then (^tft)* = Q and the field ti(x) = y /i* (y )y^ (x, y ,fc)d5(y) (4.44) s satisfies the boundary condition n = 0 on 5~. Hence, from k ^ p{D~) we obtain u = 0 in i?^~.Since u is analytic it follows that u = 0 in Di. Theorems 2.2, 2.4 and 2.6 of Chapter 2 now yield ft ~ 0 on 5 and the proof is complete. The above theorem guarantees the existence of a sequence (a^v) C L'^iS-) such that ||no + ^a7v|l2,5 -> 0 as AT - oo. (4.45) Now, setting UsN{y) = / aAr(x)^(x,y,fc)d5(x) (4.46) s- we use the estimate to conclude that \\us '^aNWoo G ^ 0 as A^ oo, uniformly in any closed subset Gs of Dg. Relying on (4.46) we see that the discrete source method can be obtained by choosing a^ ^s ^. linear combination of Dirac delta functions, i.e. aAr(x) = X]n=i ^n^i^ ~ ^n ) Next, assuming that S" encloses the singularities of the analytic con- tinuation of the scattered field inside Di we express Ug by (4.35) and we have Us{y) = / a(x)^(x,y,fc)d5(x) s- = lim W5iv(y)=lim / a7v(x)^(x,y,fe)dS'(x) N*oo iV--*oo J (4.48) 2. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION 7 9 uniformly in closed subsets of Ds. The integral operator Q acting from L'^{S~) into 1/^(5) is a compact operator with an open range of values. Thus the inverse operator Q~^ is unbounded in the range of Q. Consequently, the sequence (ajv) might be unbounded. Next we will prove that if S~ does not enclose the singularities of the analytic continuation of the scattered field, then the sequence (QN) is unbounded. THEOREM 2.4: Let the sequence (OAT) satisfy (4-4^)' U {^N) ^S hounded, then the auxiliary surface S~ encloses the singularities of the analytic continuation of the scattered field inside Di. Proof: Since {ON) is bounded, we can pick up a weakly convergent subsequence {aNk)^ such that, for y GDS, ^sTVfc (y) == (ajVfc,^* (.,y,A^))2,5- -^ (^o,P* (,y.^))2,5- as fc - oc. (4.49) The sequence {a^) satisfies (4.45) and therefore UQN t/s as iV OC, uniformly in closed subsets of >. In particular UsNk * Us as k -^ oo, uniformly in closed subsets of Dg. Hence, the solution to the boundary- value problem (4.1)-(4.3) can be written as Us{y) = J ao(x)^(x, y,fc)dS(x). (4.50) s- The field (4.50) is analytic outside 5~, thus S~ encloses the singularities of the analytic continuation of the scattered field inside Di. We mention that if the auxiliary surface 5"" encloses the singularities of the scattered field, there exists an unique solution a to the integral equation (4.36). Consequently, any sequence (aAT) converging to a satisfies (4.45). Our previous analysis has shown that the correct choice of the auxiliary surface is decisive to achieve efficiency. The essential point is that the necessary number of unknowns strongly depends on the relative distance (along the normal) between the real surface and the surface on which the auxiliary sources are placed. When the auxiliary surface moves away from the physical surface, the number of unknowns decreases. However the shift of the auxiliary surface is restricted by the location of the scattered field singularities since these surfaces should surround all singularities of the scattered field. Otherwise the discrete sources do not represent the scattered field entirely and the results of calculations might diverge. The main diflSculty in implementing the auxiliary current method is that we firstly compute the sequence of currents and then the field. There- fore, if we do not have a priori information about the position of the singu- larities, an erroneous choice of the auxiliary surface can lead to unbounded currents. Alternative versions of the auxiliary current method consisting of a direct computation of the scattered field have been developed by Eremin and Sveshnikov [54]. 80 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS 2.2 Matrix methods Next, the efficiency of the numerical algorithms for computing the ampli- tudes of discrete sources will be investigated. For simplicity, we consider the least-squares problem for the Helmholtz equation with the Dirichlet boundary condition a = arg min \\uo 4- USN Wl^s (4-51) and determine the vector of amplitudes a = [a^] , n = 1,2,..., iV, by solv- ing the normal equations N XI (^n. ^m>2, S n = - <^0,<^m>2,5 ' ^ = ^' 2, . . , i V. (4.52) n=l The linear independence of the system of discrete sources shows that the Gramm matrix G^v = [Gmn], Gmn = (v'nV^m>2,5 rn,n = 1,2,..., AT, is positive definite. It is worthwhile to note that when N increases the con- dition number of G^v increases. This is due to the fact that the points x;;^ are more condensed on S~; thus the linear independence of the system of discrete sources is *altered\ In other words, some basis functions fit the data about equally well so that the Gramm matrix, unable to distin- guish between them, becomes singular. This fact is also reflected by the asymptotic behavior of the determinant g^ as AT cx). THEOREM 2.5: Consider Di a bounded domain of R^ and let the smooth surface S" be enclosed in Di, Choose a mesh on S"and let x~ be located at the center ofeach cell. Assume for simplicity that |x^ x^| = h for any neighborhood cells n and m. Then, for sufficiently large N we have gN=0 [inhf) . (4.53) Proof: Without loss of generality we assume that N = 2L and use the well-known estimate for the Grammes determinant (cf., e.g. Aleksidze [2]) to get 9N{^T^^2^-">^2L) < 92{^T ^^2)"'92{^2L-V^2L)- (4-54) Here (^~ and ffn-^-i correspond to the neighboring cells n and (n -f 1). Let us evaluate the second-order determinant Prom the mean value theorem fZ+i (x) = 'Pn (x) - hn,-^-^^ Vip- (x) + 0(/i2) (4.56) 2. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION 81 we obtain 92{<Pn>'Pn+l) = / l ' f | | v ; | | 2 , S l l ^nl l ' . S " | ( v ; , * > 2 , s f + ^ih) , (4.57) where nx;:*;^., = (x +i -x )/ |x+i - x | and *(x) = n^-x;^, ^'fin (x)- Retaining the terms in h^ we receive 0 < 5 < ifih)'^ as N -*oo, (4.58) with _, \/\kn\\ls\\'^jls-\{fn,^n),^s\'- (4-59) u = max n=l, 3, . . , 2L- The theorem is proved. As a consequence of the above theorem we observe that for any e > 0 and arbitrary surfaces S" and S , there exists an integer iVo, depending on S" and 5, such that QN < for all N > NQ, In order to reduce the computational effort, a discrete least-squares problem is formulated. Let us choose a mesh on S with y^, j = 1,2,..., J, located at the center of eu:h cell. Assume that the area of each cell on S is proportional to /IQ. Then, using the rectangular integration rule / N wo(y) + X^anV?n(y) n=l d5(y) N ^o(yj)-hX^an<^n(yi) n=l (4.60) + fiiv(fto) we formulate the following least-squares problem a = arg min || Ax (Wp , (4.61) where A=[ aj n] , o^n == ^n (YJ) ^ J = 1^2,..., J, n = 1,2,..., AT, is a de- sign matrix and f = [fj] , fj = uoiyj), j = 1,2,..., J. The above least- squares problem is equivalent to the collocation method. For an arbitrary mesh it seems to be more appropriate to choose ajn = y/^^n iVj) ^^^ fj = ' "\/ ^^o(yi)> where Wj is a weight factor equal with the area of the surface cell centered at y^. When the rectangular integration rule is replaced by some other algorithm, this may affect the definition of the weights Wj, It is noted that with a special weighting and a locally more dense matching point distribution, we may locally increase the accuracy of the results. Usually, we choose J > N, that is the number of match- ing points exceeds the number of discrete sources. In the literature, this 82 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS technique is also known as the generaUzed point-matching technique. The solution to the minimization problem (4.61) can be expressed in terms of the pseudo-inverse of A as a = A"^f. (4.62) There are different possibilities to solve the minimization problem (4.61) The simplest method consists of solving the normal equations ( A U ) a = A^f (4.63) by a LU decomposition and backsubstitution. Here, A^ stands for the conjugate transpose of A. In this case A-^ = ( A^ A) " ^ A^ (4.64) where rank(A) = N. This scheme is the discrete version of (4.52). However, the solution of a least-squares problem directly from the normal equations is rather susceptible to roundoff error. For large particle sizes the matrix can numerically lose its positive definiteness during factorization and becomes ill-conditioned. We recall that a matrix is ill-conditioned if its conditioned number is too large, that is, if its reciprocal approaches the machine's floating point precision. An alternative, and preferred, technique involves QR decomposition of the matrix A, A = Q R 0 (4.65) where Q is a unitary J x J matrix and R is a upper N x N triangular matrix. Then, using At A = R+R, we may express A^ as A + = [ R - \ 0 ] Q ^ (4.66) In this form, the pseudo-inverse can be computed by a stable numerical algorithm. The solution of the least-squares problem (4.61) using QR decomposition is employed in the multiple multipole program (see, e.g. Hafner and Bomholt [70]). In the MMP-code the QR factorization is re- alized using an algorithm based on Givens' plane rotations. It is noted that other orthogonalization algorithms such as those using Householder transformations, are faster, but need the entire matrix to be stored. When the conventional methods lead to solutions dominated by pertur- bation errors the so-called regularization methods are needed. An efficient technique for solving the least-squares problem (4.61) relies on the singular value decomposition of the matrix A and a ^spectral cutoff' technique. The singular value decomposition of the matrix A is A = UAV^ (4.67) 2. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION 8 3 where U and V are unitary J x J and N x N matrices, and A is a J x iV diagonal matrix: A = D 0 0 0 , D = diag(cri,<T2,...,crr), <'^i > 0^2 > > <Tr > 0. (4.68) The numbers txi,..., cTr are called the singular values of A and r = rank(A). Prom (4.64) and (4.67) we see that the pseudo-inverse of A is given by A+ = VA- ^U^ (4.69) where A- i = D- i 0 0 0 (4.70) is the pseudo-inverse of A. For rank(A) = iV, the solution of (4.61) can be explicitly expressed as N IT 11 ). v , (4.71) n=l =E (f^lOii^ where U = [ui,...,Uj] and V = [vi,..., v^^]. When A is severely ill- conditioned, several of the singular values (normalized by the largest sin- gular value) are smaller than the accuracy to which the elements of A and f have been evaluated. This causes amplification of the higher-order column vector of V and produces oscillatory components in the solution. This observation suggests stabilizing the ill-conditioned linear system by damping or filtering out the influence of the factor l/cxn in the solution. In the ^spectral cutoff' technique, the terms corresponding to small singular values are simply neglected. Note that a strategy on how to determine the number of terms being summed up in (4.71) is the discrepancy principle. An efficient subroutine for computing the singular value decomposition of a complex matrix is the NAG Fortran Library Routine: F02XEF. The routine obtains the singular value decomposition by first reducing the ma- trix to upper triangular form by means of Householder transformations. The upper triangular form is then reduced to bidiagonal form by Givens' plane rotations and finally the QR algorithm is used to obtain the sin- gular value decomposition of the bidiagonal form. Another regularization technique which is more suitable for the applications we have in mind is the Tikhonov regularization which is equivalent to a quadratic constraint applied to the original least-squares problem aA = argmin {| | Ax - f||f. + A Mf,} . (4.72) 84 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS The regularized solution read as a, = y;^i^l^^v, (4.73) where 6n is a filter factor term given by ^n = - ^ . (4.74) For appropriate choice of A we will obtain a stable regularized solution a^. There are different approaches to select the A parameter. The eigenvalues of the Hermitian matrix AI -f A^A are given by A -h cr^, n = 1,2,..., iV. With cond2 (A) standing for the condition number of the matrix A in the Euchdian norm we have cond2 (AI -f A^ A) = (A + al) / {\-\- <7^) < 2<Tf/A for 0 < A < erf and therefore the stability of the regularized system (Al-f A+A)aA = A^f (4.75) requires the regularization parameter A to be fairly la,rge. On the other hand, in order to keep the system (4.75) reasonably close to the original system, we expect that A needs to be small. Therefore, the choice of the parameter A has to be made through a compromise between accuracy and stability. An efficient strategy to select the A parameter is the L-curves criterion used by Obelleiro et al. [120]. For two-dimensional geometries, the above regularization approach avoid the dependence of the solution on the discrete source location which is the main source of ill-conditioning. For large dimensions of the matrices, iterative methods can be used. The conjugate gradient method, as a member of a larger class of methods that are referred to as conjugate direction algorithms, is a convenient al- ternative for solving the minimization problem (4.61). The routine of the method is summarized below for easy reference. So = For = f Aao, po = To = . n = 0,1,...,A^ do Atso Qn = Ap ^ , an = "2- , l|qn||/2 ^n+\ = ^n ~r Q^nPnj Sn+1 =^ Sn OLfi^n^ Tn+\ = A^Sn-f-l, /?n = l|r. Ik t-fl l l / 2 'n||/2 terminate when an converges. The conjugate gradient method was used for solution of the minimiza- tion problem (4.61) by Dimitrenko [39]. 2. NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION 8 5 We conclude this section by mentioning that we can solve the least- squares problem (4.61) by choosing N = J.In this case, a solves the square system Aa = f (4.76) and this scheme correspond to the collocation method with an equal num- ber of matching points and discrete sources. We note the following result. THEOREM 2.6: Under the assumption of theorem 2.5, let us choose a mesh on S with y^, j = 1,2,..., A^, located at the center of each cell. Assume that the area of each cell on S is proportional to h^. Then, for sufficiently large N | det A| = / i o ^ v ^ , (4.77) where QN = det G^. Proof: Let us consider the matrix A^ A with the elements amn given by N C^mn = X^^m*( yj ) V^n( yj ) - (4-78) The elements of the Gramm matrix Gjv can be approximated by using the rectangular rule for computing the integrals, that is Gmn = / ^ ;;*(y)^ n(y)d5(y) == hlJ2^;;:{yj)<p-{yj)-^RM{ho). (4.79) s ^=1 Using the resolution of a determinant with respect to rows, we obtain g^ = hl^{det (At A) 4- o{ho)} (4.80) and the conclusion readily follows. Obviously, the above estimate is better than (4.53). However, experi- ence shows that this technique often leads to highly oscillating error dis- tribution along the boundary. A slight shifting of the matching points on the boundary may significantly change the error distribution between the matching points. In addition, numerical experiments demonstrate that the collocation method with overdetermined systems uses less sources than the method with square matrices. The explanation consists of the fact that for a fixed N we obtain a better estimate (4.60) by increasing J. There- fore, for practical applications we recommend the collocation method with overdetermined systems. 86 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS 18 Norm of ampl i t udes ( l og- s cal e) FIGURE 4.2 Amplitudes norm E^=i \o'n\'^ ^o"" different values of the parameter kd. Let us consider an example that illustrate the influence of the scat- tered field singularities on the solution and the efficiency of the collocation method with overdetermined systems. The results correspond to the scat- tering by an elliptic cylinder with semiaxes fca = 3 and kb = 1.2. The singularities of the wave field are located at focal points and in this case we have 2 / = 2.7495, where / is the interfocal distance. In Figure 4.2 we plot the norm of amplitudes Yln=:i \^n\ f^^ different values of the parameter kd defined by the relation d = a ai. Here ai is the length of the large semiaxis of the auxiliary elliptic contour C~, while the small semiaxis is taken to be kbi = 0.7. The curves correspond to different dimensions of the algebraic system: 50 x 50, 100 x 100 and 50 x 300. It can be seen that as soon as the auxiliary contour fails to encircle the interfocal segment (for kd > 0.25) the norm of amplitudes increases the faster, the larger is the dimension of the algebraic system, that is the higher is the potential ac- curaicy of computations. It is noted that the result obtained by using an overdetermined system of equation is better than those obtained by using determined systems of equation. 3 MODEL WI TH DISTRIBUTED SPHERICAL WAVE FUNCTIONS We now pay attention to the scattering problem of an axisymmetric ob- stacle. When we construct an approximate solution to the boundary-value problem (4.1)-(4.3), we have different possibilities to select the support of discrete sources. The simplest support is an auxiliary surface, parallel to S 3. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED SPHERICAL WAVE FUNCTIONS 87 and enclosed in Di, However, this choice leads to time-consuming numeri- cal schemes. The natural support which takes into account the rotational symmetry of the scattering problem is the segment Tz which belongs to the axis of symmetry z. For a bounded sequence {zn) C Tz the relevant complete system of functions are the distributed spherical wave functions <;^. Let us assume that the external excitation is a plane wave with a wave vector lying in the a:;2-plane and enclosing an angle TT 7 with the 2-axis: uo{x) = exp[jfc(psin7C0S<^-|- 0COS7)], x = {p,(pjz). (4-81) Using the series representation expi-jkpsmjcosip)= ^ {-j)"'J^{kpsm^)e^""^, (4.82) m=oo where Jm stands for the cylindrical Bessel function of order m, we may represent the incident field as a Fourier series in v?, i.e. o(x)= f; u^{v)e^"'^. (4.83) For the Dirichlet boundary-value problem we seek the approximate solution in the form of a linear combination of distributed spherical wave functions "i v( x) = E E - " ^ mn ( x ) (4.84) 771=rrimax n~l and determine the vector amplitudes a = [a^ ]^ , m = mmaxj j^max, ^ = 1,2,..., nmax> from the condition a = argmin||u5iv 4-Uo||2,5- (4.85) Since S is a surface of revolution and USN contains an explicit exp(jm(^) dependence we have \KN+UO\\IS= J2 \\^N+0\\lL + \\SmJ\ls^ (4-86) m=mmax where u^j^ is the mt h Fourier coefficient, L is the generator of the surface of revolution, <Jmmax ^^ the residual of the series (4.83), w (0) = {2nr (0) sin 0)^^^ and r = r(0) is the equation of the generator. In view of (4.86) we see that we can organize the vector a as a finite sequence of (2mmax +1) vectors a^ , ftm = bmnl^i ^ = 1? 2,..., n^ax? and determine each Rrn from the condition Sim = argmin \\w {u^j^ -f- i/o*)|l2,t ^ = - ^ max, - , mmax- (4.87) 88 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS Thus, the ampUtudes are obtained subsequently from mmax to rrimax by solving a sequence of optimization problems for each Fourier coefficient. Energy characteristics in the far zone are computed from the far-field pattern USNO which is defined by UsN = UsNo {^y^) + 0 lj as r -> GO. Using the asymptotic form of spherical Hankel functions we obtain UsNo {0,^) = l E E am (-j )' ' "' +' ^ mn {9)e^""^, (4.88) m=rrimax n = l where uJmn {0) = (2m - l)!!sinl'^l Q^-jkz^cose As we mentioned before, the convergence of the approximate solution to the exact solution is ensured not only by the completeness of the system of discrete sources but also by the behavior of the amplitudes as iV -^ oo. The boundedness of the amplitudes may be achieved if the support is disposed in agreement with the location of the singularities of the analytic continuation of the scattered field. Essentially, the choice of the support on the symmetry axis restricts the applicability of the method. In order to eliminate this restriction, the procedure of analytic continuation of the fields onto the complex plane along the source coordinate Zn is considered (see Eremin [47] for a detailed discussion). Let us consider the half-plane ^p = const, E = {r; = (p, ^) / p > 0, z R} and define the complex plane E = {z = (Rez, Imz) / Rez, Imz R} in such a way that the real axis Rez coincides with the 2-axis. The spher- ical wave functions can be expressed in terms of the coordinates of the source point z E and the observation point r; G E by using the analytic continuation procedure, that is L(x) = h(^\kR)P}r\cosd)ei"^^, (4.89) where R^=p^ + {z- z)2, si n? = -^, cos? = ^ ^ . (4.90) We choose the sign of R such th^ t Re i? > 0. By definition the point z E is called the image of the point r/ E if ^Tjz ~ 0* Taking into account that i?2^ = {p- Imz)(p-f- Imz) - 2j l mz ( ^ - Rez) + {z - Rez)^ (4.91) we see that for each point 7/ there exist two images z^'^ with Re z^'2 ^ ^^ ijn 2i'2 ^ ^ ^ ^4 92) 3. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED SPHERICAL WAVEFUNCTIONS 89 Imz FIGURE 4.3 Illustration of the complex plane. The symmetry axis coincides with the Rez-axis. The curve L is the image of the curve L. Consequently, the^ region of analytic continuation is the domain JD C E, whose boundary L coincides with the image of Jb^he generator of revolution L C S as pictured in Figure 4.3. A point z E generates the singularity point 77 S of coordinates p = | Imz| , z = Rez (4.93) and evidently, the singularities are distributed in the real space at the ring of radius p. From (4.93) we see that the original complex source z = (Re z, Imz) and the conjugate source % = (Re z, Imz) are in- distinguishable in the sense that they produce the same singularity point in the real space. We now pay attention to the method of solution. THEOREM 3.7: Assume S is a surface of class C^ and let (z^) C D be a sequence of points distributed symmetrical with respect to the real axis Re z and having at least two limit points in D, Then the system { ( TL. ^ = 1.2,..., m Z} is complete in L^{S). Proof: To prove this, we use the same technique as in theorem 1.4 of Chapter 3 and the uniqueness theorem of analytic functions. Relying on the above theorem we conclude that the approximate so- lution to the boundary-value problem (4.1)-(4.3) can be constructed as a finite linear combination of spherical wave functions distributed in the com- plex plane. This technique allows us to correlate the position of the support of discrete sources with the singularities of the analytic continuation of the scattered field into Dj. 90 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS TABLE 4.1 The residual field for different dimensions of the algebraic system of equations. ^max 4 5 ^max 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 15 17 Jmax 12 14 20 24 28 32 36 28 32 residual field 7 = 0 0.1446 0.0280 0.0057 0.0012 0.0003 0.0001 0.0001 0.0003 0.0001 7 = 30 0.1114 0.0325 0.0094 0.0033 0.0020 0.0020 0.0019 0.0008 0.0003 7 = 60 0.0722 0.0274 0.0176 0.0163 0.0161 0.0161 0.0161 0.0028 0.0027 Finally, we present some numerical results computed with the above method. The scattering problem is that of a spheroid with Dirichlet bound- ary conditions. The size parameters are fca = 6 and kb = 2. The ratio of the generator length to the wavelength is of about 2.13. The poles and the collocation points are chosen in the half-plane Eaccordingly to Zn = acosdn (4.94) and Zj = acosT?j, Pj = 6sint?j, (4.95) respectively, where 'dn = -x + ( ^- 1 ) , n = l,2,...,nmax, (4.96) ^^max ^max and ^j = :Tf- + (n - 1 ) T ^ , j = 1,2,..., j,ax. (4.97) ^Jmax Jmax In Table 4.1, we present the residual field for different dimensions of the algebraic system of equations. It can be seen that for a 60 incidence and ^max = 4 the residual field is of about 0.016, while in the case mmax = 5 the residual field is smaller than 0.0028. These values correspond to a number of 15 sources and 28 collocation points. In Figure 4.4 we present the absolute value of the far-field pattern in the azimuthal plane (/? = 0, for normal and oblique incidences (7 = 60). The data correspond to nmax = 15 and jm&x = 28. In Chapter 9 we will extend this technique to the electromagnetic case. 4. NOTES AND COMMENTS 91 lO-M 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 Scattering angle (deg) FIGURE 4.4 Far-field pattern in the azimuthal plane y? = 0, for normal and oblique incidences. 4 NOTES AND COMMENTS The mathematical background of the conventional method of auxiliary sources was given by the Georgian mathematicians I. N. Vekua, V. D. Kupradze, and M. A. Aleksidze. In [145]-[148], Vekua formulated the 'method of expansion in terms of metaharmonic functions' as a method of solving a boundary-value problem by using expansions in terms of sin- gular solutions to the corresponding differential equation. Kupradze [85] and Kupradze and Aleksidze [86] used representations in terms of funda- mental solutions to the differential equation in question and elaborated the 'method of generalized Fourier series'. This technique required an orthog- onalization of the sets of fundamental solutions beforehand. Numerical simulations performed by Aleksidze [2] and Zaridze and Tsverikmazashvili [170] showed the nonoptimally of the conventional orthogonalization pro- cedure. In this context, Bakhvalov [7] showed that the optimal solution can be achieved by using expansions in terms of nonorthogonal functions and the collocation method. Independently, from the Georgian mathemati- cians the basic concepts of the discrete source method for two-dimensional problems was given by Yasuura and Itakura [167]. The authors introduced the 'set of modal functions' (the functions X/JI) and established a method of solution called the conventional Yasuura method. Later Yasuura and Ikuno [166] equipped a smoothing procedure with the original method to accel- erate the convergence of the approximate solution. Yasuura and Okuno 92 CHAPTER IV DSM IN ACOUSTICS [168] have made some modifications of the smoothing procedure for prob- lems with edged boundaries. This method is known as the Yasuura method with singular-smoothing procedure. In the context of the so-called discrete singularity method Nishimura and Shigesawa [118] used distributed two-dimensional point sources or line singularities to compute scattering by cylindrical structures. The same technique (otherwise known as the multifilament technique) has been used by Leviatan and Boag [92]. Distributed spherical vector wave functions (lowest order multipoles) have been introduced by Sveshnikov and Eremin [141] for solving three- dimensional axisymmetric problems. The procedure of analytic continua- tion of the fields onto the complex plane has been done by Eremin [47]. It has been shown that for oblate spheroids the distribution of discrete sources in the complex plane increases the stability of the computational scheme and reduces the residual fields. Various numerical implementations of the discrete sources method with distributed spherical wave functions have been considered by Eremin and Sveshnikov [55]. The first 2D program for calculating guided waves on cylindrical struc- tures using multiple two-dimensional cylindrical wave functions was writ- ten in 1980 by Hafner [65]. Later, this program was extended to solve boundary-value problems in 2D electrostatics by including a large class of expansion functions (see Hafner [66]). A program for the automatic choice of the expansion functions was given by Leuchtmann [91]. Further improvements on the theory of the discrete sources method has been done by Leviatan and his coworkers. In this work it has been shown that the discrete sources method can be more effective when specially de- vised sources are used. The idea is to arrive at a localized impedance matrix, which can in turn be rendered sparse by a thresholding procedure. The matrix localization may be effected by using array of multipole sources arranged in such a manner as to produce a field focus on the surface (see Pogorzelski [126]). The use of dipoles and multipoles located in complex space has been discussed by Erez and Leviatan [61], [62]. The localiza- tion may also be attained by applying a discrete Fourier transformation so as to transform the individual sources into directional arrays (see Levi- atan et al. [93] for details). A multiresolution analysis based on wavelet transformations has been discussed by Baharav and Leviatan [6]. V NULL-FIELD METHOD IN ACOUSTIC THEORY In this chapter we will present the fundaments of the null-field method (NFM) for solving the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary-value problems. We begin by showing that the scattering problem reduces to the approxi- mation problem of the surface densities by convergent sequences. We then present convergent projection methods for the general null-field equations. Next we will investigate the conventional null-field method with discrete sources. The foundations of the method include convergence analysis fol- lowing Ramm' s treatment [128] and derivation of sufficient conditions which guarantee the convergence of the approximate solution. The conclusion of this analysis is that the null-field method converges if the systems of ex- pansion and testing functions form a Riesz basis in L'^{S). Finally, we will present the equivalence between the null-field method and the auxiliary current method. 1 BASIC CONCEPTS Let hg solve the null-field equation for the exterior Dirichlet problem and let hsN be an approximation of h. Define the approximate scattered field 93 d5(y),xeA. (5.2) 9 4 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS by ,w(x) = - 1 kN(y)5(x,y,fc) + t xo( y) ^^^] d5(y), X e > (5.1) and the residual field by SuNix) =J L;v(y)5(x,y,fc) + o(y)^^^j^] s Then, the estimates 11^5 - ^ S N W O O . G S ^ ^ W ^ ^ - f^ sN h^ S (5-3) and uN \UG ,<C'\\hs-hsN \\2,S (5.4) hold in any closed sets G s C Dg and d CDi. Similar estimates are valid for the exterior Neumann problem and therefore we may conclude that the exterior boundary-value problems reduce to the approximation problem of the surface fields on 5. Let {?A^}^^i be a system of radiating waves such that {tp^ }^ ^ ^ and {9'ipl/dn}^ _^ are complete and linear independent in L^ {S ). Specifically, the functions tpl stand for the localized and distributed radiating spherical wave functions and for the distributed point sources. In the following we will construct convergent approximations of the surface fields by using the least-squares method. To this end let us rewrite the null-field equations for the Dirichlet problem as iK,^ l)2,s = -{<'^ )^ ,. = 1,2,..., (5.5) and let the sequence KN = Y. a^ ,^ l (5.6) solve the null-field equations {KN ^ i>l)2,s = - { <^ ) ^ ,/ =!, 2,....AT. (5.7) 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 9 5 Set ftg = /i*. Retaining the first N equations in (5.5) and subtracting (5.7) from (5.5) we obtain {K - KN. i^l)2,s = 0, 1/ = 1,2,..., N, (5.8) The system (5.8) is the system of normal equations for the ampHtudes a^,/x = 1,2, ...,iV. Consequently, ft^^y is the projection of h'g onto the N- dimensional space HN = Sp{V^i, . . . , ^ ^ } ; whence \\hs h^sN\\2 s ~^ 0 as iV 00 follow. The same arguments hold for the Neumann problem: the sequence K^ = t <^ (5.9) subject to the null-field equation ,.3. ' 2,5 \ *^" / 2,5 ^-^L=-(^'*"L'^-''^--^' '^'' converges to h^ = h^^ where hg is the unique solution to the null-field equations KM) =-(^,^t) ,-1,2,.... (5.11) ^ ^ /2,5 \ ^ ^ I 2,5 A comparison between the above projection method and the conventional null-field method will presented in the electromagnetic case. 2 CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2.1 Formulations The expansion or the basis functions employed in (5.6) and (5.9) are the complex conjugates of the testing functions. This special choice leads to a system of normal equations for amplitude determination. On the other hand, with h standing for du/dn^ we may rewrite (5.5) as and, with h standing for u, we may rewrite (5.11) as 96 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS Assuming that k is not an irregular frequency, we can approximate h by linear combinations of regular fields in Di, that means for the Dirichlet problem, and N '^^ = E<^i (5.15) /x=l for the Neumann problem. When the localized spherical wave functions are used as expansion and testing functions, the above projection methods are equivalent to the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method. For this reason, the projection methods (5.12), (5.14) and (5.13), (5.15) with localized and distributed sources will be referred to as the conventional null- field method with discrete sources. Before going any further, we mention that in the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method, the matrices corresponding to systems (5.12) and (5.13) can be expressed in a symmetric form. Indeed, let ^^ul^dS (5.16) and n' = I ^ I'n'^ dS (5.17) be the corresponding matrices for the Dirichlet and Neumann problems, respectively. Then, application of second Green's theorem in a domain bounded outside by S and inside by the inscribed sphere S^ gives J [Umn Q^ U^ >^ . g^ Jdb-^ ^ ^ ^ ^ dm^ -m'^ n. W - (5.18) S Consequently ^ mnm'n' = ~Z2V ^ ^ .-' ^ ' ^ ".^ ' "^ 2 / fl*n V^ ^ ' "' ^ ^ ^ / ^ ^ (5.19) mn ^ and ^ mnm'n' = "Top ^ m,-m'O n,n' "^ n / 5>ri \^ ^ ''f^ '^ '^ '^ ) (5.20) 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 97 As noted by Waterman [157] the last expressions have an interesting fea- ture from a numerical point of view. For indices n, n' > ka where a equals the maximum radius of the obstacle, the product of radial functions in the integrand can be approximated by the leading term arising from the appro- priate power series expansion. Similarly, the product of angular functions can be expanded in a finite set of Fourier harmonics. The dominant numer- ical contribution to the off-diagonal elements generally would be expected to arise from the first and more slowly varying of these terms. However, (5.19) and (5.20) reveal that the contribution in question consists of the surface integral of the normal gradient of a potential function, and hence by the divergence theorem vanishes identically for all off^-diagonal elements. Because of the term containing 6n,n'^ this cancellation does not occur with diagonal elements, which might therefore be expected to dominate their off-diagonal neighbors, resulting in a matrix better suited for inversion by numerical techniques. 2.2 Convergence analysis The projection schemes employed in the conventional null-field method contain different kind of basis and testing functions. Consequently, the convergence analysis has some peculiarities which we now describe. For simplicity we restrict our analysis to the projection method for the Dirichlet problem <^' ^' *)2.5 = / - ^ = 1.2,..., (5.21) with the approximation hj\f of the form N ^iv = X^<c/>^. (5.22) /.3*\ /.. n./.3* , Here /^ = {duo/dn,il)l*)^^g - {uo^d^jif /dn)^^ , and {<^^} ^i is a linearly independent and complete system of functions in L'^{S). Obviously, this analysis is relevant for all cases under consideration. We are interested to answer the following questions: is the truncated system (5.21) unique solvable, does the sequence HN converges to the exact solution h ? As stated in the introduction, these questions were discussed in detail by Ramm [128]. Ramm' s theoretical foundations of the null-field approach include convergence analysis, stability of the numerical scheme towards small perturbations of the data, and estimates of the rate of convergence. We restrict our presentation to the convergence analysis and the interested reader is referred to this reference for further details. Let us rewrite the null-field equations (5.21) in an operator form Ah = f, (5.23) 98 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS where f = [/i, /2, ...] ^ , f G /^, and the operator A : L^ {S ) /^ transforms functions u 6 L'^ {S ) into vectors (^j^i*)2 5) (^'^2*)2 5' * Hence, theorem 3.3 of Chapter 1 can be appUed to the operator equation (5.23) with H = L2(5) and G = l^ . It is easy to check that A and A~^ are both bounded if ci M2. S < \\M\12 < C2 ||ti|l2,5 . ci > 0, (5.24) for all u I'^(S'); and the inequalities hold if the system {'^ t}i^ =i ^ ^ ^ Riesz basis of L'^ iS ). The convergence condition (1.44) may be written in matrix form as A^ N ^ N > cGyv, 0 0 , (5.25) for all N > N Q, Here A^ is the truncated matrix A^v = [^ i^ ^ j]^ ^ i^ fj, = {<l>^ i '^ l*)2 5 ^ /^ = 1 2,..., N , and G N denotes the Gramm matrix GAT = [Gi/;x], G un {^ ^ ^ ^ 1^ )28' ^'^ ~ 1,2, ...jAT. Note that the matrix in- equality A< B means that {Ax,x)^2 < (Bx,x)^2 for any x eP. Let A(A) and A(A) denote the minimal and the maximal eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix A. Then A(A) = inf < ^ ^ , A(A) = sup i ^ ^ (5.26) ^''^ 11x11^2 x ^o iix ii; ^ and therefore (5.25) holds if, for example inf A(Air AN ) > A> 0 and sup A(G/^) < A< 00. (5.27) N \ / N Thus, assuming that {0^ } _^ is a Riesz basis of 1/^(5), {0^} *li is a complete and linearly independent system of elements of L'^ {S ) and the inequalities (5.27) holds we deduce that the truncated system of equations corresponding to (5.23) is unique solvable for all N > N Q and \\hN ~ /i|l2,5 ~^ 0 as AT 00. Now, we assume that {0^ } ^, is also a Riesz basis of L'^ {S ). Then, the second inequality (5.27) holds, and h solving (5.23) can be represented by h = Y^ ^ =i ^ fi^ n' Furthermore, if ^ </)^ > is biorthogonal to the system {^ /i }^ i ^^^^ ^^PM \^ ^ '\\2 g^ ^ <^ ' ^ ^ ^ ^ N = E^ =i ^ ^ <l>fi we obtain a^ = (/iAr,0^) and therefore | a^ a^| < c\\h]s[ h\\2S ' The last inequality implies uniform convergence in fx of the sequence a^ provided that ||/ijv ~ /i||2,5 -^ 0 as AT > 00. 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 9 9 S i FIGURE 5.1 The spherical surface S^^. Conditions (5.27) are spectral conditions which can be verified directly if the systems {^^} ^^ and {</>^} ^i are given. The practical conclusion is that the projection scheme converges if the systems {^^} _j and {(t>^} _.j form a Riesz basis of L^{S) and the first inequality (5.27) holds. These conditions will be numerically verified in the electromagnetic case for the systems of localized and distributed spherical vector wave functions. As it was shown by Ramm, the spherical waves, although complete in L^(5), do not form a Riesz basis on S unless S is a sphere. This conclusion follows from the fact that the condition number of the truncated Gramm matrix grows to infinity as the truncation index grows to infinity. In general these systems do not form a Schauder basis either. A counterexample showing t hat the spherical wave functions do not form a basis in L'^(S) can be given as follows. Consider a spherical surface 5^ dividing S into exactly two parts: the first one, 5i , is in the exterior of S'^^ and the second one, 52, is contained in the interior of S^. This situation is depicted in Figure 5.1. Define the scalar field u{x) = ^(x,y,fc), x 7*^ y, where y is fixed point on S^. Using the multipole expansion of the Green function we obtain for x 5 i , | y | < | x | , 00 n "W = I ] 53 ^mnuLW (5.28) n=O m=n and for x S2, | y| > | x| , 00 n " W = E E mn"mn(x), (5.29) n=Om=n where amn = ^ T>mnUlrnn{y) and a'^ ^ = ^ Pmnul mn(y)- 100 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS Thus, assuming that the representations (5.28) and (5.29) are vahd on the entire surface S we will contradict the spherical wave expansion of the Green function. In the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method, the infinite set of null-field equations guarantees that the total field will be zero inside the maximal inscribed sphere. Because of its analyticity, the total field vanishes throughout the entire interior volume. If we consider a finite se- quence of null-field equations, we guarantee that the residual field tends to zero inside the maximal inscribed sphere. But in general this result does not imply that the residual field converges to zero within the entire interior volume. If instead of localized multipoles we use distributed sources (spher- ical multipoles and point sources) it is possible to overcome the numerical instabilities associated with the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method. The explanation is that the null-field conditions will be satisfied in the interior of the support of discrete sources, whose form and position can be correlated with the boundary geometry. A similar technique was used by Bates and Wall [11]. Using the bilinear expansion of the Green function in the spheroidal coordinate system. Bates and Wall imposed the null-field condition inside the inscribed spheroid. In this way it was possi- ble to reduce numerical instabilities by decreasing the part of the null-field region not included in D^. Although this method enables many bodies to be analyzed satisfactorily, one can devise shapes for which this method is not particularly suitable. In this context, the method based on discrete sources appears to be more flexible. We conclude this section by presenting the equivalence between the null-field method and the auxiliary current method. Let us consider the Dirichlet boundary-value problem and let S~ be a surface of class C^^ enclosed in Di. Define the operator Ti : L^{S) > L^{S~) by )=Jh{y)g{x,y,k)dS (y). (5.30) (W/i)(x THEOREM 2. 1: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^; let the surface S~ be enclosed in Di and assume k ^ p{D~), where D~ is the interior of S~. Let h solve the integral equation of the first kind Hh = UQ. (5.31) Then h solves the general null-field equation (2.82) and conversely. Proof: Let ii(x) =uo( x) - /"/i(y)^(x,y,fc)d5(y), x R^ - 5. (5.32) 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 101 Since h solves (5.31) we see that u = 0 on S~. From k ^ p[D~) we find that w = 0 in D^\ whence, by the analyticity of iz, i/ = 0 in Di follows. Hence, h satisfies the general null-field equation. The converse theorem is immediate. Because of this equivalence the integral equation (5.31) has precisely one solution and this solution belongs to C^'^{S). The following theorem is the analog of theorem 2.3 given in Chapter 4 for the operator H. THEOREM 2.2: Consider Di a hounded domain of class C^ and let the surface S~ he enclosed in Di. The operator H defined hy (5.30) is injective and has a dense range provided that k is not an eigenvalue for the interior ofS-. Proof: The injectivity of H follows from the assumption k ^ p{D~) and theorem 2.2 of Chapter 2. For proving the second part of the theorem we have to show that N{V)) = {0} , where H^ is the adjoint operator of H and N{H^) is the null space of H^ Since the adjoint operator H^ : L^{S-) -^ L'^(S) is given hy {n^a) (y) = J a(x)p*(x,y,fc)d5(x), (5.33) s- we may proceed as in theorem 2.3 of the precedent chapter to conclude. The operator 7i has an analytic kernel and therefore the integral equa- tion is severely ill-posed. Actually, the integral operator H acting from L^{S) into 1/^(5"") is a compact operator with an open range of values. The integral equation (5.31) may be solved by using the Tikhonov regular- ization, that is by solving Xhx-hH^nhx = n^uo (5.34) with the regularization parameter A > 0. From the classical theory of the Tikhonov regularization scheme, we know that the operator AJ 4- H^H : L^{S) L^{S) is bijective and has a bounded inverse. Furthermore, since H is injective TZx = {XI4- H^H)~^H^ defines a regularization scheme with ||72,;^|| < 1/ 2\ / A (cf. Colton and Kress [35] for a detailed discussion). Note that the Tikhonov regularization can be interpreted as a penalized residual minimization since hx solving (5.34) minimizes the Tikhonov functional /iA = argmi n{| | W/ i -uo| l 2, 5- + A||ft||2,5} . (5.35) Projection methods for the integral equation (5.34) are given by the- orem 3.4 of Chapter 1 with A = XI and B = V)H. The approximate solution hxN is sought in the form of a linear combination of regular fields hxN = X^^=i ^^i^^, a-nd assumed to satisfy the projection relations ({XI + V)U) hxN - W^uo, i^D^s = 0, 1/ = 1,2,..., N. (5.36) 102 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS In the electromagnetic case, we will analyze the Tikhonov regularization from a computational point of view. Aprojection scheme for the integral equation (5.31) is <H/iN-t*o,W^^>2 5- =0 , ^ = l,2,...,iV, (5.37) where h^ = Y^ ^ z^ i ^^V'^- Note that the system {'Hipl}^ _^ is complete in 1/^(5"") provided the system {i^ l}^ ^ ^ is complete in L^ {S ) and k ^ p{D^ ), The projection scheme (5.37) is equivalent to the minimization problem a = argmin \\HhN tio||2 s- (5.38) Il2,5 i T with a = [a^ y ,ti = 1,2,. . . ,N . Now, let /ijv(y) = E n =i n %-yn )j y 5, where { yn} ^ i is a dense set of points on 5. Choose a mesh on S with Xj, j = 1,2,..., J, located at the center of each cell. Then, we may compute a by solving the discrete version of the minimization problem (5.38), i.e. a = arg min || Ax - f Ufa, (5.39) where A = [ajn]y ajn = ^(xj,y,A:), j = 1,2,..., J, n = 1,2,..., AT, is a design matrix and f = [fj] , fj = uo(xj), j = 1,2,..., J. The above least- squares problem is similar to that obtained in the auxiliary sources method but with the collocation points replaced by the source points and conversely. In other words, the auxiliary sources are kept on the surface and the collo- cation surface is shifted inside the body. Numerical simulations performed by Zaridze et al [171] demonstrate that the computation of the surface fields by the above scheme does not avoid the problem of scattered field singularities. In Figures 5.2 and 5.3, the dependence of the far-field pattern on the geometry of the auxiliary surface is shown. The plotted data show that the convergence occurs when the auxiliary and extended boundary surfaces contain the scattered field singularities. Conversely, when the singularities are outside of these surfaces the solution diverges 2.3 Transition matrix The transition matrix relates the expansion coeflScients of the incident and the scattered fields and plays an important role in multiple scattering and orientation averaging problems. Let us assume that the systems {^J,} _i and {^V^i/5n}^_j form a Schauder basis in L^ {S ). Then, h can be repre- sented as 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 103 Far-field pattern 1.15 1.10 0.95 1.05^ 1.00 2 6 10 14 18 22 Number of sources FIGURE 5.2 Convergence of the far-field pattern at ^ = 0 versus the number of discrete sources. The scatterer is a perfectly conducting cylinder with an aspect ratio of h/a = 0.6. The aux iliary curve C" is elliptic with 6i / o = 0.55 and: (a) ai / o = 0.55, (b) ai/a = 0.70 and (c) ai/a = 0.85. The data are computed with the aux iliary sources method. Far-field pattern 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 10 14 18 Number of s our ces FIGURE 5.3 The same as in Figure 5.2 but the data are computed with the null-field method. 104 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS for the Dirichlet problem and as oo h^Y.a^^l (5.41) for the Neumann problem. Let us express the scattered and the incident fields as oo oo Us = ^VJ^ul, uo = ^V^alul, (5.42) where the first series converges uniformly outside a sphere enclosing 5, while, by assumption, the second series converges uniformly inside this sphere. Here, i/ is a complex index containing m and n, that is i/ = (m, n) and V = 1,2,..., when n = 0, 1, . . . , and m = n, ...,n. The transition matrix is defined as the connecting matrix which generates the coefficients of the scattered wave by premultiplication on the coefficients of the incident wave. Thus, we have [M = T [ a ] , (5.43) where T = BA- ^Ao (5.44) Explicit expressions for the matrices. A, AQ and B are given below: < = /^^^^^< = / ^ i ^ ^ ^ ' s s AZ, = ^ . / ( v ^ ' ^ ^ - < ^ ) d 5 = -^oV (5.45) ^^^ -- TT y dn "^"^^^ ^^^'^ IT J "^^ dn ^^' s s where V = { m^n). Representing the transition matrix in the form (5.44) we tacitly assumed that A~^ exists. The following result which is due to Kleinman etal. [82] shows that the matrix A is indeed invertible. THEOREM 2.3: Let {^^} ^j and { 0 ^ } ^ ^ be any two bases of a Hubert space H. If a matrix A is defined to have elements v4^^ = (-0^, 0i,) , I/,/x = 1,2,..., then A~^ exists. 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 105 Proof: To show that A~^ exist we must estabhsh that there exist ^v^^ ^,/^ = I5 ? with the property that 00 oc in which case A~^ = [V^/UT/I^ ^'/^ = l^--- Let w^i^ r ^^^ <(/)^^ > be biorthogonal to the systems {^^/} ^i Q^nd {<?!>^} ^^. Since {0^} ^^ is a basis of H and 0^^ is an element of H, there exist {6i//i} ^i such that oc where, by the property of the biorthogonal system | 0^ [ , 6.M = ( ^ . ,  ; . ) ^ . (5.48) Then, we have / 00 \ cx D 00 Similarly, since { ^ ^ } ^ , is a basis of H and 0^, is an element of H, there exist {c^; i } ^j such that ex ; 0r. = Xl^^^^A^' (^'^^^ . ^ r ; ^ - (5.49) where ^ i^ n Then, we have 77=1 77=1 7=1 (5.52) 106 CHAPTER V NFM IN ACOUSTICS Hence, we conclude that A""^ exists and has the elements ^ ^ ifj='f>U^ {^ v^ '^ t^ )ff^ /x,r; = l ,2,.... In the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method the matrix Ao is diagonal and (5.44) simplifies considerable. Properties of the tran- sition matrix like symmetry and unitarity will be examined in the electro- magnetic case. We will demonstrate that the use of distributed sources rather than localized sources improves the symmetry of the transition ma- trix. 3 NOTES AND COMMENTS Waterman [155] formulated in 1965 the single, spherical coordinate-based null-field method. Later, Bates and Wall [11] derived the ^general' null- field method by considering the bilinear expansion of the Green function in terms of partial wave solutions to the Helmholtz equation in the prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinate system for three-dimensional problems, and in the elliptic and circular cylinder coordinate systems for two-dimensional problems. The use of local bases for surface fields approximation has been discussed by Wall [151] . These pioneering papers triggered several other publications on the extensions of the method as applied to acoustic prob- lems (see, for example, the papers in the work by Varadan and Varadan [143] ). Areview of the subject including improved formulations for some problems is given by Chew [22] , VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS Up until now, we have considered the direct obstacle scattering problems for time-harmonic acoustic waves. Now we want to extend these results to obstacle scattering for time-harmonic electromagnetic waves. As in our analysis on acoustic scattering we begin by recalling the fundaments of the Maxwell equations. After a brief discussion of the physical background of electromagnetic waves propagation, we will formulate the boundary-value problems for the Maxwell equations. We then proceed to extend the jump relations and regularity properties of the vector potentials from the acoustic to the electromagnetic case. The basic results of this section consist of the jump relations for vector potentials with square integrable densities. As in the acoustic case we will prove some fundamental theorems which enable us to construct complete systems of vector functions on the particle surface. Next, we will present the Stratton-Chu representation formulas and will establish some estimates of the solutions. The last section of this chapter deals with the general null-field equations for the exterior and the transmission boundary-value problems. We will discuss the existence and uniqueness of the solutions, and will show the equivalence of the null-field equations with boundary-integral equations. 107 108 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS 1 BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY Let us consider the electromagnetic wave propagation in a homogeneous, isotropic medium with electric conductivity tr > 0, electric permittivity e > 0, and magnetic permeability ^. If we denote by E and W the electric and magnetic fields, respectively, and if J stands for the current density, then the Maxwell equations read as Vx ( x , t ) - f / i ^ ( x , 0 = 0, (6.1) V x W( x , 0 - 6 ^ ( x , t ) = J ( x , 0 . Also, in an isotropic conductor, the electric field satisfies Ohm's law: GE = J. (6.2) It is interesting to note that the speed of wave propagation for the elec- tric and magnetic fields is c = 1/y/ejl'^ and in free space c = l/y/eofl^ = 2.99792458 X l O^ ms ' ^ We assume time-harmonic dependency for S and H that is, that for some time-independent vector fields E and H the following separation of variables holds ( x, 0 = Re 1 f e + : ^ ) E(x)e~^^* I , l ^ ' " ^ J (6.3) W(x,0 = Re{/ x- i H( x) e- ^' ^*}, where a; > 0 is the frequency. Summarizing these assumptions and elimi- nating the time dependency, we arrive at the stationary (or reduced, time- harmonic) Maxwell equations V X E = jfcH, V X H = -jkE. (6.4) Here, the wave number k given by k^ = Ljhfi (l -f j ) = a;'eo//o4/ir ( 1 + J - ^ ) (6-5) is complex, its imaginary part leading to the attenuation of a propagating electromagnetic wave. It is customary to write k = ko^eriJ^r (6.6) 1. BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 109 with fco = ujy/eQfx^ and the now relative complex permittivity Cr defined as so as to absorb the conductivity as its imaginary part. Before we formulate the boundary-value problems for Maxwell's equa- tions let us introduce some normed spaces which are relevant for electro- magnetic scattering. With S being the boundary of a domain ), we denote by Ctan(5) = { a / a G C ( S ) , n a = 0} the space of all continuous tangential fields and by CtZiS) = { a / a e Cf''''{S), n - a = 0 } , 0 < Q < l , the space of all uniformly Holder continuous tangential fields equipped with the supremum norm and the Holder norm, respectively. By Cl^^{S) we denote the space of square integrable tangential fields 'C?an(5) = { a / a e L 2 ( 5 ) , n . a = 0 } , and clearly ^tanC*^) *s a subspace of the Hilbert space L'^{S). For proving the existence of solutions to the scattering problems by a boundary integral equation treatment it is necessary to introduce the subspace ClAS) = {a/ a e C^{S), V a C'''^{S)} , 0 < a < 1, of uniformly H5lder continuous tangential fields with uniformly Holder con- tinuous surface divergence. C^^^{S) is equipped with the norm I NUs = INU5+IIV.-a||,5. Let us recall the basic boundary-value problems for the Maxwell equa- tions. To this end suppose that 5 is perfectly conducting and let n de- note the unit outward normal to 5. The scattering by a perfectly conduct- ing obstacle is modelled by the direct electromagnetic obstacle scattering problem: given Eo, HQ as an entire solution to the Maxwell equations rep- resenting an incident electromagnetic field, find a solution E = E5 -I- EQ, H = Hfi-f Ho to the Maxwell equations in the exterior Ds of 5 such that the scattered field Es, ! ! ^ satisfies the Silver-Mtiller radiation condition - ^ X Hs + E5 = o f j as | x| -> 00, (6.8) X 110 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS uniformly for all directions x/ | x| , and the total electric E satisfies the boundary conditions n X E = 0 on 5. (6.9) The direct electromagnetic scattering problem is a particular case of the following Maxwell problem. Exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem Find a solution E^, H, G C^{Ds) nC{Dg) to the Maxwell equations in Ds satisfying the Silver- Milller radiation condition at infinity and the boundary condition n X E^ = f on 5, (6.10) where f is a given tangential field. If f G C^^ ^{S) then there exists an unique solution to the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem (cf. Colton and Kress [32]). Imposing that the boundary data belongs to ^^^^{8) we guarantee that E^ and Hg both belong to C^'^{D8) and depend continuously on f in the norm of C^an dC*^)* ^^ particular, the tangential component of the magnetic field n X H^ belongs to C^^^^^{S) and n x H , = > t ( n x E , ) , (6.11) where A : C^^^^{S) C^^^^{S) is the electric to magnetic boundary com- ponent map. Note that A is a, bijective bounded operator with bounded inverse and satisfies A^ = J. The exterior Maxwell problem with contin- uous boundary data has also a unique solution which depends continuously on the boundary data with respect to the uniform convergence of the so- lution and all its derivatives on closed subsets of Dg. The interior Maxwell boundary-value problem in Di has a similar for- mulation but with the radiation condition excluded. If this problem has a unique solution, we say that k is not an eigenvalue of the interior Maxwell problem. All such eigenvalues are known to be real. Physically, the ho- mogeneous interior Maxwell problem corresponds to a perfectly conduct- ing cavity resonator. The spectrum of eigenvalues of the interior Maxwell boundary-value problem in Di will be denoted by cr{Di). For the scattering problem, the boundary values are the restriction of an analytic field EQ, HQ to the boundary and therefore they are as smooth as the boundary. In our analysis we will assume that the surface S is of class C^ such that the solution E^,!!^ G C^''*(Ds). The mathematical formulation of the scattering by a body which is not perfectly conducting but which also does not allow the total electric field E and the total magnetic field H to penetrate deeply into the body 1. BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEMS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 111 leads to an exterior boundary-value problem for Maxwell's equations with boundary data of the form n x E 7 n x n x H = 0 o n 5 , where 7 is the surface impedance. The impedance boundary-value problem for Maxwell's equations can be formulated as follows Impedance boundary value-problem Find a solution Eg,Us G C^(jDs)nC(jDs) to the Maxwell equations in Dg satisfying the Silver-Muller radiation condition at infinity and the boundary conditions n X E3 - 7n X (n X H^) = f on 5, (6.12) where f is a given tangential field and 7 is the given surface impedance function. life CtlniS), 7 G C0' "(5) and Re7 > 0 the impedance boundary- value problem possesses an unique solution (cf. Colton and Kress [31]). For dielectric obstacles it_is more convenient to make the change of variables: E< = Et/y/et and Ht = H t / y ^ , where the material constants t and fi^ are now the relative electric permittivity and relative magnetic permeability of the domain Dt, i.e. kt = ko^/e^ and f = 5, i. The bound- ary conditions consist of the continuity of the tangential components ^f the total electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding medium E and H, and the tangential components of the^electric and magnetic^ fields inside the particle Ei and Hj , that is, n x E = n x Ei and n x H = n x Hj . Scattering of electromagnetic waves by dielectric obstacles is modelled by the following boundary-value problem. Transmission boundary-value problem Given Eo,Ho as an entire solution to the Maxwell equations representing an incident electromagnetic field^ find the vector fields, Es.Hs C^{Ds)r\C(Ds) and Ei , H, C^{Di)n C{Di) satisfying the Maxwell equations V xEt = jfcoMtfit, V X Ht = -jkoetEt, (6.13) in Dt^t = s^i, and two transmission conditions nxEi-nxEs = n x Eo, n x H j - n x H s = n x HQ, (6.14) on S, In addition, the scattered field Eg ,Hs must satisfy the Silver-Miiller radiation condition r: X y7i7H5 4- v^ E^ = of r r j as | x| --^00, (6.15) 112 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . The transmission boundary-value problem possesses a unique solution (of. MUller [114]). Imposing n x EQ, n x HQ E C^^n^di^)^ we have n x E^, n X H, C^^n^iS) and n X Ei, n X Hi G C^^^AS)- Consequently, E^, H, G CO'"(D,) and Ei.Hi G C^' ^CA). We note here that one can pose the boundary-value problems for the Maxwell equations in a weak formulation for Lipschitz boundaries and boundary data in >C?an('S^)' ^^ ^^^^ context, Rellich-type identities that are relevant for the Maxwell equations on arbitrary Lipschitz domains in R^ have been devised by Mitrea [111]. Together with certain spectral theoreti- cal arguments, these have been used to develop a C^ theory for the exterior and interior Maxwell boundary-value problems in this setting. 2 VECTOR POTENTIALS In this section we will review the basic jump relations and regularity prop- erties for surface potentials in the vector case. Let 5 be a boundary of class C^ and let Aa stand for the vector potential with integrable surface density a, Aa(x) = J a(y)^(x, y,fc) d5(y), x G R ' - S. (6.16) The vector potential Aa with continuous density a (not necessarily tangential) is uniformly Holder continuous throughout R^ and the estimate \\AaL,RS<CaM^,S (6-17) holds for some constant Ca depending on 5 and a. For densities a G C^ani'^)^ 0 < a < 1, the first derivatives of the vector potential Aa can be uniformly extended in a Holder continuous fashion from Ds into Ds and from Di into Di with boundary values (V X Aa ) i (x) = y Vx X [a(y)p(x,y,fc)]d5(y) T^n( x) x a(x), x G 5, s (V . Aa ) i (x) = / Vx [a(y)^(x, y,fc)] dS{y) T~n(x) a(x), xeS, (6.18) 2. VECTOR POTENTIALS 113 where (V X Aa)+ (x) = lim V X A(x /in(x)), ( V- Aa ) ( x) = lim V- A( x/ i n( x) ) , (6.19) in the sense of uniform convergence on S and where the integrals exist as Cauchy principal values. Furthermore, we have the estimates IIVxAall^;^^ < Ca| | a| | _s , f = S,i, (6.20) for some constant Ca depending on 5 and a (cf. Colton and Kress [32], [35]). The divergence of a vector potential Ao with continuous tangential density a possessing a continuous surface divergence Vs a can be expressed in the form of a single-layer potential V . Aa(x) = y V, . a(y)^(x, y,A:) d5(y), x e R^ - 5. (6.21) Then, using the identity V x V x E = ~AE 4- V (V E) which holds for twice continuously differentiable vector fields E, we find that Vx Vx Aa ( x ) = k^Ja{y)g{x,y,k)dS{y) s + V / V, . a(y)^(x, y,fc)dS(y), x G R^ - 5. s (6.22) Consequently, the double curl of a vector potential Aa with tangential density a C^^ d{S)^ 0 < a < 1, can be uniformly extended in a H5lder continuous fashion from Dg into Ds and from Di into Dt with boundary values ( Vx Vx A ) i ( x ) = elsi{y)g{^,y,k)dSiy) s + y [V, a(y)] Vx5(x, y,k)dS{y) (6.23) s T - [V, a(x)] n(x), x 5. 114 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS The estimates ||V X V X Aa|U,-o, < Cc,\MaAS^^ = ^^h (6.24) hold for some constant Ca depending on 5 and a. The following jump relations are valid for vector potentials with con- tinuous tangential densities: (a) lim n(x) x [V x Aa(x hn{x))] = y n(x) X {Vx X [a(y)^(x,y,A:)]}d5(y) i a( x) , x 5, s (b) lim ii(x) X {V X V X [Aa(x -- /in(x)) - Aa( x- / i n( x) ) ] } = 0, x e 5 , (c) ^lim n(x) x | V x V x [ A ( x /in(x)) - A*(xT hn{x.))\ | = n(x) X I V X V X y a(y) (^(x, y.fc,) - g{x, y.fci)] d5(y) I , x G 5, (6.25) where A'/{x) = Ja(y)p(x,y,k,,i) dS{y), x e R ' - 5. (6.26) s The so-called magnetic dipole operator will be frequently used in the following. This is {Ma){x) =jn{x) x {Vx x [a(y)^(x,y,fe)]}d5(y), x 5. (6.27) s The operator M is compact in Ctan(S'), C^iniS) and C^;,^^^{S), 0 < a < 1, and map Ctan('S') into Ctan(5') (cf., e.g. Colton and Kress [32] and Mar- tin and Ola [100]). We will also use the principal value singular integral operator P, called the electric dipole operator, defined by (Pa)(x) = n(x) X V x V x /a(y)^(x, y, fc)d5(y) , X G 5. (6.28) 2. VECTOR POTENTIALS 115 The operator Vs - Vi is compact in Ctan(5') and C^^ni^)^ 0 < a < 1, and map Ctan(S') into C^an ('5). Excepting a multiplication constant, the operator V is related to the well-known operator A/" in [32] by ATa = V{n x a). The adjoint of M with respect to the L^ bilinear form {a,b> = | ^ a b d S ' (6.29) s is defined by (A<a,b) = {a,A<'b) (6.30) for any a, b Ctan(5'). By interchanging the order of integration we see that M'a = n X M(n x a). (6.31) Similarly, the operator P' designates the adjoint of V with respect to the pairing (a, b) . Using the identity Af{n X a) = P (n X (n X a)) = -Pa for all a G Cf^^ d('^)^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ -^ ^^ '^^^^ adjoint we have (Pa, b) = - (n X a,'P (n x b)), (6.32) whence 7^'a = n x ' P( n x a ) . (6.33) Following Kersten [79], [80] we can extend the jump relations for con- tinuous densities to square integrable densities by making use of the Lax theorem [90]. Analogously to the scalar case we have the following theorem. THEOREM 2.1: Assume that S is a closed surface of class C^ and let Aa be the vector potential with square integrable tangential density a. Then we have: (a) lim | | nx[VxA(./in(.))] /IU-f- nx{Vx[a(y)p(. , y, fc)]}d5(y)i a; = 0, 2,S (b) lim ||n X {V X V X [Aa(.+hn{.)) - A(.-M-))]}ll2,s = ' nU4. ' (c) ^Hm^ ||n X {V X V X [A (. M-)) " A I ( . T M- ) ) ] } 116 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS -n X I V X V X y a(y) [gi.^yA) - gi^vA)]d5(y) 2,S 0. (6.34) Proof: The proof is similar to that of theorem 2.1 given in Chapter Our further completeness analysis relies on the results of the following theorems. THEOREM 2.2: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S. Let the vector potential Aa with density a e ^?an('S') satisfy V X V X Aa = 0 in A. Then a ~ 0 on S. Proof: Let us define the electromagnetic field (6.35) {x) = ^ V X V X Aa(x), W(x) = V X Aa(x), X G R^ - 5. (6.36) Ac Using the jump relations for the curl of a vector potential with square integrable density we find that lim ||n X W( . - M- ) ) nU4. nx{Vx[a(y)^(. , y, fc)]}d5(y)~-a; (6.37) = 0. 2,5 Consequently, G'-) a = 0 (6.38) almost everywhere on S. The integral equation (6.38) is a Predholm inte- gral equation of the second kind. According to Mikhfin [101] we find that a ~ ao G Ctan(S'). Then, since M maps Ctan(5') into C^l^i^) ^^ see that ao G Ctan('S'). Going further, since any solution to the integral equation (6.38) which belongs to Cfan(5) automatically belongs to C^^^di'^) ^^ ^ ^ tain ao C^andi*^)' From to the jump relation for the double curl of the vector potential AQQ we conclude that n x 5^_ = 0. Since ao Cfand('^) we see that , H G C^'^{Ds) solve the homogeneous exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem and therefore S = H = 0 in Dg. Finally, applica- tion of the jump relation n x H+ n x H- = ao = 0 finishes the proof of the theorem. 2. VECTOR POTENTIALS 117 THEOREM 2.3: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and exterior Dg- Assume that k is not an eigenvalue of the interior Maocwell problem and let the vector potential AQ with density a G ?an(*5') satisfy V xV xAa = 0 in Ds. (6.39) Then a ~ 0 on S, Proof: The proof is similarly to that of the previous theorem. Con- structing the fields and H according to (6.36) we obtain a Predholm integral equation of the second kind for the surface density a. Using the same regularity arguments we find that a ^ ao G C^^n,d(^)' ^^^e jump re- lations lead to n X 5 - = 0 . In this case , W C^'^{Di) solve the ho- mogeneous interior Maxwell boundary-value problem and since k is not an irregular frequency we conclude that ^ H = 0 in Di. Then, from n X H^ n X H- = ao = 0, we obtain a '>^ 0 on 5. THEOREM 2.4: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S. Let the vector potential Aa with density a G C'^g^ni'^) satisfy V X Aa - A- V X V X Anxa = 0 in D^ for Re\ > 0. (6.40) k Then a ~ 0 on S. Proof: The proof is similar to that of theorem 2.6 given in Chapter 2. Let us define the electromagnetic field = VxAa- A^V X V X Anxa, W = - ^ V X 5. (6.41) Going to the boundary along a normal direction we find that lim | | n x ( . +/ i n O) - a | | 2 , s = 0 (6.42) and lim | | nxH(. 4-ftn(. )) + Anxa| | 2 5 = 0. (6.43) h0-1- ' Choosing a parallel exterior surface Sh, 5'/, = {y/ y = X -f /in(x), x G 5, /i > 0} , 118 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS we see that - A* / | n x a | ^ d 5 = ~^ \ 1 / n x [n x f(.-h/in(.))] (n x a*) s s x{l-2hH + h^K)dS = lim / ( n X f ).H*d5, SH (6.44) where H and G are the mean curvature and the Gaussian curvature of the surface, respectively. Consider now a spherical surface SRof radius R enclosing Di. Simple calculations show that and H satisfy the weak form of the radiation condition, that is ^lim^ f\nx n-\^dS = ^lim^ / {|W x n|^ + \\^ SR SR (6.45) ~2Re[ ( nxf ) . W*] }d5 = 0. Application of Gauss' theorem in the region DhR, bounded by the surface Sh and the spherical surface SRgives j f [k\nf-k*\\^^dV= f inx)'n*dS- f{nxyn*dS. (6.46) DhR SR Sh Taking the real part of the above equation, letting /i 0+, and using (6.44) we obtain ~Re(A) / | n x a | ^ d 5 = Rei I {nx )'n*dS ^^^ ' (6.47) Im{k)J[\n\' + \f]dV, DR where Hm^ I [\n\' + \Sf] dV= J [im' + \S\'] dV. (6.48) DhR 2. VECTOR POTENTIALS 119 Then, from (6.45) we see that -2 Re(A) / |n X a|^ dS = Um < / (|W x n|^ + |:|^) dS s [SR -f 2Im{k)l[\n\' + \\']dv\ DR ) (6.49) If Re(A) > 0 the conclusion a '^ 0 on 5 follows immediately. If Re(A) = 0 and Im(A;) > 0 we obtain = 0 in Z>5. Finally, if Re(A) = 0 and Im(fc) = 0 we get / ^^ |5|^d5 - 0 as i? -^ oo, whence 5 = 0 in JD^ follows. The jump relations (6.42) may now be used to conclude . It is noted that similar arguments can be employed to prove the the- orem 2.2. For instance, let and H be given by (6.36). The null-field condition (6.35) gives 5 = W = 0 in >i. Therefore, lim ||nx(.+/in(.))||2,5 = 0, /IU4. lim | | nxW(.+/in(-))-a| l2,s = (6.50) For a psirallel exterior surface Sh {y/ y = x + /in(x), x e 5, /i > 0} and sufficiently small h we have / ( n X Syn'dS = f{nx[nx S{.+hn(.))]} [n x n*{.+hn{.))] Sh S X (1 - 2hH + h^K)dS (6.51) and therefore An x eyn^ds SH Consequently, Sh and the conclusion follows as in theorem 2.4. < C ||n X 5(.+/in(-))ll2.s 11" x 'H(.+M-))ll2,s (6.52) lim finxSyWdS^O (6.53) /i->0+ J 120 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS THEOREM 2.5: Consider Di a hounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and exterior D3. Let the vector potential Aa with density a G ^tan(*^) satisfy V X Aa + A7-V X V X Anxa = 0 in D^ for ReX > 0. (6.54) k Then a ~ 0 on S. Proof: Let us define the electromagnetic field f = V X Aa + A | V X V X Anxa, H = - ^ V X S. (6.55) K jk Going to the boundary along a normal direction we obtain lim | | nx5( . - / i n( - ) ) + a||2,s = 0 (6.56) and lim | | nxW( . - / i n( . ) ) - hAnxa| | 2 5 = 0 . (6.57) /i0-1- ' With the aid of Gauss' theorem we find that A * / | n x a | ^ d 5 = A* lim / { n x [n x 5( . - / i n (. ))]} (n x a*) J h-^0+ J s s X {l + 2hH-^h^K)dS = lim / (n X yn*dS = lim / V (5xW*)dF S-h D^h = ^lim^j I (^k\n\^-k^\\^)dV = jj(k\n\^^k*\\')dv, Di (6.58) where S-h is a parallel interior surface given by S-h = {y/ y = X ~ hn{x), X 5, /i > 0} . 2. VECTOR POTENTIALS 121 Taking the real part of (6.58) yields Re(A) / |n X a|^ dS = - Im(ifc) / (|W|^ + If |^) dV. (6.59) S D^ Since Im(fc) > 0 and Re(A) > 0 the conclusion readily follows. THEOREM 2.6: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound- ary S and exterior Ds* LetA^^ andAt'^ be the vector potentials with square J} integrable tangential densities e and h satisfying V X A| -I- T ^ V X V X A| = 0 in A, koCs ^ V X Al -h "T^V X V X Al = 0 in D^ (6.60) koi ^ Then e '^ 0 and h r^ 0 on S. Proof: Let us define the electromagnetic fields f, = V X A| + - p ^ V X V X Af, W, = T T ^ V X s, (6.61) and f. = - V X A| ~ - i ~ V X V X Ai , W, = ^ T ^ V x ^. (6.62) The jump relations for vector potentials with square integrable tangential densities give lim e,n X [V X A| ( . - / i n (.))] + ^ n x [ v x V x A| ( . - / i n (.))] ^ e^n X [V X Al (. +/ i n(. ))] - - ^ n x [ v x V x Ai ( . +/ i n( . ) ) ] ~ L r ~ i l + Ms)e- ei Q j -\-M^)e + ^{Ps - Pi)h] 11 = 0. (6.63) Then, combining (6.60) and (6.63) we find that 1(6, -f ei)e ^ {sMs - eiM^)e - ^ ( P , - Vi)h = 0 (6.64) 122 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS almost everywhere on S. Taking the curl of the left-hand sides of (6.60) and proceeding as above we obtain i(M, + Mi)h - if^sMs - Mi M)h + -^{Vs - Vi)e = 0 (6.65) almost everywhere on S. The system of integral equations consisting in (6.64) and (6.65) is Mtiller's system of equations for the surface densities e and h. Let us introduce the product spaces Ctan(S') = Ct&n{S) x Ctan(S'), <kniS) = e^l^iS) X CZiS) and ,il,{S) = ^ ( 5 ) x C , ( 5 ) . In an obvious notation, we define the operator /C = /Cii /Ci2 /C21 /C22 (6.66) where /Cii = /C21 = 2j hifls + /^t) 2j koi^a + i) 2 iVs-Vi) if^s-^f^i) (6.67) Let us write the system of integral equations in the abbreviated operator form g - / Cg = 0, (6.68) where g -iiy Using the same regularity results as in theorem 2.2 we find that g ~ go Ctan(5'). The operator /C map Ctan(5') into Ct'J^{S) (Mdller [114]). In addition, for go G ^iZ{S) we have that V, (/Cgo) C^^'^iS) X C^^'^iS), whence go G C^;^,d(5) follows. Consequently, f5, ^5 G C^^''(Ds) and fi,?Tfi G C^'"(A). The jump relations for the vector poten- tials A^* and A~'* give n x g^ = n x 5i_ (= eo) and n x Hg^ = n x Hi- { ho), and we see that Sa^ Ha and {, Hi solve the homogeneous transmission boundary-value problem. Therefore, g =: Ha = 0 in Dg and i ==Hi = 0 in Di and the conclusion readily follows. 3 STRATTONCHU FORMULAS AND SOLUTION ESTIMATES We will make extensive use of a basic representation theorem for vector fields given by Stratton and Chu [138]. Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and exterior Dg, and let n be the unit normal 3. STRATTON-CHU FORMULAS AND SOLUTION ESTIMATES 1 2 3 vector to S directed into Dg. Let EajH^ G C^{Ds)nC{Ds) be a radiating solution to Maxwell's equations in Dg. Then we have the Stratton-Chu formulas E and f^ } = V X | n( y) X E,(y)ff(x,y,fc)d5(y) s + ^V X V X y n(y) x H,(y)y(x,y,A;)d5(y), { ^ ^ ^^ H^J'^) I = V X /n(y) X H,(y)5(x,y,A;)d5(y) - | V X V X y n(y) x E,(y)ff(x,y,A:)d5(y), | ^ | ^ * . (6.69) (6.70) A similar result holds for vector functions satisfying the Maxwell equa- tions in bounded domains. With Ej, Hj C'^(A) H C{Di) standing for a solution to Maxwell's equations in D, we have - E 0 and jW I = V X /n(y) X E,(y)5(x,y,fc)dS(y) + i v X V X y n(y) x H,(y)g(x,y,fc)dS(y), | ^ | p] 5 -Hj(x) I ^ ^ ^ y ^^y^ ^ H,(y)ff(x,y,fc)d5(y) - | v X V X y n(y) x E,(y)5(x,y,A;)d5(y), [H^] (6.71) (6.72) Next, we will derive some estimates for the solutions to the boundary- value problems for the Maxwell equations. These estimates can be obtained in a simple manner by using the dyadic Green functions which solve the corresponding boundary-value problems. We sacrifice to some extent the mathematical rigor that may be required in a more thorough treatment. 124 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS For example, we use quite freely the second vector-dyadic Green's theorem / [p. (V X V X Q) - (V X V X P ) . Q] d F Dt (6.73) = - / n - [P X (V X Q) + (V X P) X Q] d5 5 assuming that the necessary requirements are fulfilled. For a lucid treat- ment concerning the application of dyadic Green functions in electromag- netic theory we refer to Tai [142]. Let us consider the exterior Maxwell problem. The associated boundary- value problem for the dyadic Green functions G^ = Gg(x, y) and G;^ = G^(x, y), with y D^, consists in the Maxwell equations (6.74) VxXGe ( x, y) = jfcGj,(x,y), X G D VxXGj , ( x, y) = - j f c G ' ( x , y ) - | l 6 ( x - y ) , x e D the boundary condition n(x) X G^(x, y) = 0, x G 5, (6.75) and the radiation condition ~y xGi ( x, y) - f - G^( x, y) =o^^- r TJ as | x | - x x ) , (6.76) uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . Here, I is the idem factor and the su- perscript ^V indicates that we are dealing with dyadic Green functions of the first kind satisfying the dyadic Dirichlet condition (6.75) on S. Application of the second vector-dyadic Green's theorem in the domain Ds with P = E5 and Q = Gg gives the representation E, ( y) = j f c y' { [ n( x) xE, ( x) ] - Gi ( x, y) ^ (6.77) + (n(x) X H. (x)] S' ( x, y) } d5( x) , y e / ?, . Taking into account the boundary condition for the electric dyadic Green function and the identity a . (b X c) = - b (a X c) = (a X b)'C (6.78) 3. STRATTON-CHU FORMULAS AND SOLUTION ESTIMATES 125 we are led to E,(y) = jk y[n(x) X E,(x)] G^Cx, y)d5(x), y e D,. (6.79) 5 We use the Cauchy-Schawartz inequality to obtain the estimate IIE.IIoo.G, = sup | E,(y)| yea, ^ W^s up| ( ^| [ n( x) xE, ( x) ] - GL( x, y) n d5(x) < |fc| sup / ( j ; | Gi , ( x , y ) n |n(x)xE,(x)|d5(x) < c| y"| n(x)xE, (x)| 2d5(x)J = C||n x E.ll^,^, (6.80) whereGg is a closed subset of D^, G\^,i = 1,2,3, are the vector components ofGh, i.e. t =i and Gi ( x , y ) = GL( x , y ) e (6.81) C = |fc|sup / ' ^ | GL( x, y) | ' d5( x) . (6.82) A similar estimate can be derived for the magnetic field by taking the curl 2 of (6.79), or by using the dyadic Green functions of the second kind Gg 2 2 2 and G^. The dyadics Gg and G/^ satisfy MaxwelPs equations in D^, the radiation condition at infinity and the Neumann boundary condition n(x) X G^(x, y) = 0, X 5. (6.83) Consequently, we find the estimate 126 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS l|E,|loo,G. + l|Ha|loo,G, < C ||n X E,!!^,^ (6.84) in any closed subset Gg of Dg and for some constant C depending on S and Ga- We consider now the impedance problem. The corresponding boundary- value problem for the dyadic Green functions consists in the Maxwell equa- tions in Dg^ the boundary condition n(x) X G^(x,y) ~ 7n(x) x [n(x) x G)^(x,y)] = 0, x G 5, (6.85) and the radiation condition at infinity. Application of the second-dyadic Green's theorem in the domain Da together with the boundary condition (6.85) gives the representation for- mula E, (y) = j f cy"{n( x) xE, ( x) ^ 1 , - 7n( x) X [n(x) x H, (x)]} G;(x, y)d5(x), y D,. (6.86) In this context the estimate IIE.IIcc.G. + IIH.IIoo.G. < C ||n X E. - 7n X (n X H,)!!^,^ (6.87) holds in any closed subset Ga of Da and for some constant C depending on S and Ga. For the transmission problem the dyadic Green functions involved are of the third kind. A representation of the scattered electric field can be ob- '^ aa '^ aa ^ia tained by considering the dyadic Green functions G^ = G^ (x, y), Gg = ,^a .2L* ^g a ^ia ^ia Ge (x, y), G;, = G^ (x, y) and G^ = G^ (x, y) with y G i ), - They solve the boundary-value problem consisting in Maxwell's equations '^ aa ^ aa Vx X Gg (x, y) = jkoti,Gh (x, y), x e > Vx X ^ " ( x , y) = -jko,'&"{x, y) - r ^I ( x - y), x e > Vx X Gg (x, y) = jkoHiGh (x, y), x e A, Vx X G;, (x, y) = -jkoei'G^ (x, y), x A , (6.88) 3. STRATTON-CHU FORMULAS AND SOLUTION ESTIMATES 127 the transmission conditions n( x) x IG, ( x , y ) - G, (x, y) n( x) x p r ( x , y ) - S r ( x , y ) ] = 0, X 5, = 0, X 5, (6.89) and the Silver-Mtiller radiation condition r r X y/Fs^h (x, y) + y/esG^ (x, y) = o ( r r 1 as |x| - oo, (6.90) uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . Application of the second vector-dyadic Green's theorem in the domain Ds with P = E^ and Q = S^ gives Es(y) = j f coMay{ [ n( x) xE, ( x) ] . Gr( x, y) 5 ^ ^ S8 ^ + [n(x) X H, (x)] G, ( x , y ) | d5(x), y D,. (6.91) Further application of the second vector-dyadic Green's theorem in the domain A with P = Ei and Q = G^ yields 0 = jfcoM, y I [n(x) X Ei (x)]. G;, (x, y) + [n(x) X H, ( x) ] . C ( x , y ) } d5(x), y Ds (6.92) Substracting (6.92) from (6.91), and taking into account the continuity conditions for the dyadic Green functions we are led to E. (y) = jfco/i. j {[n(x) x E, (x) - n(x) x Ei(x)] ^^' (x, y) s -f [n(x) X H, (x) ~ n(x) x H, (x)] C ( x , y ) } d5(x), y D, . (6.93) 128 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS Analogous to (6.93) we find the following representation formula for the interior electric field Ei(y) = jfeoMi / {[ n( x) x E, (x) - n(x) x Ei(x)] Gl ' (x, y) + [n(x) X H, (x) - n(x) x Hi(x)] - U j ^ . y ) } d5(x), y G A , (6.94) ' t t ' ^t t where the pertinent dyadic Green functions are now G^ = Gg (x, y), Gg = Gg (x, y), G^ = G;,(x,y) and G;, = G^, (x, y) with y Di. They solve the boundary-value problem consisting in Maxwell's equations Vx X Gg (x, y) = jkofiiGh (x, y), x G A, Vx X G^ (x, y) = -jkoeiG^ (x, y) - ^^16{x - y), x A , ^ si ^81 Vx X Gg (x, y) = jkofi^Gf, (x, y), x G D^, Vx X Gf, (x, y) = -jkoEsG^ (x, y), x G ) the transmission conditions n(x) X n(x) X G, ( x, y) - G, (x,y) Ga x , y ) - G; , ( x , y ) = 0, X 5, = 0, X e 5, and the Silver-MUller radiation condition (6.95) (6.96) r r X y/KGf, (x, y) + yel Ge (x, y) = o ( 1 as |x| uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . Thus, the estimate oo, (6.97) E.ll -f H. loo,G + < C [Ijn X Ei - n X E, 12,5 l l o o . G, II l l oo,C?t n X Hi - n X H 2, 5 V (6.98) 3. GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 129 holds in any closed sets Gs C Ds and Gi C Di and for some constant C depending on 5, Gs and Gi. The above estimates show that small deviations in the boundary data in the square-integral norm ensure small deviations in the scattered field Eg, Us in the maximum norm on closed subsets of Ds- 4 GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY In this section we will formulate the general null-field equations for the exterior and transmission boundary-value problems and will discuss the questions of existence and uniqueness of the solutions. We begin with the exterior Maxwell problem. Let Eg, H^ solve the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem. Ap- plication of Stratton-Chu representation theorem to EsjHs and Eo,Ho in the region A gives V X Jes(y)g{x,y,k)dS(y) s + { v X V X f hs{y)g{x,y,k)dS{y) = 0, x e A , (6.99) and Eo(x) = V X Jeo{y)9{x,y,k)dS{y) s + | v X V X y*ho(y)^(x,y,fc)d5(y), x A- (6.100) Here, and for the rest of this book we will use the notations e^ = n x E^, h^ = n X H5, eo = n X Eo and ho = n x HQ. The boundary condition together with (6.99) and (6.100) gives Eo(x) 4- ^ V X V X Jhiy)g{x,y,k)dSiy) = 0, x G A , (6.101) s where h = hs+ho. In this context we can formulate the so called general null-field equa- tion for the exterior Maxwell problem. General null-field equation for the exterior Maxwell problem. Consider A a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and unit 1 3 0 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS outward normal n. Given Eo,Ho as an entire solution to the Maxwell equations, find a tangential field h satisfying the integral equation Eo(x) + ^V X V X y h(y)p(x,y,fe)dS(y) = 0, x e A , (6.102) s or equivalently, find a tangential field hg satisfying the integral equation - Vx/ ' eo( y) 5( x, y, f c) d5( y) s + ^V x V x / h, (y)p(x, y, fc)d5(y) = 0, x G A , (6.103) s where h^ = h ho- The null-field equation is based on the assumption that a solution to the boundary value problem exists, and hence the question of existence of solutions is obvious. If E^, H^ stands for the unique solution to the exterior Maxwell problem then h = nxH^-f-nxHo, h G C^^n rf('^) solves the general null-field equation according to Stratton-Chu representation theorem. The uniqueness of the solution follows from theorem 2.2. THEOREM 4.7: Let h solve the general null-field equation (6.102). Then, h solves the boundary integral equation of the interior Maxwell prob- lem i h - M h = ho. (6.104) The converse theorem is also valid provided that k is not an eigenvalue of the interior Maxwell problem. Proof: For h G C{^an,d('^) ^^ define the electromagnetic field {x) = Eo( x) 4- ^VxVxyh( y) ^( x, y, f c ) d5( y) , ^ (6.105) W(x) = ^ V x ( x ) . We have W = 0 in A. Going to the boundary along a normal direction we obtain (6.104). As in the acoustic case if h G ?an('S') solves the equation (^/ M) h = ho, then h G C^^diS)- To show this, we firstly observe that the Pred- holm alternative applied in the dual systems (tan('^) ^tan('^)) ^^^ 4. GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 1 3 1 (Ctan(5), C^^niS)) gives h G Ctan(5). Then, since M maps Ctan(5) into Cfan('S'), and since any solution to the integral equation (6.104) which belongs to Cf^nC'S') automatically belongs to C^^diS) we arrive at h G Cf;^rf(5). For h G Cf;^d(5) solving (6.104) we see that the fields S.H be- long to C^'^{Di) and n x H- = 0 on 5. Since k is not an eigenvalue of the interior problem, we conclude that H, is the trivial solution to the inte- rior problem. Hence, h satisfy (6.102). Note that the pair H, - satisfies Maxwell's equations if and only if the pair 5, H does. Once the surface current densities h or h^ have been determined, the so- lution to the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem can be constructed as E,(x) = j^VxVx Jh{y)g{x,y,k)dS{y),xeDs, ^ (6.106) Hs(x) = V X Es{x), x G Ds, JK for h G C^^diS) solving the general null-field equation (6.102), and as E,(x) = ^V X Jeo{y)9{x,y,k)dS{y) s + {V X V X y h,(y)^(x, y,fc)d5(y), x G D., (6.107) s Hsix) = VxE, ( x) , XGDS , for hs G Cf^n.dC*^) solving the general null-field equation (6.103). Evidently, Es^Us given by (6.106) and (6.107) belong to C^^'^i'Ds). _ We turn now to the transmission problem. Let Es,Hs G C^{Ds) H CiDa) and Ei,Hi G C^{Di) OC(Bi) solve the transmission boundary- value problem. Then the Stratton-Chu representation theorem gives the null-field equations in the interior and the exterior domains, that is Vx /es(y)p(x,y,fc,)d5(y) s (6.108) + T ^ V X V X fhs{y)9{x,y,ks)dS{y) = 0, x G A, koes J e 1 3 2 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS and s (6.109) + ~ : V X V X fhi{y)gix,yA)dSiy) = 0, x i>.. s Taking into account the boundary conditions on the particle surface we rewrite (6.108) as V X J[e^(y) - eo(y)]^(x,y,fc,)d5(y) s + ^ V X V X y [h,(y) - ho(y)] p(x,y,A:,)d5(y) = 0, x A. s (6.110) The representation formula for the incident electric field Eo in the region A gives Eo(x) -f V X Jeiiy)gix,yMdS{y) s + jfeT"^ ^ ^ ^ fhiiy)g{x,y,k,)dSiy) = 0,x A. (6.111) In this context, the general null-field equation for the transmission problem can be formulated as follows. General null-field equations for the transmission problem. Consider A bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and exte- rior J) s and let n be the unit normal vector to S directed into A- Given Eo,Ho O'S an^entire solution to the Maxwell equations^ find the tangential fields e and h satisfying the system of integral equations Eo(x) -f V X Je(y)g(x,y,ks)dSiy) s ^ J^S/ X V X fh{y)g{x,y,ks)dS(y) = 0, x A, 4. GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 1 3 3 Vxy*e(y)p(x, y, fe, )d5(y) s (6.112) -f ^ V X V X fh{y)g{x,yM)dS{y) = 0, x 6 Z?., s or equivalently, find the tangential fields e and h satisfying the system of integral equations V X y [e(y) - eo(y)]p(x,y,fc,)d5(y) 5 + ^ V X V X y [h(y) ~ ho(y)] p(x,y,fc,)d5(y) = 0, x G A , s Vxy^e(yMx,y,*0d5(y) 5 + ^ V X V X / h( y) ^( x, y,A:0d5(y) = 0, x J9.. s (6.113) The existence of solutions to the general null-field equations in the product space C^^d{S) X C^^^{S) follows from the existence of solutions to the transmission problem. From theorem 2.6 we see that the solution is unique. The following theorem establish the equivalence between the general null- field equation and a system of boundary integral equations of the second kind. THEOREM 4.8: Let the surface current densities e and h solve the general null-field equations (6J12). Then e and h solve Muller's system of equations: 1 7 ^;:is-^ei)e-{esMs-eiM^)e-^{Vs-ri)h = e.eo 2 KQ 2 KQ (6.114) The converse theorem is also valid. Proof: For e, h C^^n A*^) ^^ construct the electromagnetic fields , ^ V x V x A | , W. = ^ kQs ^ jkoii^ 5, = Eo -f V X A| + jL^V X V X A| , Hs = T T V x 5, 1 3 4 CHAPTER VI THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS and 5^ = V X Ai -f T^V X V X Ai Wi = TT^V x i. Since = Ti^ = 0 in Di and i = Wj = 0 in Ds we may argue as in theorem 2.6 to obtain (6.114). Let us prove the converse theorem. Mtiller's system of equations can be written in compact form as: g /Cg = go, where the significance of /C is as in theorem 2.6, K = ( u ) Ko= ( r? ) , o = 2eseo/{s -f Ci) and ho = 2^gho/{tJtg 4- fjii). It is clear that if g tan('S') solves the equation {I-IC)g = go, where ^( 5) = Cl{S) x ?,(5), then g e CldiS). This follows from the FVedholm alternative applied in the dual systems ( L( 5) , ?an(5)> and (CtanC^), ?an(5)> with the bilinear form s s and the arguments employed in theorem 2.6. Assume now that ( r ) ^ ^and('^) solve the system of integral equations (6.114). Then we have cn X s^ = Ciii X i^ and /x,n x H,_ = fiiii x Wj^. The fields g = e^^s and W^ = fjigHs satisfy the Maxwell equations V X i = jkoe.K. V X w; = -jfeo/x/; in A, (6.115) while the fields !- = Cj^i and WJ = /i^Wi satisfy the Maxwell equations Vxl= jkoeiH'i, V x Wj = -jko^iA in D,. (6.116) In addition [ and HJ satisfy the Silver-MuUer radiation condition 1^ X y/^n[ -h y/^rie[ = o ^ | 1 j as |x| ^ oo, (6.117) uniformly for all directions x/ | x| . S'^.H'a and ^^7^f belong to C'"(A) and C7'"(]5j), respectively and satisfy the boundary conditions n x ^_ = n X e'i^ and n x H'^^ = n x H[^ on 5. Thus, f^,Wi and ^^W solve the homogeneous transmission boundary-value problem and therefore vanish identically. In particular, we have 5^ = 0 in Di and [ = 0 in D^. Hence, e and h satisfy the general null-field equation (6.112). 4. GENERAL NULL-FIELD EQUATIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 135 The solution to the transmission problem can be constructed in an analogous manner to the exterior Maxwell problem. Let e,h G C^^^{S) solve the general null-field equations (6.112) or (6.113). Then the fields E,(x) = Vx Je{y)g{x,yX)dS{y) s + ^ V X V X jh{y)g{x,y,ks)dS{y), x D (6.118) s H,(x) = V X E,(x), X G i ), , and Ei{x) = -Vx Je{y)g{x,yM)dS(y) s - ^ V X V X / h(y)^(x, y,fci)d5(y), x A, (6.119) s Hi{x) = _ _ V X Ei(x), X A, solve the transmission boundary-value problem. From the regularity prop- erties for vector potentials with densities which belongs to C^^ndi'^)^ ^^ deduce that E^, H^ C^^^(Ds) and Ei, Hi C^'"(A). VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY In this chapter we will analyze complete and linear independent systems of functions for the Maxwell equations. We will construct complete systems in tan('S') and in the product space fi^anC'^)- Complete systems in ^^anl-^) will be used to solve the exterior Maxwell and the impedance boundary- value problems, while complete systems in Xl^an('S') will be employed to solve the transmission boundary-value problem. We begin our analysis by presenting some fundamental results on the completeness of the localized spherical vector wave functions. To preserve the completeness at irregular frequencies, linear combinations of these func- tions will be considered. We then pay attention to the systems of localized vector multipoles. In Chapter 9 we will apply these results to axisym- metric geometries by taking into account the polarization of the external excitation. We will then proceed to analyze the completeness properties of the systems of distributed sources. We start with the spherical vector wave functions and vector multipoles distributed on a straight line. Our analysis is based on the addition theorem for spherical wave and vector wave functions. The next sections concern the completeness of the system of magnetic and electric dipoles and the system of vector Mie potentials with singularities distributed on auxiliary closed and open surfaces. These 137 1 3 8 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS functions are suitable for analyzing the scattering by particles without ro- tational symmetry. The last section of this chapter deals with the linear independence of these systems. 1 COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS The completeness properties of the systems of discrete sources are of pri- mary interest since they provide a means for approximating the exact solu- tions to the scattering problems. For instance, the set of radiating spherical vector wave functions is known to be complete in /^tanC*^)- Consequently, any radiating solution to Maxwell equation can be approximated uniformly in closed subsets of Dg and in the mean square sense on 5 by a sequence of linear combinations of spherical vector wave functions. In this section we will present these basic results for localized and distributed sources. 1.1 Localized spherical vector wave functions and vector multipoles We begin our analysis by defining our notations. The independent solutions to the vector wave equations V x V x X - f e 2 x = o (7.1) can be constructed as Mii?.(x) = Vii?,(x) X X, Nii^Jx) = i v X M^i^Jx), (7.2) where n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, and in spherical coordinates the uj^^ are the spherical wave functions. The specific forms of the spherical vector wave functions are '. PJr^icose) dPi^'(cose) sm 6 do ^ pjrmp NM (X) = | n(n + ifJ^Mp^r^cosd) e. (7.3) ^TrTM^'ikr)] AP]r\cose) . P^^'(cos0) aO sm 9 ^ pjm(p where {er^eg^e^) are the unit vectors in spherical coordinates. The super- script *r stands for the regular spherical vector wave functions while the superscript '3' stands for the radiating spherical vector wave functions. It is useful to note that for n = m = 0 we have MJJ? = NQJ? = 0. Mj^, N^ IS an entire solution to the Maxwell equations and M^^, N^^ is a radiating solution to the Maxwell equations in R^ - {0} 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 139 The spherical vector wave expansion of the dyadic ^I is of basic im- portance in our investigation. It is 5(x, y, fc)I=^5; D n\ m^^n \ [M3__(y)Mi,(x) + Ni _(y)<(x)] -f Irrotational terms, |y| > |x| X < (7.4) [ML^(y)ML(x) + N!._(y)NL(x)] [ -f Irrotational terms, |y( < |x| where the normalization constant Dmn is given by 2n + l (n-|m|)! ^mn 4n(n + l) (n+|m|)!" (7.5) Using the calculation rules for dyadic functions and the identity ag = a-^I we find the following simple but useful expansions VxX[a(y)g(y,x,fc)] = : i ^ 5 ; J2 A 71=1171=n X < and {[a(y).Mi(y)lNU(x) + [a(y) Ni(y)j MlJx)} , |y| > |x| {[a(y)-ML(y)lN^(x) + [a(y) Nl^Jy)] M3.(X)} , |y| < |x| Vx X Vx X (a(y)p(y,x,/^)] = ^ E E ^' n=rl Tn=n [ {[a(y).Mi(y)lMj(x) + [a(y) Ni(yj] Nj(x)} . |y| > |x| {[a(y).Mi^(y)lM^(x) [ +[a(y).Ni^(y)]NUx)},| y| <| x| (7.6) (7.7) 140 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS We are now in the position to establish the completeness results for the systems of spherical vector wave functions. THEOREM 1.1: Let S be a closed surface of class C^ with unit outward normal n. Then the following systems of vector functions (a) {n X M^ , n x N^ , n = 1,2,..., m = - n , ...,n} , (b) {n X Mj^^, n x NJ ^^, n = 1,2,..., m = - n , . . . , n/ k i <j{Di)] , {n X MJ ^^, n X NJ ^^, n = 1,2,..., m = - n, . . . , n/ fc CT( A) } U{nxa-^, j = l , 2, . . . , mM}, (c) {n X M L -f J An x (n x N^^) , n x N^ + j An x (n x M ^ ) , n = 1,2,..., m = n, . . . , n/ Re A > 0} , (d) {n X Mi , ~ j An x (n x NJ ^) , n x N^^^ ~ j An x (n x M^^^), n = 1,2,..., m = n, . . . , n/ Re A > 0} are complete in Cl^^{S). Here { a j } ^^ is a basis ofN ( ^J 4- M) andmM = di m7V( i l + Al ) . Proof: We consider (a). Let ya*.(nxM^)d5 = 0, s ya*(nxN^)d5 = 0, (7.8) for n = 1,2,..., m = - n , ...,n, and a C^^ni'^)- Consider the vector field = {j/k)V X V X Aa' with density a' = n x a*. For x >[, where D[ is the interior of a spherical surface S^ enclosed in i?i, we have fc2 ^w = ~v^ S ^^ n =l mn /a'(y)-Mi^(y)d5(y) Mj(x) + y"a'(y)-Ni(y)d5(y) Ls Ni,(x) (7.9) The closure relations show that = 0 m Di, Application of theorem 2.2 given in Chapter 6 finishes the proof of (a). 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 141 The second part of the theorem corresponding to the case fc ^ <j(A) follows from theorem 2.3 of Chapter 6 and the above arguments. Let us consider the case k G cr{Di). It has to shown that for a 6 C^g^ni^)^ the closeness relations s (7.10) s n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n, together with / a*, (n X aj)dS = 0, j = 1,...,TUM, (7.11) s gives a ~ 0 on 5. Before we present the proof we note some basic re- sults. The nuUspace of the operator ^I-{- M corresponds to solutions of the homogeneous interior Maxwell problem, that means N (^ J -f M) = 3W, where 9Jl stands for the linear space m={nxn\s /E,necHDi)nc(Di), (7.12) V X E = jfcH, V X H = -jkE in D^, n x E = 0 on 5 } . In addition dimN(^I'\-M) =dimN(^I-^M'^ =0 (7.13) if k is not an interior Maxwell eigenvalue, and di mN (^I-hM\ = di mN (^I+ M'^ = rriM (7.14) if k is an eigenvalue. If {hj}^Jl is a basis for N (^J -f A1') and E^ = VxAfe^xn and Hj = {l/jk)V x E^, then b^ = n x (n x Ej^) on 5, and the tangential fields a^ = n x H*^., j = l, . . . , mM, form a basis for N ( i j + At ) . Furthermore, the matrix T M = [T^] , T^ = (afe,bj), kj = 1,..., TUM, is nonsingular. Coming to the proof we define the vector fields and Hhy = ij/k) V x V x Aa' and W = V x Aas where a' = n x a*. Prom (7.10) we obtain = H ^ 0 in Ds^ Going to the boundary and proceeding as in the proof of theorem 2.2 given in the precedent chap- ter we find that a'^ai^ e Cf^n,d('S'). where ( i j -f A<) a( ) = 0. Therefore ag = X^fe!^ cKfeafc. Finally, the closure relations (7.11) yield a '^ 0 on 5. 142 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS.IN ELECTROMAGNETICS If instead of the system {n x a ^}! ^ we consider the system {n x hj}^J[, from / ao' bj dS = 0, j = l,...,mM, we obtain X)r=^ ^fc (^fc*^j> = ^^J s = 1,..., niM'j whence, by the fact that the matrix TM is nonsingular, a ~ 0 on S follows. Let us now consider (c). We debut with the closeness relations y ' a * . [ n x ML - f J An x ( n x ND] c i 5 = 0, a * . [ n x N^ + j An x ( n x M^ J ] d 5 = 0, / (7.15) 5 72 = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n, written for convenience as | [ a ' . M3 - j A( nxa ' ) N3 ] d5 = 0, s | [ a ' . NL- j A( n x a O- ML] d 5 = 0, 5 (7.16) n = 1,2,..., m = -n, ...,n, where a' = n x a*. Then, from (7.6), (7.7) and (7.16) we see that f = V X Aa' - A^V X V X Anxa' (7.17) vanishes in Di. Theorem 2.4 of Chapter 6 concludes the proof of (c). To prove (d) we use essentially the same arguments and the result of theorem 2.5 given in the precedent chapter. In addition to the completeness results stated in theorem 1.1 we men- tion that the system { { + ^) ('^ ^ M-n) . (^2: -f >l ) (n X N L ) , (7 18) n = 1,2,..., m = - n, ...,n/ k ^ (T{Di)} , is also complete in ^?an('^)- "^^ prove this assertion we debut with y a * . ( i j + M) ( n x MDd S = 0, (7.19) | a ' . ( i J + A l ) ( n x N Dd 5 = 0, 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 143 for n = 1,2,..., m = n,...,n, and a Gtan('^)- Using the definition of the adjoint operator with respect to the L^ bilinear form we rewrite the closeness relations as (7.20) n = 1,2,..., m = -n, ...,n, where a' = a*. The completeness of the radi- ating spherical vector wave functions in tan('S') yields {^I-\- M^) a' = 0 almost everywhere on S. Therefore ( | l ~ M) (n x a') = 0 almost every- where on 5 and employing the same arguments as in theorem 2.2 of Chap- ter 6 we receive n x a ' ' ^^n x a o C^^ndi"^)- Using this and the fact that k ^ (T{Di) we deduce that V x Anxa;, vanishes in A- Theorem 2.2 of the precedent chapter may now be used to conclude. Next we will analyze complete systems of vector functions in the prod- uct space ?an(5') = C^a,n{S) X >C?an(5'). We recall that '^{S) is a Hilbert space endowed with the scalar product and obviously tan('S') is a subspace of ^(5). THEOREM 1.2: Let S be a closed surface of class C^ with unit outward normal n. Then the system of vector functions n X M^i, \ / n X N^i - 7 \ / ^ n x N ^ L n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n} is complete in S't&ni'^)' ^^^ radiating spherical vector wave functions are defined with respect to the wave number kg, while the regular spherical vector wave functions are defined with respect to the wave number ki. Proof: It has to shown that for tions (iO tan('S') *^he closure rela- / 5 / a J . ( nxM^J , ) +a | . - j . / - ^ n x N^ J , d5 = 0, (7.21) al- (n X N^i) + a2- - j . ^ n x M^J, dS = 0, 144 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS n = 1,2,..., m = n,...,n, gives Si '-^ 0 and a2 ^ 0 on 5. Setting ai = n X aj and ig = n x 2 we rewrite (7.21) as /(5^N!:L+jY^5i.M^jJ)d5 = 0, (7.22) | (ai. Mii+jYgai. Nii)d5 = 0, s n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n. Prom (7.6) and (7.7) we find that '^''^t + ^ ^ ' ' ' ^ ' ' - ^ \ = O^" ^' - - (7.23) Application of theorem 2.6 given in Chapter 6 finishes the proof of the theorem. The same technique can be used to prove the completeness of the sys- tem n X MrtiL \ / n X N^i J ,^nxN'^\ M jJtl^nxM^ n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n} . We now turn our attention to the general null-field equations for the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem. The following theorem states the equivalence between the null-field equations formulated in terms of spherical vector wave functions and the general formulation (6.103). THEOREM 1.3: Let hg solve the set of null-field equations Jinx hs)'{n X M^ , ) d 5 = - j / ( n x eo) (n x N ^ ) d5, (7.24) Jinx h , ) . (n X N^^) d 5 = -J J (^ x eo) (n x M ^ d S , s s for n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n. Then hg solve the general null-field equation (6.103) and conversely. Proof: The proof follows from the vector spherical waves expansion of the electric field 5 = - V X Aeo + ^V X V X A,,, (7.25) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 145 inside a sphere enclosed in Dj. The unique solvabihty of the null-field equations (7.24) follows from the completeness of the system of vector functions given by theorem 1.1. Let us consider the general null-field equations for the transmission boundary-value problem. We have the following result. THEOREM 1.4: Let e and h solve the set of null-field equations: J{[nx{e-eo)]-{nxMl) s j y / ^ [ n x ( h - h o ) ] ( n x N D} d 5 = 0, { [ nx( e - e o) ] - ( nxN^ ) + / + j y j [ n x ( h - h o ) ] ( n x M L ) } d 5 = 0, I [(n X e) (n X M^ ) + j ^ (n x h) (n x N ^ ) ] d5 = 0, y " [ ( n x e ) - ( n x N j ) + i y ^ ( n x h ) ( n x MU ] d 5 = 0, (7.26) n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, where the radiating spherical vector wave func- tions are defined with respect to the wave number kg, while the regular spherical vector wave Junctions are defined with respect to the wave num- ber ki. Then e and h solve the general null-field equations (6.113) and conversely. Proof: The proof of the theorem is provided by the spherical vector wave expansions of the electric fields ^. = V X A| _, + ^ V X V X A|_-,^ (7.27) and Si = VxAi-\- 7 ^ V X V X Ai (7.28) inside a sphere enclosed in Di and outside a sphere enclosing Dj, respec- tively. 1 4 6 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS The completeness of the system of vector functions given by theorem 1.2 impUes that the particular null-field equations are uniquely solvable in ?an(5). Let us now investigate the completeness properties of the systems of magnetic and electric vector multipoles. In Cartesian coordinates they are defined by Mj^3p(x) = i v X (ii?.(x)ep) , Nklpi^) = ^V x Ml^^{x), (7.29) where p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = n,..., n, and Cp denote the Cartesian unit vectors. Note that Mj^^^p, ^Innp ^^ ^^ entire solution to the Maxwell equations and Mj^^p, 'N^^p ^s a radiating solution to the Maxwell equa- tions in R3 - {0} . Accounting of the series representation of the Green function and the identity (Vx X (a(y)y(x,y,fc))] Cp = (a(y) x Vyp(x,y,fc)) Cp = - a(y) - [ep x Vyp(x,y,fc)] = [Vy x (epp(x,y,fc))] a(y), x 7^ y, (7.30) we find the expansion [Vxx(a(y)^(x, y, fc))]. ep = ^ 5 ] X^ P, mn n=Om=n ( a(y) Mip(y)uJ(x), |y| > |x| ^^'^^^ a(y)-MLJyR(x), |y|<|x| -mnpy Analogously, we use the identity [Vx X Vx X (a(y)5(x,y,A;))] ep = {Vx x [a(y) x Vyg(x,y,/i;)]} ep = [- (a(y)-Vx) Vyg{x,y,k) + a(y)Vx (Vy^Cx,y,A))] ep = [(a(y)-Vy) Vy5(x,y,fc) - a(y)Ay5(x, y,A;)] Bp = [(ep-Vy) Vyff(x,y,A;) - epAy^(x, y,A;)] a(y) = - {Vy X (ep X Vy5(x,y,fc)]} a(y) = [Vy X Vy X (ep5(x,y,A;))) a(y), x ^ y, (7.32) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 147 to derive the expansion oo n Tl mn [V^xVxX(a(y)g(x,y,/j))]-ep = ^ 2 J z J ^' n=OTn=n a(y)-Ni_^(yKJx),|y|>|x| x< a(y)-Ni^, p(y)tx^, (x), | y| <| x| (7.33) The following theorem establishes the completeness of the localized electric and magnetic vector multipole systems in ?an(*5)* THEOREM 1.5: Let S be a closed surface of class C^ with unit outward normal n. Then the following systems of vector functions (a) {n X N^^p, p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = -n, . . . , n} , {n X M^^p, p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = -n, . . . , n} , (b) {n X Njnp P = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = -n, . . . , n/ fc ^ ^( A) } , {n X Mj^^p, p = 1,2,3, n = 0,1,...,m = ~n, . . . , n/ fc ^ (T{D^)} , {n X Nj^np. p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, ...,m = - n , . . . , n/ k e ( T( A) } U{ n x a j , J = l , 2, . . . , mM}, {n X Mj^^p, p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = ~n, . . . , n/ k e (T(A)} U{ n x a j , j = l , 2, . . . , mA/ }, (c) {n X M^^p 4- jA n X (n X N^^p) , p = 1,2,3, n = 0, l , . . . , m = n, . . . , n/ ReA > 0} , {n X N^^p + J A n X (n X M^^p) , p = 1,2,3, n = 0, l , . . . , m = n,...,n/ ReA > 0}, (d) {n X Mj^^p ~ jA n X (n X Nj^p), p = 1,2,3, n = 0, l , . . . , m = ~n, . . . , n/ ReA > 0} , {n X Nj^^p - j An X (n X Mjp), p = 1,2,3, n = 0, l , . . . , m = - n , . . . , n/ ReA > 0} are complete in C^Q,^{S). The significance of the system of functions {dijj^Jl is as in theorem 1.1. 148 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Proof: We consider (a). Let a Cl^^{S) satisfy / a - . ( n x N ^ , ) d 5 = 0 . p =1 . 2 , 3 , = 0, l, . . . , = - , . . . , n. (T.34) Define the electric field hy S = {j/k)V x V x Aas where a' = n x a*, and let S^ be a sphere enclosed in Di. For x -D[, where )[ is the interior of S^^ we use (7.33) to obtain fc2 ^w-p = -v5: E^' n=OTn=n Ls (y)-N!.Jy)d5(y) -mnp mn(x) (7.35) for p = 1,2,3. The closeness relations show that E-ep = 0 in Z)[,p = 1,2,3. Thus, ^ = 0 in D[, whence, by the analyticity of ^, ^ = 0 in Di follows. Finally, theorem 2.2 of Chapter 6 may be used to conclude the proof of the first part of (a). The second part can be proved by employing the same arguments for the magnetic field W = V x Aa' . Going further, we see that the closeness relations for the regular electric and magnetic vector multipoles imply = 0 in Dg and W = 0 in D^, respectively. Hence, theorem 2.3 of Chapter 6 accounts for the first part of (b). The proof of the second part proceeds as in theorem 1.1. To prove (c) and (d) we use essentially the same arguments and the results of theorems 2.4 and 2.5 given in the precedent chapter. The following theorem is the analog of theorem 1.2. THEOREM 1.6: Let S be a closed surface of class C^ with unit outward normal n. Then the following systems of vector functions ' ^ n X N^'^ , p = 1,2,3, n = 0, l , . . . , m = - n , . ^ n x M^'^ I ' ^"^ ^'^'^' n = 0, l , . . . , m = -n,...,n are complete in ?an('5') mnp Proof: Let it) G ?an('5') satisfy the closure relations / a j . (n X M'^\^) + i ^ - j j ^ n x N^^J, V V /^s,i mnp dS = 0 (7.36) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 149 for p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = - n , ...,n. Setting a'^ = n x aj and a2 = n X a2 we rewrite (7.36) as ^a l . Ml i p - j / l I a ^ . N i i p ) cI5 = 0, (7.37) V ^.^ / p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = -n, . . . , n. Then, from (7.31) and (7.33) we have V X Af'/ - 7 - ^ V X V X A^; = 0 in A, 5. (7.38) Theorem 2.6 of Chapter 6 can now be used to conclude. Turning to the second part of the theorem we remark that the closure relations lead to V X At)' 4- r ^ V X V X At)' = 0 in A, , . (7.39) Once again application of theorem 2.6 given in Chapter 6 finishes the proof of the theorem. Next, we will formulate the null-field equations in terms of magnetic and electric vector multipoles. We begin with the exterior Maxwell boundary- value problem. THEOREM 1.7: Let hg solve one of the following sets of null-field equa- tions J (n X h, ) (n X N ^ p ) dS = -j j{nx eo) (n x M^, ^) dS (7.40) s s for p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = n,..., n, and Jinx hs)' (n X M^, ^) dS = -j J {nx eo) (n x N ^ p ) dS (7.41) s s for p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = n, ...,n. Then hg solve the general null-field equation (6.103) and conversely. Proof: To prove the theorem we define the electric and magnetic fields S and H by 5 = - V X Aeo + | v X V X A,,,, W = - i v X f (7.42) and use the spherical wave expansions of the projections E-^p and Wcp, p = 1,2,3, inside a sphere enclosed in Dj. (7.43) 1 5 0 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS The following theorem is the analog of theorem 1.4 for the system of magnetic and electric vector multipoles. THEOREM 1.8: Let e and h solve one of the following sets of null-field equations (a) y * { [ n x ( e - e o ) ] - ( n x MLp ) s + j ^ [n X (ii - ho)] . (n X N L P ) } d5 = 0, J [(n X e) . (n X M^^^^) s + jJ^ (n X h) . (n X N^p ) ] dS = 0, for p = 1,2,3, n = 0,1,..., m = n,..., n, (b) y { [ n x ( 5 - e o ) ] - ( n x NLp ) s + jJ^ [n X (h - ho)] (n X M L P ) | d5 = 0, I [(n X e) (n X N^p) (7.44) + j y ^ ( n x h ) . ( n x Mi p ) dS = 0, for p = 1,2,3, n 0,1,..., m = n, ...,n. Then e anrf h 5o/w the general null-field equations (6.113) and conversely. Proof: _The proof follows from the spherical wave expansion of the projections Es,i Cp and W,t ep, p = 1,2,3, where (7.45) and 5, = V X Ai + - j ^V X V X Ai , Wi(x) = TT^V x ^^(x). (7.46) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 151 1.2 Distributed spherical vector wave functions and vector multipoles We begin our analysis by presenting the addition theorems for spherical scalar and vector wave functions. These theorems were formulated by Friedman and Russek [63], Stein [136] and Cruzan [36]. We note here that the translational addition theorems are of vital importance in the multiple scattering theory of waves (see, e.g. Bruning and Lo [18] and Wang and Chew [154]). At the same time. Chew et al. [27] used translation formu- las in fast-scattering algorithms to reduce the computational complexities of volume integral equations. These scattering algorithms, have in turn, brought about renewed interest in the development of efficient ways to com- pute the translation coefficients of scalar (see Chew [23]) and vector (see Chew and Wang [25]) wave functions. To this end let us consider a point x 6 R^ which has the spherical coordinates (r, 0, v?) with respect to a coordinate system having the origin at the point O. Let us introduce a second coordinate system with the origin at the point O' , whose coordinates are (rc^o^V^o) ^^^^ respect to O. The set of spherical coordinates [r\0\(p') is introduced with respect to the second coordinates system, such that the polar axis, ^' = 0, and the azimuthal axis cp' = 0, are respectively parallel to the corresponding axes, 0 = 0 and (f = 0. This is then a rigid translation of the coordinate system as it shown in Figure 7.1. The addition theorem for spherical wave functions is: oo n j ^^J t^' (xo)^i;' (A:rO/^r' l(cos0O^^^' ^^r' >ro (7.47) n'=Om'=-n' [ B;;j/;^,(xo)^^(A:r')Flr''(cos0')^^^^'^', ^' < ^0 where the translation coefficients A^V^, and B!^Jl^, are given by X }J''{2p+ l)a{m,m' - m\n',n,p) V X 2i(A;ro)Pp'"-'"'(cos6o)e-'('"-'"')'^o, B-,",(xo) = j " ' - " ( 2n' + l ) ( - l ) ' " ' ( Cw/ C^n ) X y j j' ' a(' "> 'm'\p, n, n') p (7.48) 152 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS FIGURE 7.1 Coordinate translation. and the normalization constant m > 0 ^ ^ ( n-f | m| ) ! ' (7.49) 5|m| has been introduced to assure the equivalence P^ = CmnPn Here, P^ stand for the Legendre functions with positive and negative values of the index m. The coefficients a(.) are defined by the spherical harmonics ex- pansion theorem P^{cos0)P;p'{cos0) = ^a( m, m' | p, n, n' ) Pp^+^' ( cos 0) . (7.50) It is apparent from (7.50) that a(.) can be determined in terms of an integral over a special triple product of associated Legendre functions, i.e. a(m, m' | p, n, n' ) = 2p-f 1 (p m m' )! 2 (p -h m -f m' )! X / P^(cos e)P;^' (cos (9)Pp^+^' (cos 0) sin 0d0. 0 (7.51) We remark that both representations in (7.47) can be used for z^{kr) = Jn(fc^) without restriction on the relative size of r' and TQ. Indeed, using (7.51) and the identity prn ^ (_i)ml!iili}!p^ (n - m) | - n (7.52) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 153 we obtain (2n' -h l )a(m, -m'\p, n, n' ) = ( -l ) "' ( 2p -f l)a(m, m' - m| n' , n, p); (7.53) whence ^J ^^i/ = B^Jl^, follows. An inspection of (7.47) reveals that for r' > ro the translation coefficients are identically for any dependence on position (z^{kr) or z^{kr)). We will now derive an integral representation for the translation addi- tion coefficients. The departure point is the plane wave integral represen- tation of the regular spherical wave functions, i.e. t^mn(x) = jn{kr)PJr^ {cos 0)e^^^ 1 ^}^ (7.54) = ^ _ / / p}r^{cosP)e^'^''e^^"'smPdPda, 0 0 where a and /3 are the angular spherical coordinates of the wave vector k. Using the spherical wave expansion of the plane wave oo n' n ' = Om' = n ' (7.55) and the identity exp(jk x) = exp(jk XQ) exp(jfk x' ), we obtain oo n' "i . (x) = l ] ^ ^- r , ( xoR , , ( x' ) , (7.56) n ' = Om' =n' with ; 27r TT A^^n'i^o) = ^^^Vm'n^ f f PJT^(cOS0)PI?'^{cOS0) {{ (7.57) X e^"("^-^')^e^^'^osin/?d/?da. Note that the expansion (7.55) is a uniformly convergent series and hence when it is substituted into equation (7.54) the order of summation and integration can be interchanged. We also remark that the expansion (7.56) is valid without restriction on the relative size of r' and TQ. The integration with respect to the azimuthal angle a can be analytically performed by using the representation k xo = fcpo sin /? cos(a <Po) + kzo cos (3 (7.58) 154 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS and the identity 27r f^jxcos{a-<Po)eJ(^-^>da = 27rj^' -^J ^/_n, (a:)e-^' (^' -^)^o, (7.59) 0 where (PQ , (PQ^ZQ) are the cyUndrical coordinates of O' . We arrive at n <r ^, ( xo) = 2j - ' +- ' - P^, n' e - ^( ^' - ^) ^o/ ' j ^, _^( f c pos i n/ 3) 0 X e^^'^ cos0plm\^^^g^)pl^7^'l(cos/?) sin/?d/3. (7.60) If the translation is along the ^-axis the addition theorem involves a single summation CX) txJnnW = Yl ^mn' (^0) ; . (x' ) (7. 61) n'=0 and the translation coefficients simplify to TT AX' (^o) = 2j " ' - " P , y*e^'=^<'~^/^'"l(cos/?)/^7'l(cos^)sin^d/3. 0 (7.62) As mentioned before, the representation (7.62) is valid for the transla- tion coefficients of the radiating spherical wave functions in the case r' > TQ. This result can also be established by using the concept of quasi-plane waves. To show this let us consider the plane wave integral representation of the radiating spherical wave functions 2ir 7r/2-j(x> <ni^)=^J J P}rHcos/3)e^'^'^e^''--sm0dl3da. (7.63) 0 0 The representation (7.63) is valid for 2 > 0, since only then the integral converges. Let us recall the definition of the quasi-plane wave Q (x, k). For ^ > 0 it is 27r n/2-joo Q{x,k)=f f A(u;,a;')e^'^'"sin/3'd/3'da', (7.64) 0 0 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 155 where A{w,w') = - f ; X ; P.Pi' "l(cos/3)/^' "l(cos/?' )e^' "("' -"). (7.65) n = 0 7Ti=n Note, that if /3 and ^' belongs to [0, TT], the expression of A(a;, a;') simpHfies to A(a;,a;') = 6{a - a' )5(cos^ - cos^O- (7-66) The expansion of quasi-plane waves in terms of radiating spherical wave functions is Q (x' , k) = f ; f2 2r'V,n,n.Pl?'\cos0)e~^^'"ul,M)- (7.67) n ' = Om' = n ' The function A(u;,a;') allows to formally analytically continue a function / ( a , /3), defined for real a and /? onto the complex values of/?. In particular we see that / (a, / ?) = y y/(a' , /?' )A(a;, a;Osin/?' d/?' da' , (7.68) 0 0 where f3 can assume all values lying on the contour [0,7r/2 j oo]. Then, we have 27r n/2-joo 2TT TT / / /(a,/3)e^*^-^sin^d/?da = / / / ( a, ^) Q ( x, k) si n/ 3d/ 3da, 0 0 0 0 (7.69) where we have used the definition of Q (x, k). Consequently, (7.63) can be written as ul^ix) = ^ y y*/^-l(cos/3)e^--e^' ^-^"Q (x' ,k)sin/?d/?da. (7.70) 0 0 Inserting (7.67) into (7.70), and assuming that we can interchange the order of summation and integration we get oo n' 3 '^mn W = E E ^r n' ( xo) ^<' ( x' ) , (7.71) n' =OTn' =n' 1 5 6 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS where A!^?^, is given by (7.57). Thus, the proof of our assertion is com- pleted. We now pay attention to the vector case. The standard technique for deriving the translation formula is to start from the definition of the spherical vector wave functions and to use the addition theorem for scalar wave functions. We obtain Mmn (x) = VUmn (x) X (XQ + x' ) = 5Z E ^;;:^'(xo)vu -'(x')x(xo+x') OD n' n'= 0 m' n' (7.72) and the remainder of the analysis then consists in expressing the vector quantity Vum'n' x XQ in terms of M^' n' and Nm'n'- Using the orthogonal- ity properties of the spherical vector wave functions and making some ap- propriate changes in certain of the summation indices, we find after lengthy calculations that the addition theorem under coordinate translation has the form oo n M(x) = E E ^;;;J''(XO)M,-(X') + B;;:J;,(XO)N.,,(X'), c n' N( x) = E E ^;;j^' (xo)N' n' (x' ) + Br n ' ( x o ) Mw( x ' ) , (7.73) where the explicit expressions for A!^?^, and B^J\^, can be found elsewhere (see, e.g. Stein [136]). As in our previous analysis we will now derive integral representations for the translation coefficients A!^?^, and B^/^/. To this end let us consider the plane wave integral representation of the regular spherical vector wave functions 0 0 (7.74) + J >k"''(/?)ea] e^*'''e^"''sm(3d0da 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 157 and 2n TT " 0 0 (7.75) + jm7rlr'(/3)e] e^'^^'eJ'""sin/3d/3da, where TTIT'C^) = PI"*'(cos/?)/sin/? and rL'"'(/?) =dPl"''(cos/3)/d/J. We concentrate on the representation of M^ and define the polariza- tion vector e^ by e^ (Q , /3) = mTrJTl (/?) e^ + jriTl (/3) e, . (7.76) Clearly, e^ k = 0, and making use of the spherical wave expansion of the plane wave oo n elAa,0)e^^-' = " Yl ^m'n'[a^^^j;,, (a,^)M^,,(x' ) n' =l m' =-n' (7.77) + 6-r,(a,/3)Nj,,(x')], where a-i ; , (a,;3) = -4i "' +i [mm'Trk'"! (/3)7rl,7'l (^) + rL'"l (/?)rL7'' (/?)] e"^-' -, 6-r, (a,/?) = -4j"' +i [mTrl'"! (/?)T^T'I (^) + m'rt^ (/?)TrL?'' (/?)] e-^-' ", (7.78) we obtain ML( x) = f ; J2 ^rn' (xo)Mj,,(x' ) + Br'(xo)Nj'-(x'), (7.79) with ^r n' ( xo) = ^w/ / [mm' 7rL' "l (/ ?)7rJ , 7' l (/ 9) 0 0 (7.80) f rn (/?)r|;?''(/?)] e-?'(^-"^')^e^*^-^o sin/3d/?dQ; 158 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS and , 27r TT B'i^^n'i^o) = ^D , , y y [ m7 r L' " l ( ^) r LT' l ( / 3 ) 0 0 + m'TL"''(/3)7rl,7'l(/3)] e>('"-'"')eJ '''"'sin/3d/3da. (7.81) Further integration with respect to the azimuthal angle a gives TT xjjm'.rnikposinp) [mm'7rL"^(/3)7rl,7''(/3) (7.32) 0 and X 0 TT J Jm'-m{kposin^) [m7rL^'(/?)Tl,?''(^) . (7, 83) mVir'(/?)7ri7''(/?)] e^'^^o ^^^ sin^d/?. If the translation is along the ^-axis the double summation reduces to a single summation over the index n' and we have and 0 + TI' " ' (^)^1, ' ^' (/ ?)] eJ'=* ^^sin/?d/? TT 0 + rL'"'(/3)7rl:?l(/3)] eJ^^o-^^^^sin^^dyS. (7.84) (7.85) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 159 FIGURE 7.2 The support of multiple spherical vector wave functions. In the case r' > ro , the addition theorem for radiating spherical vector wave functions contains the same translation coefficients A^, and 6JJJ"/ . This is obvious, from the derivation leading to (7.73), and the fact that the addition theorem for the scalar case involves the same translation coefficients for regular and radiating functions. We are now well prepared to present the completeness results of this section. Since the localized spherical vector wave functions are complete on the particle surface it seems to be possible to approximate surface fields by a number of sequences of spherical vector wave functions with different origins. These expansions do indeed provide enough freedom to solve ge- ometrically complicated problems. In this context, let us consider a finite sequence of poles {xop} ^ ^ distributed inside Di and let us define the set of multiple spherical vector wave functions by Mj^3,p(x) = M^^J x - xop), Ar^'^p(x) = N^^^J x - xop), (7.86) where p = 1,2,...,P, n = l , 2, . . . , m = - n , ...,n. Clearly, A4 ^ P, A/'^J.^p is an entire solution to the Maxwell equations and A<^p, A/'^^^p is a radiating solution to the Maxwell equations in R^ - {xop}. The distribution of the poles is shown in Figure 7.2. Then we can state the following theorem. THEOREM 1.9: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ and let {xop} J be a finite collection of poles inside Di. Replace in theorem 1.1 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^J^ and N^J ^, n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n, by the multiple spherical vector wave functions M^^ip ^'^^-^mnp^ p = 1,2, . . . , P, n = 1,2, ...,m = n^,..n, respectively. Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are complete in C^ani^)- 160 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Proof: We prove only (a). Let a G >C^an('S') and fix the pole p. Then, for any e > 0 there exists the integer Np = Np{e) and the coefficients dmnp and 6mnp, n = 1,2, ...jATp, m = - n , ...,n, such that a / P can be ap- proximated by linear combinations of localized functions n x M^^^p ^^^ n X N^rip with an approximation error smaller than e/P. Thus, for a col- lection of poles {xop} ^ 1 the triangle inequality may be used to conclude. Using similar arguments we can prove the following theorem which establishes the completeness of the multiple spherical vector wave functions in the product space tan('S^)- THEOREM 1.10: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.9 re- place in theorem 1.2 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^^ and N^J j, n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n, by the multiple spherical vector wave functions M'^r^^p (^^^ J^mlpj P = 1,2,...,P, n = l , 2, . . . , m = -n, . . . , n, re- spectively. Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are complete in ?an(5). Turning now to the null-field equations, we recall that in the case of the exterior Maxwell problem the null-field equations formulated in terms of localized spherical vector wave functions guarantee that the total electric field vanishes inside a sphere enclosed in the particle. Because of its ana- lyticity, the total electric field will vanishes throughout the entire interior volume. If we now formulate the null-field equations in terms of multiple spherical vector wave functions, we will guarantee that the total electric field vanishes simultaneously inside several inscribed spheres. Let us now extend the system of distributed spherical wave functions to the vector case. For the time being we consider a set of points {zn}^^i distributed on the 2;-axis, and define the set of distributed spherical vector wave functions by Mkii^) = M; ^ 5 | + , ( X - znes), ^r^'{x) = N^5^| +, ( x - zes), (7.87) where n = 1,2,...,m E Z, and / = lif m = 0 and / = Oif m 7^ 0. M}nni -^mn ^^ ^^ entire solution to the Maxwell equations and M^^^ -^mn is a radiating solution to the Maxwell equations in R^ {2:ne3}. Then, the following result holds. z THEOREM 1.11: Consider the bounded sequence (zn) C F^, where F is a segment of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ enclosing F^. Replace in theorem 1.1 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^J j and N^J j, n = 1,2, ...,m = n, ...,n, by the distributed spherical vector wave functions M^^ andM^^^n = 1,2,..., m G Z, respectively. Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are complete in /^tan('5')- 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 161 FIGURE 7.3 The support of distributed spherical vector wave functions and the auxiliary surface S^. Proof: We consider (a). We have to show that for a ^tanC'^') the set of closure relations Ja^{yy[n{y)xMl,n{y)]dS{y) = 0, y^a*(y).[n(y)xAr^,(y)]d5(y) = 0, (7.88) n = 1,2,..., m G Z, gives a ~ 0 on 5. Let S^ be a sphere enclosed in A and assume F^ c >[, where Z>[ is the interior of S^. The illustration of the auxiliary surface S^ and the support of discrete sources is shown in Figure 7.3. For a fixed azimuthal mode m we use the addition theorem for spherical vector wave functions to rewrite the closeness relations as fmizn) = y"a*(y)- [n(y) x M^, | | +, ( y - Zn^s)] d5(y) s = E -4m;!^'^'(-^n) / a*(y)- [n(y) x M^-Cy)] d5(y) n'>max(l,|m|) ^ + Ci ' " " ( -^n) y a*(y)- [n(y) x N^-Cy)] d5(y) = 0, n = 1,2,..., s (7.89) 162 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS and 9m{zn) = y"a*(y)- [n(y) x N^, | | +, ( y - Zne^)] dS{y) s = E -Ci'T^^'i-^n) U*iy)- [n(y) X NL-(y)] d5(y) n'>max(l,|m|) g + Ci ^ ' ^ ' ( - ^ n ) / a ^Cy) . [n(y) x ML, ( y ) ] dS{y) = 0, n = 1,2,.... s (7.90) Since the sequence {zn) is bounded and the functions fm and gm are an- alytic we see that fm{z) = gmi^) = 0 for each z G Oz D D^. Then /i"^(^) = ^^^(^) = 0, and in particular f^\o) = p^^(O) = 0, for n = 0, 1, . . . , where the superscript n now denotes the derivative of order n with respect to z. Explicitly we have /i")(0) = Yl Ann' / a ' ( y ) - [n(y) x M^, ( y) ] d5(y) n'>inax(l,|7n|) g + B - , | a * ( y ) - [n(y) x N^-Cy) ] d5(y) = 0, n = 0, 1, . . . , (7.91) s and 5l"\0) = E A-, /a' (y). [n(y) x N^,(y)] d5(y) n'>max(l,|77i|) ^ 4- B - , y*a*(y). [n(y) x M^^Cy) ] d5(y) = 0, n = 0, 1, . . . , (7.92) 5 where X 0 / I / p' ^t| +/(/?)' ^L' ^' (/?) + <|+/(/?)^L'^'(/?)] cos" /?sin^d/3 (7.93) 1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 1 6 3 and Bnn' = ^ (0) = 2j"' -l"' l-' m>^-(-jfc)" TT X / hm|+/(^)^L'^'(/3) + r|:|^,(/?)7rl:rl(/3)] cos"/3sin/3d/?. (7.94) Integration by parts and the well-known formula P,5' (cos/?) = (2|m| - l )!!si nH /? (7.95) yields I Am " nn' 2j "' -l ' "IZ?w(-j A; )"| m| (n + 1 + |m|)(2|m| - 1) ! ! / -, , m ?^ 0 2r'-'Don'(-jkr [(2 + n)/+i,, - n/_i,,] , m = 0 (7.96) and ^^' 1 0, m = 0 ' (7.97) Here, / ^ , is the integral rm TT = / cos^ 0 sin'^^l /? P^r' (cos /?) sin /?d^, (7.98) with n = 0, 1, . . . , n' > max(l, | m| ). Note, that in (7.96) and (7.97) we set by convention /!!\^/ = 0. The integral / ^ / can be computed as follows. Define TT Jmn'{x)= /e^' ^^^^sin^/3P^(cos/?)sin/3d/3 (7.99) 0 for m = 0, 1, . . . , n' > max(l , m). For m = 0 we find that J on' is the standard integral TT J^'{x) = j e^^<=''P<(cos/3) sin/3d^ = 2j"' jKx). (7.100) 164 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Integration by parts and the recurrence relation Apm s i n/ ?^ = -m cos I3P^ (7.101) + sin/3(n' + m){n' -m +$$P^
i T T l 1
gives
Hence,
Jmn'{x) = - - ( n ' -m-^ l )(n' + m)Jm-i^i^)- (7.102)
X
x m. n ' + mK + ^ ) ' j n ' ( ^ )
[n' "- my, x^
On the other hand we see that
A'^J\in\n'
O = r ^ - j = ( 0 ) (7.104)
for n = 0, 1, . . . , n' > max(l, | m| ). Therefore, using the series expansion of
the spherical Bessel functions we arrive at
rm w^i , n-^, n. , -n(^^ + H) ! ( -l ) ^^' -' ( n-4-A: ) ! n!
(7.105)
The coefficients / ^ , are nonzero if, for a fixed azimuthal mode m and a
given pair {n,n^), there exists an integer k, k = 0, 1, . . . , such that 2k =
n - n' -f |m|. Consequently, A"^)^, = 0 for n' > n -f 1 and m = 0, while
A^'^, = 0 forn' > n -f \m\ and m ^ 0. Similarly, B;;;,, = 0 for m = 0, and
B;^^, = 0 forn' > n + |m| - 1 and m^O. Thus, from (7.88) we obtain
/
s
I
a - ( y ) - [ n ( y ) x ML' ( y ) ] d 5 ( y ) = 0,
(7.106)
a ' ( y) . [ n( y) xN^ , ( y) ] d5 ( y) = 0,
for n' > max(l, | m| ). The completeness of the localized spherical vector
wave functions now concludes the proof of (a). In an analogous manner we
can prove the rest of the theorem
Complete systems in the product space ?an('^) ^^^ given by the fol-
lowing theorem.
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 165
THEOREM 1.12: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1,11, re-
place in theorem 1.2 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^J^ and
N^n, n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, by the distributed spherical vector wave
functions M^\ and Af^j^, n ~ 1,2, ...,m e Z, respectively. Then, the re-
sulting systems of vector functions are complete in S1'^^^{S).
Proof: It has to shown that for ( ~^ 1 G -C^anC*^) ^he set of closure
relations
/
s
I
V V ^^s,i J
at- (n X Af^k) -f a^ -jjf^n x M'J^
dS = 0,
dS
(7.107)
n = 1,2,..., m Z, gives ai ~ 0 and a2 ~ 0 on S. Choosing the support
of discrete sources in the interior of an inscribed sphere we use the addi-
tion theorem for spherical vector wave functions to rewrite the closeness
relations as
n'>inax(l,jm|) o
+ 52- -jJ^n X Ntl
\ V ^s4 J
+ 5^ U j / - ^ n x M^ : , ,
\ V ^^s4
d5 + Ci:^'^'(-^n)/[5l-(nxN^:^,)
dS = 0, n = 1,2,...,
(7.108)
and
n'>max(l,|m|)
d5 + Ci ' ' " ' - ' ' ( - ^n ) / [ s i - ( n x M^i , ) + 5^ -jJ^n X M^i,
\ V ^S'^
+ S^ - J / ^ n X N^^,
V V ^. y
d 5 = 0, n = 1,2,...,
(7.109)
166 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
for any fixed azimuthal mode m. Using essentially the same arguments as
in the proof of theorem 1.11 we arrive at
^ \ \ V ^S,t
/ [aj. (n X N^J .,) +a*r f - j . / ^ n x M;
3,1
mn'
S
for n' > max(l, | m| ). The theorem 1.2 now completes the proof.
Let us now formulate the null-field equations in terms of distributed
spherical vector wave functions. We begin with the exterior Maxwell prob-
lem.
THEOREM 1.13: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.11, con-
sider the sets of null-field equations (7.24) ^^ which the localized spher-
ical vector wave functions M^ and N^^, n = 1,2, . . . , m = n, ...,n,
are replaced by the distributed spherical vector wave functions M^^ ^'^^
M^^^n = 1,2,..., m G Z, respectively. Let h^ solve the resulting null-field
equations. Then h^ solves the general null-field equations (6.103) and con-
versely.
Proof: The proof follows from the addition theorem for spherical
vector wave functions and theorem 1.3.
For transmission boundary-value problem we can formulate the follow-
ing result.
THJ IOREM 1.14: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.11, let
e and h solve the set of null-field equations (7.26) in which the localized
spherical vector wave functions M^J^ and N^^, n = l , 2. . . , m = n, ...,n,
are replaced by the distributed spherical vector wave functions M^^ ^^^
Af^n^n = 1,2,..., m Z, respectively. Then e and h solve the general
null-field equations (6.113) and conversely.
Proof: We use the addition theorem for spherical vector wave func-
tions and theorem 1.4.
Our previous analysis has been focussed on the completeness of the
lowest-order spherical vector wave functions with singularities distributed
on the ^-axis. This system is suitable for analyzing axisymmetric particles
since in this case the distribution of the singularities along the axis of
revolution leads to a separate solution over each azimuthal mode. However,
the completeness results remain valid if the singularities are distributed on
surfaces enclosing and enclosed in >i.
Turning now to the vector functions with singularities distributed at
the particle symmetry axis, we observe that in the case of prolate scatterers
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 16>
this arrangement of poles adequately describes the particle geometry. By
contrast, it is clear from physical considerations that this arrangement is
not suitable for oblate scatterer. To master this problem, we use the proce-
dure of analytic continuation of the field representations into the complex
plane along the source coordinate Zn. Essentially, this procedure gives the
possibility of correlating the position of the support of discrete sources
with the singularities of the analytic continuation of the scattered field in-
side Di. The spherical vector wave functions can be expressed in terms of
the coordinates of the source point z E and the observation point r/ G S
by
[ smO ^
and
X ^^"^ ^^^^^ [sin(0 - ?) e, + cos(0 - ?)ee]
(7.111)
(7.112)
^,iR.i.H^R)]^^.^y.,
kRdR
where
i?2 = p2 ^ (2 - zf, si n? = -J , cos? = ^ - ^ . (7.113)
We recall that the complex plane E = {z = (Rez, Imz) / Rez, Imz G R}
is defined such that real axis Re z coincides with the z-axis of the azimuthal
plane (p =const, E = {r; = (/?, 2) / p > 0, 2 G R }. The region in which the
spherical vector wave^functions are analytical with respect to the variable
z is the domain ) C E, whose boundary L coincides with the image of the
generator of revolution L C E. Note that a point z G E is called the i ma ^
of a point ry G E if R^^ = 0. In this case, for a sequence of poles (Zn) C D
distributed symmetrical with respect to the Re z-axis and having at least
168 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
two limit points in I), the theorems 1.11-1.14 are vaUd for the system of
vector functions (7.111) and (7.112).
We conclude this section by analyzing the completeness properties of
the systems of distributed magnetic and electric vector multipoles. For a
set of poles {zn}^-i distributed on the 2:-axis they are defined by
Ml;,i^{x) = Mj;J ^| ^(x - ZnBs), A/-^'^p{x) = N'J^^^^{X - ^^ea), (7.114)
where p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., m G Z. Ml^np^ -^mnp is an entire solution
to the Maxwell equations and Al ^^p, Af^np ^^ ^ radiating solution to the
Maxwell equations in R"^ {^^^3}.
Completeness results in ?an('S') are given by the following theorem.
THEOREM 1.15: Consider the bounded sequence {zn) C F^, where
Fz is a segment of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ enclos-
ing Tz' Replace in theorem 1.5 the localized vector multipoles M^J^p and
N^^p, p =1, 2, 3, 72 = 0, 1, . . . , m = n, ...,n, by the distributed vector
multipoles M^]^p and M^\p, p = 1,2,3,n = 1,2,..., m G Z, respectively.
Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are complete in Cl^^{S).
Proof: Let us consider (a). It has to show that for a ?an('^)' ^^'^
set of closure relations
/
a*(y)- [n(y) x A1^p{y)] d5(y) = 0, p = l , 2, 3, n = 1,2, ...,m e Z,
(7.115)
gives a ~ 0 on 5. Choose the support of discrete sources as in theorem 1.11.
For any fixed azimuthal mode m and any fixed index p, we use the addition
theorem for spherical wave functions to rewrite the closeness relations as
/m(^n) = js-iy)- [n(y) x M^||p(y - ^e3)] d5(y)
= E d' : ' ' ( - ^n) / a' ( y ) - [ n( y ) x ML, p( y ) ] d5( y ) = 0,n = l , 2, . . . .
(7.116)
n'>\m\
Since, by assumption, the sequence {zn) is bounded and fm is an analytic
functions, we find that
/i")(0) = Y. A - , y a-(y). [n(y) x M^^.^iy)] d5(y) = 0,n = 0, 1, . . . ,
n'>|m| g
(7.117)
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 169
where
Ann' = n r - (0) = 2j"'-i'"i2?.'(-jAr)"
X / P\2\ (cos /?)P^r I (cos 0) cos" /? sin /3d/? (^- ^ ^^^
0
= 2j "' -Mp, ( -j f c) n( 2| m| - 1 ) ! ! 0
and / ^ / is given by (7.105). Using the same arguments as in the proof of
theorem 1.11 we see that k^^, = 0 for n' > n -f |m|, whence,
y a*(y). [n(y) x M^, , ^( y) j dS{y) = 0 (7.119)
s
for n' > \m\, readily follows. The completeness of the radiating magnetic
vector multipoles now concludes the proof of the first part of the theorem.
The proof of the rest of the theorem proceeds analogously.
The following theorem is the analog of theorem 1.6 for the system of
distributed vector multipoles.
THEOREM 1.16: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.15, re-
place in theorem 1.6, the localized vector multipoles M^J^^ and N^;^^, p =
1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = n,..., n, by the distributed vector multipoles M%\p
andAf^np^ P ~ l , 2, 3, n = 1,2,..., m G Z, respectively. Then, the resulting
systems of vector functions are complete in tan('^)-
Proof: Let I ^^ J G -CtanC'^') satisfy the closure relations
I I at- (n X M^^J ,,) + a^ | - j j ^ n x A/"^-^,, | | d5 = 0, (7.120)
M,
p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., m G Z. For any fixed azimuthal mode m and any
fixed index p we use the addition theorem for spherical wave functions to
obtain
n'>\m\ Q
Jn
'>\m\
(7.121)
V V ^^sA
d5 = 0, n = l , 2, . . . .
1 70 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Using the same arguments as in theorem 1.15 we find that
/
V V ^i i J
d5 = 0 (7.122)
for n' > \m\; whence, by theorem 1.6, the conclusion readily follows.
Coming to the null-field equations, we observe that the same technique
can be used to prove the following theorems.
THEOREM 1.17: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.15^ con-
sider the sets of null-field equations (7.40)'(7.41), in which the localized
vector multipoles M^p and N^^p, p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = - n , ...,n,
are replaced by the distributed vector multipoles M^^p ^^^ ^^np^ P =
1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., m G Z, respectively. Let h^ solve the resulting null-
field equations. Then hg solves the general null-field equations (6.103) and
conversely.
THEOREM 1.18: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.15, let e
and h solve the set of null-field equations (74S)'(7,44) i'^ which the localized
vector multipoles M^^p and Nj^^p, p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = ~n, . . . , n,
are replaced by the distributed vector multipoles At^^^p and M^np^ P ~
1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., m Z, respectively. Then e and h solve the general
null-field equations (6.113) and conversely.
1.3 Distributed electric and magnetic dipoles
We begin the analysis by defining our notations. With v being an arbitrary
vector we define the vector fields m and n by
m(x, y, v) =-j^Vyg{x,y,fc) x i;(x), n(x, y, v) =^Vy x m( x, y, v).
(7.123)
Explicitly we have
m( x, y, i ; ) = ^ (y - x) x t ; (x)/ i (|x - y| ) ,
n( x, y, t ; ) = ^ {(y - x) x [(y - x) x t;(x)]/2 (|x - y| ) (7-124)
- 2 t ; ( x ) / i ( | x ~y | ) } ,
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS
where
/ i ( | x - y | ) = (jk\x-y\-l)^^^^,
171
| x - y |
/ 2( | x- y| ) = ( 3 - 3 j f c | x - y | - A; 2| x - y | ' )
2^ g(x,y,fc)
ix-yr
The identities
[Vx X (a(y)^(x, y,fc))] v{x) = [Vy x (t;(x)^(x, y,fc))] a(y)
(7.125)
= fc2a(y) m(x, y, v), x^y,
(7.126)
and
[Vx X Vx X (a(y)p(x, y,k))] v{x) = [Vy x Vy x {v{x)g{x, y,fc))] a(y)
= fc^a(y)-n(x,y,t;), x ^^ y,
(7.127)
with a, being an arbitrary vector, will be frequently used in the following.
Let 5 be a closed surface of class C^ and {xn}^i a set of points on
S. We define the system of distributed magnetic and electric dipoles by
Mnp{x) = m( x , x , r ), Mnpix) = n(x^, x, T^p), (7.128)
where p = 1,2, n = 1,2,..., and Tni and Tn2 are two tangential Hnear inde-
pendent unit vectors at the point Xn- Obviously, A4np^ -N'np is a radiating
solution to the Maxwell equations in R^ {xn} . Prom (7.126) and (7.127)
we have
V X Ja{y)gix,y,k)dSiy)
np
= k^Jsi(yyMnpiy)dS{y)
s
(7.129)
and
V x V x /"a(y)5(x,y,fc)d5(y)
np
k^ I a{yyKpiy)dS{y).
(7.130)
We will denote by M^p and Af^p the magnetic and electric dipoles with the
singularities x~ distributed on a surface S" enclosed in Dj. Analogously
we will denote by M^p and jV^^ the magnetic and electric dipoles with the
172 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
FIGURE 7.4 The auxiliary surfaces S~ and 5+ and the distribution of poles.
singularities x^j" distributed on a surface 5"*" enclosing Di. The geometry of
the auxiliary surfaces is shown in Figure 7.4.
In this context, we can formulate the following theorem which estab-
lishes the completeness of the system of magnetic and electric dipoles in
THEOREM 1.19: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^. Let
the set { x ~} ^j be dense on a surface S~ enclosed in Di and let the set
{^n}^=i ^^ dense on a surface S'^ enclosing Di. Assume k ^ a{D^),
where D^ is the interior of S~ ^ and replace in theorem 1.5 the localized
magnetic and electric vector multipoles M^J^p and N^J jp,p = 1,2,3, n =
0, 1, . . . , m = n,..., n, by the distributed magnetic and electric dipoles M.^^
and Mnp,P =1 , 2, n = 1,2,..., respectively. Then, the resulting systems of
vector functions are complete in >C^an('5')-
Proof: We consider (a). Let
y*a*, (n X AT^^) d5 = 0, p = 1,2, n = 1,2,...., (7.131)
for a C^g^niS)' Define the electric field 5 by ^ = U/^)^ x V x Aas where
a' = n X a*. For x~ S~ we have
^iK) r^, = jk^ jsl'N^pdS (7.132)
and we see that the set of closeness relations gives ^(x~) T~p = 0 for
p = 1,2, n = 1,2,.... Since r~i and T~2 are two tangential linear indepen-
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 173
dent unit vectors on 5 " , we find that n(x~) x f (x~) = 0. Moreover, the
assumption that { x ~} ^j is dense on S" gives n x 5 = 0 on 5~, whence,
by fe ^ (j{D^) and the analyticity of 5, 5 = 0 in Di follows. Theorem 2.2 of
Chapter 6 now completes the proof of the first part of (a). The second part
of (a) can be proved by employing the same arguments for the magnetic
fieldW = V x Aa..
Going further we see that the closeness relations for the regular electric
and magnetic dipoles imply n x = 0 on 5"^ and n x W = 0 on S"*", respec-
tively. Therefore, these fields vanish in Ds and theorem 2.3 of Chapter 6
may be used to conclude the proof of (b). Note that no restrictions should
be imposed on the surface 5"^ to preserve the completeness at irregular
frequencies.
The proof of (c) and (d) proceed in a manner analogous to (a) by using
the results of theorems 2.4 and 2.5 given in the precedent chapter.
The following theorem established the completeness of the magnetic
and electric dipoles in ?an('5')-
THEOREM 1.20: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.19, re-
place in theorem 1.6 the localized magnetic and electric vector multipoles
M^J ip and N^J jp, p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = -n,..., n, by the distributed
magnetic and electric dipoles M^^ and Af^^^p = 1,2, n = 1,2,..., re-
spectively. Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are complete in
AanV'^)-
Proof: To prove the first part of the theorem we start with the closure
relations
/
s ^
5I.(nxAl3a)+a^ -i . / ^nxA/ ^. i dS = 0 (7.133)
(^0
for p = 1,2,3, n = 0, 1, . . . , m = -n, . . . , n, and ( J ) fi^anC^). For
Hs^, = V X Af'/ ~ r ^ V X V X Af'/, (7.134)
where a^ = n x a^ and 2 = n x a2, we obtain
-HsAO -r^p = kl J U-Mlj -3^^2-mi\ AS. (7.135)
Since kg ^ cr(I?r) we see that Hs.i = 0 in Di^s- Theorem 2.6 of Chapter 6
can now be used to conclude. Turning to the second part of the theorem,
it is readily seen that the closure relations leads to the vanishing of the
1 74 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
electric fields
Is^ = V X Af'/ + T ^ V X V X Af'/ (7.136)
in Dis> Once again application of theorem 2.6 given in the precedent
chapter finishes the proof of the theorem.
Next, we pay attention to the null-field equations for the exterior
Maxwell boundary-value problem. We can state the following result.
THEOREM 1.21: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.19, con-
sider the sets of null-field equations (7.40) -(7.41) in which the localized
magnetic and electric vector multipoles M^^^ and N^p, p = 1,2,3, n =
0, 1, . . . , m = n,..., n, are replaced by the distributed magnetic and electric
dipoles Mnp cii^d Af^pj p = 1,2, n = 1,2,..., respectively. Let hg solve the
resulting nul-field equations. Then hg solves the general null-field equations
(6.103) and conversely.
Proof: To prove the theorem we consider the electromagnetic field
defined by (7.42), and use (7.126) and (7.127) to find that : = 0 in A and
W = 0 in A , respectively.
Analogously to theorem 1.21, we can prove the following result for the
transmission boundary-value problem.
THEOREM 1.22: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.19, lete
andh solve the set of null-field equations (7.4S)-(7.44) ^^ which the localized
magnetic and electric vector multipoles M^J^p and N^J ^p, p = 1,2,3, n =
0, 1, . . . , m = n,..., n, are replaced by the distributed magnetic and electric
dipoles M^p and M^p, p = 1,2, n = 1,2,..., respectively. Then e and h
solve the general null-field equations (6.113) and conversely.
Proof: We consider the electromagnetic fields defined by (7.45) and
(7.46), and use the identities (7.126) and (7.127) to obtain the null-field
equations for the surface densities.
The main results of this section are given by theorems 1.19-1.22. Let
us discuss some complementary results. We will in fact investigate the
completeness properties of the systems of electric and magnetic dipoles
with singularities distributed in a volume or on an open surface.
1. Consider the vector functions
Kj(x) = m{x^,^,v%),M\^{-s.) = n(x,x,0, (7.137)
where p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., v^i, v^2 ^^^ '^n3 ^^^ three Hnear indepen-
dent unit vectors at the points x^, and { x j } ^ j and { x ~} ^j are dense
sets of points in the auxiliary bounded domains D^ C Ds and D^ C A ,
respectively. Then, theorems 1.19-1.22 are valid for the systems of vec-
tor functions (7.137). Let us prove, for example, the completeness of the
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 175
system {n x AT^^, p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,...} in tan('5')- Proceeding as in the-
orem 1,19^ we see that the closeness relations leads to f (x~) v~ = 0 for
p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,.... Since v^^, v~2 and v~^ are linearly independent we
obtain {x,~) = 0, whence, by a density argument, 5 = 0 in D~ follows.
The proof can now be completed as in theorem 1.19 .
2. Instead of the system of magnetic and electric dipoles we may use
the more general systems of vector functions
Ml'^iy) = Vx y " * ( x ) f f ( x , y , f c ) d 5 ( x ) , x e R ' - 5 ,
^* (7.138)
J^lHy) = i v X Mi-3(y), X e R ' - 5,
where S^ and S~ are auxiliary surfaces enclosing S and enclosed in 5,
respectively, and {*^}^i are complete in C^ani^^)- Then, theorems 1.19-
1.22 are valid for the systems of vector functions (7.138). Let us prove for
instance the completeness of the system {n x vM^}^^^ in >Ctan(5'), i.e. let
us show that for a G ?an(*5') the set of closure relations
I'
a*(y). [n(y) x Ml{y)] dS{y) = 0, i/ = 1,2,..., (7.139)
5
gives a '^ 0 on 5. Using (7.126) we are led to
J^:{xy V X | a' ( y) p( x, y, f c) d5( y) dS{x) =0, (7.140)
s-
where a' = n x a*. Since {^;7}^i is complete in ?an('S'"") we deduce
that n X , where 5 = V x AQ ' , vanishes on 5~. Assuming that k is
not an eigenvalue of the interior Maxwell equation in D~ and using the
analyticity of we arrive at = 0 in P^. Theorem 2.2 of Chapter 6
now concludes the proof of the completeness. We mention that the sys-
tem of magnetic and electric dipoles Ai^'p and Af^p can be obtained from
the above system by choosing ^^( x) = *^p(x) = 5 (x x^) r ^ (x), where
{^n } ^i ^^d {^n } ^i ^^^ dense on 5"^ and 5 " , respectively.
3. Let us investigate the completeness of the systems of magnetic and
electric dipoles with singularities distributed on open surfaces. As in the
acoustic case our analysis relies on the following theorems:
THEOREM 1.23: Consider A O' bounded domain of class C^ with
boundary S and unit outward normal n. Let E, H G C^{Di) D C{Di) be
a solution to Maxwell's equations in Dj. If on a surface element So of S
n x E = n x H = 0, (7.141)
176 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
then E and H vanish identically.
Proof: This is proved in the same way as theorem 1.15 of Chapter 3
accounting for the representations
- E( x) = V x y n(y)xE(y)5(x, y, A; )d5(y)
S-So
+ | V X V X J n(y) x H(y)p(x, y,fc)d5(y)
(7.142)
S-So
and
-H(x) = V x y* n( y) xH( y) p( x, y, f c) d5( y)
S-So
- f V X V X I n(y) x E(y)^(x,y,fc)d5(y)
(7.143)
S-So
which are vaUd for x GA , while for x eDg the integrals vanish.
THEOREM 1.24: Let Di be a bounded domain of class C^ with bound-
ary S and exterior Dg. Denote by n the unit normal vector to S directed
into Da. Let E, H C^{Da) H C{Ds) be a radiating solution to MaxweWs
equations in Dg. If on a surface element So of S
n x E = n x H = 0, (7.144)
then E and H vanish identically.
In this context theorems 1.1-1.4 remain valid if we replace the localized
spherical vector wave functions M^J^ and N^J ^, n = 1,2,..., m = -n, . . . , n,
by the magnetic and electric dipoles M^'p and Afnp^ p = l , 2 , n = l , 2, . . . ,
with the singularities distributed on the open surface SQ and SQ. Here,
the set of points {x;;;^}^^ and {x;J ;}^j are assumed to be dense on SQ
and SQ , respectively. Let us prove, for example, the completeness of the
system
{n X Mlp, n X A/'^, p = 1,2, n = 1,2,...}
in^an(5')- For x~ 6 SQ we have
s
s
(7.145)
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 177
where S ~ {j/k)V x V x Aa' and W = V x Aa'. Therefore, the set of closure
relations for the density a E ?an(5') gives {x~) r'^ = W(x;;) r'^ = 0,
p = 1,2, n = 1,2,..., where a' = n x a*. As before we conclude that
n x 5 = n x W = 0on SQ, Theorem 1.23 yields = H = Oin D~ and the
proof is now completed as in theorem 1.19.
4. In the following we will investigate the possibility of approximating
internal fields by discrete sources distributed on interior surfaces. To this
end let us consider the modified vector potential
A(x) = J a(y)x(x, y,k) dS(y), x R ^ (7.146)
where
is an entire solution to the Helmoltz equation. Then the following result
holds.
THEOREM 1.25: Consider A a bounded domain with exterior Dg-
Then from
(a) V X Aa = 0 in A,
(b) V X Aa 4- A | V X V X Anxa = 0 in A , Re A > 0, (7.148)
(c) V X Ai + T ^ V X V X A| = 0 in A
it follows that
(a) V x A a = O i n A ,
(b) V X Aa -f A~V X V X Anxa = 0 in A , Re A > 0, (7.149)
(c) V X A| + y ^ V X V X Ai = 0 in A .
Proof: It suffices to prove only (a) since the same technique can be
used to prove the^rest of the theorem. Let 5 = V x Aa- Since 5 = 0 in
A , then clearly S-Bp = 0 in A for p = 1,2,3. With S"^ being a spherical
178 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
surface enclosed in Di, we choose x G S'^ and construct
^( x) - ep
/
Vxya(y)x(x, y, fc)d5(y)
s J
[Vyx(epx(x,y,fc))]-a(y)d5(y)
, 0 0 n
^Z2IZ ^".n{ I [^x (eX-mn(y))] "a(y)d5(y)
n=Om=~n i ^
(7.150)
Since the u^ are orthogonal on 5*" we conclude that
[V X (epL(y))] a(y)d5(y) = 0 (7.151)
/
for all permissible m, n and p. Now, choose a spherical surface S^ enclosing
D^ and let x G Df, where Df is the exterior of 5^^. Multiply (7.151) by
u^^{x) and sum over m and n. Accounting for the spherical wave expansion
of the Green function we get E-Bp = 0 in D^ for p = 1,2,3, where =
V X Afl. Thus, = 0 in Ds and the theorem is proved.
Let us consider the system of vector functions
A^npW = m( x~, x, r - p) , A/'^p(x) = n( x; ; , x, r -p) , (7.152)
where p = 1,2, n = 1,2,...,
m(x, y, i;) = ^ [Vyx(x, y,fc) x t;(x)],
1,
k
(7.153)
n(x, y,v) = TT^y X "^(^' y^ '^)
and {x }^i i s a dense set of points distributed on a surface S enclosed
in Di. Obviously, M^p^ M^p is an entire solution to the Maxwell equations.
Accounting for theorem 1.25 we see that the theorems 1.19 and 1.20
are valid if the magnetic and electric dipoles Ml^p and AT^p are replaced by
the vector functions M\p and A/"^p, respectively.
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 179
1.4 Distributed vector Mie potentials
In Chapter 3 we showed that any solution to the Helmholtz equation can
be approximated by Unear combinations of distributed point sources
V^nW = ^(xn, x,fc), n = 1,2,..., (7.154)
where the set {^n}^=i is dense on an auxihary closed surface. If the singu-
larities are distributed on open surfaces we may preserve the completeness
/ dg{x',x,k)
dn{x)
, n = l , 2, . . . , (7.155)
x' =x
to the system (7.154). Let us extend the above results to the electromag-
netic case. Let 5 be a closed surface of class C^ and { x ^j ^j a set of points
on S. We define the vector functions
Mn{x) = ~V^, ( x) X x, Afnix) = i v X Mn{^) (7.156)
and
7W;(x) = i v < ^ ; ( x ) x x , ^^( x) = i v x M ; ( x ) . (7.157)
It is evident that M^ J^n and M'^, J\f^ are radiating solution to the
Maxwell equations in R^ {xn}. The functions Mn and Afn are called
vector Mie potentials. This name originates from the fact that according
to Bromwich theorem in spherical coordinates (see, e.g. Bromwich [16]
and Zund and Wilkes [174]), for any radiating solution E, H to Maxwell
equations in D^ (the exterior of a spherical surface S^) there exist exactly
two radiating fields U and V satisfying the Helmholtz equation in D^ such
that
E(x) = VC/(x) X X H- ^V X (VF(x) x x) (7.158)
K
and
H(x) = VF( x) X X - ^V X (VC/(x) X x) . (7.159)
k
In the sequel we will denote hy M^ and J\f^ the vector Mie poten-
tials with the singularities x~ distributed on a surface S" enclosed in Di.
Analogously, we will denote by M^ and jV^ the vector Mie potentials with
the singularities x;^^ distributed on a surface 5"*" enclosing A. The fol-
lowing theorem establish the completeness of the vector Mie potentials in
AanV'^)-
180 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Z
FIGURE 7.5 The auxiliary surface ^H and the support of discrete sources.
THEOREM 1.26: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^. Lei
the set {x ~}^ j be dense on a surface S" enclosed in Di and let the set
{^n }^ i ^^ dense on a surface S"^ enclosing Di. Assume k ^ p{D^), where
D~ is the interior of S^, and replace in theorem 1.1 the localized spherical
vector wave functions M^J^ and N^J^, n = 1,2, ...,m = n, ...,n, by the
distributed vector Mie potentials M^^ and Af^'^^n = 1,2,..., respectively.
Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are complete in C\^^{S).
Proof: We prove only (a) since the same technique can be used to
prove the rest of the theorem. It has to be shown that for a ^tanC'^') the
closeness relations
fa*'{nxMl)dS = 0,
s
(7.160)
p = 1,2,..., gives a ~ 0 on 5. Let us consider the radiating spherical vector
wave functions M^^^ = Vu^^ ^ ^ 8,nd N^ = (l/fc)V x M^^ and choose
an interior surface 5" which is parallel to S and encloses 5"". The position
of the auxiliary surface is shown in Figure 7.5. Fix the indices m and
n. For {Xp }^i C S" and k ^ p{D^) we can approximate the radiating
spherical wave functions u^^ by hnear combination of distributed point
sources (pp. Therefore, there exists the sequence UN = (V'^)I3p=i^p^^p
such that UmTvoo UN = u^n uniformly in closed subsets of Z)i'. Note that
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 181
the coefficients a^ depend on the indices m and n. In fact the derivatives
of w^y^ can also be approximated by the derivatives of UN uniformly in
closed subsets of DI, Therefore, defining Af^ = 2Zp=i ^p-^^ *^d A/^ =
E^=i ^p^ we see that lim^-^oo M% = M^^ and limiv-^oo A^ = N^
uniformly on 5. In this context, from (7.160) it follows that
y a * . ( i i x ML ) d 5 = 0,
| a * . { n x NDd 5 = 0.
(7.161)
5
Since m and n are arbitrary we see that (7.161) hold for all n = 1,2,...,
m = -n, ...,n. The completeness of the spherical vector wave functions
now completes the proof of the first part of the theorem.
It is noted that the above result can be established by using the
Bromwich representation. Indeed, for the electric field 5 = V x Aa', where
a' = n X a*, we construct the scalar product
b. ^ (x) = I (Vy X (b^(x, y,k))] s! (y) AS (y), (7.162)
s
where b is an arbitrary constant vector. Next, fix x inside the inscribed
sphere, i.e. x D\, and set E(y) = Vy x (b^(x,y,fc)). For y D^, DJ =
R^ D^, we may express E in terms of the Mie potentials U and F as in
(7.158). Approximating U and V by linear combinations of (^^ , we deduce
that the closeness relations leads to f = 0 in A; whence, by theorem 2.2
of Chapter 6, a '^ 0 on 5 follows.
Let us now consider complete systems in tan(*S')-
THEOREM 1.27: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.26^ re-
place in theorem L2 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^Jj and
N^n, n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, by the distributed vector Mie potentials
M^'^ andAf^'^,n = 1,2,..., respectively. Then, the resulting systems of
vector functions are complete in tan('S^)-
Proof: Let f --^ j tan('S^) satisfy the closure relations
( n x A< 3 a ) 4 . a ^ Uj . / ^ n x A/ ; ? ' M| ^ = 0, /
s
I
s >
(7.163)
( nx; V^. i ) +a5. - j . / - ^ n x > ( 3 . M d5 = 0,
182
CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
for p = 1,2,.... Consider the approximations Al ^ = Ylp=zi ^^p-^li -/^N
Ep=i <A/? and M], = E; =I '^M^ ^k = ZU^HK ^^^^^ that
limiv_,oo M%^ = M^J j and limiv-^oo A/*^'^ = ^m\i uniformly on S. Then,
we see that (7.163) leads to
/
/
aI-(nxM^J , )4-a^- n X N^ dS
0,
n X M^J ,
(7.164)
dS = 0,
for n = 1,2, ...,m = n, ...,n. Theorem 1.2 now concludes the proof.
The same technique can be used to show that the null-field equations
written in terms of vector Mie potentials are equivalent to the null-field
equations written in terms of spherical vector wave functions.
THEOREM 1.28: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.26^ con-
sider the sets of null-field equations (7.24) in which the localized spherical
vector wave functions M^^ and N^ , n = 1,2, ..,m = n, ...,n, are re-
placed by the distributed vector Mie potentials Ai^ and Af^^n = 1,2,...,
respectively. Let h^ solve the resulting null-field equations. Then h^ solves
the general null-field equations (6.103) and conversely.
THJ : OREM 1.29: Under the same assumption as in theorem 1.26, let
e and h solve the set of null-field equations (7.26) in which the localized
spherical vector wave functions M.^\ and N^^^Jj, n = 1,2,..., m = -n, . . . , n,
are replaced by the distributed vector Mie potentials At^'^ andAf^'^,n =
1,2,..., respectively. Then e and h solve the general null-field equations
(6.113) and conversely.
We conclude our presentation with the following remarks:
1. Instead of the systems {( ^J }^i we may use the more general systems
Cn (y) -k^ j f^{x)g{x,y,k)dSix), y G R^ - 5^, (7.165)
where 5"^ and S~ are auxiliary surfaces enclosing 5 and enclosed in 5,
respectively, and {fn}^^i ^^e complete in L'^{S^). It is noted that the
system {^n}n=i ^^ complete in 1/^(5) for k ^ p[D~), while the system
{^n}n=i ^^ complete in L^(5) for k ^ p{Di). Furthermore, the systems
{^n } ^i can be obtained by choosing / ^( x) = <5(x - x^) , where { x + j ^j
and { x ~} ^ ^ are dense on 5"^ and 5 " , respectively. In this case, theorems
1. COMPLETE SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 1 8 3
1.26-1.29 are valid for the vector Mie potentials defined by
Ml^^ix) = ^V^^( x) X X, A/;i'3(x) = i v X A^;,'^(x), n = 1,2,....
(7.166)
2. For vector functions with singularities distributed on open surfaces
the results establish by theorems 1.26-1.29 remain valid if the functions
Mn and Af^, n = 1,2,..., are added to the set (7.156). Let us prove for
example the completeness of the system
{n X M^, n X Af^ n x ^^; ^ n x A^' , n = 1,2,...}
in Cl^{S), that is, let us show that the set of closure relations
a*-{nxMl)dS = 0,
/
(7.167)
s
ya*. ( nxAr 3) d5 = 0,
5
/ a*-( nxAC^) d5 = 0,
5
n = 1,2,..., gives a ~ 0 on 5. By theorem 1.17 of Chapter 3 we known that
if { x ~} ^j is a dense set of points distributed on an open surface SQ con-
tained in Di, we can approximate any radiating solution to the Helmholtz
equation by Hnear combinations of the set {<^^,9^p~, p = 1,2,...} . In par-
ticular, there exists the sequence u^ = Ylp=ii^/^)^p^p + (V^^)^^'/'p~
such that limiv-^oc^TV = u^n uniformly in closed subsets of Dg. Hence,
defining MN = E^=i ^M^ + b^M'^ and NN = Ep=i < ^ ? + b^K
we see that hmiv^oo At AT = M^ and limiv-oo AOv = N^ uniformly on
S. Thus, from (7.167) we get
ya*.(nxML)d5 = 0,
s
ya*.(nxNL)dS = 0,
(7.168)
s
for n = 1,2,..., m = -n, . . . , n, and theorem 1.1 may be used to conclude.
1 8 4 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
1.5 Distributed vector plane waves
Let us consider the vector plane waves
M\yi,k) = -je^'^-^ea, M\x,k) = -e^^^'^e^, (7.169)
where (efc,e/3,ea) are the spherical unit vectors in the k-space. Note the
interrelations V x X^(x, k) = kAf^{x,k) and V x A/'^(x,k) = fcAl^(x,k).
Let us choose the points uJn = (an^Pn) on the unit sphere il and let us
define the distributed vector plane waves by
Ali(x) = MHx, kJ , ^; i ( x) =A^Hx, kJ , n = 1,2,..., (7.170)
where kn = k{an,Pn)' Then, the following theorem holds.
THEOREM 1.30: Let the set {a;n}^i be dense on the unit sphere il.
Replace in theorem 1.1 parts (b) and (d) the localized spherical vector wave
functions M^^ and Nj^, n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n, by the distributed vec-
tor plane waves M\ andAf^^ n = 1,2,..., respectively. Then, the resulting
systems of vector functions are complete in ^^^{8).
Proof: We prove only the completeness of the system
{n xMlnx Ml n = 1,2,.../ k i a{Di)) .
Let us consider the closeness relations
a*(y). [nxAl i (y)]d5(y) = 0,
/
/
(7.171)
a*(y).[nxAr^(y)]d5(y) = 0,
5
for n = 1,2,..., and a i^l^niS). Since {u;}_i = n we deduce that
y"a*(y)[nxXHy,k)]d5(y) = 0,
(7.172)
a*(y)-[nx;yr(y,k)]d5(y) = 0,
5
for any a [0,2n] and any /? G (0, TT]. Then accounting for the expansions
/ '
Mi(y,k) = E E 4j"+'>mn
n =l 171=n
X [rL'"l(/3)Mi,(y) + m7r!r'(;9)Ni.(y)] e"^-".
2. LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 185
n=lm=-n (7.173)
and the orthogonality relations
IT
/[rl"*'(/3)rl,7l(/3) + m2;rL'"l(/?)7rL?l(^)]sm/?d/3 = g ^ W ,
0 "^"
/ [Tlr'(;0)4'^'(/?) + 'rL'"'(/3)rl7l(^)] sin/?d/3 = 0,
(7.174)
we obtain
| a *( y) . [ nxMi , J y) ] d5( y) = 0,
s
| a *( y) . [ nxNL( y) ] dS( y) = 0,
s
(7.175)
for n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n. Part (b) of theorem 1.1 now concludes the
proof.
Analog to the acoustic case, we can define the vector quasi-plane waves
M^{Xjk) and JV^(x,k) replacing the plane waves 7^(x,k) by the quasi-
plane waves Q (x,k). However, since the distributed quasi-plane waves are
difficult to compute they are of limited use in practical applications.
2 LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS
In this section we will establish the linear independence of the systems of
discrete sources. We begin with the system of localized spherical vector
wave functions.
THEOREM 2.31: Let S be a surface of class C^ and let n denote the
unit outward normal to S. Then each of the systems of vector functions
(a) { n x M^ , n x N^ , n = 1,2,..., m = - n, . . . , n},
(b) {n X Mj,n X N^, n = 1,2,..., m = -n, . . . , n/ k i a{Di)] ,
1 8 6 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
(c) {n X M^^ 4-j An x (n x N^^) , n x N^^ + j An x (n x M^ ) ,
n = 1,2,..., m = n, . . . , n/ ReA > 0} ,
(d) {n X Ml^^-jXn x (n x NJ ^^) , n x NJ ^ - j An x (n x M]^^) ,
n = 1,2,..., m = n, . . . , n/ ReA > 0}
are linearly independent in C'^g.niS).
Proof: Consider (a). We need only show that if
Y^ Yi mn(y) X M^ J y ) + /3n(y) x N^( y) = 0, y e 5,
n=l m=n
(7.176)
t hen Oimn = Pmn = 0, 71 = 1, 2, ..., rimax, ^ = ~ n , . . . , 71, f oi any Tlmax-
Assuming that (7.176) holds, we see that the electromagnetic field
^ = E E " - ML + ^. NL, n = -Vx, (7.177)
n=l m= n "^
is a radiating solution to Maxwell equations, which vanishes on 5. Hence,
by the uniqueness in the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem we ob-
tain 5 = 0 in Ds. In particular, vanishes on a circumscribing sphere S^,
whence, by the orthogonality of the spherical vector wave functions, the
conclusion follows.
The proof of (b) is substantially the same as that of (a), where the
orthogonality of the regular spherical vector wave functions on inscribed
rather than circumscribed spheres is used.
In the case (c), the corresponding linear independence relation implies
that 5, H solve the homogeneous impedance problem. Therefore, 5 = 0 in
Ds and the proof can be completed as in (a).
Going further, we see that the proof of (d) is analog to that of (c).
Here, we define the electromagnetic field , H by (7.177) but with regular
shows that n x ^ -f- An x (n x "H) = 0 on 5, whence by the Gauss theorem
Re(A) / |n X n\^ d5 = - Im(fc) / {\n\^ -f \\^^ dV (7.178)
S D,
and the assumption Re(A) > 0, f = 0 in )i follows.
In addition to the results stated in theorem 2.31 we mention that the
system
{ ( 1^ + ^) ( X ML), (^I + M) (n X NL) , (7 179)
71 = 1, 2, ..., 771 = 71, . . . , 7l / k ^ Cr(jDi)} ,
2. LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 187
is also linear independent in C'^a^^{S). This is a consequence of the fact that
for k ^ (T{Di) the operator ^I -\- M has a trivial nuUspace in Cl^^{S).
Before going any further we mention that in the case (a) of the prece-
dent theorem from 5 = 0 in D^ we deduce that
nmax n
Y, E "mnMLCx) + ; 9N^(x) = 0, X G R^ - {0} . (7.180)
n =l Tn=n
In this context, the conclusion amn = 0mn = 0, n = 1,2, ...,nmax) ^ =
n, ...,n, follows from the asymptotic behavior of the radiating spherical
vector wave functions as fcr 0, i.e.
M^( x) =
. ( 2 n - l ) ! !
jm ;-^-eg r;: e^
N^n( x) = -jn
siu9 A9
x[l + 0((fcr)2)],
^jruif
(krY
dP^^^'Ccos^)
d0
ee
\ . PL'^^{COS0)
^Jtn r;^ e,
sin0
(7.181)
For instance, multiplying (7.180) by (fcr)'^*'' , letting fcr > 0 and using
the orthogonality of the exp(jm(^) we receive iSmnmax ~ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ~
-nmax,-.,^max- Multiplying now (7.180) by (fcr)''*'''^^ letting fcr -* 0
and taking the radial part of the resulting expression we arrive at /^m.nmax-i
= 0 for all m = (nmax!)> , (^max !) The latter implies that Q;mn,ax =
0 for all m = rimax? j^max and arguing as above we can show step by
step that all coefficients are zero.
THEOR EM 2.32: Let S he a surface of class C^ and let n denotes the
unit outward normal to S. Then the system
n X M! ; ! \ / n X N^ii
1,2,..., m = ~n,
is linear independent in ?an('S')- The radiating spherical vector wave func-
tions are defined with respect to the wave number kg, while the regular
spherical vector wave functions are defined with respect to the wave number
ki.
188 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Proof: To prove the theorem we debut with
for some constants a^^^ and /JJ^;*^, n = 1,2,..., rimax? ^ = ^,
ing the electromagnetic fields
^^ = E E < n M L + / ?mnNL, . = 77 V X , (7.183)
and
^i = - E E "mnM; + i9JNi,, W, = - V X Si (7.184)
n=l m=n
J*JoMt
it is readily seen that (7.182) leads ionxiEg- EA =0 and nx \Hs ~ Wi) =
0 on 5. ^ y the uniqueness^n the transmission boundary-value problem we
obtain 5^ = 0 in Ds and ^j = 0 in D^. Theorem 2.31 now completes the
proof.
The following theorem states the linear independence of a finite collec-
tion of spherical vector wave functions with different origins.
THEOREM 2.33: Consider S a surface of class C^ and let {xop} ^
be a finite collection o poles located inside Di. Replace in theorem 2.31 the
localized spherical vector wave functions M^J^ and N^J^, n = 1,2,..., m =
n,..., n, by the multiple spherical vector wave functions M^^p ^'^^J^npiP
= 1,2, ...,P, n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, respectively. Then, the resulting
systems of vector functions are linearly independent in C^g^j^{S).
Proof: Let us prove (a). Consider
E E E mnpn(y) X Mlnpiy) ^^ Pmnp^iv) X ^mnp(y) = 0, y G 5,
p=l n=l m=n
(7.185)
2. LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 189
for some constants amnp and /?^^p, p = 1,2,..., P, n = 1,2,..., nP^^, m =
n,..., n. It is readily seen that
P ^max n
S S S mnpA<Lp(x) + 0mnj^Lp{^) = 0, X G R^ - {Xop}JLi .
p=l n=l m=~n
(7.186)
Set Xp = X Xop and denote by {rp,0pj(fp) the spherical coordinates of
Xp with respect to the translated coordinate system with the origin at the
point Xop. Now, for a fixed pole p we may use the asymptotic behavior of
M^np ^^d -^^np as krp -^ 0 to conclude.
Let us now prove the linear independence of a finite collection of regular
spherical vector wave functions. We begin with
P "max n
Xl X^ X) mnpn(y) X Mi^piy) + P^np^iv) X ^mnp(y) = 0, y G 5.
p=l n=l Tn='-n
(7.187)
Let
P nm n
^ = E E E " 'nnpA<Lp + /9mnp^mp- (7-188)
p=l n=l m=n
Since A: ^ a{Di) we see from (7.187) and the analyticity of 5 that 5 = Oin
any bounded domain of R^. Choose now a spherical surface 5^ enclosing
S as shown in Figure 7.6. Obviously, = 0 on S^ and we may use the
addition theorem for regular spherical vector wave functions
Mlnnpi^) = M^^(x~- Xop)
= E A^U-^p)Ml,A^) + 0rn' (- Xop) Nj , , , , (x) ,
n'^m'
^mnp(x) = Nj (x- Xop)
= 5]^;;jr,(-xop)Nj,,(x) + B;;j,",(-xop)M;,,(x),
to rewrite this condition as
(
P "S.ax n
E E E mp^;;ir,(-xop)+/3pB;;:r,(-xop)) M;,,(X)
p=l n=l m=- n
190 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
FIGURE 7.6 The auxiliary surface S^.
\p=l nl m=n j
(7.189)
The orthogonality of the locaUzed spherical vector wave functions gives
P ^max n
E E E "-"''-^m"n'(-XOp) + ^.pB;;j'".(-Xop) = 0,
p=l n=l vn~ n
P ^max n
(7.190)
P ^max n
T^H j ; ape-;j,,(-xop) + /3p>i-r,(-xop) = o,
p=l n=l m=n
for all permissible n' and m' . Multiplying the first equation by M^, ^/ (x),
the second one by N^, ^, ( x) , where x G Df and Df is the exterior of
5^, summing over m' and n' and accounting for the addition theorem for
radiating spherical vector wave functions we arrive at
P < P "max n
E E E " mnpA<^p(x) + / ? Xn p ( ' t ) = 0, X Cf . (7.191)
p=l n=l m=n
The proof can now be completed as in the first part of the theorem.
The following theorem is the analog of theorem 2.31 for the system of
distributed spherical vector wave functions.
2. LINEAR INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS 191
THEOREM 2.34: Consider the hounded sequence [zn) C Tz, where Tz
is a segment of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ enclosing
Tz. Replace in theorem 2.31 the localized spherical vector wave functions
M^J j and N^J ^, n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, by the distributed spherical
vector wave functions M^\ and M^\, n 1,2,..., m G Z, respectively.
Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are linearly independent in
AanV'^)-
Proof: Let us prove (a). To this end consider
^' max "max
Y, Y. " - " " ( y ) ^ -^mnCy) + /3mnn(y) X Nl^{y) = 0, y S,
(7.192)
m=rrimax n = \
for some constants amn and /3^, n = 1,2,..., n^ax, rn = -mmax, , mmax-
Then, the field
'"iiiix^ 'max.
Y^ Yl ^rnnMl^ + 0mnKn^ (7.193)
n = l
vanishes in R^ {^nesj^^i'' Let us explicitly indicate the exp{jm^) de-
pendence of Ml^ri and Af^^ by writing X^, , , (x) = ml,^{rj)exp{jmyp)
and Af^n{x) = n^^ {'q)exp{jm(f), where rj T, and E is the half-plane
(p =const. Then by the orthogonality of the exp(jm<^) we find that
^ma x
J2 mnm^ (77) + / ?n^ (77) = 0, 77 e E - {znBsj'^Ti , (7.194)
n = l
for any fixed azimuthal mode m. The proof is now finished by taking into
account that m^^ and n^^ have different order of singularities at z.
To show (b) we use the same technique as in theorem 2.33 and the
addition theorem for spherical vector wave functions. The proof of the rest
of the theorem proceeds analogously.
Our last two theorems establish the linear independence of the systems
of distributed electric and magnetic dipoles and vector-Mie potentials.
THEOREM 2.35: Consider D^ a bounded domain of class C^. Let
the set { x ~} ^j he dense on a surface S~ enclosed in Di and let the se-
quence {xj{^}^_j be dense on a surface 5"^ enclosing D^. Replace m theo-
rem 2.31 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^^ and N^J ^, n =
1,2,..., m = n,..., n, by the magnetic dipoles M^i and M^2 ? ^ = 1? 2,...,
respectively. Then, the resulting systems of vector functions are linearly
independent in C'^g.ni'^)' ^^^ same results hold if we replace the localized
spherical vector wave functions M^^ and N^^Jj, n = 1,2,..., m = n,..., n,
by the electric dipoles M^i andN^2 , n = 1,2,..., respectively.
192 CHAPTER VII SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Proof: We prove only the linear independence of the system
{ n x M^ ^ , p =l , 2 , n = l , 2, . . . }
since the same technique can be used to show the other parts of the theorem.
Relying on our previous analysis it has to be proved that
^max 2
J] apM3^(x) = 0, X R3 - {x.-)lT^ , (7.195)
n=l p=l
implies anp = 0, p = 1,2, n = 1,2, ...,nmax. Evidently 5Zp=i ^npA^np is
singular at x~, since
(7.196)
where n^^^ = (x - x; ; ) / | x ~ x^l and v~ = Yll:=i o^npTnp' Taking into
account that T~I and T~2 are hnearly independent the conclusion readily
follows.
THEOREM 2.36: Under the same conditions as in theorem 2.35, re-
place in theorem 2.31 the localized spherical vector wave functions M^J^
and N^Jj, n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, hy the vector Mie potentials M^^
andN^'^^n = 1,2,..., respectively. Then, the resulting systems of vector
functions are linearly independent in ^tanC'^')-
Proof: We prove only (a). Using the same arguments as before we
arrive at
*^max
anMlix) + /?A/^(x) = 0, X R3 - {x ; };;:' ; , (7.197)
n=l
for some constants an and ^, n = 1,2, ...rimax- Now, it is readily seen that
the proof is finished by showing that Mn and Afn are linearly independent.
Since
MU^) = ( n , - , x x - ) ( j f c | x - x - | - l ) | ^ l ^ ,
A/2(x) = { [ n , - , X ( n , - , x x" ) ] (3 - 3jk |x - x" | - A:^ |x - x" | ' )
- 2x- ijk |x - x - | - 1)} , - 2 ,
g(x,x,/;)
(7.198)
where n^-^ = (x - x~) / |x ~ x~| , we see that Mn and M^ have different
order of singularities at x~. Hence, they are linear independent and the
proof is finished.
We conclude this section by noting that the above systems of functions
are also linearly independent in the product space S1^^^{S). The proof of
the resulting theorems proceeds as in theorem 2.32, use being made of the
linear independence of the corresponding systems in C^g^ni"^).
Complete systems for Maxwell equations have been considered by Calderon
[20] and Mtiller [115]. Calderon dealt with the completeness in ^tanC*^) ^f
the set formed from the tangential components of multipole fields. He
showed that there exists a series in terms of multipole fields which uni-
formly approximates a radiating solution to the Maxwell equation in the
region exterior to 5. Mtiller considered both regular and radiating spherical
vector wave functions. He proved that the tangential components of the
regular spherical vector wave functions are complete in ^C^anC'S'), where S is
a Lyapunov surface. Furthermore, similar to Calderon's results for the exte-
rior boundary-value problem, he showed that any radiating solution to the
Maxwell equations can be approximated uniformly by a series of spherical
vector wave functions which has coefficients determined from the boundary
condition. Aydin and Hizal [5] extended the method presented by Vekua
[146] for a doubly connected region and constructed complete systems of
functions using regular and radiating spherical vector wave functions for
the vector Helmholtz equation. They also showed that it is possible to pre-
serve the completeness of the regular vector spherical functions by adding
suitable vector functions to the set.
An excellent discussion of the completeness properties of electric and
magnetic dipoles and vector Mie potentials has been given by Kersten [80].
Kersten's presentation is focussed on the exterior Maxwell boundary-value
problem, and therefore the pertinent space for completeness analysis is
A scheme for constructing complete systems of radiating solutions to
the Maxwell equations has been elaborated by Eremin [48]. In this context,
distributed vector multipoles (lowest-order vector multipoles) has been con-
sidered.
VIII
PROJECTION METHODS IN
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
In this section we will use the fundamental theorem of discrete approxima-
tion to construct projection schemes for a category of variational problems
in the Hilbert spaces tan(*^) ^^^ '^tanC'^)- ^^ ^he case of the Hilbert space
^tan('^) ^he problems in question read as
(a) (u - uo,x)2,5 = 0 for all x ?an(5'),
(b) (u - uo, n X X 4- X^)2^s = 0 ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^tan(S'),
(c) <(u - Uo) + An X (u* - u5), n X x*)2^^ = 0 for all x eC^^niS)-
Here Uo is an element of tan('^) ^^^ A > 0. In the next sections we will
use these results to construct approximate solutions to the boundary-value
problems for the Maxwell equations.
1 PROJECTION METHODS FOR THE EXTERIOR MAXWELL
PROBLEM
Projection methods for solving the exterior Maxwell problem are given by
the following theorem.
195
196
CHAPTER VIII PROJECTION METHODS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
THEOREM 1.1: Let {^i}^i be a complete and linearly independent
system of vector functions in C'^si^{S) and UQ E ^tan('S')- Then the sequence
UN = Yli=i ^r*i> satisfying the projection relations
(a) (U Ar-U o, *j)2^5=0,
(b) {uN - uo, n X <ifj -f X^j)2^s = 0> (8.1)
(c) {{uN - uo) + An X {u^j ~ u5), n X ^*j)^^^ = 0,
for j = 1,2,..., A/", anrf A > 0, converges to UQ, i.e. \\UN U0II2 5 0 as
AT-. 00.
Proof: To prove (a) we define the sesquilinear form B : /^tanC*^) ^
^tan('S') * C by iB(x, y) = (x, y}2,5 and the Hnear functional T : ^tanC'S') ~^
C by J^(x) = (uo, x)2 5 . It is readily seen that B and J" satisfy the require-
ments of the discrete approximation theorem and, hence, (a) is proved.
We consider (b). Define the sesquilinear form B : C^^ni'^) x >Ctan('S') -
Cby
B( x , y ) = ( x , n x y - f Ay>2,5
and the linear functional T : ^tan(*5) ^ C by
:F{X) = (uo, n X X 4- Ax)2 5 .
(8.2)
(8.3)
In this context the conditions of the fundamental discrete approximation
theorem are fulfilled. Indeed, J^ is continuous, B is bounded and satisfies
|iB(x,x)| = ( x, n X x4-Ax)2^5 = (x, n x x)2 5 -f '{x,Ax)2 5
2j A m {xyx*j d5 + A / |x|2 dS
(8.4)
Il2,5 '
where x = x^Cu -h XyBy. Here, we used the assumption that if the smooth
surface S has the parametric representation X5= Xs{u,v) at each point on
the surface we can define an orthogonal tangent-normal system of unit vec-
tors (eu,ev,n), where n represents the outward unit normal vector to S
and e^ and e^ are orthogonal unit vectors in the tangent plane of 5. Con-
sequently, if {*i }^i is a complete system of vector functions in tan(*5')
the sequence u/^ = S i = i ^ r * t satisfying the projection relations (8.1b)
converges to the unique solution u = UQ of the variational problem
(u - Uo, n X X -f Ax)2 5 = 0 for all x eC^g^^iS). (8.5)
1. PROJECTION METHODS FOR THE MAXWELL PROBLEM 197
To show (c) we first restrict attention to the unique solvability of
the corresponding system of equations. We will prove that for u^v =
Yli=i ^^^i the system of equations
(uiv -f An X u^, n X ^])^^^ = 0, j = 1,2,..., AT, (8.6)
has only the trivial solution. Multiply each equation in (8.6) by a^ and
sum the resulting expressions. We obtain
(ujv H- An X uj^, n x M)SJ)2^S = 0. (8.7)
Consequently, VLN = 0, and since the system {ii}^^^ is Unearly indepen-
dent on S the conclusion readily follows. Let us prove the convergence.
The completeness of the system {^i }^i yields that for uo G Cl^^{S) there
exists a sequence 14^ = Z]i=i ^^^i such that ||iv||2,5 --^ 0 as iV - cx),
where N = UN UQ represents the error of approximation on S. Then, we
have
{{UN - Uo) + An X {W^ - uj) , n X ^])^ ^ = (6iv 4- An x c^, n x ^])^ ^
(8.8)
for J = 1,2,..., iV. Subtracting (8.1c) from (8.8) we obtain
{bvLN + An X 6vL)sj,nx ^j^)^ ^ = (ejv + An x 3^,n x **>2^^ (8.9)
for j = 1,2, ...,iV. Since 6\XN == UN \IN can be expressed as a linear
combination of ^i , i = 1,2,..., iV, we find that
{6\XN -f An X 8\x*N^ n x Sn]^)2^s (^^ + An x c]^, n x 6x1*1^)2^3 (8-10)
Therefore, from
A||5uiv||2,5 = USMN 4-An X <5uj;^,n x <5u];^)2^5
= |(7V + An X *^, n X 6u*^)r^s\ < (1 + A) ||Ar||2,5 PuAr||2,5
we obtain
(8.11)
ll^"N|l2,s<^4^INjv|l2,s; (8.12)
and the conclusion follows from the triangle inequality.
1. The projection relations (8.1b) represents the closeness relations for
the complete system {4i }^j, with $i = n x *i + A*i. The discrete 198 CHAPTER VIII PROJECTION METHODS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS approximation theorem can also be applied with the sesquilinear form B : Cl^{S) x Cl^{S) ^ C defined by B(x, y) = (x 4- An X X, n X y)2 ^ and the linear functional T : C^^ni'^) ~^ ^ defined by ^( x) = (uo -f An X uo, n X 'x.)lg . In this case the sequence u^v = I3t=i ^^"^ii satisfying the projec- tion relations ((uiv - Uo) - f Anx {UN - u o ) , n X * J ) 2 5 = 0J = l,2,...,iV, (8.13) converges to UQ. Thus, the sequence u' ^, N u'^ = UA^ -f An X Uiv = ^(^^ (^i -f An X ^ ^ , (8.14) satisfying the projection relations (u'^ - u(),n X *,)2^5 = 0 , j = l,2,...,iV, (8.15) converges to UQ = UQ H- An x UQ. 2. According to part (c) of theorem 1.1 we see that the sequence u'^y, N u'^ = UAT -f An X u;^ = Y^a^'ifi -f Aaf'*n x ^l (8.16) 1 = 1 satisfying the projection relations (u' ^ - u;, , n X *;)2^^ = 0, j = 1,2, ...,7V, (8.17) converges to UQ = UQ + An x UQ. 2 PROJECTION METHODS FOR THE TRANSMISSION PROBLEM Let us now consider the analog of theorem 1.1 for the product space ?an(5). ^2 1 f ^ be a complete and linearly inde- pendent system of vector functions in ii^anC'S')? a^^ ( 2 I ^ '^tanC'^)- 2. PROJECTION METHODS FOR THE TRANSMISSION PROBLEM 199 Then the sequence (::f)=|<(ii)' satisfying the projection relations <"(("c:^)' (*})L-' (8.19) forj = 1,2,..., A^, andX > 0, converges to \ 2 ) ^^- I 2^ 2 ) \ ^0 / 11 \ ^iv "" "0 / = 0, 2,5 ^ 0 as N ^ 00. Proof: The proof of (a) follows immediately from the discrete approxi- mation theorem with the sesquilinear form B : 'Ctan('S') X'Ctan('S') ^ C given by and the linear functionary : ?an('5') ^ C given by Here, and below we use the notations x = I 2 I ^"^^ y = I 2 ) For proving (b) we define the sesquilinear form B : S^l^^iS) x Z\^^{S) -> Cb y <-) = ((:;:). ( V/ ; : J^; ) > = ( xi , n X yi + Ayi)2 5 + (x^, n x y^ + Ay^)^^ 2 0 0 CHAPTER VIII PROJECTION METHODS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS and the linear functional T : ^^J^S) * C by ^W - ( ( u l j ' i n x x ^ A x O X , , (8.21) = (uj, n X x^ + Ax^)*_^ + (ug, n X x^ + Ax^)*^^. Evidently, T \& & continuous functional on i^^^{S). The sesquilinear form B is bounded and satisfies | 5( x, x) | = < x ^ n x x l + Ax'>2g + <x2, nxx2^-Ax2> ' 2, 5 2j A m (xixi*) AS + A / |x|^ d5+ + 2jjlm{xlxl')dS + xf\x?\' dS (8.22) > A {\Wts-^M\l,s)=^\\{i) > 2,5 with x'^ = x!^eu + xje^ ,fc = 1,2. Therefore, apphcation of the discrete approximation theorem finish the proof of (b). The proof of (c) follows in the same manner as in theorem 1.1. We conclude our analysis with some final remarks. 1. We may apply the fundamental theorem of discrete approximation with the sesquihnear form B : S^t&ni^) x tan('S') -* C defined by and the linear functional f : S^t&ni^) ~* ^ defined by TM-/{ ^o + ^^^Uo\ / n x x i \ \ * ^^ ^ " \ U g + Anxug j - l ^ n x x ^ j / ^ ^ - Then we see that the sequence {t)-t^^my (-) 2. PROJECTION METHODS FOR THE TRANSMISSION PROBLEM 2 0 1 satisfying the projection relations / / K - u 5 ) + A n x K - u 5 ) \ (nx9l\\ _ \ V K - u g j + A n x f e - u g j j ' U x ^ U A s " (8.24) CI)- j = 1,2, ...,Ar, converges to ( 2 J Consequently, the sequence u JV (8.25) satisfying the projection relations . f \4 \ / uj + An X uj \ convergesto(^^?2 j = ( ^^| _^^^^^ j . 2. An analogous result can be derived from part (c) of theorem 1.1, i.e. the sequence { "^N \ _ / uj^ + An X uV* \ (8.27) satisfying the projection relations / < \ / uj + An X uj* \ convergesto(^^2 j = ( ^ ^ | ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , j . IX DISCRETE SOURCES METHOD IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY This chapter is intended as an introduction into the basic concepts of the discrete sources method (DSM) for solving electromagnetic scattering prob- lems. As in the acoustic case we will show that the electromagnetic scatter- ing problem reduces to the approximation problem of the boundary value of the incident field in the L^-norm. We do not repeat the technical as- pects of the method which are fully presented for the acoustic case. Our analysis is mainly concentrated on the construction of convergent approx- imations using the fundamental theorem of discrete approximation. For the impedance boundary-value problem we will present a somewhat dif- ferent approach which we call the D-matrix method since the matrix of the corresponding linear system of equations is dissipative. We will estab- lish the dissipativity, the convergence of the approximate solution and the solvability of the linear system of equations using the conservation law of energy. Special attention is paid to the discrete sources method with dis- tributed vector multipoles. The mathematical foundation of the method is accompanied by results of computer simulations. The numerical exper- iments include comparison with other methods and scattering analysis of concave particles and clusters of particles. 203 2 0 4 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 1 PROJECTION METHODS In this section we will use theorems 1.1 and 2.2 of the precedent chapter to construct approximate solutions to the boundary-value problems for the Maxwell equations. The analysis is valid for any linear independent and complete system of functions. To this end let us construct the approximate solution to the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem as a finite linear combination of fields of elementary sources. If the sources are located in the domain Di the ap- proximate field E^, H^ will be regular everywhere in the domain >, will satisfy the Maxwell equations and the radiation condition at the infinity. In this context the representation formula for the exact solution given by (6.79) is also valid for the approximate solution. Combining these relations we find the estimate I|E.-E.^IUG. + 1|H.-H.^IUG. ^^||"xE.-nxE^||^_^ (9.1) in any closed subset G, of Dg. According to (9.1) we see that the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem simplifies to the approximation problem of the tangential components of the incident electric field on the particle surface. In the following, we will consider the system of radiating solutions to Maxwell equations {*J^,$J[} with the following properties: the set
{n X $J[, n X$^} is linearly independent and complete in tan('S'), V x
^3 -, ;,$3 g^jjj V X$^ = k'if^. Specifically, the system {*^, <^^} stands for
the systems of localized and distributed spherical vector wave functions and
vector Mie potentials. For the system of magnetic and electric dipoles, we
take {*^i,*^2} ov {$^i,$^2} instead of {*^,*^} , where ^l^ = M^^,
*^p=Ar ^pandp=l , 2.
Let us represent the approximate electric field as a linear combination
N
and let us determine the amplitudes a^ and 6j)^, /x = 1,2, ...,iV, from the
projection relations:
(a)
/ n X Ef + n X Eo, n X $^\ = 0, (9.3) / n x E ^ + n x E o , n x *^\ =0, (9.4) (9.5) 1. PROJECTION METHODS 205 fori/ = l,2,...,iV, (b) / n X Ef -f n X Eo, n X (n X ^l) + An x ^^\ = 0, / n X Ef -h n X Eo, n X (n X ^l) -f An x *^\ = 0, for 1/ = 1,2,..., TV, and A > 0, and (c) / n X Ef 4- n X Eo + An X (n X Ef * + n x Ej) , n x( nx$^*) ) 2^ = 0,
/ n X Ef + n X Eo + An X Tn X Ef * -f n x EQ) ,
x( x*' *) >2, s = 0'
for 1/ = 1,2,..., AT and A > 0.
Then, by theorem 1.1 of Chapter 8 we have
l l nxEf - hnxEol l -^ 0 as AT- oo;
II ll2,S
thus the approximate solution converges to the exact solution in closed
subsets of i?5.
Before we proceed to analyze the impedance boundary-value problem
we note some observations:
1. The solution to the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem can
be represented by
E,(x) = f ; a^M^ (x) + 6^N3 (x), (9.6)
the convergence being uniform in any closed subset which belongs to the
exterior of the circumscribed sphere 5^. Here // is a complex index con-
taining m and n, that is /i = (m, n) and ^ = 1,2,..., when n = 1,2,..., and
m = n,..., n. The coefficients a^ and 6^ are given by
a^ = ^Z?^ J [(n X E,) Ni + j (n x H,) Mi] dS,
(9.7)
b^ = ^Z) ^y[ ( nxE, ) M3+j ( xH, ) . N| ] d5,
206 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
where /i = (m^n). Let E ^ be an approximate solution to the exterior
Maxwell problem. Then, JlEso-" Efo||2n > 0 as iV > oo, where E50
and E ^ are the far-field patterns of the exact and approximate solutions,
respectively, and ft is the unit sphere. If the system {^^,<l>^} represents
the system of localized spherical vector wave functions we see that
E K - ^I'lK oIlL +1^ - ^riK olL
/ x = l
(9.8)
+ E M' W^Ullu + l^'^i' l|N^o|l2,n - 0 a^ JV - . 00.
Since, for x fi,
n-f-l
i-j)
N3o(x) = N^o( x)
jm
Pi "! (cos g)
sin^
d4' "' ( cose)
^' d^ ^^
^jirnp
p{-jr^'
d p} rUc os e ) . p} rUc os 0 )
eg + jm r:;-e ^
d e sin^
(9.9)
it follows that
\\Ml
mn0|l2,n
| | N7yi o
j2 _ TT 4n(fi + 1) (n4-| m| )! 2w
'2,0 - j ^ 2 n + l in~\m\)\ ^ Jj^'
7772- (9.10)
Consequently, a^ -^ a^ and 6^ -^ 6^ as iV -4 00, uniformly in /i, where
/i = 1,2,..., iVo, and N Q is an arbitrary large fixed number.
2. The system of equations (9.4) is uniquely solvable even for A = 0.
Indeed, assume A: > 0 and set TAT = [a^, 6; ^] S/ i = 1,2, ...,iV. Multiply
each of the first N equations of the homogeneous system by a^*, each of
the second N equations by b^*^ and sum the final expressions. We obtain
(D^Tyv, TN )I2 = j ( n X Ef , Hf )^ ^ , (9.11)
where D^r is the matrix of the resulting system of equations. From Gauss'
theorem we known that
Re J|(nxE,^)Hf*d5Uy Efoi'da; (9.12)
1. PROJECTION METHODS 2 0 7
provided that k > 0 . Taking the imaginary part of (9.11) we are led to
Im (DA^T^V, T;V>,2 = J lEfoI'da;. (9.13)
Q
The above equation shows the dissipativity of the matrix D;v? i.e.
Im(DivTAr,TAr),2 >Ofor any T^r ^0 .
Now, let {DN TN ,TN )I2 = 0. From (9.13) we see that E ^ = 0 on ft,
and further that E ^ = 0 in D^. The linear independence of the system
{n X ^^, n X $^} finishes the proof of our assertion. The systems of discrete sources can also be used in the boundary- integral equations treatment of the exterior problem. For instance, let the scattered electric field be represented as a surface distribution of magnetic dipoles Es {x) = V X y a(y)^(x,y,A:)d5(y), (9.14) where a solves the integral equation f ^ r + - M) a = eo. (9.15) Fork^a {D^) the operator \l-\-M : Cl^^^{S) -> C^t^^^^{S) is bijective and has a bounded inverse. An approximate solution to the integral equation (9.15) can be sought in the form N by using the projection relations given in theorem 3.4 of Chapter 1. Note that the operator M : ?an('S') ^ ^tan('5) is compact and for fc ^ cr [Di), by the Fredholm alternative applied in different dual systems, the opera- tor ^T-\- M : >C^an(S') -^ ^tan('^) ^^ bijcctive and has a bounded inverse. Consequently, the approximate solution E f (x) = V X y a;v(y)5(x,y,fe)d5(y) (9.17) converges to the exact solution in closed subsets of Dg- Furthermore, we have n x E^^. n x Ef*^ -^ 0 as AT -^ oo, and this conclusion agrees with the completeness result establish for the system of functions { Q l + A^) (n X ^3) Q j ^ ^ - J ( ^$3^^
M = l , 2, . . . / f c^<7( A) }.
208 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Similar arguments can be employed for the combined integral equation
(Ix-^M-^jXAfPis i) a = eo, (9.18)
with a real coupling parameter A ^ 0. Here, the operator Pr stands for the
projection of a vector field defined on S onto the tangent plane
P r a = ( nxa ) x n (9.19)
and So is the single layer operator in the potential Umit case fc = 0. In this
case the scattered electric field is represented as a combined magnetic and
electric dipole distribution
E,(x) = VX Ja{y)g{x,y,k)d S{y)
s
-h jXV X V X jn{y) x {SSe L){y)g{x,y,k)d S{y).
(9.20)
s
Note that the operator i J -h A^ -h j WP r 5g : ^^, ^(5) -^ Cj*;^,rf(5) is bi-
jective and has a bounded inverse. Furthermore, we have compacteness of
M -f j WP r 5 g from tan('S) into tan('5), and by the Predholm alterna-
tive applied in different dual systems, the operator ^X \- M \- JXMVXSQ :
^tan('S') ^tan('S') is bijcctivc and has a bounded inverse.
Approximate solutions to the impedance boundary-value problem can
be constructed in an analogous manner. The representation formulas for
the exact and approximate solutions E,Hs, and E^ , H^ yield the esti-
mate
i | E . - E n U a . + l | H. - H^ ' I U.
< C ||(n X E, - 7n X (n X H,)) - [n x E^ - i n x (n x H^)] ||
(9.21)
in any closed subset Gs of Dg. Evidently, the impedance boundary-value
problem simplifies to the minimization problem of the residual fields on the
particle surface.
For the time being let us express the approximate electric and magnetic
fields as
Ef(x) = f ; a; r *^( x) + 6i r *^( x) , xD. ,
(9.22)
AT
H^(x) = -jXaj)'$3(x) + 6;r*3(x),xD.. 1. PROJECTION METHODS 209 It is readily seen that we may use part (a) of theorem 1.1 given in Chapter 8 to determine the ampUtudes of discrete sources from the normal equations / n X Ef - 7n X (n X Hf ) - f,n x ^l -hnn x (n x ^l)\ = 0, / n X Ef ~ 7n X (nx Hf ) - f, n x$^ -h j'yn x (n x *^ ) \ = 0,
(9.23)
where i/ = 1,2,..., AT, Re7 > 0 and f = n x E^- i n x (n x H^). The linear
independence and the completeness of the system
{n X *^ H-J7n x (n x $^) , n x$^ -f J7n x (n x *^ ) ,
i/ = l,2,. . . / Re7>0}
guarantee the convergence of the approximate solution in closed subsets of
We will now present an alternative approach which we call the D-
matrix method since the matrix of the resulting system of equations is
dissipative. The dissipativity is established as a consequence of the conser-
vation law of energy.
Let us determine the coefficients a^ and b^ from the following projec-
tion relations
^ n x E f - 7 n x ( n x H f ) - f , $^ ) = 0, (9.24) ^ n x E f - 7 n x ( n x Hf ) - f , ^ ^ ^ = 0, for u = 1,2,.... Substituting the expressions of the approximate electric and magnetic fields into (9.24) we obtain the following system of equations (9.25) where Dli = J[nx^l+nnx{nx(S>l)].^l*d S, s Dil = y[ nx$^+j 7nx( nx*3) ] . $3d5, 2 10 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Dll = J[nx^l-i-nnx{nx^l)]-^l*d S, s (9.26) For simplicity, let us assume fe > 0 and Re7 > 0. Then, the following theorems are valid. THEOREM 1.1: The s ys te m (9.25) is unique ly s olvable for any fixe d N . Proof: We will establish the dissipativity of the I^N matrix, i.e. we will establish that the inequahty Im (DTVTTV, TAr)^2 < 0 holds for any T^v = [a^, 6^] , /x = 1,2,..., AT, and in addition that {DN TI^.TN )^ = 0 if and only if TN = 0. We choose an arbitrary T^^ and construct the vector fields E ^ and H^ according to (9.22). It is readily seen that (DyvT^v, Tw), . = -j ( n X E,^ - 7n x ( n x H, ^) , H, ^) ^ ^ . (9.27) Taking the imaginary part of this equation and using (9.12) we obtain Im (D;vT,v, T;v),2 = - J |E,^ol'du; - J Re7| n x H^\^d S, (9. 28) Since Re7 > 0, (9.28) shows the dissipativity of the matrix D^^. The claim (DTVTJV, Tiv)/2 = 0 if and only if T^^ = 0 follows as in observation 2. THEOREM 1.2: Le t the approximate s olution to the impe d anc e bound ary-value proble m be give n by (9.22), whe re the ve c tor of amplitud e s Tjs j s olve the s ys te m (9.25). The n lim | | Eo-E,^o| l2n = 0, (9-29) whe re E50 is the far-fie ld patte rn of the e xac t s olution E^, Hg. Proof: We debut by showing that the sequence H^ is bounded for any N . In (9.24) we multiply the first set of N equations by ja* , the second one by jbl and sum the resulting expressions. We get as before ( n X E,^ - 7n X (n X H^ ) - f, H^)^^^ = 0. (9.30) 2 1. PROJECTION METHODS 2 11 Taking the real part of (9.30), using (9.12), and the identity | a ~b | = |a|^ 4- |b|^ - 2 Re (a b*), we find that + / | v / R i T n x H f - ^ n x f (9.31) The above relation shows that the sequence H^ is bounded for any N . Since the system {n X ^l 4-J7n x (n x #^) , n x ^l+nn x (n x ^l), i/ = l,2,.../ Re7>0} is complete in ^tanC*^) there exist the vector fields N (9.32) such that and \imJ\e !,\\2S=0 (9.33) lim | | E30-5i X| U = 0- (9-34) Here, cjv = n x ^ jnx (n x H^) f represents the discrepancies of the tangential fields on the surface 5, and ^ is the far-field pattern of the approximate solution ^, H^. Then, we use (9.24) and (9.35) ( n x f f - 7 n x ( n x K f ) - f , *^ > 2 , 5 = (7V,*^>2,5 to derive the following set of equations (9.36) ( n x 5 E f - 7 n x ( n x 6 Hf ) , *3 ) ^ ^ = {e N ,^l\s 2 1 2 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS for the residual fields SE^ = f f - E f and 6H^ = Wf - H ^ . Since 6Ef and 5H^ are expressed as linear combinations of ^^ and ^^, fi = 1,2, ...,A/^, we conclude that / [(n X 6Ef ) . 6H^* + 7| n x 6Hf p] d S = f CN - m f *d5, (9.37) s s or, equivalently, that /| (5E^oPda;+ / Re 7 | n X( 5 Hf | 2 d 5 = Re l f CN - 6H^*d S' Q S I s . < | | 6;.| | 2,5| | 5Hf| | ,_^. (9.38) The uniform boundedness of the sequence H^ with respect to A^ and (9.38) gives The triangle inequality and (9.34) may now be used to conclude. From (9.26) we see that in the case of axisymmetric scatterers the surface integrals simplify to one-dimensional integrals along the particle generator. The problem decouples over the azimuthal modes and therefore the amount of computer storage required to solve the scattering problem is not excessive high. In contrast, for particles without rotational symmetry it is not possible to obtain a separate solution for each azimuthal mode. Consequently, the dimensions of the linear systems of equations consider- ably increases. This leads to increased difficulties that are associated with the stability of the solutions. Effective solutions of these systems appear to be possible only by means of iterative schemes. It is therefore reasonable to analyze the correct solvability of the system (9.25) in order to investigate the applicability of iterative schemes. For the system of localized spherical vector wave functions we can prove the following theorem. THEOREM 1.3: The s ys te m (9.25) is c orre c tly s olvable for any fixe d N . Proof: We have / ^ 1 (9 40) 1. PROJECTION METHODS 213 This implies the correct solvability of the system (9.25), i.e. ||DivTAr||/2 > c \\TM\y. In this context it is possible to use iterative schemes such as GMRES (see, e.g. Saad and Schultz, [132]) for any fixed value of the truncation index N . We will now present some computer simulations in order to give a clear picture on the convergence of the D-matrix method. As reference we choose the conventional null-field method. The conventional null-field method for the impedance boundary-value problem consists in the projection relations: s (9.41) - ^ j {nxn)-{^l^-hnx^l)d S = -bl, s for f/ = 1,2,..., where i ^ I [(n X Eo)$^ 4- j (n X Ho) *^] d5,
s
(9.42)
hi = - j | . y [ ( n x E o ) - ^ ^ + j ( n x H o ) . # ^ ] d 5
s
and H stands for the total magnetic field, i.e. H = H^ + HQ. An approx-
imation of the tangential component of the total magnetic field may be
sought in the form
N
n x H ^ = - j ^ a ; y n x $i - f 6 ^ n x * i , (9.43) where the amplitudes a^ and b^, ^1= 1,2,..., iV, solve the truncated system of equations (9.41). The approximate scattered field is E f = f ; / , ^ M^ + 5^N^, (9.44) where fc2 / i ^ = - ^ y ( n x H ^ ) . ( M H i 7 n x N ^ ) d 5 , s 9^ = ~ y ' ( n x H ^ ) . ( N ^ + J 7 n x Mi ) d 5 (9.45) 214 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS 1.12 1.04 0. 96 DSCS a t 0 = 180 deg 0. 88 -^D-matrix method -^NFM-radiating functions -e-NFM-regular funct i ons 19 23 27 Tr u n c a t i o n i n d e x 31 35 FIGURE 9.1 Normalized differential scattering cross-section at the scattering angle 0 = 180 for different values of the truncation index. The scatterer is a prolate spheroid with 7 = 1 and semiaxes ka = 10 and kb = 2. and V = {m^n). In our examples we consider the scattering by prolate spheroids. The in- cident field is a p-polarized plane wave propagating along the particle sym- metry axis. The surface current density is approximated by linear combi- nations of distributed spherical vector wave functions M^\ and M^n- The expansion coefficients can be found separately for each azimuthal mode m and note that only two azimuthal modes, m = 1, are required for solution construction. Therefore, the convergence of the projections schemes can be analyzed by varying the number of discrete sources rimax- Assuming the incident field to have unit amplitude we evaluate the differential scattering cross-section (DSCS) in the azimuthal plane (p = 0. Figures 9.1 and 9.2 show the normalized differential scattering cross-section at the scattering angle 0 = 180 for a prolate spheroid with semiaxes ka = 10 and kb = 2 and two values of 7, 7 = 1 and 7 = 8. In addition to the conventional null-field method we used an approach in which the surface current density is approximated by the tangential components of radiating functions, i.e. n X N M = l (9.46) 1. PROJECTION METHODS 215 1. 14 DSCS a t 0 = 180 deg 1. 06 H 0. 98 0. 90- ] 0. 82 -^D-matrix method -^NFM-radiating f unct i ons -B-NFM-regular f unct i ons Q B B B B- 22 26 30 34 38 42 Truncation index n rn^^ FIGURE 9.2 The same as in Figure 9.1 but the curves correspond to 7 = 8. In Figure 9.3 we plot the differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with ka = 10 and kb = 2. The curves are computed with the con- ventional null-field method and the D-matrix method. In order to achieve convergence we use 18 discrete sources in the first case, while 38 discrete sources are necessary in the second case. The discrepancy concerning the number of sources used is more pronounced if the aspect ratio increases. The results plotted in Figure 9.4 correspond to a prolate spheroid with ka = 10 and kb = 1. As before, 18 discrete sources lead to accurate results in the conventional method, while 48 discrete sources are required in the D-matrix method. Our numerical analysis demonstrates that the D-matrix method leads to convergent results but its efficiency is inferior to that of the conventional null-field method. We pay now attention to the transmission boundary-value problem. Let us represent the approximate electric and magnetic fields E^ and H^ in the exterior domain D5 as a linear combination of discrete sources with singularities distributed in A. In this case E^ and H^ are analytic in Ds ' Analogously^ let us represent the approximate electric and magnetic fields Ef^ and Hf^ in the interior domain Dt using elementary sources distributed in Dg. Consequently, Ef^and Hf^ are analytic in D^. Then, the representation formulas (6.93) and (6.94) are also valid for the approximate solutions. Taking into account the continuity conditions on the particle surface, we obtain the estimate 216 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS l E- 01 l E- 02 l E- 03 l E- 04 l E- 05 l E- 06 l E- 07 DSCS NFM o D- mat r i x method 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Scattering angle (deg) FIGURE 9.3 Differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with 7 = 8 and semiaxes ka = 10 and kb 2. l E- Ol l E- 02 l E- 03 l E- 04 l E- 05 l E- 06 l E- 07 l E- 08 DSCS NFM o D- mat r i x method 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Scattering angle (deg) FIGURE 9.4 Differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with 7 = 8 and semiaxes ka = 10 and kb 1. 1. PROJECTION METHODS 217 E , - E N oo,Gs H , - H N oc.Gs -f Ei-Ef" 0 0 ,Gr 4- Hi -Hf oo, Gt < C n x E f + n X Eo - n X Ef N 2,5 (9.47) 4- n X Hf + n X Ho n X Hf^ 2,Sj in any closed sets Gg C As and G/ C D?. The estimate (9.47) reflects the basic principle of the discrete sources method: an approximate solution to the transmission boundary-value problem minimizes the residual electric and magnetic fields on the particle surface. Once again we may rely on the result of the preceding chapter to con- struct the solution. The departure point is to represent the approximate solutions as M=i Ms,t _#3, l (x) (9.48) V l^s ,i for X Ds ^i, and to determine the amplitudes a^'*^, 6^'*^, fi = 1,2,..., AT, by using the completeness of the system n X ^^'1 -1J^n X$7/
V ^^s A
~J
n X $^'^ n X *^' i , / / = l , 2, . . . (9.49) in tan(*^)- For example, the explicit form of the projection relations (a) given by theorem 2.2 of the precedent chapter is n X E f 4- n X Eo - n X E f n X i i f + n X Ho - n X i i f - J n X$^'^
^ " n x * ^ i
= 0,
2.5
n X E f 4- n X Eo - n X E f
n X Hf + n X Ho - n X Hf ~J
n X v[r^'i
n X ^y
= 0,
2,5
(9.50)
218 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
for 1/ = 1,2,..., N . Further application of this theorem leads to projection
schemes involving the control parameter A.
The systems of discrete sources can also be used in the boundary-
integral equations treatment of the transmission problem. The transmis-
sion problem is usually reduced to a pair of coupled integral equations for a
pair of unknown tangential vector fields. These fields may be approximated
by entire-boundary bases consisting in fields of discrete sources (9.49). An
excellent review of direct and indirect methods using pairs of coupled inte-
gral equations over the particle surface was given by Martin and Ola [100).
Their analysis also includes several integral equations for single unknown
tangential vector fields.
We conclude this section with the following remarks.
1. The projection schemes (9.3), (9.23) and (9.50) use normal equa-
tions for amplitudes determination. This technique is employed in
the discrete sources method by Cadilhac and Petit [19], and Ikuno
e t al. [74]. There are two special features which are associated
with this method. First, the rate of convergence is low. For two-
dimensional geometries Yasuura mastered this problem by equip-
ping the standard method with a smoothing procedure. In this
case the convergence of the numerical scheme becomes faster by in-
creasing the order p of the iterated kernel. In the electromagnetic
case the projection schemes (9.4) and (9.5) for the exterior Maxwell
problem, and their analog for the transmission problem have a su-
perior rate of convergence than (9.3) and (9.50), respectively. We
will prove this assertion in the framework of the null-field method.
The parameter A is a measure of the convergence rate and plays the
same role as the parameter p in the Yasuura smoothing method.
The second feature is that this scheme is numerically unstable. As
it was shown in the acoustic case the collocation method with non-
square matrices leads to a more stable numerical algorithm.
2. Actually, any complete system of functions can be used to represent
the solution. However, the widely used system of functions is the
system of multiple spherical vector wave functions. In this case one
must be careful to choose the location and the order of each pole,
the number of multipoles and the distribution of matching points.
Some useful criteria have been summarized as follows, and a com-
puter program for automatically optimizing the expansion functions
has been successfully developed. Firstly, the matching points on the
boundary should be set with enough density, and the intervals be-
tween adjacent pairs of matching points must be far less than the
wavelength for suppressing errors of expansion on the boundary.
Secondly, the poles should be neither too near nor too far from the
boundary, since the former requirement may avoid alternative errors
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES 2 19
corresponding to non-physical rough solution on that interval; and
a well-conditioned matrix will be formulated with the latter require-
ment. According to the quasi-local behavior of multipole expansion,
only a restricted area around its origin is influenced by this pole,
so that a reasonable scheme is to let the area of influence of each
pole fit a portion of the boundary, but the whole boundary must
be covered by the areas of influence of all the poles. Finally, the
highest order of a pole is limited by the density of matching points
covered by its area of influence. On the other hand a term with a
high order n^^^ will result in an oscillatory solution on the inter-
val spanned by the largest view-angle ^p from the nearest poles;
for example, let nj^^x^p <^ ^/2- Pertinent analysis concerning the
location and number of expansion poles was given by Leuchtmann
[91], RegH [129] and Beshir and Richie [12].
2 MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES
2.1 Formulations
In this section we will analyze the scattering by axisymmetric particles in
the framework of the discrete sources method with distributed vector mul-
tipoles. Specifically, we will construct the approximate solution as a linear
combination of discrete sources by taking into account the polarization of
the external excitation. Essentially, our analysis relies on the Bromwich
theorem which states that any entire solution to Maxwell equation can be
represented as a superposition of a TM and a TE wave.
We debut with the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem. Let S
be an axisymmetric surface and let (2) c F^ be a bounded sequence of
points distributed on the symmetry axis. Suppose that the approximate
solution is represented as a linear combination of vector multipoles M^^p
and M^np' Straightforward calculations show that the components of these
functions, in cylindrical coordinates, depends explicitly on exp[j(m + 1)<^],
exp{J7rnp) and exp\j{m 1)<^). This leads to a recursive scheme for ampli-
tude determination with an increased computational complexity. In order
to master this problem we consider the set of vector multipoles with positive
values of the index m
k
where r'"(Tj) = /i^>(A;r)/^(cos0), p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., and m =
0,1,. . . .
Let us assume that the external excitation is a linearly polarized plane
wave with the wave vector lying in the xz-plane and enclosing the angle
j e ^ W = i VxA^^Cx) , (9.52)
220 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
(77 7) with the particle symmetry axis. In the case of the TM polarization
we have
Eo(x) = (cos7ea: -sin7e^)e--?'^(^^^'''^^"^'>+^^^^),
(9.53)
Ho ( x ) = e e-j'c(^cos</5sin74-2:cos7)
We express now the incident electric field in cylindrical coordinates.
Each component of the incident field can be expanded into a Fourier series
with respect to the azimuthal variable ^ and we receive
00
Eo(x) = Y. ^m (7) cos(mv^)e^ + ^^{ri) sin(mv?)e^ + ^^(ri) cos(mv.)e,
m=0
(9.54)
where
^ m^ ( ^ ) = ^ ^ = ^ ( - j ) " ^ + ^ C O S 7 l J m + l ( f e p s i n 7 ) - J m - l ( f c ^
^m^(^) = (-j )^+^cos7[J^+i (fcpsi n7) + J^_i(fcpsin7)]G(^, 7),
^^^ry) = -(2~6, o)(-J)"^si n7Jm(fcpsi n7)G(^, 7)
(9.55)
and G(z, 7) = exp(jA;>2:cos7). Taking into account that the unit normal
vector to 5 has only p- and 2;-components we have
00
n (x) X Eo (x) = ^ e^(T?) sin(mv?)ep + e^^(7) cos(m(^)e^
m=0
(9.56)
+ e^^(7)sin(mv')e, = J ] e^( x) .
m=0
Let us represent the approximate solution as
E f ( x ) = 5 ; E - n [ - ^ m 2 ( x ) + A 1 ^ ^ l ( x ) ]
m=0 n =l
+ ft^nl^^-nlW - A/'^^2(X)] + Y. C^"'A^33(X), X >,.
7 1 = 1
(9.57)
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES 221
Then, we have the following theorem.
THEOREM 2.4: Cons id e r the bound e d s e que nc e [zn) C F^, whe re Tz
is a s e gme nt of the z-axis . As s ume S is a s urfac e of c las s C^ e nc los ing
Tz and le t Eo,Ho be give n by (9.53). The n, for any s > 0 the re e xis ts
N o = (m^ax. Ki^x) s ^c h that
| n x Eo - f n x Ef | | 2 ^ ^ < (9.58)
Proof: For the azimuthal mode m = 0 it has to shown that for any
e > 0 there exists n?,^^ such that
^0+ 5^Cn"**''nxjV^
'3c
0n3
n = l
<^,
(9.59)
2,5
where eo(x) = 6o*^(?7)e . According to the Bromwich theorem any tan-
gential field which do not depends on (p can be approximated by linear
combinations of n x MQ ^S^ n x MQ ^^, n x A/0^3 and n x A/ons- Taking into
account that
M^ns i^) = I i^'^niv) sin mipe p - ^^n( ^) cosm(/?e^],
(9.60)
Xmn3(x) = ~ ^ [Atniv) COS mifSp + ^^^i v ) sin niife ^]
and
J^mi^)
1 jd AP^
fe2 \ d z
{T])c os {m'p)e p +
a^
(r;)sin(m(^)e,^
1 \d {pAP^n)
PL ^Z'
(r,) + mA%,Jri) cos(m(^)e
}
1 (f)AP BA^
Ae',3(x) = p| 2j f f l ( . , ) s i n( mv) e , - 2j ^( r , ) c os ( my) e
MT*"''""'""""
sin(m9P)e,
}
(9.61)
where
A'mni^) = ^ i n ) and A^( T7) = - ^ F ^ C T ; ) ,
222
CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
we see that eg is orthogonal to n x A^onS ^^^ ^ ^ -^OnS with respect to the
scalar product in L^([0,27r]). Furthermore, since n x A^onS = 0 it follows
that (9.59) holds.
Going further, it has to shown that for any e > 0 there exists n^a.x
such that
0
n=l
+ 6 : i - n x ( Ae i - Ae n 2 ) I L. <^ ,
(9.62)
2,5
where
m+i = e^4-isin[(m-f l)<^]ep + e^^^.iCos[(m+l)v?]e^
- f e^+i si n[( m- f l)<^]e^
(9.63)
and m = 0, 1, . . . . Eremin and Sveshnikov [55] proved that in cyhndrical
coordinates any tangential vector field of the forms
(. sin(m -f l)<p, . cos(m -I-1)(/?, . sin(m 4- l)(p)
or
(. cos(m -h 1)(^, . sin(m H-1)(/?, . cos(m -j-1)(^)
with m = 0, 1, . . . , can be approximated by linear combinations of n x
{M^r^n2 + ><^*ni). H X {Mf^, - M^^^^^h ^ X {Af^2 + J^ni) and n X
{^rl%^-^f^n2) Sinc e
1
+ ^mn(7)cos(m + l Ve ^
(9.64)
1
(9.65)
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES
223
and
Aenl ( x) - A/ - ^^n2( x) = ^ { { " ^ [^^n(^) + ^ ^ r , ) ]
-f
- ^ ( T 7 ) | c o s ( m + l Vep
^^mn / \ , ^(-^mn + -^mn) / \
dz dp
X sin(m + l)tpe^
1
+ -
P
d {pA^J
dp
X cos(m + l)'pGt} ,
( 77) - ( m + l )^^(T, )
(9.66)
^f^n2i^)+^/^nli^) = [[-^lA?.n{v)+At,
M
where
dA?.
dz
dA
iv)
> sin( m + l)<pep
dz
X cos(m + l)(fe ^
(n) + ^(^^HLti^(^)
dp
1
+ -
p
dp
X si n( m+ l)(pe z} ,
( r 7) - ( m- hl ) A^Jr 7)
(9.67)
we see that e^^.^ is orthogonal to n x {M^^i ~ ^mn2) ^^^ n x (A/^n2 +
A/^ni) with respect to the scalar product in L^([0,27r]). This finishes the
proof of the theorem.
2 2 4 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
The far-field pattern of the approximate solution E ^ may be written
as E ^ = E^^e e -h E^^e ^, where
E&{St) = - - ^ ^ 5 ^ ( - i r c o s ( m + l V
1^ m=0 n=l
^max I
X ia^ + jb^ cos d )u;,nn {0 ) - j sin 6 J ^ <- - a; on (0 ) \ ,
n=l J
1 ^^max ^max
771=0 n = l
(9.68)
and uJrnn (^) = (2m 1)! ! sin^ 0exp(jfc^n cos&).
Relying on this representation we can state the following result.
THEOREM 2.5: Le t S be a s urfac e of c las s C^ and le t n d e note s the
unit outward normal to S. The n the s ys te m
{n X (M^^2+-A^mi). n x {M^n.-Ml'^^).
n = l , 2, . . . , m = 0,1,...} U ( n X A/'^^a, n = l , 2, . . . }
is line arly ind e pe nd e nt in 'C^^{S).
Proof: Assume
nax 'max
Y^ ^ amnn X {M^^2 + M^i) + bmnti X (A/^i - Af^%2)
m=0 n=l
(9.69)
^max
+ ^ CnnxA/?^3 = 0 on 5,
n=l
for some constants amn^ bmn s-nd Cn, n = 1,2,..., rimax? Tn = 0, 1, . . . , mmax-
Then, the field
^ = E E - " ( ^ mn 2 + Mtnl) + &mn (A/^^x " AT^^z) + E '^"^On's
Tn=0 n\ n=l
(9.70)
vanishes in Ds \ thus the far-field pattern Q given by (9.68) vanishes on the
unit sphere 17. The orthogonality of the c os [unp) and sin(m(/?) gives
2 J (^mn + jb mn COS 0 )LJmn (0 ) = 0,
n=l
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES 2 2 5
^ (amn COS 0 + jbmn)(^mn {0) = 0,
n=l
(9.71)
' I' max
y ^ Cn s in 9uon{0 ) = 0 ,
n=l
for all m = 0, 1, . . . , mmax and any 0 [0, TT] . From (9.71) it follows that the
far-field patterns of the vector fields im ^^'ZT ^rnn
^2m = T.IZX bmn {J^%i " A^^na) and 3 = Y^lZX CnA/?^3 Vanish on fi for
all m = 0, 1, ...,mmax- Hence, the fields 5im, f2m and z vanish in Dg and
also in B? - {z^e ^rrZr Since M^^^ + A^^f^j, A^ki - A/^n2 and yV?=3
are singular at z^ = Zn^3 we can proceed as in theorem 2.34 of Chapter 7
to conclude.
In the case of the TE polarization we have
Eo(x) = ej,e-'^'^^^'^^^'^^'"^+^^^^\
(9.72)
Ho ( x ) = (cOS7e:, - S i n i e j ^-jk{pcos^sm^-^zcos^)
and the approximate solution read as
m=0 n=l
+ t ^ l Ae n 2 ( x ) + A/;^^i(x)] + X ; C" - A^ r n 3 ( x ) , X D . .
n=l
(9.73)
A similar result as stated in theorem 2.4 holds for the approximate solution
(9.73). The far-field pattern E ^ has the components
^U^) = ^ I ] E ( - J r s i n ( m + l Ma ^ - j < c o s e ) a ; ^ ( 0 ) ,
m=0 n\
I m=0 n=l
^ ma x I
X ( a ^ COS0 - jb^rd^mn {0) - siuO ^^ ^"''"'^On (0) \
n=l J
(9.74)
2 2 6 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
and evidently the system
n =l , 2 , . . . , m = 0, l , . . . }u{nx7Wg^3, n = l , 2, . . . }
is linearly independent in tan('5)-
The approximate solutions given by (9.57) and (9.73) are written in
terms of multipoles and dipoles which are oriented in agreement with the
polarization of the incident plane wave. Thus, in the TM case the electric
vector lies in the incident plane and has x- and ^-components, while the
magnetic vector has got the t/-component only. For the TE case we have an
inverse situation. For approximating the zeroth Fourier harmonic we use
vertical dipoles of electric type for the TM case, and of magnetic type for
TE case. Note that the orientation of the dipoles is along the z-axis. Thus
the representations (9.57) and (9.73) incorporates the axial symmetry of
the scatterer and the polarization of the external excitation.
Next we briefly analyze the transmission boundary-value problem. In
the case of a TM-polarized plane wave excitation we seek the approximate
solutions in the form
E, ^i W = E E < n ^ K n 2 ( x ) + M^^Jri(x)]
m=0 n=l
'*rnax
n=l
f ^^max y^-max
V ^^.^ I m=0 n=l ^ ^
^max 'j
n=l J
(9.75)
for X Dg^i, where
A^XCx) = ^ x { ^ n - ( . ) ( r Z ) e . } , (9.76)
KVpi^) = i v x 7 WX ( x ) , (9.77)
X^{r)) = j^ikr)P^icosen), p = 1,2,3, n = 1,2,..., and m = 0,1,. . . . As
usually, the radiating functions are defined with respect to the wave number
kg, while the regular functions are defined with respect to the wave number
ki. For the system of vector functions (9.75) we have the following result.
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES 2 2 7
THEOREM 2.6: Consider the bounded sequence (zn) C F^, where Fz
is a segment^of the z-axis. Assume S is a surface of class C^ enclosing Tz
and let Eo,Ho be given by
Eo(x) = (cosjea^ - sin7e^)e~^'*^(^^^""^+^^^>,
Ho(x) = -- /ileye"-'^'*^(^^^*'^^"^+^^^^\
V ^s
Then, for any e > 0 there exists No = (mj^g^, n^^^) such that
In X Eo + n X E{^ - n x Ef | |
I * * 112,5
-f lln X Ho -f n X Hfo _ n X M 4 < e.
11 Il2,5
(9.78)
(9.79)
The proof of this theorem can be adapted from that of theorem 2.4
with only minor alterations and is omitted.
In the case of the TE polarization we have
Eo(x) = e e''^^^^^^^'^^^^'^'^^^^^'^\
Ho(x) = J (cos7e^ - sinie^) e-i^(^^v^"T'-^-^^^T)
V /^5
and the approximate solution can be constructed as
m=0 n=l
"max
n=l
nmax 1
n=l J
(9.81)
for X ^s,i. A similar result as stated in theorem 2.6 holds.
Completeness is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the con-
vergence of the approximate solution. As it was shown in the acoustic
2 2 8 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
case, the sequence of amplitudes is bounded if and only if the support
of discrete sources encloses the singularities of the scattered field. There-
fore, the distribution of the poles on the symmetry axis restricts the ap-
plicability of the method. In order to avoid this problem we may use
the procedure of analytic continuation of the multipoles representations
(9.51) and (9.76) into the complex plane along the source coordinate Zn-
This technique was already discussed in the acoustic case. We only note
that the region in which the functions Y^^{7]) = /im (fc^n)^m (cos ^n) and
X^{rj) = jm(fci?n)^m (cos^n) are analytic with respect to the variable z
is the domain D C S, whose boundary L coincides with the image of the
generator of revolution L C E. Thus, for a sequence of poles (z^) C ID
distributed symmetrical with respect to the Rez-axis and having at least
two limit points in I), the approximate solutions can be constructed in the
forms (9.75) and (9.81).
Enerjy characteristics in the far zone are computed from the far-field
pattern E^ . The components of E ^ for an unit amplitude incident elec-
tric field are given by (9.68) for TM polarization, and by (9.74) for TE
polarization. The angle-dependent intensity function frequently used is
the differential scattering cross-section given by
CTd
(9.82)
The normalized differential scattering cross section is defined as
7r\ksa\
(9.83)
where a is a characteristic dimension of the particle. The normalized ex-
tinction cross-section is
^ e xt
\k
where e \nc is the polarization vector of the incident wave and E ^ is evalu-
ated in the forward direction.
Let us discuss now some aspects of the numerical algorithm.- From our
constructive proof of theorem 2.4 we see that we are able to transform our
original two-dimensional approximation problem into a sequence of one-
dimensional problems relative to each azimuthal mode. In this context the
amplitudes of discrete sources can be obtained by minimizing the residual
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES
harmonics on the particle surface,
229
p ^ = argmm
,+1 -f n X E ^ - n X Ef in < hi; (n x Eo,i
( n X Ho,^+i + n X H i > n X H, ^ ) | | ' J ,
(9.85)
where w (6) = (27rr (0 ) sin 6) ' and r == r{6) is the equation of the gen-
erator. For m = 0,l,...,mmax, we set p ^ = [alnn^bl^^.af^^.bf^^] , n =
1,2, ...,nniax? while for m = 1 we set by convention p_i = [cjj,c^]^,n =
1,2, ...,nmax- We mention that for m = 0, 1, ...,mmax, E^im ^^^ H^^^
are represented by a linear combination of vector multipoles, while for
m = 1, E^^_i and H^^_i are represented by a linear combination of
vertical dipoles. However, as stated several times, this procedure leads to a
normal system of equations which is fundamentally unstable for amplitude
determination. Therefore, we use the point-matching method to satisfy the
boundary conditions. Let us consider the set of collocation points {^jY^^i
at the generator of the surface. The number of matching points is chosen
to be 8 10 for each wavelength (so the matching points are spaced at A/8
to A/10), which is the usual rule for boundary approximation. We obtain
the unknown vectors Pm from the relation (9.85) while understanding it as
a pseudosolution of a non-square linear system
BmPTn=qm, m = 0, ...,mn
(9.86)
with Bm being a overdetermined matrix, B ^ = [B^] ? J = 1? ? 4jmax? 2 =
l,...,4nniax- The reasonable ratio of collocation points and number of
sources was established as 1 < Jmax/^max < 2. The vector in the right-
hand side (9.86) is a 4jniax vector.
20 r
(9.87)
where e^^ = ^{Vj), h^j = h^iVj)^ ^ stands for r or ip and Pm is a 4nmax
vector. The components of the vector (9.87) are given by
e^+i(r/) = (-j)^cos7[Jm(fc5psin7) 4- Jm+2{ks P^v^l)\G{z,^),
2 3 0 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
^m-^iiv) = (~j)'^ {e? COS J [Jm{ksp sin j) - Jm^2{k8psm^)]
4- 2je^smyJm-^i{kspsmj)}G{z,j),
^m+l ( ^) = {-JT J^[Jrn(ksPSm^) - Jm^2{Kp^y^i)\G{z,i),
V f^s
^m^-xkn) = -{-3T J^e%\Jrn{ksPS\ni) -f Jm->r2{Kp^mi)\G{z,i)
V /^s
( 9. 88)
for TM polarization and by
'^m^M) = ~(-Jr[*/m(fcpsin7) - Jni+2(fcpsin7)]G(2;,7),
e Xi ( ^) = (-Jre?[J^(fc,/9sin7)-hJm+2(fc./)sin7)]G(^,7),
^m+i(^) = {-j)'^J^cos'y[Jm{kspsm^) + Jm+2(fc3psin7)]G(2:,7),
V /^a
^^+i(^) = (""^')'^i/r- {e?cos7(J^(fc^psin7) -- Jn,+2(fc5/>sin7)]
V " a
+ 2je^sin7Jr+i(fc5/^sin7)}G(^,7)
(9.89)
for TE polarization. Here, e^ and e* are the components of the unit vector
Cr which is tangent to L.
For the harmonic not depending on (p we have two separate systems
(for either TM or TE polarization)
B_ i p _ i = q _ i , (9.90)
with a right-hand side vector of length 2jmax and a 2jniax x 2ninax matrix
B_i . Note, that in this case we have
^"^{v) = -[;e?cos7Ji(fcapsin7) 4- e^sin7Jo(fc5/)sin7)]G(>2:,7),
^''iv) = -jJ^Ji{kspsm-f)G{z,j)
V f^8
(9.91)
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES 231
for TM polarization and
^''(v) = jJi{ks ps in'y)G{z,y),
'^o'^(^) = -,/[je?cos7Ji(A:5psin7) 4-e*sin7Jo(A^5psin7)]G'(2:,7)
V ^s
(9.92)
for TE polarization.
At first glance we have to consider two kinds of systems (9.86), sep-
arately for TM and TE cases. However, the fortunate of the proposed
scheme is that it is possible to use only one matrix B (corresponding to
TM case) for both TM and TE polarizations. To show this, let us write
the matrix equation for the TM polarization as
BZ^ -.
Mi
mjn
AST
rnj
B:
mjn
^s nsip
mjn
_mjr,
-5 AS<p
Us "*' " (9.93)
^mn
mn
^mn
L ^mn .
=
TM
J^m-hhj
jh'^
TM
where
A:;,% = e? {nt]:2{Vj) + ntWirjj))^ + e^ (m^iTzC^i) + ^n'^niiVj))^ .
Bmjn = [^ml^liVj) ^ ^ml^2iVj)) y
(9.94)
and where, for instance, (m^^*^2 "+" ^mn\\ stands for the p-component of
M^n*2 + ^^mn\ Gxccptiug the azimuthal dependence. In the case of the TE
m,jn
and
*'mn2
232 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
polarization we have
(9.95)
r a^
mn
L mn
=
TE fh'S
TE
The above system of equations may be written as
_ Air
^"tnjn
^l TDiT
r
L
mn
-b'
mn
^mn
^mn .
=
TE
AIT
'^^mjn
^^(fmjn
AST
^mjn
Q ST
^pijn
^^ AST
A9'P
mjn
(9.96)
J TE
and clearly we can treat both polarization by using the same matrix but
with two different right-hand parts. We mention that for the zero harmonic
the systems (9.90) do not allow such a reduction and still have to be solved
separately.
An interesting feature of this method consists of the fact that the scat-
tering characteristics corresponding to different plane wave incidences may
be computed in parallel, since the matrix B ^ does not contain any infor-
mation on the inclination of the plane wave. This fact is useful for further
applications since the matrix factorization is the most time-consuming nu-
merical operation. For axial incidence (7 = 0) both right-hand sides of
(9.86) are zero. The same happen to all mth harmonics except the first, so
that the axial incidence produces only one system (9.86) for m = 0.
The above method can be applied to different classes of problems with-
out any serious refinements. For instance, it can be directly employed for
analyzing the scattering by linear array of scatterers. In this case the ap-
proximate solutions are seek in the forms (9.75) and (9.81) but the discrete
sources are distributed inside each obstacle.
2. MODEL WITH DISTRIBUTED VECTOR MULTIPOLES 233
lE+03
lE-i-02
lE+01
lE+00 :
l E- 01 :
l E- 02 ^
DSCS
SVM
DSM
1 1 1 r-
p- pol ar i zed
s- pol ar i zed
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
- 180- 150- 120 -90 -60 -30 0
Sc a t t e r i n g angl e (deg)
FIGURE 9.5 Differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with an
aspect ratio of a/6 = 2, a size parameter of fc^a = 4.042 and a refractive index of
M = 1.33.
2.2 Numerical results
We conclude this chapter by presenting some numerical simulations using
the discrete sources method with distributed vector multipoles. The aim of
our calculations is to certify the validity of the method and to demonstrate
its flexibility in treating a large class of scattering problems.
In Figure 9.5 the results of scattering from a prolate dielectric spheroid
with an aspect ratio of a/6 = 2, a size parameter of ks a = 4.042 and
a refractive index of M = 1.33 are shown. The plots correspond to the
discrete source method and the separation of variable method given by
Assano and Yamamoto [3].
The differential scattering cross-sections versus the scattering angle are
shown in Figure 9.6 for a dielectric prolate with an aspect ratio of a/b = 2,
a size parameter of fc^a = 10 and a refractive index of M = 1.5. Here, the
conventional null-field method is taken as reference. In both Figures 9.5
and 9.6 we see a good agreement between the scattering curves.
In Figure 9.7 we show the comparison of three methods: the multiple
multipole method, the conventional null-field method with discrete sources
and the discrete sources method. The obstacle is an oblate dielectric cylin-
der with a ratio of cylinder base diameter/height of D/L 10 and a size
parameter of ks L/2 = 0.573. The refractive index is M = 1.5 and the
incident angle is 7 = 60. The plots represent the differential scattering
cross-sections normalized by their maxima. It is evident that no significant
diflFerences exist between the scattering curves.
234 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
l E- 01 :
l E- 02
l E- 03
l E- 04
l E- 05
DSCS
^"^x p-polarized
s-pol ari zed
r1 , r1 1 1 1 r"-, 1 r -
NFM
DSM
' ' 1 ' ' 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 9.6 Differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with an
aspect ratio of a/6 = 2, a size parameter of kaa = 10 and a refractive index of M = 1.5.
DSCS
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 9.7 Normalized differential scattering cross-section for a cylinder with
D/L = 10. fcaL/2 = 0.573 and M = 1.5. The incident angle is 7 = 60.
3. NOTES AND COMMENTS 2 3 5
The advantage of the algorithm is that we can analyze scattering from
clusters (i.e. linear arrays) of particles in the same manner as we do for the
single particle. An example of such scattering is presented in Figure 9.8.
The linear cluster contains two identical spheres and an oblate ellipsoid
(aspect ratio a/b = 1/2) in the middle. Permittivity of the particles are
assumed to be identical s i = 3.24-1-0.001 j and the size parameter is fc^a = 5.
In our final example we analyze the scattering by particles with concave
surfaces. For this purpose we consider an axisymmetric particle whose
generator is a Cassini oval. In a a:2/-coordinate system the Casini ovals are
defined as the geometrical set of points for which the product of distances
to the points (a, 0) and (a,0) is equal to c^. Hence, the polar equation of
the generator is
(^2 4. a2)2 _ 4a2^2 ^^g2 Q ^ ^4 (9 97)
Note that if c /a < 1 the oval changes to the doubled shaped. In Figures 9.9
and 9.10 we plot the differential scattering cross-sections for c /a = 1.01,
1.1, 1.3 and 1.6. In each case we consider a p-polarized plane wave having
the incidences 0, 30, 60 and 90.
Multiple vector spherical functions have been used for modelling electro-
magnetic scattering problems in the framework of the multiple multipole
method. The electromagnetic group of the Swiss Federal Institute of Tech-
nology has developed this technique which is implemented in their multiple
multipole code and used successfully in the analysis of a variety of wave-
interaction problems in piecewise linear, homogeneous and isotropic media.
More detailed overviews on methodology, code and simulation technique
can be found in the works of Hafner [67], [69], Bomholt [13] and Hafner
and Bomholt [70]. Examination of the pertinent literature reveals that
Ludwig has considered case of smooth, three-dimensional perfectly con-
ducting objects [95]-[97]. Numerical results that were reported included a
half-wavelength-long hemispherical capped cylinder and a cone-sphere con-
figuration. An excellent article which provides a systematic analysis of this
technique and numerous numerical simulations was given by Al-Rizzo and
Tranquilla [1].
A similar method has been developed by K awano e t al. [78], Ikuno and
Nishimoto [73] and Ikuno e t al. [74]. Here multiple multipoles and array
of multipoles are used for accelerating the convergence rate. The array of
multipoles consist of a sequence of conventional multipoles located on an
open or a closed loop line whose intervals are selected as close as possi-
ble. A hybrid multipolar expansion consisting in multiple multipoles and
sub-boundary bases has been used by Rodriguez e t al [131] for analyzing
particles with nonsmooth surfaces. In this method, multiple vector spheri-
236 CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
lE+03
lE+02
lE + 01
DSCS
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
(a) Scattering angle (deg)
DSCS
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
(b) Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 9.8 Differential scattering cross-section for a linear cluster containing two
identical spheres and an oblate ellipsoid (aspect ratio a/fe = 1/2) in the middle. Per-
mittivity of the particles are assumed to be identical ^t = 3.24 -i- O.OOlj' and the size
parameter is ksa = 5. The curves correspond to the incident angles: (a) 7 = 0 and
(b) 7 = 30.
l E+0 1
l E+0 0 ,
l E - 0 1 :
l E - 0 2
DSCS
0 - ^30
^ 6 0 -B-90
'""/^V/Z^H^ / \ v / A J
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
(a) Scattering angle (deg)
DSCS
lE+Ol
lE+00 J
lE-01
lE-02
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
(b) Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 9.9 Differential scattering cross-sections for an axisymmetric particle whose
generatrix is a Cassini oval. The curves correspond to (a) c/a = 1.01 and (b) c/a = 1.1.
238
CHAPTER IX DSM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
lE+01 I
lE+00
l E- 01
l E- 02
DSCS
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
(a) Scattering angle (deg)
DSCS
J- Ei f UX
lE+00
l E- 01 1
l E- 02 :
l E- 03
0 -^30
^ 6 0 -B-90 ^
1 1 1 1 1 1
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
(b) Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 9.10 The same as in Figure 9.9 but with: (a) cja = 1.3 and (b) cja = 1.6.
3. NOTES AND COMMENTS 2 3 9
cal functions are used to expand the fields over the whole scatterer surface
and sub-boundary bases are used to model the rapidly varying fields near
the nonsmooth regions.
Eremin and Sveshnikov [55] used preferably distributed spherical vec-
tor wave functions for analyzing the scattering by axisymmetric particles.
This version of the discrete sources method has been applied for different
simulations, like electromagnetic scattering from conductive and covered
objects, for direct and inverse problems, scattering from atmospheric hy-
drometeors and linear arrays of particles (see Eremin and Orlov [50] and
Eremin e t al. [57], [59], [60]), and analysis of defects of silicon wafers (see
Eremin and Orlov [49], [51], [52]). The interested reader is referred to these
references for further details..
Scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles using electric and magnetic
dipoles distributed on auxiliary surfaces has been investigated by Dim-
itrenko and Mukomolov [40]-[42].
X
NULL-FIELD METHOD IN
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
This chapter is devoted to the analysis of the electromagnetic scattering us-
ing the null-field method (NFM) with discrete sources. Our presentation is
focussed on the exterior and the transmission boundary-value problems.
We begin by constructing projection methods for the general null-field
equations. Next we will present the conventional null-field method with
discrete sources for solving the exterior Maxwell problem. The efficiency of
the conventional null-field method in comparison to other projection meth-
ods will be investigated from a computational point of view. We will also
discuss the use of Tikhonov regularization and will present some numerical
results. We then consider the conventional null-field method for solving
the transmission problem. For the sake of completeness we will list the dif-
ferent formulations of the method which serves as input for our computer
simulations. Next we proceed to establish the expression of the transition
matrix and to investigate general constraints of the transition matrix such
as symmetry and unitarity. We will demonstrate that the use of distributed
sources rather than localized sources improves the symmetry of the tran-
sition matrix. Finally, we will present some computer simulations. They
include scattering by particles with large size parameters, particles with
extreme geometries, cubs, ellipsoids and rough particles.
241
242 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
1 PROJECTION METHODS
We begin our analysis with the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem.
Let hs be the unique solution to the general null-field equation (6.103)
and let the scattered field E^, H^ be given by (6.107). Replace in (6.107)
the surface density h^ by hsNi where h^iv refers to an approximation of
hs. The resulting expressions define for x Ds the approximate scattered
field E^ , Hf and for x A the residual field 6E^, 6H^. Under these
circumstances, the estimates
l | E . - E ^ L , G . + l | H . - H r L , G . < CWK-KMks (10.1)
and
I I ^E^L. G. + ll^H^llocG. ^ C'WK-K^hs (10.2)
hold in any closed sets Gs C Ds and Gi C Di. In accordance with (10.1),
the approximate solution E^ , H^ converge to the exact solution E5, Hs
if hsN converge in the L^-norm to h^.
In this section, if not stated otherwise, the set {^i''^,^J,''^} represents
the sets of localized and distributed spherical vector wave functions and
vector Mie potential. For the system of magnetic and electric dipoles we
take {*if,^;.'| } or {^];l^l:i} instead of {^]^\^l'^} , where ^j^f =
^i'p ^jip -^jip ^^^ P = 1 2. By convention when we refer to the null-
field equations (7.24) we refer implicitly to all equivalent forms of these
equations.
We are now in position to discuss projection methods for the general
null-field equations. At this end let us consider the null-field equations
(7.24) written for convenience as
( nxh*, nx^ ^ >2^ 5 = j (n x e5, n x ^^>2 ^
(10.3)
1/ = 1,2,.... Let the sequence
N
^=1
solves the null-field equations
( h; ^, n X *3^2,s = j (n X e5, n X $3^2,s ' (10.5) 1. PROJECTION METHODS 243 V = l,2,...,iV, and let h^ = n x h*. Then, from (10.3) and (10.5) we see that h^jy also satisfies the projection relations (10.6) < h ; ^ - h ' n x$ 3 ) ^ 5 = 0,
u = 1,2, ...,Ar, and therefore, by theorem 1.1 of Chapter 8, we conclude
that \isN = n X Yi*j^ converges to h^.
Similar arguments show that the sequence hsN = ^'SN'> where
N
KN = Y,a^[nx^l + Xnx{nxii>l)]
f ^ = i (10.7)
+ b^ [nx^l + Xnx (nx^l)], X>0,
solves the null-field equations
( h^w. nx {nx*^) ) 2, s = i <e5, n x (n x $^) ) 2g, (h^j v. nx ( nx*^) >2, s = ; ( e 5 , n x (n x *^) ) 2g, (10.8) ^' = 1,2,..., iV, converges to h^. Finally, according to theorem 1.1 of Chapter 8, the sequence N M=i (10.9) -f b^n X ^l + Xbj!'n X (n X <^l*), A > 0, subject to the null-field equations (h, i v, n X (n X *^*))2^5 = -j (eo, n X (n x K"))r^s , (h, i v, n X (n X K*))2,s = -^ {^o^n x (n x ^l*))r^s , (10.10) 1/ = 1,2,..., iV, converges to h^. Next, we will discuss projection methods for the transmission boundary- value problem. Let the surface current densities e and h solve the general null-field equations (6.113). Then, the scattered and internal fields Es, !!^ and Ei, Hj given by (6.118) and (6.119) are the unique solution to the trans- mission boundary-value problem. Replace in (6.118) and (6.119) the sur- face current densities e and h by some approximations e^v and hiAr, respec- tively. The resulting expressions define for xDs the approximate fields 244 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Ef , H^ and Ef , Hf and for x G A the residual fields 6E^ = 6E^ + EQ , <5H^ = <5H^ -f Ho and (5Ef^,mf. Consequently, the estimates and E . - E , ^ oo,Gs + H.-H,^ N\ l oo, G, + Ei - Ef N oo,Gi H, - Hf | | <C7f||e-eAf||2,5 + ||h-hA,|| ) (10.11) (10.12) hold in any closed sets G, C Dg and Gj C A- Thus, the solution of the transmission boundary value problem reduces to the approximation problem of the surface current densities in strong norm on 5. Analogously to the exterior Mtixwell problem we can use theorem 2.2 of Chapter 8 to construct convergent approximations for e and h. We consider the null-field equations (7.26) written as n x *?, I. = 1, 2, . . n X (i*-eS) \ n X ( h*- h5) ; ' n X (e'-e5) \ n X (h*-h5) ; ' ^ n x$ 3
= 0,
2,S
= 0,
2,S
n X *i
(10.13)
n X e* \ / / "
n X h* J ' I jJ^ n X $i = 0, 2,S n X #?; nxh* j ' I jJ^ ^ nx^ l Let the sequence AT = 0, 2,S 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2 4 5 + <( ^. y| , ^, J4- <[ ^. y^ , ^. j (10.14) / e' \ / n X e* \ solves the first 4N null-field equations (10.13) with I T/ ) = I u* ] replaced by ( rf^ ) Then, firom theorem 2.2 of Chapter 8 we see that the sequence I - ) ~"" ( C'* ) converges to f r- 1. In an analogous manner we can use this theorem to derive projection schems involving the control parameter A. In the next section we will investigate from a numerical point of view the efficiency of the above projection schemes. 2 CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2.1 The exterior Maxwell problem In the sequel we will present the fundaments of the conventional null-field method for solving the exterior Maxwell boundary-value problem. 2.1.1 Formulations We debut with the projection relations (7.24) written in terms of the total magnetic field h = h^ 4- ho as ( h - h c n x ( nx*^*) ) ^^ = - j ( e o, nx {nx^l*))^^ , (10.15) ( h - h o , n x ( nx$^*) ) 2^ = ~j<eo,n x (n x *^*))2^,
1/ = 1,2,.... Assuming that k ^ (T{Di) we may represent the approximate
solution hjv as a linear combination of regular fields in Di,
N
hN=^Yla^nx^l+b^nx^l (10.16)
and compute the amplitudes a^ and b^^ fi = 1,2, ..,,N, from the truncated
system of equations (10.15). Once the surface current density is determined
the approximate scattered field is computed in accordance with
E,^(x) = | V X V X Jhiv(y)p(x,y,fc)d5(y). (10.17)
s
When the localized spherical vector wave functions are used as ba-
sis and testing functions, the above projection method is identically to
the scheme obtained in the frame of the single spherical coordinate-based
246 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
null-field method. Therefore, by convention, the projection method (10.15)-
(10.16) with localized and distributed spherical vector wave functions, mag-
netic and electric dipoles and vector Mie potentials will be referred to as
the conventional null-field method with discrete sources.
2.1.2 Convergence analysis In the conventional method the testing func-
tions differ from the basis functions. Consequently, the discrete approx-
imation theorem is not suitable for analyzing the convergence of the ap-
proximate solution and we have to appeal on theorem 3.3 of Chapter 1. In
this context, let us rewrite the null-field equations (10.15) in the operator
form
>lh = f. (10.18)
where f = [/i, / 2, . . . ] ^ , f G /^, and the operator A : I^^J^S) -+ l^ trans-
forms functions u ^C^^^{S) into vectors
[(u, n X (n X *?*)>2 ^ , (u, n X (n X $f )>2 ^, . . . ] ' " . Then theorem 3.3 of Chapter 1 can be applied to the operator equation (10.18) with if = Cl^J^S) and G = l^. The conclusion of this analy- sis is that the projection method (10.15)-(10.16) converges if the systems {n X *^, n X ^ ^ }^ i and {n x *^, n x *i }^^i form a Riesz basis of ^tan('S') and the spectral condition infA^Aj^Aiv) > A > 0 holds. Here A^r id the truncated matrix ^ N A\\ Al2 A21 A22 , V,^X= l , 2 , . . . , i V, (10.19) (10.20) with elements 411 ^ i / / i 412 (10.21) = ( n x *; , , n x ( nx*^*) ) ^^^, = ( n x ^ ; n x ( nx*^*) ) ^^^. All = ( n x *; , , n x ( n x$ ^ *) ) 2 ^ ,
^22 = ( n x $; n x (nx4>^*)>2^. However, the systems of radiating and regular spherical vector wave func- tions do not form a Riesz basis. The purpose of the numerical results pre- sented in Tables 10.1-10.3 is to illustrate the properties of the distributed 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 247 TABLE 10.1 Maximal and minimal eigenvalues for a spheroidal surface with ka = 10 and kb = 5 and different truncation sizes. M?L ^ ma x A^ 5.8e - 1 5.6e - 18 9.9e - 1 L i e - 7 2.3e + l l.Oe - 5 3.1e + 13 1.6e - 1 ^ ma x ^U 7.8e - 1 Li e - 1 8 L2eO 8.3e - 11 2.3e +1 4.6e - 12 2.5e + 22 1.6e - 1 f ^ max. 25 9.7e - 1 l.Oe-18 1.5e0 7.1e - 14 2.3e + 1 1.8e - 19 2.1e + 32 1.2e - 1 ^ ma x ^ <j " 1.7e0 6.1e - 19 1.8e0 6.1e-17 2.3e +1 Li e - 30 Li e+ 43 8.2e - 2 and localized spherical vector wave functions as basis systems in Cl^n{S). In particular we are interest to investigate if these systems form a Riesz basis of /3^an('5')- Therefore, we calculate the maximal and the minimal eigenvalues of the Gramm matrix of the systems {n x M]nn-> ^ ^ ^mn] > {n X Ml,r^. n X A/^} , {n^x Mj^^, n x N^^^} , {n x M^^, n x N^ ^ } , Note that the system {t/^J^i forms a Riesz basis of a Hilbert space H if the inequalities (1.15) holds, or equivalently if there exist the positive constants A and A such that 0 <A<A( Gi v ) =i n f <^^^' ^) ' ^ and A(Gjv) =sup ( ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ) i ' > A > 0, =sup l l ; 2 for any AT, where G/v is the Gramm matrix of the system {^ J^ i . The data corresponds to the azimuthal mode m = 1 and the spheroidal surfaces characterized by ka = 10 and kb = 5^ kb = 2 and kb = 1. The numerical results indicate that the above systems do not form a Riesz basis of >Ctan('S')- However, for particles with high aspect ratio, the ^alteration' of the boundedness of the eigenvalues is more pronounced for localized sources than for distributed sources. Actually, the system of spherical vector wave functions does not form a Schauder basis either. A counterexample can be given as follows. Consider a spherical surface S^ dividing 5 into exactly two parts: the first one, Si, 248 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS TABLE 10.2 Maximal and minimal eigenvalues for a spheroidal surface with ka = 10 and kb = 2 and different truncation sizes. "mn "'mn "'mn ^max 15 5.9e - 1 8.9e - 18 1.7e0 l.Oe - 3 9.4e0 1.4e - 8 7.7e + 25 1.4e - 1 Tlmax = 20 7.9e - 1 2.5e - 18 1.8e0 6.2e - 5 9.4e0 6.0e - 16 7.0e + 38 l.Oe - 1 ^max 25 l.OeO 2.8e - 19 1.9e0 3.5e - 6 9.4e0 8.9e - 25 6.0e + 52 l.Oe - 1 "max = 30 1.2e0 6.5e -19 2.2e0 1.9e - 7 9.4e0 9.7e - 34 3.2e + 67 1.3e0 TABLE 10.3 Maximal and minimal eigenvalues for a spheroidal surface with ka = 10 and kb = 1 and different truncation sizes. MLrr "max 15 4.0e - 1 2.0e - 19 1.6e + 1 5.3e - 2 4.4e0 9.0e - 10 2.9e + 35 6.0e - 2 "max = 20 5.4e - 1 1.8e - 18 1.6e + 1 1.6e - 2 4.4e0 1.4e - 17 2.8e + 51 1.6e - 1 "max 25 6.8e - 1 2.3e - 18 1.6e + 1 4.7e - 3 4.4e0 1.6e - 25 2.5e + 68 7.6e0 "max 30 8.2e - 1 2.9e -18 1.6e + 1 1.2e - 3 4.4e0 l.Oe - 47 1.4e + 86 1.9e + 4 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2 4 9 is in the exterior of 5^, and the second one, 52, is in the interior of 5^. Define the field S{x) = Vx x [a(y)^(x, y,A:)] , where y is a fixed point on S^. Using the vector spherical vector wave expansion of the Green function we obtain for x 5i , | x| > | y| , oo n(x) X {x) = Yl Mn(x) X M^(x) -h 6^n(x) x N^(x), (10.22) where a^ = ^i ? ^a ( y ) N^(y), 6^ = ^ ^ D^ a{y) Mi ( y) . n ^ ' ' ^ ^ ' " TT Assume that (10.22) is also valid on 52- Then, we will contradict the spher- ical wave expansion of the Green function, since for x 52, | x| < | y| , we have CX) n(x) X (x) = Y. < " W ^ Mi ( ^) -^ ' ^ X^ ) "" Ni ( x) , (10.23) where < = ^>Ma( y) N| ( y) , b'^ = ^ i ) ^ a ( y ) M| ( y) . Now, we will analyze the convergence of the projection schemes from a computational point of view. We pay attention to the scattering by per- fectly conducting particles. Projection schemes (10.4)-(10.5), (10.7)-(10.8) and (10.9)-(10.10) will be referred to as PSl , PS2 and PS3, respectively Obviously, the projection scheme PSl uses normal equations. The projec- tion schemes PS2 and PS3 use also normal equations when A oo. In addition, for A = 0, PS2 and PS3 are similar. In our first example we consider a prolate spheroid with semiaxes A:a = 5 and kh = 2.5. The incident field is a p-polarized plane wave prop- agating along the particle symmetry axis. The localized spherical vector wave functions are used to approximate the surface current density. The expansion coefficients can be found separately for each azimuthal mode m and evidently we have m = dbl. The convergence of the projections schemes can be analyzed by varying the number of terms rimax- Figures 10.1 and 10.2 show the normalized differential scattering cross- section at the scattering angle 9 = 180 computed with the conventional null-field method and projection schemes PSl , PS2 and PS3. The plotted data clearly demonstrate that the method with normal equations has the lowest rate of convergence. In contrast the conventional method is the most efficient since the convergence is achieved for rimax = 10. Projection schemes PS2 and PS3 are superior to PSl and actually this is due to the fact that 250 1.05 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS DSCS a t 9 = 180 deg 1.00 0.95 conventional NFM -^PSl 14 20 26 Tr u n c a t i o n i n d e x n 32 FIGURE 10.1 Normalized differential scattering cross-section at the scattering angle e = 180 for different values of the truncation index. The scatterer is a prolate spheroid with senniaxes fca = 5 and kh = 2.5. The curves are computed with the conventional null-field method and projection scheme PSl and PS2. it is possible to accelerate the convergence by decreasing the parameter A. Recall that for A > oo the projection schemes PS2 and PS3 correspond to the method with normal equations and for A = 0 we obtain a scheme in which the surface current densities are approximated by radiating spherical vector wave functions. The same behavior of the solution can be observed if ^J'^ and$J,'^
are the distributed spherical vector wave functions Ml^i^^ and Af^^- ^^ ^his
case rimax denotes the number of discrete sources. In Figure 10.3 we plot
the differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with ka = 10
and kb = 2.5, The curves are computed with the conventional method and
projection scheme PS2. In order to achieve convergence we use 16 sources
in the first case, while 18, 22 and 26 sources corresponding to A = 0, A = 0.1
and A = 1.0, respectively, are necessary in the second case.
The discrepancy concerning the number of sources used is more pro-
nounced if the aspect ratio increases. The results plotted in Figure 10.4
correspond to a prolate spheroid with ka = 10 and kb = 1.25. As before,
16 sources gives accurate results in the conventional method, while 38, 42
and 48 discrete sources corresponding to A = 0, A = 0.1 and A = 1.0,
respectively, are required in the projection scheme PS2.
The parameter A appearing in projection schemes PS2 and PS3 can be
used to control the rate of convergence and therefore gives more flexibility
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 251
1. 05
DSCS a t 9 = 180 de g
1. 00 H
0. 95
c onve nt i ona l NFM --PSl
- - X=I . O
14 20 26 32
Tr u n c a t i o n i n d e x n ^^^^
FIGURE 10.2 The same as in Figure 10.1 but the curves are computed with the
conventional null-field method and projection scheme PSl and PS3.
DSCS
lE+01 ,
lE+00
l E- 01 ;
l E- 02 1
l E- 03
l E- 04
IE-OS ;
l E- 06 \
l E- 07
c onve nt i ona l NFM
- * ^ ^
\AAA
y '
V \
I 1
, . ^ . , ,
X = 0.0
A /^
'Y\^
^ Y\

^
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.3 Differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with semi-
axes ka = 10 and A;6 = 2.5.
252 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
l E- 01
l E- 02
l E- 03
l E- 04
l E- 05
l E- 06
l E- 07
DSCS
convent i onal NFM oX = 0.0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.4 Differential scattering cross-section for a prolate spheroid with semi-
axes ka = 10 and kb = 1.25.
to these algorithms. Actually, it plays the same role as the parameter p
(the order of the iterated kernel) in the Yasuura smoothing method. The
conventional null-field method is the most efficient in spite of the fact that
we are not able to prove the convergence. In this context the convergence
question of the conventional method is open and several addition research
is needed. Our computer simulations demonstrate once again the genial
feeling of Waterman who chose simple derivation, preferring physical plau-
sibility over mathematical rigor.
Next we concentrate on the continuous version of the null-field method.
To this end let S~ be a surface^f class C^, enclosed in Di and let us define
the magnetic dipole operator M : C'^^ni'^) "^ ^tanC'S'") by
(Alh) (x) = n(x) X V X | h(y)^(x,y,fc)d5(y) (10.24)
Let ho(x) = n(x) x Ho(x) for x G 5 . Then, the following equivalence
holds.
THEOREM 2.1: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^; let the
surface S" be enclosed in Di and assume k ^ a{D~), where D~ is the
interior of S". Ifh solves the integral equation of the first kind
Mh = -ho, (10.25)
then h solves the general null-field equation (6.102) and conversely.
27 CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2 5 3
Proof: Define the electric and magnetic fields 5, W as in theorem 4.7
of Chapter 6. Since h solves (10.25) we see that n x W = 0 on 5". From
k ^ cr{D^) we get 5 = H = 0 in D~, whence, by the analyticity of the
fields, = W = 0 in Di follows. Hence, h satisfies the general null-field
equation (6.102). The converse theorem is obvious.
The operator M has an analytic kernel and therefore the integral equa-
tion is severely ill-posed. The following theorem establishes some properties
of this operator.
THEOREM 2.2: Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ and let
the surface 5" be enclosed in Di, The operator M defined by (10.24) is
infective and has a dense range provided k is not a Maxwell eigenvalue for
the interior of S~.
Proof: The injectivity of M follows from the assumption k ^ cr{D^)
and theorem 2.2 of Chapter^G. For proving the^cond part of the theorem
we have to show that N{M ^) = {0}, where M ^ is the adjoint operator
of M and N{M ^) is the null space oi M ^. The adjoint operator M^ :
A'an(5-)-* Al (5) is given by
(M^g) (y) = n(y) X J n(y) x V x ^ n(x) x g(x)^*(x,y,fe)d5(x)
(10.26)
Let M^g = 0. Then n x (^^^g)* = 0 and
{y) = V X y* n(x) x g*(x)^(x, y,fc)d5(x), W(y) = (l/jfc)V x 5(y)
s-
(10.27)
define an electromagnetic field with vanishing tangential electric component
on S. Hence, : = H = 0 in JD^ and further 5 = W = 0 in JDJ. Theorem 2.3
of Chapter 6 now yields g ~0 on 5"" provided that k ^ cr{D^),
The integral equation (10.25) may be solved by using the Tikhonov
regularization, that is by solving
Xhx+M^Mhx-=-M% (10.28)
with the regularization parameter A > 0. The approximate solution hxjsf is
seek in the form of a linear combination of tangential regular fields (10.16)
and assumed to satisfy the projection relations
(^(^XI + M^M)hxN'\'M%.nxiifl) =0,
2 5 4 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
^ ( A/ - f M^ M^ hxN + M^ ho^ n x $J,J) = 0, (10.29) for 1/ = 1,2,..., AT. It is readily seen that application of theorem 3.4 given in Chapter 1 with A = XI and B = M^ M gives ||hAiv - hA||2 5 ^ 0 as iV > 00. In the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method the surface 5" is the inscribed sphere. For complex geometries, the form of the aux- iliary surface 5" can be correlated with the form of the particle surface 5 in order to decrease the part of the null-field region not included in Di . For an arbitrary auxiliary surface 5"" we may proceed as in the acoustic case, that is, we may represent the approximate solution as a linear com- bination of Dirac delta functions and solve the integral equations (10.25) by a collocation method. This technique is similar to the discrete sources method but with the collocation points replaced by the source points and conversely. We take the opportunity to make some comments concerning the use of the Tikhonov regularization in the conventional null-field method. In ad- dition to the above application, this technique can be employed for solving the system of equations P^ N^ N = f^, (10.30) where RN = [a^ , &j^]^ , M = 1,2,..., N, and AN is given by (10.20)-(10.21). Note that since different elements of the matrix A^v can diflfer by many or- ders of magnitude, the calculation of the inverse matrix is an ill-conditioned process negatively influenced by round-oflt errors. The round-off errors be- come increasingly significant with increasing particle size parameter and/or aspect ratio and rapidly accumulate with increasing the size of the matrix Aiv- The regularized solution is HAN = argmin |||AArXiv - f^Hp -(- A HxA^Ufa} . (10.31) Using the singular-value decomposition of the matrix A^ we may express s.\N as ^ ^ XN = Y:^ n^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ n. (10.32) n ^^ where 8n is a filter factor term given by tf = cr^/(cr^ -f A), Un and Vn are the left and right singular vectors of A^^ and On stands for the singular values of Ajv. We will now illustrate how the regularization methods can be used to overcome the numerical difficulties of the conventional method. The scat- tering problem is that of a perfectly conducting spheroid with the large 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 255 3. 61 Sol ut i on norm 3.60 H 3.59 0 1 Residual norm (lE-3) FIGURE 10.5 L-curve for the regularized method. semiaxis ka = 10 and the small semiaxis kb = 1.15. The incident wave is a plane wave propagating along the particle symmetry axis. The ba- sis functions chosen to represent the solution are the localized spherical vector wave functions. For this choice of basis functions, the direct solu- tion oscillates and deviates from the correct solution. The correct solution was obtained by using the conventional null-field method with distributed spherical vector wave functions. For a correct choice of the parameter A we plot in Figure 10.5 the solution norm ||aAiv||/2 versus the residual norm ||A/^aAA^ fiv|||2. This representation is known as the L-curve and can be used for evaluating the optimal value of the regularization parameter. Small values of A correspond to the solutions domain dominated by per- turbation errors (vertical region), while large value of A correspond to the domain of solutions dominated by regularization errors (horizontal region). The point of the L-curve situated at the corner between the horizontal and the vertical part corresponds to a regularized solution in which the perturbation errors and the regularized errors are balanced. In our case, we found A = 0.001. It is important to note that using a closed expression for the curvature of the L-curve we can select the regularized parameter by a maximum curvature search.(see, e.g. Obelleiro et a/., [120]). Figure 10.6 shows the differential scattering cross-section corresponding to the di- rect and the correct solution. The deviations between the curves are more pronounced in the backscattering direction. Also displayed is the solution corresponding to the regularization method with A = 0.001. In this case 256 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS l E- 02 l E- 03 l E- 04 l E- 05 l E- 06 l E-07 l E- 08 l E- 09 DSCS correct solution A direct solution regularized solution 0 60 120 180 Scat t eri ng angl e (deg) FIGURE 10.6 Diffrential scattering cross-section coresponding to the direct, correct and regularized solution. The scatterer is a prolate spheroid with ka = 10 and kh = 1.15. the errors are significantly smaller. In Figure 10.7 we plot the relative error of the differential scattering cross-section ^ correct <T regulari zed |2 l2,n -.correct W^ ^ d Ib.n (10.33) versus the regularization parameter. Note that the case A = 0 correspond to the direct solution. As expected, for A = 0.001 the relative error attains a minimum. 2.1.3 Matrix methods We proceed now to analyze the use of linear equa- tion solvers in the conventional null-field method. The size of the matrix equations appearing in this approach is reduced and therefore direct meth- ods are adequate. Mishchenko and Travis [107], [108] have found that the solution of the system of equations should be based on a special form of the LU factorization rather than on the traditional Gauss elimination with partial pivoting, thereby significantly increasing the maximum convergent particle size. However, for the solution of the system of equations that arises in an exact treatment of electromagnetic scattering from randomly rough particles, iterative techniques are considerably faster. A simple ex- ample makes this clear. In rough particle-scattering problems, it is often necessary to generate as many as 1000 to 2000 surfaces to achieve conver- 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 257 0.04 Relative error of DSCS 0. 03 FIGURE 10.7 Relative error of the differential scattering cross-section corresponding to the correct and the regularized solution. gence. For each sample random surface, one must solve the direct-scattering problem. The linear equations for a particle with a mean size of ka = 40, as treated here, gives rise to a 260 x 260 matrix inversion problem. The LU decomposition of such a system involves computational time propor- tional to N^, where N is 260. Iterative techniques, by contrast, scale with iV^, and the constant of proportionality is determined by the number of iterations required for obtaining convergence. For realistic scattering prob- lems, approximately 10-15 iterations are required for yielding an acceptable accuracy. On an IBM workstation RS/6000, which was used for current calculations, a single realization of the surface profile took 760 s for the direct inversion and 540 s for the iterative method. The only limitation of iterative solvers consists of the fact that for very large surface slopes, the rate of convergence systematically decreases as the rms slope is increased until, eventually, convergence is not obtained at all. We will now investigate the applicability of iterative techniques for light-scattering calculations from rough particles. For this purpose we con- sider a spherical particle with axisymmetric roughness. The particle surface is defined as ri0) = a^6m, (10.34) where a is the mean radius of the particle, 6 is the root mean square value of r or the standard deviation of the surface heights and f{6) is a stochastic 258 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS function of the polar angle 0 . The first two moments of / are given by M = 0, (10.35) nei)f{02) = Pi0i-e2) = ph), where the bar denotes the average over the ensemble of realizations of the surface profile. p{'y) is the two-point autocorrelation function which depends only on the angular distance 7 between 61 and 62. The particle shape can be generated using Fourier expansions for the radius and the autocorrelation function f{0) = ^ Qn cos(n0) -I- /3^ sin(n0), n=0 00 Pi^) = m^ ^ " ^"o)'^^ cos(n7). n=0 (10.36) n=0 It can be shown that, if the coefficients a^ and /? are independent Gaussian random variables with zero means and equal variances cr^ = (2 - 6no)pni the radius will be normally distributed with a mean value of a and an autocorrelation function of 6^p. A convenient choice for the autocorrelation function is the spherical Gaussian function, /9(7) = exp 7? - ^ s i n 2 ( 7 / 2 ) (10.37) where 7^ represents an angular decay length. The expansion coefficients p^ are given by p = r e x p ( - ; | ) j ( - j l ) . (10.38) The stochastic shape is thus parametrized by 6 and 7^, the standard devi- ation and the angular roughness scale. A realization of the surface profile with ka = 40, k6 = 0.5 and 7^ = 0.1 is shown in Figure 10.8. In our analysis we will concentrate on the following iterative methods: conjugate gradient (CG), biconjugate gradient (BiCG), conjugate gradient squared (CGS) and quasi-minimal residual (QMR). A summary of these iterative routines for solving the system Aa = f is given bellow. 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 259 135^ 180 225 270 FIGURE 10.8 Rough particle with a Gaussian correlation function. (a) CG method ri = f - Aa i , / 3 o = - 2 " , p i = / 3 o At r i . l|Atri||,2 Forn = l , 2, . . . , i Vdo 1 """llApJbV an+1 = an -f QJnPn, t n +l = Tn - a n Ap ^ , Pn+1 = Pn -f- /?nA^rn-f 1, terminate when T^^.. ^^ "^ tolerance or when n^ N. l|Atf||p - (b) BiCG method ai = 0, ri = pi = f, wi = qi = f*. Forn = l, 2, . . . , Ardo ^ ^ (rn^qn)/ 2 ( Ap , Wn>i 2 ' ^n+l = an 4- anPn7 Fn+l = Tn - Q fnAp^, Q n+l = qn - a^A^Wn, \rn>Hn/i2 Pn+1 = Tn+l + ^ n Pn Wn+l = q n + l - | - / 3 n Wn , 260 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS terminate when ^ ^ < tolerance, (c) CGS method Po = uo usually For n = Ck^ = ro = So = To 1,2,..., sg^r = f - Aao, Ndo n-l sj APn- l ' qn = Un-1 - a nAp _ i , Bn = an- i + an (Un-l + Qn) , Tn = r^- l - QfnA (Un-1 + Qn) , T SoTn-l Un=r n+/ ?nQ n) p = Un + /?n (qn + /^nPn-l) , terminate when .^.i. ^^ < tolerance. (d) QMR method wi = qi = To = f - Aao, VQ = Aq^, do = 0, To = Ikoll, t?o = 0,7?o = 0, choose To such that pQ = TITQ ^ 0. For n = 1,2,... do ^n- l = ?oVn-l Ckn-1 = Pn- l / ^n- 1 , q2n = q2n- l - an- i Vn- l - For m = 2n ~ 1,..., 2n do Wyn+l = W^ ~ Q n- l Aq^, t?yn = INm+lll /'^'m-l, Cn. = 1 / ^ 1 + 1 ? L dm = Qm + ( ^m- l ^m- l / <^n- l ) dm- 1, Sm ^^ a^i1 -f- Tljj^ Of n. If am has converged, stop; Pn = roW2n+li ^n = Pn/Pn-l^ Qan+l = W2n+1 + 0n^ 2n, Vn = Aq2n4.1 + 0n {^ <hn + /?nVn-l) Some qualitative remarks concerning the behavior of these iterative algorithms can be summarized as follows (see, e.g. Volakis, [150]): 1. CG requires about 2iV^+5iV+2 operations, has a monotonic conver- gence, but it can be slow for systems with large condition numbers. 2. BiCG stores two more vectors than CG for nonsymmetric systems, does not guarantee convergence, but it usually converges in nearly 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 261 Resi dual norm 100 FIGURE 10.9 Residual norm of the conjugate gradient method. half iterations of CG. The residual of BiCG oscillates wildly before converging to the specified tolerance. 3. The residuals of COS are usually the squared of the BiCG residuals. CGS has been known to diverge when BiCG converges. 4. QMR can be considered to be an upgrade of BiCG. Unlike BiCG it avoids breakdowns in exact arithmetic. QMR and BiCG converge in nearly the same number of iterations, but QMR convergence is almost monotonic. The implementation of QMR can become complicated with the look-ahead Lanzos process, but is almost as simple as BiCG when no look-ahead is incorporated. In order to improve the rate of convergence of iterative methods a preconditioner technique should be used. In this case the original system Aa = f is converted into the left-preconditioned system M~^Aa = M~^f such that M""^ A is closed to the unity matrix. Finding a *good' precondi- tioner is often difficult. An efficient technique is the Neumann polynomial preconditioner. If we rewrite A = D C, where D is the diagonal of A, then A~i = D-i J2 (CD-^)' (10.39) m=0 where, by convention, X^ = I. A truncated form of this series is then used for the preconditioning matrix M"^. The main advantage of this precon- 262 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Residual norm 10 20 Iteration 30 FIGURE 10.10 Residual norm of different iterative methods. The surface parameters are ka 40, k6 s 0.5 and 7^ = 0.1. ditioner is that it is easily to implement since it may be expressed as a sequence of matrix-vector products and vector accumulations. In our numerical experiments we consider a spherical particle with a mean size parameter of ka = 40. The standard deviation k6 of the surface profile varies between 0.1 and 0.5, while the angular roughness stale varies between 0.1 and 0.4. The convergence behavior of the iterative algorithms will be illustrated via the residual norm | | Aan- f | | , . (10.40) where n stands for the iteration number. The exact solution a is computed by using the LU-decomposition method. The results plotted in Figure 10.9 shows that the CG method converges only for surfaces with small values of the standard deviation and high values of the angular roughness scale. The explanation consists of the fact that the CG method is known to converges only if its symmetric part is positive definite. In contrast, the BiCG method, the CGS method and the QMR method converge quickly for surfaces with high standard deviations and very large slope. This is illustrated in Figure 10.10. The rate of convergence of the CGS and QMR are comparable and superior to that of the BiCG. Figure 10.11 shows that the preconditioner technique is an effective way to improve the convergence. The results corresponding to the case k6 = 0.5 and 7c = 0.1 are computed with the QMR method. It is clear that the 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 263 lE+Ol lE+00 l E- 01 l E- 02 l E- 03 l E- 04 lE-05 j lE-06 I l E- 07 l E- 08 ] l E- 09 Residual norm Irregular solution 2:precon. m = 0 3:precon. m = 1 20 30 Iteration FIGURE 10.11 Residual norm of the QMR method with and without preconditioner. The surface parameters are ka = 40, k6 == 0.5 and 7^ = 0.1 Neumann polynomial preconditioner with m = 0 and m = 1 is also effective for nonsymmetric systems. The variation of convergence rates from surface to surface is quite significant. This is demonstrated in Figure 10.12 in which the residual norm for five different realization of the surface profile are shown. When testing such methods it is not sufficient to consider one realization only. It is possible, particularly in the region of parameters space in which convergence is marginal, that for some realizations convergence will not be achieved at all, or that the rate of convergence will be slow. Such realizations cannot be ignored if they occur, although problems of this type were not encountered for the case considered here. Finally, in Figures 10.13 and 10.14 we illustrate that convergence rates decrease as the standard deviation of the surface heights increases and the angular decay length decreases. 2.2 The transmission problem In the sequel we will discuss the conventional null-field method with discrete sources for the transmission boundary-value problem. We will not malce any attempt to give a complete view of the technical aspects of the method. These are fully presented for the exterior problem. In the present analysis we will discuss various formulations of the method that serve as input and context of the numerical simulations. 264 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS Residual norm 10 20 Iteration FIGURE 10.12 Residual norm of the QMR method for different realization of the surface profile. The surface parameters are ka = 40, k6 = 0.5 and 7^ = 0.1. Residual norm 10 20 Iteration 30 FIGURE 10.13 Residual norm of the QMR method for different values of the stan- dard deviations of the surface heights. 2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 265 Residual norm 10 20 Iteration FIGURE 10.14 Residual norm of the QMR method for different values of the angular decay length. 2.2.1 Formulations Essentially, the null-field method with discrete sources consists in the projection relations <e-eo,n X (n x ^l^))^ ^ + j JK(h-ho^nx (n x$^*)) = 0,
( e- i o, n X (n x ^l*))^ ^ +jJE(h-ho,nx (n x *^*)^^ ^ = Q,
<e,n X (n x ^l*))^^ +j^(k,nx (n x $^*))^ ^ = 0, <e,n X (n x$i*)),_^ + i y ^ ( h , n x (n x e ) ) ^ ^ = 0,
(10.41)
1/ = 1,2,.., with the approximations e^v and hjv of the forms
nx^l n X $^ (10.42) 2 6 6 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS As in the case of the exterior Maxwell problem when the localized vec- tor spherical functions are used as basis and testing functions, the .projec- tion method (10.41)-(10.42) is identical to the scheme obtained in the frame of the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method. Prom (10.42) we see that the surface current density e^ is expressed as a linear combination of elementary sources which generate the interior field. The expression of hiv is^ dictated by a physical consideration: the surface current densities e and h jire the tangential component^ of the interior electric and magnetic fields Ei and Hi = O'/fco/xJV x E^, respectively. The above represen- tations for BN and h^v reduce the computation effort since the null-field equations are identically satisfied in the exterior of S. Indeed, the Green theorem applied in the region Di to the vector functions ^j^ and$^ gives
J[{nx^ l)-^ l-^ {nx9l)-^ l]dS = 0,
(10.43)
whence the conclusion readily follows. In view of these considerations it is
clear that if h^ is chosen as an independent unknown
N
hN = '-jMY.c^ nx^ l^ d^ nx^ l, (10.44)
V ^t ^=1
then the null-field equations in the exterior region lead to a^ = c^ and
h^ = d^. Consequently, the amplitudes of discrete sources, which produce
the surJFace current densities, will be computed by using the null-field equa-
tions in the interior region. The present approach exhibits the potential
for providing a substantial saving in terms of unknowns relative to the dis-
crete source method and the projection methods based on the fundamental
theorem of discrete approximation.
Once the surface current densities are determined the approximate
scattered field can be obtained by using the Stratton-Chu representation
formulas.
Next, we will list for easy reference, the different formulations of the
null-field method with discrete sources. In each case we will recall the ex-
pressions of the basis and testing functions and will indicate the geometry
of the support of discrete sources.
Conventional null-field metl i od witii localized spherical vector
wave functions. Consi der Di a bounded domai n of class C^ wi th bound-
ary S and uni t outward normal n. Gi ven Eo,Ho as an enti re soluti on to
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 267
the Maxwell equations find the approximate surface current densities
i t)
m
n X Mi
E E ^^
mn
m=mmax n>max(l,|m|) \ \ f ^ i
nxNj
+ &mnl -jj5LnxM^
(10.45)
from the projection relations
s
J [(e^r - eo) Ni +jM (hy. - ho) Mt,
s
m = -mmax, , mmax, n = max(l, | m| ),..., rimax-
dS = 0,
d5 = 0,
(10.46)
Most numerical computations based on the null-field approach use
spherical vector wave functions as global basis functions. Although these
wave functions appear to provide a good approximation to the solution
when S is smooth and 'near' a spherical surface, they are disadvantageous
when this is not the case. If instead of localized vector spherical functions
we use distributed sources, it is possible to extend the applicability range
of the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method. The explanation
is that distributed sources are better suited to model complex boundaries
than localized sources. Essentially, the null-field condition will be satisfied
in the interior of the support of discrete sources, whose form and position
can be correlated with the boundary geometry. We note here that discrete
sources were used for the first time in the iterative version of the null-field
method (see, e.g. Iskander et al. [76] and Lakhtakia et al [SS])^ This
approach utilizes multipole spherical expansions to represent the internal
fields in different overlapping regions, rather than summing the various
expansions and using it throughout the particle as in our version. The
various expansions are then matched in the overlapping regions to enforce
the continuity of the fields throughout the entire interior volume.
In order to compare different formulations of the null-field method, we
calculate an a posteriori error estimate, which is defined as the residual of
the electric field on different inscribed spherical surfaces 5p with center at
268 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
eN(xop,rp) = ||6E^|| , (10.47)
II Il2,5j
where
*E^(x) = Vx| [e;v(y)-eo(y)] ^(x, y, fc, )d5(y)
5
+ ^ V X V X I [h^(y) ~ho(y)] ^(x,y,A:,)d5(y).
5
(10.48)
We consider now the multiple spherical vector wave functions
M'J^^ix) = M;;' ( X - xop), MkU-K) = Ni ;t (x - xop),
where p = 1,2, . . . , P, n = 1,2, ...,m = ~n, ...,n, and {xop} ^ is a finite
sequence of poles.
Conventional null-field method with multiple spherical vector
wave functions. Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with bound-
ary S and unit outward normal n. Let {xop} ^ be a finite sequence of
poles located inside Di. Given Eo,Ho as an entire solution to the Maxwell
equations find the approximate surface current densities
(
-X \ ^ '"max "max / 11 ^ .
^ P=l m=- mS, n>max(l,|m|) \ V ^
"""l - Ji / T^nx- ^^
tnnp
n X ^mnp
+ bi^np( _jJ^nxMl^^
(10.49)
from the projection relations
j \ifiN - eo) Ml^^, + j v / ^ (h;v - ho) ^fi
S
AS = 0,
d5 = 0,
(10.50)
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2 6 9
p = 1,..., P,m = -mS, ^, . . . , mPj^, n = max(l, |m|),..., nP^^x-
For a fixed pole, the above system implies that the null-field condition
is fulfilled inside an inscribed sphere with center at Xop. Imposing the null-
field condition within several inscribed spheres we expect that the residual
field will be zero throughout the entire interior volume. This formula-
tion is similar to the multiple multipole technique. The main difference
is that the null-field method with multiple vector spherical functions is a
combination of the duality of entire-domain bases for exterior fields and
multiple-domain bases for interior fields. We note here that the location of
the spheres where the null-field condition is imposed may be different from
the position of the poles where the internal field approximation is consid-
ered. For axisymmetric scatter the distribution of the poles on the axis
of revolution takes advantage of the rotational symmetry of the scattering
problem.
We pass now to the system of distributed spherical vector wave func-
tions
where n = 1,2,..., m Z, / = l i f m = 0 and i = 0 if m ^ 0, and (zn) is a
sequence of points distributed on the a^-axis.
Conventional null-field method with distributed spherical vec-
tor wave functions. Consider Di a hounded domain of class C^ tvith
boundary S and unit outward normal n. Consider the bounded sequence
(zn) C r, where r;^ is a segment of the z- axis. Given GQ^HQ a>s an en-
tire solution to the Maxwell equations find the approximate surface current
densities
i t ) -
(10.51)
V "t
from the projection relations
| [ (5i v-eo)-Af' _ n+Jy^(hi v-ho)-A/ 2 ] d5 = 0,
270 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
j [ (ew - eo) Mlrr,^ + j J ^ ( hw - ho) M'. dS = 0,
(10.52)
771 ^ ma x ? ? ^ ma x ? ^ A, . . . , Tin
In the above formulation the approximate surface current densities and
the null-field condition are expressed in terms of lowest-order spherical vec-
tor wave functions. Consequently, the system matrix includes Hankel func-
tions of low order which results in a better conditioned system of equations
compared to that obtained in the single spherical coordinate-base null-field
method. The use of lowest-order spherical multipoles is most effective for
axisymmetric particles. By using a system of spherical vector wave func-
tions distributed along the axis of revolution, it is possible to reduce the
original problem to a sequence of subproblems for each azimuthal mode.
The position of the poles where the null-field condition is imposed
should be correlated with the singularities of analytic continuation of the
scattered field inside A . In this context, for analyzing particles with coni-
plex geometries, it is necessary to use the analytic continuation of the
solution into the complex plane along the source coordinate Zn-
Next, we consider the magnetic and electric dipoles
Mnp{:i^) = m( x, x, r ^p) , Mnp{^) = n( x^, x, r ),
np
where p = 1,2, n = 1,2,..., {x}^^j is a set of points distributed on the
auxiliary surface S, Tni and Tn2 are two tangential linear independent unit
vectors at the point Xn, and
m( x, y, t ;) = ^Vy^(x, y, fc) x v{x), n(x, y, i ;) = - Vy x m(x, y, t;).
Conventional null-field method wi th electric and magnetic
dipoles. Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and
unit outward normal n. Let the sequence { x " } ^^ be dense on a surface
S~ enclosed in Di and let the sequence {x^}^_j be dense on a surface 5"*"
enclosing Di. Given Eo,Ho CLS an entire solution to the Maxwell equations
find the approximate surface current densities
/ -X \ 2 Tlmax / n X
\ ^ / p=l n=l \ Y //^
p=l n=l
from the projection relations
I
{eN - So) Ml,+j ^( h. - ho) - A/ S,
dS = 0,
(10.53)
(10.54)
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 271
p = 1,2, n = l,...,nmax.
We turn now to the vector Mie potentials
Mn{x) = ^V(/?^(x) X X, Af n{x) = j^V X At n( x) ,
where the functions
V^nW = ^(xn, x,/;;), n = 1,2,...,
have the singularities Xn, n = 1,2,..., distributed on the auxiliary surfaces
5.
Conventional null-field method wi th vector Mie potentials.
Consider Di a bounded domain of class C^ with boundary S and unit
outward normal n. Let the sequence {x ~}^ ^ be dense on a surface S"
enclosed in Di and let the sequence {x;5"}^^j be dense on a surface 5"^
enclosing Di. Given Eo,Ho Q'S an entire solution to the Maxwell equations
find the approximate surface current densities
nxMl nxMr
/ - \ nmax / n X yw;^ \ / n x
(10.55)
from the projection relations
\(eN-eo)-Ml+j
/[
^ ( h ; V- h o ) - A/ ?
(BM -eo) 'Af^+jM (hM -ho) Ml
dS = 0,
(10.56)
dS 0,
n = l,...,nn
The null-field methods with distributed dipoles and vector Mie poten-
tials are especially suitable for analyzing the scattering by three-dimensional
particles since the distribution of sources on auxiliary surfaces do not take
into account some peculiarities of the particle geometry like, for instance,
the rotational symmetry. However, the scattering problem of an electro-
magnetic wave by an axisymmetric particle can be reduced to a sequence
of subproblems for each azimuthal mode by taking advantage of this rota-
tional symmetry. As a result, the amount of computer time and storage
required to solve the electromagnetic scattering problem are significantly
reduced. In the following analysis we will discuss this subject in detail.
272 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Let US construct a new complete system of vector functions starting
from vector Mie potentials. For this purpose we express Mn{x) and Mi(x)
in spherical coordinates as
Mn{^ ) = mei x^ xjee -I- m^ {x,xje^
and
Af n{x) = nr{x, x)er -f n^(x, xjee 4- n^(x, xje^ ,
respectively, where
1 VT
mei x,x) = - ^5' ( i l ) / , ( n, n ) ,
m^(x,x ) = - i ^, ' ( i l ) / 2( n, n )
and
rr'
{Rn)--^ 9'{Rn) n.(x,x) = -p{[^S"
X [/?(ann) + /|(an)]
+ 2^5'(/?)/3(n,n)},
n9(x,x ) =
_1_
fc2
^ 9{Rn)
, rrn/4 (, ). , ^
+ ^2 9 {Rn)
/2(n,n ),
n^p(x,xj - ^ ^5 5(-n;
+
i?2
'9"{Rn)
/i(n,fi) .
The functions /i, t = 1,2,3,4, are given by
f i (fi, n ) = sin0 8m((p - i p),
f i (fl, n ) = sin ^cos 0n - cos 5 sin d COS(VJ 'n)'
/a (fl, n ) = cos5COS d + sin5 sin^ cos(i/7 - i^n)!
/4(n,fin) = r- r / 3( n, f i ) ,
(10.57)
(10.58)
(10.59)
(10.60)
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2 7 3
where
1 / 9
Rn = {r^ + r^ ^ rrn [cos 9cos 6n + sin 9sin 6> cos(y> - ^))} ,
exp(jA;.Rn)
(10.61)
^ ( ^ ) = ^ 7 ^ ^ ; ^ '
(^n^n)<Pn) ^^^ ^^e Spherical coordinates of the source point x^, while
(r, 0, (/?) are the spherical coordinates of the observation point x. Each com-
ponent of the vector functions A<n(x) and -A/^(x) are periodic along the
azimuthal (p direction and consequently can be expanded into a Fourier
series. We will formally write
oo
^n^W = Yl Wmn(7,7^)exp(jm((^-(/?)],
rn=~cx)
(10.62)
OO
^n'^(x) = J ] N,(T;,t7)exp[ym((^->)],
where ry E, E is the half-plane (p = const, and the sequences of sources
{^n } ^i Q^d {^^}^i are located on the smooth curves L^ and L", re-
spectively. Setting
MilnW = Mnin(rj,?7^)exp(jmv?), Ni;^(x) = Nnin(^,T7^)exp(jmy?)
(10.63)
it is easy to see that the approximations of the surface current densities
take the form
V / m=-mmax n=l \ y /ij
nxN^
(10.64)
+ fe^nl - . / I n x Mi .
while the projection relations read as
j [(SAT - eo) Mi^ + j - y ^ (ii^ - ho) Ni,
y [ (e^ - eo) Ni^ + j - y ^ (h;v - ho) Mi
AS = 0,
(10.65)
d5 = 0,
274 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
m = rrimax? .,^max, n = 1, ...,nmax- The main advantage of using dis-
crete sources system (10.63) is that the sources are distributed on a curve
rather than on a surface. This leads to a substantial reduction of num-
ber of unknowns. Due to the azimuthal dependence the determination of
the surface current densities can be broken up into a series of decupled
problems over each azimuthal mode. Furthermore, the surface integrals in
(10.65) simplify to line integrals with respect to the variable 9. However,
this last simplification is only apparent since the Fourier components must
be computed by numerical integration and this process can be very time-
consuming due to the highly oscillatory nature of the integrands, especially
for large values of m.
A general scheme for surface current densities determination consists of
the null-field equations (10.41) in which e and h are treated as independent
unknowns. An approximate solution for e and h takes the form
^mx 'T'max
Civ =
hiST =
^max ^max
/ _j ^ ^ ^ mn mn ' mn mn >
(10.66)
m=mmax n=l
where T^^ and T^ represent entire-boundary bases or sub-domain bases.
As entire-boundary bases we can choose the set of tangential fields
constructed from the spherical vector harmonics
1 mn n X mTTiTi ?
^ mn '~' ^ ^ ^ mm
(10.67)
where
mmniy) =
nmn(y) =
,\m\ m|/
e ^
de
. pr^ (cose) dpr'(cos^)
jm__
sinO
'dfd^'(cosg)
d^
. . pr{cos0)
ee+jm ^ - - e ^
pjm>
pjmi p
(10.68)
and 6 and (f are the angular spherical coordinates of y. We note here that
the system
{mmnj n^nn, n = 1,2,..., m = - n, . . . , n} (10.69)
is complete in 1/^(0), where Q is the unit sphere. The natural gener-
alization of this set for a star-shape surface with n^ > 0, where n =
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 2 7 5
nrer-l-n^e^-f n^e<^, is (cf. Str5m and Zheng, [139])
{n X mmn, n x Umn, ^ = 1,2,..., m = - n, . . . , n}. (10.70)
/ a*. (nxmni n)d5 = 0,
a*'{nxnmn)dS = 0,
(10.71)
for n = 1,2,..., m = n, ...,n, and a tan('S')- Since d5 = {l/nr)r^ di l
we may use the completeness of the system (10.69) to obtain
( nxa*) , = (nxa*)^ = 0 (10.72)
almost everywhere on 5. The field n x a* is tangential to 5, and therefore
(n X a*)^ = i -l/ri r) [(n x a*)^ n? 4- (n x a*)^ n^] . (10.73)
The latter implies a '^ 0 on 5 and our assertion is proved. We may also
construct tangential fields starting from {mmn,nmn} by simply adding
appropriate e^ components
(10.74)
Once again, the resulting system of functions is complete on star-shaped
surfaces with Ur > 0. Numerical experiments performed by StrOm and
Zheng [139] show that system {n x mmnj n x nmn} is suitable for analyzing
dielectric bodies with pronounced concavities. For instance, in the case
of a peanut-shaped scatterer with fc^a = 3.33, ksb = 1 and M = 2 the
results obtained by using the system of localized spherical vector wave
functions {n x Mj^, n x NJ ^} do not converge, while reasonable stabiUty
was obtained by using the system {n x ni mn^ ^ x ^ mn]
When the surface current densities have discontinuities in their conti-
nuity or any of their derivatives, straightforward application of global basis
functions provides poor convergence to the solution. Wall [151] shows that
the sub-domain basis or the local basis approximation of the surface cur-
rent densities results in slightly larger condition numbers for the matrix
equations than would be obtained using global bases. For axisymmetric
particles we can take
276 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
(10.75)
where ri and T2 are the unit vectors tangential to S and Sn are sub-
domain basis in the azimuthal plane (f = const. As local bases we can use
piecewise linear triangle functions or B-spline functions. We remind that if
a = xo,a:i,...,Xiv = 6 is an equidistant subdivision of the interval [a, b] the
linear triangle functions are given by
h
Ln{x) = <
V 0, elsewhere
and the cubic B-spline functions by
, X|i-i S -^ S ^n
J Xn <X < Xn+1
(10.76)
( , ^~ 1 , Xn-2 <X< X^i
Bni x) = I
3Cf i J ^ X ^ ^ Xf i
3
, ^3(i =p)+3(f=p)-3(f=pi ),
Xn < X < Xn+l
f Xn-^ 2 - X\
V /I ; '
0, elsewhere
Xn+l <X< X 4.2
(10.77)
2.2.2 Transition matrix In the above analysis we have concentrated on
the null-field equation and the question of obtaining a solution on the sur-
face 5. In the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method one,
furthermore, computes the transition matrix which relates the scattered
and the incident field coefficients. The transition matrix or the T-matrix
plays an important role in numerous applications. For example, taking into
account the general properties of the T-matrix Mishchenko [105] has elabo-
rated an efficient analytical method for computing orientationally-averaged
light-scattering characteristics for ensembles of nonspherical particles. On
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 277
the other hand, the transition matrix for a single scatterer can successfully
be used for solving a large class of boundary-value problems in electromag-
netic scattering theory. In this context, we mention the analysis of multiple
scattering problems (see, e.g. Peterson and StrGm [122], [123] and Mack-
owski [98]), simulation of light scattering by layered or composite objects
(see, e.g. Peterson and Str5m [124], [125], Ngo et al. [117] and Videen et
al. [149]), and by particles deposited upon a surface (see, e.g. Wriedt and
Doicu, [164]).
Below we will determine the transition matrix in the framework of the
conventional null-field method with discrete sources. In this context, let
e and h solve the null-field equations (10.41) and assume that the system
{n X *Jj,n X $^} form a Schauder basis in /^tan('5')- Then there exist the coefficients a^ and 6^^, /i = 1,2,..., such that n x *J, + 6. A^ ~^ n x *^ (10.78) Let us introduce the normalized localized vector spherical functions: M3I = DI'^MI^^ and N^'^ = D^^N^'^ The scattered field may be ex- pressed outside the circumscribing sphere as a series of radiating spherical vector wave functions E3 = X^/,.M^-h^^N^, (10.79) i / =i with expansion coefficients S (10.80) where i/ = (m, n) and V = (-m, n). Now, for deriving the T-matrix let us assume that the incident field can be expressed inside a bounded domain containing 5 as a series of regular vector spherical functions Eo = J^a^X-^blul (10.81) i / =i Then, the relation between the scattered and the incident field coefficients is linear and is given by a transition matrix T as follows (10.82) 278 Here, CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS T = BA-^ Ao, where A, B and AQ are block matrices of the form X = v-21 v-22 , i/,/x = l , 2, . . . . Explicit expressions for the matrix elements are - ^ 1 / ^ dS, and All = y"[ (nx*;. ).$3+ /E( x$J. ). *e] d5, ^'.'M = J[ ( nx$j . ) . $3 + y3i(nx*J. ). *3] d5, 5i i = ^ y [ ( n x * i ) . 4 + y / | ( n x * i ) . 4 ] d 5 , s Bll = ^y' [ ( nx$i ) . N^4- y/ J( nx*i ) . 4] d5,
^" = ^ / [ ( n x * i ) . K| , + y | ( nx $i ) . Ndd5 , 2 s ^'' = ^ / [ ( n x$ J . ) . 4 + y j ( n x * j . ) . N^
s
^^M = y" [(nxNJ.) *3 + (nxMJ.). \$3] d5,
s
^ l^ = y [(nxM^) #3 + (nxNi) i-a] d5,
s
d5,
(10.83)
(10.84)
(10.85)
(10.86)
(10.87)
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 279
respectively.
The elements of the T matrix are independent of the incident and scat-
tered fields and depend only on the shape, size parameter, and refractive
index of the scattering particle as well as on its orientation with respect
to the coordinate system. Consequently, the T matrix need be computed
only once and then can be used in computations for any directions of light
incidence and scattering. The exact infinite T matrix is independent of the
expansion systems used on S. However, the approximate truncated matrix,
computed in accordance with
TAT = BivA^y^ AQ N (10.88)
does contain such a dependence.
It is of interest to investigate general constraints on the transition ma-
trix such as unitarity and symmetry. These properties can be established,
for example, by applying the principle of conservation of energy to non-
absorbing particles and the reciprocity relations (cf., e.g. Varadan et al.
[144]). If we rewrite the T-matrix equation as
Jmn
9mn
rpll J12
mnm'n' ''mnm'n'
rp2\ rp22
'mnm'n' 'm,nm,'n' J
^ m'n'
then the general symmetry relations read as
rplj _. rpjt
m.nm'n' m'n'mn'
(10.89)
(10.90)
For an axisymmetric particle the T matrix becomes diagonal with respect
to the azimuthal indices m and m'
^ni <m/ / Ofnm' * .m^
mm'-^ f nnm'n">
(10.91)
and we have
mnmn' V ^ / "'mnmi
In this case the symmetry relations takes the form
(10.92)
^ m.nmn' \ *"/ -"^mn'ri
(10.93)
In the null-field method the dependence of the numerical results on the
truncation order is the main feature which can be taken as a basis for
statements concerning the accuracy of the results. In addition, one can
check general features like symmetry and unitarity of the transition matrix.
Actually, the symmetry error give a rough idea concerning the convergence
to be expected in the solution computations, but the details are hard to
predict.
280
lE+02
lE+01
lE+00
l E- 01
l E- 02
l E- 03 i
l E- 04
l E- 05
CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Rel at i ve symmetry error (%)
l ocal i zed sources
--distributed sources
1 2 3 4
Small semi axi s kb
FIGURE 10.15 Relative symmetry error of the transition matrix for the azimuthai
mode m = 1 and for prolate spheroids with M = 1.4, fc^a = 10 and k^b varying between
0.5 and 5.
Next we present some computer simulations for analyzing the symme-
try of the transition matrix. For our numerical experiments we use localized
and distributed spherical vector wave functions. It is noted that in the case
of localized spherical vector wave functions the matrix Ao is the unity ma-
trix except a multiplication constant. In our first example we consider
the scattering by prolate spheroids with the large semiaxis kga = 10 and
the small semiaxis kab varying between 0.5 and 5. The refractive index is
M = 1.4. The incident field is a p-polarized plane wave travelling along the
z-axi s which corresponds to the particle symmetry axis. In Figure 10.15
we present the relative symmetry error of the transition matrix
2 Hmax ^ \
max 'max
^ rn 7 ^ / ^ 7 ^ \^ mnvn.n' ^ mn'Tan\ I \^ vn.nvnn'\
t =l n=l n'>n
^max
(10.94)
' 7 ^ \^ mnmn' " -^mn'mnj / i^mnmn'j I'^J
n, n' =l
for the azimuthai mode m = 1. The curves demonstrate that the relative
symmetry error is in general lower for distributed sources even for an aspect
ratio of 20. In Figure 10.16 we plot the relative matrix error defined by
=1 n, n' =l
rpi j.A _ rjyi j.B I / I Jti
^ mnmn' mnmn' / mi
,A
(10.95)
*,3=
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 281
3.8
3.6
3.4H
3.2^
3.0
Relative matrix error (%)
3 4
Small semiaxis kb
FIGURE 10.16 Relative error between the transition matrices computed by the
nuti-fieid method with localized and distributed vector spherical functions. The results
correspond to prolate spheroids with Af = 1.4, kaa = 10 and k^b varying between 2 and
5.
The superscript A and B correspond to the null-field method with dis-
tributed and localized vector spherical functions, respectively. The devi-
ations between the transition matrices computed with localized and dis-
tributed sources increases significantly when kab < 2. In fact, below this
limit the conventional method with localized sources does not converge.
In Figure 10.17 we consider an oblate spheroid with the large semiaxis
ksb = 10 and the small semiaxis kga varying between 1 and 5. The refractive
index is M = 1.4. In this case the poles of the distributed vector spherical
functions are located in the complex plane along the imaginary axis. The
same alteration of the matrix symmetry is observed in the case of localized
vector spherical functions when a decreases. The symmetry is destroyed for
kgtt < 3. The relative matrix error plotted in Figure 10.18 is an additional
argument that the conventional method gives erroneous results for kga < 3.
When localized sources are used as basis and testing functions, the
symmetry of the transition matrix deteriorates as the refiractive index in-
creases. This is illustrated in Figure 10.19 for a prolate spheroid with
kaa = 10 and kab = 2.5. The refractive index M increases from 1.4 to 3.8.
The plotted data show that the null-field method with distributed sources
has a relative symmetry smaller than 0.1%. In contrast, the relative sym-
metry error of the null-field method with localized sources is larger than
40% when M > 2.2.
282 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Rel at i ve symmetry error (%)
lE+02 j
lE+01
lE+00
lE-01
lE-02
lE-03
lE-04
lE-05
^^...^^^^^^^^
1
localized sources
-^distributed sources
' ' 1 ' 1 1 ' 1
2 3 4
Small semi axi s ka
FI GURE 10.17 Relative symmetry error of the transition matrix for the azimuthal
mode m = 1 and for oblate spheroids with M = 1.4, kah = 10 and k^a varying between
1 and 5.
Relative matrix error (%)
FIGURE 10.18 Relative error between the transition matrices computed by the
null-field method with localized and distributed vector spherical functions. The results
correspond to oblate spheroids with M = 1.4, kah = 10 and kaa varying between 3 and
5.
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 283
lE+02
lE+01
lE+00
lE-01
lE-02
lE-03
lE-04
Relative symmetry error (%)
lE-05
localized sources
-^distributed sources
1.4 2.2 3.0
Refractive index M
3. 8
FIGURE 10.19 Relative symmetry error of the transition matrix for the azimuthal
mode m = 1 and for a prolate spheroid with kga = 10 and ^56 = 2.5 when the refractive
Index varies from Af = 1.4 to M = 3.8.
It is necessary to mention that the null-field method with distributed
sources needs rather lengthy computations compared with the conventional
approach. For instance, for a prolate spheroid with fc^a = 10, ksb = 2.5
and M = 1.4 we find that the CPU time of the null-field method with
distributed vector spherical functions is 0.315 s, while the CPU time of the
null-field method with localized vector spherical functions is 0.163 s. The
calculations were performed on an IBM workstation RS/6000.
Our numerical analysis indicates that the transition matrix computed
in the framework of the null-field method with distributed spherical vec-
tor wave functions has a high symmetry even for particles with extreme
geometries. In contrast, the symmetry of the transition matrix computed
by the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method is altered and
the algorithm fails to converge. This is an additional argument that the
null-field method with discrete sources can be used in the mathematical
modelling of difiicult scattering problems.
2.2.3 Numerical results We conclude this chapter by presenting numeri-
cal results computed with the conventional null-field method. This includes
investigation of the accuracy of different formulations of the conventional
approach, analysis of the null-field method with spherical vector wave func-
tions distributed in the complex plane, and simulation of light scattering
by particles without rotational symmetry.
284 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
FIGURE 10.20 llustration of the cone-sphere geometry
1. We start by investigating the accuracy of various formulations of
the null-field method for the scattering problem of a cone-sphere particle.
We compare the null-field method with localized, multiple and distributed
spherical vector wave functions and the null-field method with sub-domain
bases. For this purpose we choose the residual of the electric field on
spherical surfaces with shifted origins as error criterion.
For our numerical experiments we consider a cone-sphere particle with
a size parameter of fc^a = 6, a refractive index of M = 1.5 and a half-cone
angle of a = 45^. The geometry of the particle is illustrated in Figure
10.20. The direction of propagation of the incident wave is along the z-
axis and the polarization direction encloses an angle of Qp = 45 with the
X-axis.
The residual of the electric field, computed by using the single spherical
coordinate-based null-field method is plotted in Figure 10.21. As expected,
the null-field condition deteriorates significantly outside the maximal in-
scribed sphere. The instability of the method is illustrated in Figure 10.22,
in which the residual electric field is computed in the vicinity of the tip for
diflferent numbers of unknowns.
The residual field increases with increasing nmax, and conversely the
scattered field solution oscillates. However, the above procedure can be
used to obtain the optimal solution which assures a minimal residual field.
In Figure 10.23 we show the values of the residual of the electric field, com-
puted on the spherical surfaces with centers fc^it; = 0 and fcat/; = 8 , when
the origin of the internal field expansion is changed. This shifting procedure
is temporary and of limited use, for though it does provide better residual
field values in the regions around the shifted origin, the null-field condition
in other parts of the dielectric object begins to deteriorate significantly as
the inscribed sphere is shifted away from the center.
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 285
0.3
Residual electric field
0. 2H
0. 1
0.0
- 0 . 1
kw
FIGURE 10.21 Residua) of the electric field computed with the single spherical
coordinate-based null-field method. The origin of the spherical surface is located at the
point kaw, which varies between 0 and 8.
1. 8
Residual electric field
15 16 17 18 19 20
Number of unknown n ^^
FIGURE 10.22 Residual of the electric field as a function on the number of un-
knowns.
286 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
f ) a -
0.5-
0.4-
0.3-
0.2-
0.1-
0.1-
Residual electric field
-^kw = 8.0
^ -V,^^ kw = 0.0
1 , r 1 1 - I r - 1 1 1 1
0 . 3 0 . 6 0 . 9 1. 2 1. 5
Or i g i n of e x pa ns i o n
FIGURE 10.23 Residual of the electric field at the points kgw = 0 and ksw = 8
when the origin of the expansion is shifted along the z-axis.
In Figure 10.24 we show the residual electric field computed by using
the null-field method with multiple spherical vector wave functions. The
data correspond to different arrangements of poles. In each case the residual
field is smaller than 6 x 10'"'* over the entire analysis domain. In order to
compare the scattered field solutions computed with different theories we
use this method as reference. Specifically, the differential scattering cross-
section normalized by na^ will be evaluated in the azimuthal plane (p = 0.
The differential scattering cross-section computed by using the multiple
spherical vector wave functions is shown in Figure 10.25.
The residual of the electric field computed by the null-field method
with distributed spherical vector wave functions is shown in Figure 10.26.
The maximal value of the residual field is smaller than 6 x 10~^.
In view of Figure 10.26 we may conclude that this method is superior
to the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method, but inferior to
the null-field method with multiple spherical vector wave functions.
In Figure 10.27 we show the residual of the electric field computed
by using the null-field method with sub-boundary bases. In accordance
with Wall [151] we found that local basis functions are more suitable in
representing surface fields near the tip than global basis functions. We
mention here, that the evaluation of the residual of the electric field within
Di is not relevant, because the surface current densities computed according
to (10.66) do not guarantee the null-field condition in Ds- In this case an
additional criterion, consisting in the evaluation of the residual fields in the
exterior of S, must be used. However, the relative error of the differential
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD
287
Residual electric field
FIGURE 10.24 Residual of the electric field computed with the null-field method
with multiple spherical vector wave functions. The data correspond to the following
arrangements of poles: (a) P = 2, (kszi = 0.0, nj^^x = 16)> i^sZ2 = 7.5, ri^^ = 4),
(b) P = 2, (kszi = 0.0, ni,ax = 17), (ksZ2 = 7.5, n^^ = 4) and (c) P = 3,
(fc^^i = 0.0, n i , ^ = 15), (ksZ2 = 6.5, nl,^^ = 3), {ksz^ = 7.5, nl,^ = 2).
lE+01
lE+00
l E- 01 ;
l E- 02 1
l E- 03 1
l E- 04 1
l E- 05
DSCS
1 1 r " ^ T
p-polarized
--s-polarized
, , 1 1 I 1 I ' 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.25 Differential scattering cross-section computed with the null-field
method with multiple spherical vector wave functions.
288 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
lE-02
Residual electric field
FIGURE 10.26 Residual of the electric field computed with the null-field method
with distributed spherical vector wave functions. The curves corespond to a number of
sources: (a) rimax = 15, (b) nmax = 16 and (c) rimax = 17.
n "^ -,
0 . 2 -
0 . 1 -
0 . 0 <
0 . 1 -
Residual e l e c t r i c
- spl i ne
- ^l i ne ar
functions
functions
convent i onal NFM
f
i el d
/ /
i
1 1 ^ ^ ^ . 1
kw
FIGURE 10.27 Residual of the electric field computed with the null-field method
with sub-domain bases (linear and spline functions). The number of unknowns is
lmax = 22.
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 289
0.8
0.6
0 . 4 4
0,2A
Relative error (%)
0.0
linear functions
-^spline functions
-B-conventional NFM
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(a) Scattering angle (deg)
n fi n
0 . 6 -
0 . 4 -
0 . 2 -
0 . 0 J
Re l a t i ve e r r o r (%)
linear functions
-^spline functions
-B-conventional NFM
No
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(b) Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.28 Relative error of the differential scattering cross-section using the
null-field method with sub-domain bases: (a) p-polarization and (b) s-polarization.
scattering cross-section, plotted in Figure 10.28, indicates the superiority
of the sub-boundary bases for surface current densities representation.
Conclusions concerning the computing time and the accuracy of the
solution can be summarized as follows. The single spherical coordinate-
based null-field method needs less computing time but has an unstable
convergence. The null-field method with multiple and distributed spher-
ical vector wave functions need rather lengthy computations (by a factor
of 1.2-1.3 versus the standard null-field method), but give fast convergent
and higher accurate solutions. The null-field method with sub-boundary
2 9 0 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
bases requires lengthy computation (by a factor of 1.5-1.6 versus the stan-
dard null-field method), has a slow convergence, but gives a more accurate
solution than the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method.
2. The null-field method with spherical vector wave functions dis-
tributed in the complex plane has been implemented in a computer pro-
gram. In the following we will present computed results for several scat-
terers that gradually increase in complexity. In our examples we consider
bodies of revolution. We define the laboratory frame OXYZ and choose
the direction of propagation of the incident wave to be along the Z-axis.
The particle coordinate system is denoted by Oxyz^ where the 2:-axis rep-
resents the symmetry axis of the particle. The orientation of the symmetry
axis of the particle is given by the Euler angles a and /? . The incident
wave is linearly polarized and the polarization direction encloses an angle
ap with the X-axis.
Our first objective is to demonstrate the validity of the null-field method
with spherical vector wave functions located in the complex plane. We ver-
ify the accuracy of the proposed method for a spherical scatterer with a
size parameter of fc^a = 12 by comparing our numerical results with those
obtained by use of the Mie series. The differential scattering cross-section
will be evaluated in the aaimuthal plane (p = 0 of the laboratory frame
for ap = 0 and Qp = 90. The spherical vector wave functions were dis-
tributed on the symmetry axis of the particle, i.e. the Re z-axis, on the
imaginary axis in the complex plane, i.e. the Im z-axis, and on a circle con-
tains in D, concentric with the boundary. The results are shown in Figure
10.29. Complete agreement between our method and the exact modal ex-
pansion serves as an evidence of the accuracy of the proposed method. In
Figures 10.30 (a) we consider a spheroidal particle with a refractive index
of M = 1.5, a size parameter of fc^a = 6 and an aspect ratio of a/b = 10
. The symmetry axis of the particle is along the Z-axis. For this case we
used a collection of spherical vector wave functions located on the symme-
try axis of the particle. For comparison we have plotted the differential
scattering cross-section computed by using the multiple multipole method.
These results clearly demonstrated that no significant differences exist be-
tween the scattering diagrams. Numerical experiments with the null-field
method have shown fast convergence of the scattered field, which is appar-
ent from the results given in Figure 10.30 (b) for a spheroidal particle with
a refractive index of M = 1.5, a size parameter of fca = 36 and an aspect
ratio of a/b = 18.
Now we consider an oblate spheroid with a refractive index of M = 1.5,
a size parameter of ksb = 3 and an aspect ratio of a/b = 1/10. For this
scatterer we choose the spherical vector wave functions on the imaginary
axis in the complex plane. Plots of the differential scattering cross-section
computed by the null-field method and discrete sources method are shown
in Figure 10.31.
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 291
lE+01
lE+00
l E- 01
l E- 02
l E- 03 i
l E- 04 1
l E- 05
DSCS
p- pol ar i zed
/ ^ WI MV F A / II 1
Mie
NFM
s- pol ar i zed
1 1 1 1 . 1 r 1 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.29 Differential scattering cross-section for a spherical particle with M :
1.5 and fc^a = 12. The data correspond to Mie solution and the null-field method.
The next problem we analyzed involves a cylinder with kg D 10 and
L/D = 1/10. The orientation of the symmetry axis of the particle is defined
by the Euler angles: a = 0 and /3 = 0 and /3 = 90. A comparison was
also made by using the multiple multipole method. The results are shown
in Figure 10.32. Prom our examples we may conclude that the null-field
method with distributed spherical vector wave functions can be used to
solve the scattering problems of highly deformed particles.
3. Our next numerical computations deals with the analysis of null-
field method with distributed dipoles and vector Mie potentials. In our
examples we consider particles without rotational symmetry. We first verify
the accuracy of the null-field method with discrete sources distributed on
auxiliary surfaces by using the single spherical coordinate-based null-field
method as reference. For this purpose we consider a dielectric ellipsoid
whose surface is described by
x'^ 1/^ ^^ __ 1
(10.96)
and choose the size parameters to be fc^a = 1.2, kgb =1. 4 and kgC = 2. The
direction of propagation of the incident wave is along the z-axis. The plots
in Figure 10.33 represent the diflFerential scattering cross-section evaluated
in the azimuthal planes (^ = 0 and (p = 90 for ap = 0. The auxiliary
surfaces S~ and 5"^ are chosen to be homothetic to 5, with a homothetic
ratio of 0.5 and 2, respectively. A total of 110 sources is required to obtain
an agreement with the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method.
292 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
l E-02
l E- 03
l E-04
l E-05
l E- 06
l E-07
l E-08
l E- 09
DSCS
p- pol ar i z e d \
j MMP
1 NFM
s-pol ari zed
-T , , , 1 1 r
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(a) Scattering angle (deg)
DSCS
s-polarized
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(fc>) Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.30 Differential scattering cross-section for prolate spheroids: (a) M
1.5, ksa = 6, a/b = 10, (6) M = 1.5, ksa = 36, a/b = 18.
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 293
DSCS
l E- Ol
l E- 02
l E- 03 i
l E- 04 i
l E- 05 i
l E- 06 I
l E- 07 \
s- pol ar i zed
p- pol ar i zed V /
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
DSM
~NFM
T1 ri 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.31 Differential scattering cross-section for an oblate with M = 1.5,
ksb = 3 and a/b = 1/10.
Results for the problem of plane wave scattering by a dielectric cube
are shown in Figure 10.34. The cube size parameter is 41/X 5, where /
is the side length. Evaluation of the differential scattering cross-section is
done in the plane 9:? = 0 for ap = 0 and ap = 90. The selected auxiliary
surfaces are taken to be spherical surfaces of radii a_ = / / 4 and a^ = 3//2,
respectively. The scattering characteristics are also computed by using the
discrete dipole approximation, that is by using the public domain DDA-
Code DDSCAT, version 5, by Draine and Flatau. A good agreement with
the single spherical coordinate-based null-field method solution has been
obtained for 144 sources. We note here that, in the case of tips or edges
on the main surface, the fields should have singularities near the point of
geometrical singularities. The usual technique is to smooth the geomet-
rical singularities with certain radii of curvature or to incorporate surface
densities capable of representing the correct singularity in subdomains of
interest. In the null-field method a simple technique which consists of
computing the surface integrals using Gaussian quadrature is often used.
For particles consisting of more than one section, one defines quadrature
sample points and weighting values over each section, separately, since the
Gaussian quadrature will not select the end points of integration.
4. We conclude our analysis by presenting some numerical results com-
puted with the null-field method with vector Mie potentials distributed on
auxiliary curves. This system of vector functions is used to construct the so-
lution to the scattering problem of a conducting axisymmetric particle. The
scatterer is a spherical particle with axisymmetric roughness. The stochas-
294 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
lE+02 1
lE+01
lE+00
l E- 01
l E- 02
l E- 03
l E- 04
l E- 05
DSCS
MMP y
NFM
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 r1 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(a) Scattering angle (deg)
DSCS
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(b) Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.32 Differential scattering cross-section for an cylinder with M =
1.5, kaD = 10 and L/D = 1/10. The orientation of the particle is given by: (a)
a = 0*=* and /3 = 0 and (b) a = 0 and /3 = 45.
2. CONVENTIONAL NULL-FIELD METHOD 295
lE+Ol
lE+00
lE-01
lE-02
lE-03
lE-04
lE-05
DSCS
1 localized sources
1 distributed
j sources
j phi = 0 \
1
phi =
1 1 F
= 90
1' 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.33 Differential scattering cross-section for dielectric ellipsoids with M =
1.5 and size parameters: kga = 1.2, kab = 1.4 and ksc = 2.
lE+Ol
lE+00
lE-01
lE-02
lE-03
lE-04
lE-05
lE-06
DSCS
j
DDA
NFM
polari zed
s
-T
-polarized
' rT 1 1
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.34 Normalized differential scattering cross-section for a dielectric cube
of size parameter 41/X = 5 and refractive index M = 1.5.
296 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
l E- 01
l E- 02
l E- 03
DSCS
^^'^^ p- pol ar i zed
s- pol ar i zed ^
1 r 1 r1 1 r1 r . 1 1
A
B
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.35 Differential scattering cross-section computed in case A and B for a
rough sphere with a mean size parameter ka = 3 and a standard deviation of kS = 0.2.
tic shape of a rough sphere with Gaussian statistics was parametrized by
the mean radius a, the standard deviation 6 and the angular roughness
scale 7c.
In order to compute the mean scattered intensity and its statistical
properties one must solve the scattering problem for each sample Gaussian
random surface. In this case the convergence of the algorithm for a single
realization of the surface profile is crucial for the whole analysis. For this
reason we consider a given sample random surface. The method which use
the system of vector Mie potentials will be referred to as case A, while the
algorithm based on the discrete sources system (10.63) is referred to as case
B.
We consider a distorted sphere with a mean size parameter of fca = 3
and an angular roughness scale of 7^ = 0.5. The differential scattering
cross-section will be evaluated for a plane wave incidence in the azimuthal
plane (^ = 0. The direction of propagation of the incident wave is along
the symmetry axis of the particle. Two values are chosen for the standard
deviation of the surface heights k6 = 0.2 and 0.4. Figures 10.35 and 10.36
show the field patterns for cases A and B. In case A the discrete sources
are distributed on an auxiliary surface 5~, homothetic to 5, with an ho-
mothetic ratio of 0.3 and 0.5, respectively. The number of source points
is taken to be 76 and 88, respectively. In case B the discrete sources are
distributed on an auxiliary curve L~, homothetic to L, with an homothetic
ratio of 0.7 and 0.8, respectively. In contrast to case A, a total of 22 and
28 sources, respectively, is sufficient to obtain the desired, accuracy.
lE+OO
1E~01
l E- 02 :
l E- 03 J
DSCS
p-pol
I I r
ari
_^
zed
' 1 '
s-polarized
f " ' r ' > 1
A
B
_ , , j
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Scattering angle (deg)
FIGURE 10.36 Differential scattering cross-section computed in case A and B for a
rough sphere with a mean size parameter ka = 3 and a standard deviation of kS = 0.4.
As a result, the storage required to solve the electromagnetic scattering
problem is substantially reduced. Comparing case A with case B it is also
observed that a significant saving of computational time is obtained when
using the discrete sources system (10.63).
The single spherical-coordinate null-field method was initially introduced
by Waterman [155] as a technique for computing electromagnetic scattering
by conducting objects. Later, Bates [9] studied the same problem, followed
by Waterman's applications of his method to electromagnetic scattering
from dielectrics [156] and to acoustic scattering [157]. An improved for-
Waterman [158].
Almost all existing computer codes assume rotational symmetric shapes
both smooth, e.g. spheroids and so-called Chebyshev particles, and sharp
edged, e.g. finite circular cylinders (see Mugnai and Wiscombe, [112], [113]
and Barber and Hill [8]). Special techniques have been developed for im-
proving the numerical stability of the method for particle with large size pa-
rameters or extreme geometries(see, e.g. Lakhtakia et al, [88], Mishchenko
and Travis [107], Wielaard et al. [161] and Schulz et al [134]).
Lakhtakia et al. [89] used the null-field method to compute the scatter-
ing by chiral nonspherical particles, while Schneider and Peden [133], and
2 9 8 CHAPTER X NFM IN ELECTROMAGNETICS
Wriedt and Doicu [165] investigated the scattering by particles without
rotational symmetry.
Extension of the null-field method for arbitrary number of scatterers
was first addressed by Peterson and Strom [122], [123]. They applied the
boundary conditions on all of the scatterers simultaneously resulting in a
system of coupled linear matrix equations. Later, Chew [21] and Chew
et ai [26] reformulated the problem in a simple way to obtain a recursive
procedure. This method [153] and its variation [24], [154] have been applied
to scattering problems and their potentials as faster than 0{N^) algorithms
have been demonstrated. Other contributions concerning light-scattering
calculations by a cluster of particles are due to Borghese et al. [14] and
Mackowski [98].
Various other extensions of the null-field method have been developed
over time. Among these, it is worthwhile to mention the application of the
method to multilayered and composite scatterers by Peterson and Strom
[124], [125], Hizal [72], Aydin and Hizal [4], Str5m and Zheng [140], Zheng
[172] and Zheng and Str5m [173]. Chew [22] has given a more general
formulation for the multilayered scatterers. An excellent review of the null-
field method was given by Mishchenko et ai [110]. The null-field method
with discrete sources has been discussed by Doicu and Wriedt [44]-[46].
APPENDI X
Programmes on the Internet
T
he following light-scattering programs are available via the Internet
~fg01/codes2.html:
DSMAXI: discrete sources method with distributed vector multi-
poles for axisymmetric particles. Shape of scatterer: prolate and
oblate spheroids.
NFMAXI: null-field method with localized, distributed and multiple
spherical vector wave functions for axisymmetric particles. Shape
of the scatterer: prolate and oblate spheroids (for particles with an-
alytical representation of the generator minor changes are needed).
NFMNONAX: null-field method with locaHzed spherical wave func-
tions for nonaxisymmetric particles. Shape of the scatterer: ellip-
soids (for particles with the equation of the surface given in spherical
coordiantes by r = r{9^ip) minor changes are needed).
299
I NDEX
acoustic obstacle scattering, 21
analytic continuation
of fields in the complex plane,
88, 167
of the scattered field, 74
auxiliary current method, 74
biorthogonal system, 9
boundary conditions
exterior Dirichlet problem, 21
exterior impedance problem,
23,111
exterior Maxwell problem.
110
exterior Neumann problem,
22
transmission problem. 111
Bromwich's theorem, 179
Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, 2
closed system, 6
collocation method, 81
combined single- and double-layer
potential, 29, 32
complete systems
definition of, 6
distributed dipoles, 172
distributed plane waves, 58
distributed point sources, 51,
53, 56
distributed spherical vector
wave functions, 160
distributed spherical wave
functions, 47
distributed vector Mie poten-
tials, 179
distributed vector multi-
poles , 168
distributed vector plane
waves, 184
locaUzed spherical vector
wave functions, 140
localized spherical wave func-
tions, 40
localized vector multipoles,
147
313
314 INDEX
multiple spherical vector
wave functions, 159
260
conventional null-field method with
discrete sources
convergence analysis, 97, 246
equivalence with the auxiliary
current method, 100
formulations of, 95, 245, 265
cubic B-spline function, 276
domain of class C^, 20
D-matrix method, 209
design matrix, 81
differential scattering cross-section,
228
Dirichlet to Neumann map, 22
discrete sources method
with distributed spherical
wave functions, 86
with distributed vector mul-
tipoles, 219
double layer operator, 25
double-layer potential, 24
exterior impedance problem,
126
exterior Maxwell problem,
124
transmission problem, 126
eigenvalue
Dirichlet problem, 21
Maxwell problem, 110
Neumann problem, 22
electric conductivity, 108
electric dipole operator, 114
electric dipoles, 171
electric permittivity, 108
electric vector multipoles
distributed, 168
localized, 146
electromagnetic obstacle scatter-
ing, 109
entropy, 18
equation of continuity, 18
Euler's equation, 18
exterior Dirichlet problem, 21
exterior impedance problem
acoustics, 23
electromagnetics. 111
exterior Maxwell problem, 110
exterior Neumann problem, 22
far-field pattern
of acoustic fields, 88
of electromagnetic fields, 224,
225
function spaces
C(G), 19
C^^^iG), 20
Ci ' "(G), 20
L^(G), 19
CUS), 109
Ctan(5), 109
C?an(5), 109
ClniSh 109
fundamental solution, 24
fundamental theorem of discrete
approximation, 11
generall null-field equations, for-
mulations of
exterior Dirichlet problem, 35
exterior Maxwell problem,
129
exterior Neumann problem,
36
transmission problem, 132
Gramm matrix, 80
Green's formulas, 32
Green's function, expansion of
spherical vector wave func-
tions, 139
spherical wave functions, 40
Green's functions
INDEX
315
exterior Dirichlet problem, 33
exterior impedance problem,
34
exterior Neumann problem,
34
Helmholtz equation, 19
Hilbert space, 3
idem factor, 124, 139
jump relations
acoustic potentials, 25, 26
vector potentials, 114, 115
L^ bilinear form, 26
Lax's theorem, 26
Lax-Milgram lemma, 11
linear functional, 8
linear independent systems
definition of, 6
distributed dipoles, 191
distributed point sources, 62
distributed spherical vector
wave functions, 190
distributed spherical wave
functions, 61
distributed vector Mie poten-
tials, 191
localized spherical vector
wave functions, 185
localized spherical wave func-
tions, 60
multiple spherical vector
wave functions, 188
linear operator, 8
linear triangle function, 276
magnetic dipole operator, 114
magnetic dipoles, 171
magnetic permeability, 108
magnetic vector multipoles
distributed, 168
localized, 146
mass density, 18
Maxwell's equations, 108
minimal system, 8
modified single-layer potential, 49
modified vector Mie potential, 272
modified vector potential, 177
norm
definition of, 2
square-integral, 19
supremum, 19
normal derivative operator, 25
normaUzed differential scattering
cross-section, 228
normalized extinction cross-
section, 228
normed space, 2
null-field equations, formulations
of
distributed dipoles, 174
distributed point sources, 53,
55, 57
distributed spherical vector
wave functions, 166
distributed spherical wave
functions, 49
distributed vector Mie poten-
tials, 182
distributed vector multi-
poles, 170
localized spherical vector
wave functions, 144
localized spherical wave func-
tions, 43
localized vector multipoles,
149
Ohm's law, 108
orthogonal projection operator, 5
plane wave integral representation
of spherical vector wave func-
tions, 156
of spherical wave functions,
153
316 INDEX
plane waves, 58
point sources, 51
pressure, 18
projection, 5
projection methods
general theorems, 14,195, 198
in the discrete sources method,
204, 209, 217
in the null-field method, 242,
244
pseudo-inverse, 82
quasi-minimal residual method,
260
quasi-plane waves, 59
Riesz basis, 9
Riesz theorem, 10
ring currents, 48
surface of class C^, 20
scalar product
definition of, 2
in L'^{G), 20
scattered field singularities, 74
scattering by
clusters of particles, 235
cubs, 293
cyhnders, 233, 291
ellipsoids, 291
prolate and oblate spheroids,
233, 290
rough spheres, 258, 296
Schauder basis, 9
sesquilinear form, 10
109
single layer operator, 25
single-layer potential, 24
singular value decomposition, 82
smoothing operator, 72
smoothing procedure, 69
solution estimates
exterior Dirichlet problem, 33
exterior impedance problem,
34, 126
exterior Maxwell problem,
125
exterior Neumann problem,
34
transmission problem, 128
21
spectral cutoff technique, 83
speed of acoustic waves, 18
spherical vector wave functions
distributed, 160
localized, 138
multiple, 159
spherical wave functions
distributed, 47, 50
localized, 40
Stratton-Chu formulas, 123
sub-domain basis, 274
support of discrete sources
distributed dipoles, 172
distributed point sources, 51
distributed spherical vector
wave functions, 160
distributed spherical wave
functions, 45
multiple spherical vector
wave functions, 159
T-matrix
for acoustics, 104
for electromagnetics, 277
symmetry of, 279
Tikhonov regularization, 83, 101,
253
Tikhonov's functional, 101
scalar, 151
vector, 157
scalar, 151
vector, 156
transmission problem. 111
INDEX 317
unit step function, 72
vector Mie potentials, 179
vector plane waves, 184
vector potential, 112
124
velocity, 18
velocity potential, 19
wave number, 19, 108
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