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CONTENT

PAGE

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE

OPJECTIVE

THEORY

EQUIPMENT/APPARATUS

2-5

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

RESULTS & CALCULATIONS

6-9

DISCUSSION

10

CONCLUSION

RECOMMENDATION

12

REFERENCES

12

EXMPERIMENT 6 : ENERGY LOSS IN BENDS


INTRODUCTION
Energy losses in pipe flows are the result of friction between the fluid and the pipe
walls and internal friction between fluid particles. Minor (secondary) head losses occur
at any location in a pipe system where streamlines are not straight, such as at pipe
junctions, bends, valves, contractions, expansions, and reservoir inlets and outlets. In this
experiment, minor head losses through a pipe section that has several bends, transitions,
and fittings will be measured.

Purpose:
To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings
including bends, a contraction, an enlargement and a gate-valve.
Apparatus:
Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Apparatus.
It consists of:
- Sudden Enlargement
- Sudden Contraction
- Long Bend
- Short Bend
- Elbow Bend
- Mitre Bend

Description of the equipment:

OBJECTIVE
This experiment allows us to observe the load losses of a current that circulates
through a short elbow of 90 , middle elbow of 90 , curve 90 , widening , narrowing ,
miter and membrane valve.
THEORY
The study of the energy losses suffered by a current when it circulates through a
hydraulic circuit is vital in the industrial processes where fluids are used. The causes of
energy losses of a fluid when it circulates through a pipe at constant pressure are the
following ones:

Variations of the potential energy of the fluid

Variations of the kinetic energy

Friction

The equipment of local load losses studies the losses of kinetic energy of a fluid that
circulates through a pipe. Theses are caused mainly by abrupt variations of velocity due
to:

Abrupt changes of pipe section : widening or narrowings.

Perturbation of the normal current flow, due to changes of direction caused by the
existence of an elbow or curve

Friction

The equipment measures the load losses in meters of fluid columns that circulate through
the pipe. The load losses suffered by the fluid when crossing each one of these elements ,
expressed in meters of fluid, can be expressed in kinetic loads, according to the following
expression:

h = K V2
2g
Where :
K = coefficient of load losses
V = velocity of the fluid
h = differences in manometric height
G

= gravity

APPARATUS
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Long elbow of 90
Widening
Narrowing
Middle elbow of 90
Short elbow of 90
Miter
Membrane valve

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
i.

The equipment is assembled on the hydraulic bench

ii.

To connect the input tube from the equipment to the pulse mouth of the bench
with the with switch , and a flexible conduct is connected to its outlet so that it
can drain the volumetric tank.

iii.

The manometric pipes is filled with water.

iv.

Once the system is pressurized, the pump is turned on and the valve of the bench
or group VC is opened gradually and slightly, while gradually opening the control
valve of equipment VCC.

v.

This procedure is carried out in a softly way in order to avoid that the
measurements are out of the scale.

vi.

Once the valve of the bench or group is completely open, the flow is regulatd with
the control valve of the equipment VCC.

vii.

The readings indicated in the manometric pipes which are associated with the
short elbow of 90 , long elbow 90 , curve 90 , widening , narrowing , miter and
membrane valve is written down.

viii.

The water flow is determined , writing down all of these values.

ix.

The flow control valve of the bench is closed.

x.

The previous steps is repeated varying the flow by opening the control valve of
the equipment.

xi.

The following table in appendix is completed

RESULTS / CALCULATIONS
A. long elbow of 90
H1(mm) H2(mm) h
454
445
430
421
424

440
432
422
415
409

14
13
8
6
15

Flow(l/min
)
20
18
12.41
8.59
10.7

V2 (m/s)
.46
.37
.18
.085
.13
6

K
.595
.684
.872
1.38
2.23

T
(s)
18
20
29
41.92
33.64

h= H1 H2
= 454 440
= 14 mm

Flow Q = V/T
= 6 / (18/60)
= 20 l/min

Q = VA
Given diameter of tube = 25mm
A = ( 0.025)2 / 4 = 490.9 x 10-6 m2
Q = 20 l/min
= 20 L x 1m3 x 1 min
min 1000L 60s
= 333.33x 10-6 m3/s
Q = VA
333.330 x 10-6 = V(490.9 x 10-6 )
V = 0.679 m/s
V2 = 0.46m/s
h = K _V2_
2g
0.014 = K ( 0.46/ 2(9.81))
K = 0.596
B. widening
H3 (mm) H4(mm)
440
432
422
415
409

457
445
432
420
423

Flow(l/min)

17
13
10
5
14

20
18
12.41
8.59
10.7

V2 (m/s)
.461
.373
.18
.085
.132

K
.724
.684
1.108
1.154
2.081

T
(s)
18
20
29
41.92
33.64

C. narrowing
H5 (mm)
448
440
401
417
421

H6(mm)
402
399
401
403
403

h
46
41
0
14
18

Flow(l/min)
20
18
12.41
8.59
10.7

V2 (m/s)
.461
.373
.18
.085
.132

K
1.95
2.17
0
3.43
2.72

T
(s)
18
20
29
41.92
33.64

D. middle elbow of 90
H7 (mm)

H8(mm)

405
395
400
394
395
382
403
399
403
400
E. short elbow of 90
H9(mm)
370
372
382
392
389

10
6
13
4
3

20
18
12.41
8.59
10.7

H10(mm) h Flow(l/min
)
342
28
20
350
22
18
367
15
12.41
383
9
8.59
378

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V2 (m/s)

Flow(l/min)

10.7

.461
.373
.18
.085
.132

.42
.32
1.42
.98
.45

T
(s)
18
20
29
41.92
33.64

V2 (m/s)

.461
.373
.18
.085

1.19
1.157
1.663
2.077

T
(s)
18
20
29
41.92

.132

1.63

33.64

F. miter (45 angle)


H11(mm)
85
153
240
317
289

V2(m/s)
.461
.373
.18
.085
.132

H12(mm) h Flow(l/min)
25
60
20
101
52
18
204
36
12.41
285
32
8.59
264
25
10.7

K
2.554
2.76
3.924
7.85
3.77

T (s)
18
20
29
41.92
33.64

G. membrane valve
M1 (bar)
1.3
1.4
1.55
1.8

M2(bar)
1.15
1.25
1.45
1.68

P(bar)
.15
.15
.1
.12

Flow(l/min)
20
18
12.41
8.59

V2 (m/s)
.461
.373
.18
.085

K x10-6
651.2
651.2
10x10-3
27.7

T(s) h x10-6
18
15.3
20
15.3
29
10.2
41.92
12.2

17

1.58

M= M1 M2
= | 1.3 1.15 |
= - .15 bar

.12

10.7

.132

17.8

33.64

12.2

Flow Q = V/T
= 6 / (18/60)
= 20 l/min

P = gh
0.15 = 1000 x 9.81 x h
h = 15.29 m
Q = VA
Given diameter of tube = 25mm
A = ( 0.025)2 / 4 = 490.9 x 10-6 m2
Q = 20 l/min
= 20 L x 1m3 x 1 min
min 1000L 60s
= 333.33x 10-6 m3/s
Q = VA
33.33x 10-6 = V(490.9 x 10-6 )
V = .67 m/s
V2 = 0.46m/s

h = K _V2_
2g
0.15 = K ( 0.46/ 2(9.81))
K = 5.86

DISCUSSION
Pipe systems do however include valves , elbows, enlargements, contractions,
inlets, outlets, bends and other fittings that cause additional losses referred as to as minor
losses. Even though such losses can exceed the functional losses, each of these devices
causes a change in the magnitude and/or the direction of the velocity vectors and hence
results a loss.

In general if the flow is gradually accelerated b a device , the losses are very
small, relatively large losses are associated with sudden enlargements or contractions
because of the separated regions that result( a separated floe occurs when the primary
flow separates from the wall)
hf = K _V_
2g
Values of K can be determined experimentally for various fittings and geometry changes
or interest in piping systems. One exception is the sudden expansions from an area A 1 to
area A2 for which the loss can be calculated.

CONCLUSION
Energy losses occur in pipeline restrictions called fittings, valve sudden
enlargement, bends, tees, elbows and orifices. It is very important to keep all of the
energy losses in a fluid system to a minimum, acceptable level. This requires the proper
selection of pipe sizes and fittings that make up a system. The resistance of fittings can be
determined using empirical formulae that have been developed via experimentation. This
permits the calculation of energy losses for any system component.
Computer, data acquisition cards and transmitters allow researchers to make a
sensitive, yet quick, experimental analysis of fluid systems. This study provides a simple
application of the mentioned experiments. The results of experiments are positively
measured, with the target being that the calculated values fall within acceptable limits.
Determining the K factor of some valves and fittings are useful experimental techniques.
Experimental tests have shown that local losses are proportional to the square of the
velocity of the fluid and inside diameter of pipe and viscosity of fluid. Analogue or digital
devices were used to measure pressure differences and the flow rate of the fluid.
Analogue devices do not provide sufficiently sensitive measurements.

10

Therefore, it is advisable to use digital pressure differential measurements. A


computer program helps to calculate quickly and correctly the K factor, as well as other
values. This experimental study has a universal structure and can be applied
to all kind of valves and fittings. Pressure differences and other transmitters must be
changed according to the range of pressure, temperature, flow rate, etc.
Proportional valves or frequency motor converters can be used to control flow rate,
instead of manual valve control. This will give more sensitive graphics than the applied
method.

RECOMMENDATION

The apparatus for the experiment must be ensured to be in good condition to make
sure no errors occur when the experiment is conducted.
The position of the eye must be located perpendicular to the manometric reading
to avoid getting the wrong reading.
The surroundings must have adequate lighting to enable the manometer reader to
clearly see the reading.

REFERENCES
Mekanik bendalir untuk kejuruteraan awam
N.B Webber , Hadibah Ismail
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Mechanics of fluids third edition
Irving H. shames
Mcgraw Hill
Mechanics of fluids
Merle C. potter , Davic C.potter
Fluids mechanics
Donald F. young , Bruce R. munson , Theodore h. okiishi
Wiley publications.

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