Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

Appendix A - 1

GREEK 3
GRAMMAR IN THE HEAD (GIH)
For Greek reading, translation, and exegesis, communicators of the Word need to be able to recall the various ways grammatical forms may function in
a NT Greek sentence. These Grammar in the Head charts reduce to grid form
the various categories of function of Greek grammatical forms. By the end of Greek 3, you will be able to ! explain
all the grammatical function categories on these charts, and " describe the functions the different forms fulfill,.
At that point you will have it all in your head.
CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinate Conjunctions
Continuative
and
Adversative
but,
however
Disjunctive
or
Inferential
therefore,
so, then
Explanatory
that is, for
Transitional
now, then
Emphatic
indeed
Ascensive
even
Correlative
!"# $%%" & '() *"+ ,- *"+ ,- ./) . . . ,-
Adverbial Subordinate Conjunctions
Comparative
as
Temporal
when
Causal
because
Conditional
if
Concessive
although
Purpose
in order
that
Result
so that
Local
where
01 23- 23#
*"+
Cl.1 -4 + indic. . . . any
Cl.2 -4 + past . . . $) +
past
Cl.3 5") + subj. . . . any
Cl.4 -4 + opt. . . . $) + opt.
-4 !"# 6)" 073/ '8
Adjectival and Substantival Subordinate Clause Connectors
Adjectival
who, which
Substantval
that
Definite Indefinite
(Generic/Qualitative)
93#
:)"
91, ;, < 973#1, ;3#1, 9 3#
Protasis Apodosis
!"#$
Cl.1: premise!true
Cl.2: premise!false
(sake of arg.)
Cl.3: more probable
future condition
Cl.4: less probable
future condition
Appendix A - 2
TENSE
Progressive Aspect Tenses
Present Imperfect
Basic Use Common Uses Basic Use Common Uses
Progressive
is ing
Instantaneous
completed at
speaking
Iterative
repeated at
intervals
Customary
habitually
occurring
Gnomic
general truth
Progressive
was ing
Ingressive
accents actions
beginning
Iterative
repeated at
intervals
Customary
habitually
occurring
Summary Aspect Tenses
Aorist Future
Basic Use Common Uses Basic Use Special Use
Constative
views action in entirety
Ingressive
accents actions beginning
Consummative
accents actions conclusion
Predictive Imperatival
Completed-Stative Aspect Tenses
Perfect Pluperfect Tense
Basic Use Common Use Special Use Basic Use Common Use Special Use
Intensive
accents present state
resulting from completed
action
Extensive
accents completed
action
Perfect with Present
Force
Intensive
accents past state
resulting from completed
action in past time
Extensive
accents completed action
in past time
Pluperfect with
Simple Past Force
conative/
voluntative
("attempt to")
translate like present
tense Jn 19:30
translate like aorist
Appendix A - 3
VOICE
Active
Normal Use Other Uses
Simple
subject does the action
Stative
subject exist in state described
by verb
Causative
subject is ultimate source of
action, -I,m, -om
Reflexive
Subject acts on self + reflexive
pronoun object
Middle
Common Uses Other Uses
Indirect
accents subjects role in
producing action
Deponent
middle form with active
meaning since verb lacks active
form
Direct
Subject acts on
self
Permissive
accents subjects
interest in results of
verbs action
Reciprocal
interchange of
action among plural
subjects
Passive
w/Agency Expressed w/o Agent Expressed
Ultimate (Direct) Agent Intermediate Agent Impersonal Means obvious from context
focus on subject
rhetorical effect
=>o + genitive ,#u + genitive 5) + dative or simple dative
source
means
I loose myself
Appendix A - 4
MOOD
Indicative
Basic Use Other Uses
Declarative
makes a statement
Interrogative
asks a question (;)
Cohortative
gives a command in Future 2
nd
person
Conditional
tI + indic.
Subjunctive
Independent Clause Dependent (Subordinate) Clause
Hortatory Deliberative Emph. Negat. Prohibitive Conditional Purpose/Result Indefinite (!")
1
st
Pl. Subj.
Let us . . .
question '( .? + A S .? + A S 5") + Subj. 6)" + Subj. Relative Temporal
91 $) + Subj. 23") + Subj.
Optative
Rare (70x in GNT)
Most common is #$ %&"'()' (15x in GNT)
Imperative
Basic Use Other Uses
Command Prohibition Request
from subordinate
to superior
Permission
consent from
superior to action
desired by
subordinate
Progressive Summary Progressive Summary
Pres. Imv.
Do continually or repeatedly
Aor. Imv.
Do at once
.? + Pres. Imv.
Stop doing or
Dont be doing
.? + Aor. Subj.
Dont start to do
or Dont do
that forwards
the argument
aorist subjunctive can also be
an imp.
3rd class cond.
Potential subj.
= usage of
subordinate
clause
(entreaty)
Appendix A - 5
PARTICIPLES
Adjectival (DBW = Dependent Adjectival)
Attributive Predicate
Substantival (DBW = Independent Adjectival)
Subject Pred. Nom. Direct Object Indirect Object Obj. of Preposition Appositive
explains or describes
another noun more
fully
Adverbial (DBW = Dependent Verbal)
Dependent Absolute
Manner
. . . ing
present
sometimes aorist
Means
By . . .
present
sometimes aorist
Time
After, While,
Before
all tenses
Cause
Because
aorist, perfect
Condition
If
aorist, perfect
Concession
Although
aorist, perfect
Purpose
in order that
future sometimes
present
Attendant
Circumstance
And
aorist
Gen./Acc.
Different
subject than
verb
modified
Verbal (DBW = Independent Verbal)
Imperatival Complementary
(DBW = Dependent Verbal)
completes thought of verbs of cognition, perception,
beginning, continuing, or ceasing
Periphrastic
(DBW = Dependent Verbal)
accents duration
or Result
ptcp. = nite verb
(most generic)
Appendix A - 6
INFINITIVES
Adjectival (DBW = Epexegetical)
Modifies a Noun Modifies an Adjective
Substantival
Subject Object Appositive
explains or describes another
noun more fully
Indirect
Discourse
reported speech
that
Direct Complementary
(with verbs of beginning,
volition, ability, obligation)
Adverbial
Purpose Result Time Cause Means
/41 3'
>+'1 3'
3'@
073/ >+#), >+' (Subseq.)
5) 3A (Contemp.)
./3" 3' (Anteced.)
,#" 3' 5) 3A
Verbal
Imperatival
(No article; clearly unrelated to a verb or a noun)
completes the verbal idea
&'( !"
inn.
alone
Neuter sg. def.
article
!"
!#$
!%
!"
Text
Appendix A - 7
CASES
Nominative
Designation (Nominative) Address (Vocative)
Subject
does verbs action
Predicate Nominative
defines or describes subject; after verb to be
Appositive
explains or describes
another noun more fully
Direct Address
person or thing to whom statement is
spoken
Genitive
Description (Genitive) Separation (Ablative)
w/ Action Nouns w/ Non-Action Nouns w/ Verbs Comparison
(after
adjective)
Source
that from
which modified
noun arises
Subjective
does modified
nouns action
Objective
receives
modified
nouns action
Descriptive Possessive
owns modified
noun
Partitive
whole of
which modified
noun is a part
Attributive
specific
quality of
modified noun
Apposition
particular
instance of
modified noun
Quality of
Time
time
Dative
Personal Interest (Pure Dative) Position (Local Dative) Means (Instrumental Dative)
Indirect Object
to or for whom verbs action occurs
Interest
person favorably or
unfavorably affected by
verbs action
Reference
thing with respect to
which verbs action
occurs
Sphere
location within
spatial or
logical limits
Point in
Time
at, on
Association
in association
with
Means
by, with
Cause
because of
Accusative
Substantival Adverbial
Direct Object
receives verbs action
Double Accusative Direct Object Subject of Infinitive Measure Reference
thing with
respect to which
verbs action
occurs
Person + Thing Object +
Complement
Extent of
Time
for the
duration of
Extent of
Space
Adjectival
Appendix A - 8
DEFINITE ARTICLE
With Nouns (DBW = Dependent/Modifying)
Individualizing Generic
Simple
Identification
Relation to Context Reputation Quality as a class
(last resort) Anaphoric
points to
previous
mention
Deictic
present at time
of speaking
Well Known Par Excellence
best in its class
Abstract Monadic
unique
With Other Parts of Speech (DBW = Substantiver)
Adverb Adjective Participle Infinitive Genitive Phrase Prep. Phrase Particle Clause
As a Function Marker
Adjectival Position Indeclinable Nouns Participles Demonstratives Subject
Granville-Sharp Rule
w/ Singular, Personal, Non-proper Nouns w/ Plural Impersonal and/or Proper Nouns
Both persons identical Distinct groups,
though united
Overlapping
groups
First group
subset of second
Second group
subset of first
Both groups
identical
As a Pronoun (DBW = Independent)
Personal Alternative Possessive Mild Relative
Absence
Indefinite Qualitative Definite
Appendix A - 9
PARTICLES
Emphasis Negation General Sense
$.?), *-, )"# '( .? '( .? $)
(and compounds)
w/ indicative mood;
expects a yes answer
w/ other mood and modes;
expects a no answer
w/ subjunctive
emphatic negation
PRONOUNS
Substantival Use
Emphasis Reference Relation Question General Sense
Subject Focus Identity Previous Conceptual Possession Participation Mutuality 3B1, 3B
>'#'1, >'7'1
3#1, 3#
973#1, ;3#1, 9 3#
5*C, 7@
'=3'1, 5!/#)'1
"(3'1 5*C, 7@,
"(3'1
'=3'1, 5!/#)'1
3'@3'
3"@3"
5*C
7@
"(3'@
5."@3'@
7/"@3'@
D"@3'@
$%%?%C)
Adjectival Use
Description Quality Quantity Proximity Identity General Sense
91, ;, 9 ':'1, >'#'1 97'1, >'7'1 '=3'1, 5!/#)'1 "(3'1 3#1, 3#
Appendix A - 10
PREPOSITIONS
Direction Position Relation Agency Means Cause Association Purpose
,#" through
(G)
because of
(A)
-41 into
(A)
in
(A)
for
(A)
5! out of
(G)
by
(G)
from
(G)
5) in
(D)
with
(D)
!"3"
down from
(A)
down
(G)
according to
(A)
.-3"
after
(A)
with
(G)
>-+# around
(A)
about
(G)
>+'1
toward
(A)
at
(D)
for
(A)
=>-+
over
(A)
on behalf of
(G)
=>' under
(A)
by
(G)