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Table of Contents

Page
PartI,PrinciplesandPlanning 8
ErosionandSedimentation 8
FactorsthatInfluenceErosion 9
EffectsofUrbanization 13
ErosionandSedimentHazardsAssociatedwithSiteDevelopment 15
AnalyzingtheProjectSite 21
PotentialProblems 36
StabilizationPrinciplesforSiteDevelopment 38
DevelopingAnErosionandSedimentControlPlan 42
PartII,GuidetoBestManagementPracticeSelection
54
BestManagementPracticeSelection 54
Sitework:On-siteroads,Controllingroadrunoff 55
ClearingandGrading 56
Excavations,Stockpiles,&Debrisdisposal 56
RillandGullyErosion 57
SedimentControl 57
StormRunoff 58
StreambankProtectionandStabilization 58
StreamCrossings 59
BuildingConstruction,UtilitiesInstallations 59
SpecialSiteProblems 60
60
FinalSiteStabilization
62 PartIII,ErosionandSedimentControlPractices
BrushBarrier 62
BufferZones,StreamCorridors,andRiparianAreas 63
CheckDam 64
ConstructionEntrance 68
ConstructionRoadStabilization 71
Diversion,Permanent 73
Diversion,Temporary 77
DustControl 80
FilterBerm 82
FilterStrip,Vegetated 84
Flume,Paved 86
Gabions 88
Geotextiles 90
GradeStabilizationStructure 92
InletProtection 93
LandGradingandStabilization 102
LevelSpreader 109
MulchandNetting 112
OutletProtectionandStabilization 118
PreservingNaturalVegetation 121
Riprap 125
Table of Contents
Page
PartIII,ErosionandSedimentControlPractices(Continued)
RockDam 129
SandDuneandSandblowStabilization 133
SandFence 135
SedimentBasin 138
SedimentFence 146
SedimentTrap 152
Seeding,Permanent 157
Seeding,Temporary 167
SiltCurtain 171
SlopeDrain,Temporary 172
Sodding 176
StraworHayBaleBarrier 181
StreamCrossing,Temporary 185
StreambankProtectionandStabilization 192
SubsurfaceDrain 201
SumpPit 204
SurfaceRoughening 205
Terrace 208
Topsoiling 210
TreeandShrubPlanting 212
VegetatedSwale 215
WaterBar 219
Waterway,Grassed 222
228
Waterway,Lined
PartIV,SupplementaryInformation
Rainfall,Runoff,andLandUseChange 232
Plants,Vegetation,SoilCovers 243
SoilBioengineering 280
BestManagementPracticesforIndividualHomesitesandSmall
Parcels
BestManagementPracticesforSandandGravelPits
ASampleErosionandSedimentationControlPlan
Glossary
Bibliography
SubjectIndex
232
320
322
329
338
349
354
232 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Supplementary
Information
Rainfall,Runoff,and
LandUseChange
Plants,Vegetation,Soil
covers
SoilBioengineering
Conservation
Practicesfor
IndividualHomesites
andSmallParcels
Conservation
PracticesforSandand
GravelPits
ASampleErosionand
SedimentationControl
Plan
EffectsofDevelopment
Therearetwomaineffectsthaturbanizationhasonstormwater.
First,anincreaseinthevolumeandrateofrunoffasdevelopmenttakes
placeinawatershed.Second,anincreasedriskofdegradingwater
quality;bothsurfacewaterandgroundwater.
HydrologicChanges
Undevelopedlandthatisinwoods,grass,and/oragriculture,has
anabilitytoabsorbrainfall.Rainfallisinfiltratedintothesoil,usedby
vegetation,orrunsoff.Waterreachestheearthssurfacebyrainand
snow.Somewaterisretainedontheuppersurfaceofthesoilandis
eitherevaporatedortranspiredintotheatmospherebygrass,plants
andtrees.Somewaterinfiltratesintothesoilandbecomes
groundwaterwhicheventuallyreachesstreams,lakesandoceans.
Theremainder
ofthewaterfallingto
theearthbecomes
runoffandflowsinto
thestreams,lakes
andoceansas
surfaceflow.
Evaporationtakes
placeonthese
bodiesofwaterand
sendsthemoisture
backintothe
atmosphereas
vapor.
When
developmenttakes
place,vegetation
mayberemovedandreplacedwithimpervioussurfaces.These
surfacesincluderoads,streets,parkinglots,rooftops,driveways,
walks,etc.whichreducetheamountofrainfallthatcaninfiltrateinto
thesoilandthereforecreatemorerunoffintothesurfacewatersystem.
Inadditiontotheincreaseinimpervioussurfaces,urbanization
createsasignificantamountofgroundsurfacemodification.Natural
drainagepatternsaremodifiedandrunoffistransportedviaroad
ditches,stormsewers,drainageswales,andconstructedchannels.
Thesemodificationsincreasethevelocityoftherunoff;whichineffect
decreasesthetimethatittakesforrunofftotravelthroughthe
watershed.Thisdecreasedtimecreateshigherpeakdischarges.
233 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
IncreaseInPollutionPotential
Thelargesturbannon-pointpollutionsourceissedimentandthe
nutrientsandtracemetalsattachedtoit.Inaddition,therunofffrom
urbanareasmaycarrybacteria,toxicchemicals,hydrocarbonsand
organicsubstances.
Sedimentisamajorpollutantfromurbanareas.Runofffrom
constructionsitesduringtheurbanizationprocessisthelargestsource
ofsediment.Sedimentfillsroadditches,streams,rivers,lakesand
wetlands.Agooderosionandsedimentcontrolplancansubstantially
decreasetheamountofsedimentbeingproducedfromurbanareasand
transportedoffsite.
Nutrientsfromurbanareasareamajorconcerntosurfacewater
qualitybecauseoftheireffectsonwaterbodies.Thetwomajor
nutrientsarenitrogenandphosphorous.Nutrientenrichmentcancause
anincreaseinalgalgrowth.Nitrogenconsumeslargeamountsofoxygen
inthenitrificationprocesswithinthewater.Bothconditionscanimpair
theuseofoursurfacewatersforwatersupply,recreation,andfishand
wildlifehabitat.
Mainsourcesofnutrientsinurbanareasincludeimproperuseof
fertilizers,andorganicmatterfromlawnclippingsandleaves.Auto
emissionscanalsocontributephosphorousinareasofheavytraffic.
Tracemetalscandegradewaterqualitybecauseoftheeffectthey
mayhaveon
aquaticlife.The
mostcommontrace
metalsfoundin
urbanrunoffare
lead,zincand
copper,however
othertracemetals
suchaschromium,
nickelandcadmium
arefrequently
found.
Bacterialevels
canincreaseduetourbanization.Fecalcoliformbacteriaarefoundin
theintestinaltractofwarm-bloodedanimalsandcanbeassociatedwith
animalwastesandfailedsepticsystems.
Hydrocarbonsfrompetroleumarecommonlyfoundinurbanrunoff.
Thehydrocarbonsattachtofinesedimentandarethentransportedand
depositedthroughoutthesurfacewatersystem.Commonsourcesof
hydrocarbonsarefromroads,streets,andparkinglots.Othersources
includegasolinestations,fuelstoragefacilities,andimproperdisposal
ofmotoroil.
234 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Factorsaffectingsurfacerunoff
Surfacerunoffisthevolumeofexcesswaterthatrunsoffadrainage
area,orwatershed.Peak
dischargeisthepeak
rateofrunofffroma
drainageareaforagiven
rainfall.
Awatershedisa
drainageareaorbasinin
whichalllandandwater
areasdrainorflow
towardacentral
collectorsuchasa
stream,river,orlakeata
lowerelevation.Thetermwatershedissynonymouswithdrainagearea;
thecontributingarea,inacres,squaremiles,orotherunitisusually
expressedasdrainagearea.
General
Rainfallistheprimarysourceofwaterthatrunsoffthesurfaceof
smallwatersheds.Themainfactorsaffectingthevolumeofrainfallthat
runsoffarethekindofsoil,typeofvegetationandamountofimpervious
areainthewatershed.Factorsthataffecttherateatwhichwaterrunsoff
arewatershedtopographyandshapealongwithman-madefeaturesina
watershed.
Rainfall
Thepeakdischargefroma
smallwatershedisusuallycaused
byintenserainfall.Theintensityof
rainfallaffectsthepeakdischarge
morethanitdoesthevolumeof
runoff.Themeltingofaccumulated
snowmayresultinagreater
volumeofrunoff,butusuallyata
lesserratethanrunoffcausedby
rainfall.Themeltingofawinters
snowaccumulationoveralarge
areamaycausemajorflooding
alongrivers.Intenserainfallthatproduceshighpeakdischargesinsmall
watershedsusuallydoesnotextendoveralargearea.Therefore,thesame
intenserainfallthatcausesfloodinginasmalltributaryisnotlikelyto
causemajorfloodinginamainstreamthatdrains10to20squaremiles.
235 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Hydrologicsoilgroups
Soilsmaybeclassifiedintofourhydrologicsoilgroups,definedas
follows:
GroupAsoilshavelowrunoffpotentialandhighinfiltrationrates
evenwhenthoroughlywetted.Theyconsistchieflyofsandsandgravels
thataredeep,welldrainedtoexcessivelydrained,andhaveahighrateof
watertransmission(greaterthan0.30in/hr).
GroupBsoilshavemoderateinfiltrationrateswhenthoroughly
wettedandconsistchieflyofsoilsthataremoderatelydeeptodeep,
moderatelywelldrainedtowelldrained,andhavemoderatelyfineto
moderatelycoarsetextures.Thesesoilshaveamoderaterateofwater
transmission(0.15to0.30in/hr).
GroupCsoilshavelowinfiltrationrateswhenthoroughlywettedand
consistchieflyofsoilshavingalayerthatimpedesdownwardmovement
ofwaterandsoilsofmoderatelyfinetofinetexture.Thesesoilshavea
slowrateofwatertransmission(0.05to0.15in/hr).
GroupDsoilshavehighrunoffpotential.Theyhaveverylow
infiltrationrateswhenthoroughlywettedandconsistchieflyofclaysoils
withahighswellingpotential,soilswithapermanenthighwatertable,
soilswithaclaypanorclaylayeratornearthesurface,andshallowsoils
overnearlyimperviousmaterial.Thesesoilshaveaverylowrateofwater
transmission(0to0.05in/hr).
CoverType
Covertypedescribesconditionsatthesoilsurface;e.g.vegetation,
baresoil,impervioussurfacessuchasparkingareas,roofs,streets,or
roads.Covertypeaffectsrunoffinseveralways.Thefoliageanditslitter
maintainthesoilsinfiltrationpotentialbypreventingtheimpactofthe
raindropsfromsealingthesoilsurface.Someoftheraindropsareretained
onthesurfaceofthefoliage,increasingtheirchanceofbeingevaporated
backintotheatmosphere.Someoftheinterceptedmoisturetakessolong
todrainfromtheplantdowntothesoilthatitisWithheldfromtheinitial
periodofrunoff.
Groundcoveralsoallowssoilmoisturefrompreviousrainsto
transpire,leavingagreatervoidinthesoiltobefilled.Vegetation,
includingitsgroundlitter,formsnumerousbarriersalongthepathofthe
waterflowingoverthesurfaceoftheland.Thisincreasedsurface
roughnesscauseswatertoflowmoreslowly,lengtheningthetimeof
concentrationandreducingthepeakdischarge.
236 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Treatment
Conservationpracticesreduceerosionandhelpmaintainanopen
structureatthesoilsurface.Thisreducesrunoff,buttheeffectdiminishes
rapidlywithincreasesinstormmagnitude.
Checkdams,terraces,detentionponds,andsimilarpracticesreduce
erosionanddecreasetheamountofrunoffbycreatingsmallreservoirs.
Closed-endlevelterracesactasstoragereservoirswithoutspillways.
Gradientterraces,surfaceroughening,vegetationincreasethedistance
watermusttravelorimpedeitsflow-andtherebyincreasethetimeof
concentration.
Hydrologicconditions
Hydrologicconditionindicatestheeffectsofcovertypeandtreatment
oninfiltrationandrunoffrates.Itisgenerallyestimatedfromthedensityof
plantandcropresidueonthearea.Goodhydrologicconditionindicates
thatthesoilusuallyhaslowrunoffpotentialforthatspecifichydrologic
soilgroup,covertypeandtreatment.Somefactorstoconsiderin
estimatingtheeffectofcoveroninfiltrationandrunoffare:canopyor
densityofleaves,amountofyear-roundcover,percentofresiduecover,
andthedegreeofsurfaceroughness.
Inmostcases,thehydrologicconditionofthesiteaffectsthevolume
ofrunoffmorethananyothersinglefactor.Thehydrologiccondition
considerstheeffectsofcovertypeandtreatmentoninfiltrationandrunoff
andisgenerallyestimatedfromdensityofplantcoverandresidueonthe
groundsurface.Goodhydrologicconditionindicatesthatthesiteusually
hasalowerrunoffpotential.
Agrasscoverisgoodifthevegetationcovers75percentormoreof
thegroundsurface.Coverispoorifvegetationcoverslessthan50
percentofthegroundsurface.Grasscoverisevaluatedonthebasalareaof
theplant,whereastreesandshrubsareevaluatedonthebasisofcanopy
cover.
237 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Topography
Theslopesinawatershedhaveamajoreffectonthepeak
dischargeatdownstreampoints.Slopeshavelittleeffectonhowmuch
oftherainfallwillrunoff.Aswatershedslopeincreases,velocity
increases,timeofconcentrationdecreases,andpeakdischarge
increases.Anaveragesmallwatershedisfan-shaped.Asthewatershed
becomeselongatedormorerectangular,theflowlengthincreasesand
thepeakdischargedecreases.
Potholesmaytrapasmallamountofrain,thusreducingthe
amountofexpectedrunoff.Ifpotholesandmarshlandareasmakeup
one-thirdorlessofthetotalwatershedanddonotinterceptthe
drainagefromtheremainingtwo-thirds,theywillnotcontributemuchto
thepeakdischarge.Theseareasmaybeexcludedfromthedrainage
areaforestimatingpeakdischarge.Ifpotholesconstitutemorethanone-
thirdofthetotaldrainageoriftheyinterceptthedrainage,apondand
swampadjustmentfactorcanbeapplied.
Runoff
Runoffisthewaterleavingthewatershedduringandaftera
storm.Itmaybeexpressedastheaveragedepthofwaterthatwould
covertheentirewatershed.Thedepthisusuallyexpressedininches.
Thevolumeofrunoffiscomputedbyconvertingdepthoverthe
drainageareatovolumeandisusuallyexpressedinacre-feet.
HydrologicMethods
Hydrologicmethodsarewell-coveredinliteraturesuchasSoil
ConservationService(SCS)TechnicalRelease55,UrbanHydrologyfor
SmallWatersheds,othertechnicaldocumentsofvariousstateand
federalagencies,commercialpublishinghouses,andnumerous
computerprograms.
Inordertoassistdesignerspreparingdevelopmentplansandlocal
ConservationCommissionsreviewingsuchplans;checklistsfor
reviewingreportspreparedusingSCStechnicalreleasesTR-20,
ComputerProgramforProjectFormulation-Hydrology,andTR-55,
UrbanHydrologyforSmallWatersheds,havebeenincludedinthis
section.NaturalResourcesConservationService(formerlySoil
ConservationService)engineersoftenreceivequeriesabouttechnical
detailsofhydrologicprocedures,andasummaryofcommonquestions
andanswershasalsobeenincluded.
Note:TechnicalReleasesissuedpriortoNovember1994arereferredtoasSoilConservationService
TechnicalReleases.AfterNovember1994,theyarereferredtoasNaturalResourcesConservation
ServiceTechnicalReleases.
238 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
ChecklistforReviewingReportsUsingSCSTR-55
Analysis
@Watershedmapatascaleof1inch=500feetorlarger.Show
watershedboundary,sub-areaboundaries,andsub-areanamesor
numbers.Showtimeofconcentration,curvenumber,anddrainageareafor
eachsub-areaonthemap.Contourmapsmustincludesomeadditional
areaoutsidethepropertylineboundaries.
@Largescalemapshowingdifferentsoilswithineachsub-area
boundary.Mayalsobeusedtodelineatedrainageareas.Showtheflow
routeusedforcalculatingtimeofconcentrationforeachsub-area.
@Tabulationsheetorcomputerprintoutshowingrunoffcurve
numberandtimeofconcentrationcalculationsforeachsub-area.Drainage
areas,hydrologicsoilsgroups,andlanduseareasshouldbedocumented
andsupportedfromsoilsmapsorotherreferences.
@Tabulationsheetshowingcalculationsandequationsusedforany
storageestimatestodesignadetentionbasin.
@Narrativeexplanationanddocumentationforanysheetflowlengths
usedthatexceed50feet.
@TR-55printoutshowinggraphicalortabularpeakdischarge
calculations.includeprintoutsforbothpre-developmentandpost-
developmentconditions.Theprintoutshowingthedesignofadetention
basinshouldbeincluded.Theseprintoutsshoulddocumentanyclaimof
zerodischargeincreaseforallrequiredstorms.
@Thewrittenreportshouldstatetheinitialconditionsandstorm
frequenciestobeanalyzed.Includeasummarytableshowingthepre-
development,post-development,anddesignedsystempeakdischargesfor
alldesignfrequencies.
@Showasketchofthestructureoutletsystemwithelevationsand
dimensions.
239
Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
ChecklistforReviewingReportsUsingSCSTR-20
Analysis
@TR-20watershedmapatascaleof1inch=500feetorlarger.
Showsub-areaboundaries,crosssectionlocationsandnumbers,
structurelocationsandnumbers,andsub-areanamesornumbers.Show
timeofconcentration,curvenumber,anddrainageareaforeachsub-
areaonthemap.Contourmapsmustincludesomeadditionalarea
outsidethepropertylineboundaries.
@Largescalemapshowingdifferentsoilswithineachsub-area
boundary.Mayalsobeusedtodelineatedrainageareas.Showtimeof
concentrationcalculationpathusedforeachsub-area.
@Tabulationsheetorcomputerprintoutshowingrunoffcurve
numberandtimeofconcentrationcalculationsforeachsub-area.
Drainageareas,hydrologicsoilsgroups,andlanduseareasshouldbe
documentedandsupportedfromsoilsmapsorotherreferences.
@Tabulationsheetshowingcalculationsandequationsusedfor
structurestage,discharge,andstoragevolumes,andcross-section
elevation,discharge,areacalculations.Includesketchesofstructures
andcrosssectionsshowingelevationsanddimensionsusedinthe
calculations.
@Narrativeexplanationanddocumentationforanysheetflow
lengthsusedthatexceed50feet.
@TR-20printoutshowinginputlistingandaminimumoutputof
thesummarytables.Theminimumrequiredoutputislistingsand
summarytablesforthepre-development,post-development,andpost-
development-with-controlforallrequiredstorms.Theseprintouts
shoulddocumentanyclaimofzerodischargeincreaseforallrequired
storms.
@Thewrittenreportshouldstatetheinitialconditionsandstorm
frequenciestobeanalyzed.Includeasummarytableshowingthepre-
development,post-development,anddesignedsystempeakdischarges
foralldesignfrequencies.
240 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
CommonQuestionsandAnswersAbout
UrbanHydrologyforSmallWatersheds,TR-55
General
Q.Whatistheminimumacceptabledrainageareafortheprocedure?
A.Theproceduredoesnothaveadrainagearealimit.Itisgovernedbya
minimumtimeofconcentrationof0.1hours.
Q.WhatrainfalldistributionshouldbeusedforMassachusetts?
A.AllofMassachusettsiscoveredbytheTypeIIIrainfalldistribution.This
distributionrepresentstheinfluenceofthunderstormsandtropicalstorms
(e.g.hurricanes)alongthecoast.
Q.WhatisthedifferencebetweentheTypeIIandTypeIIIrainfall
distributions?
A.TheTypeIIIdistributionisalittlelessintensethantheTypeII
distribution.TheTypeIIIdistributionreducesthepeakdischargesby34
percentforshorttimeofconcentrationsof0.1hours,by17percentfora
Tcof1.0hours,by8percentforaTcof3hours,andapproximatelythe
samefortimeofconcentrationsof7to10hours.
TimeofConcentration
Q.Howdoyouhandletimeofconcentrationslessthan0.1hours?
A.Theprocedurehasaminimumtimeofconcentrationof0.1hour.Ifthe
computedTcislessthan0.1hour,usetheminimumvalueof0.1hour.The
lowerlimitisconsistentwiththeavailablerainfallintensityinformation
fromtheNationalWeatherService.Therainfalldistributioncurve
incorporatesthehighintensityrainfallstormhavinga5-minuteduration.
Q.Whatistheacceptablelimitforthelengthofsheetflow?
A.Theproceduredesignatesamaximumlimitof300feetforsheetflow.
Consideringthedefinitionofsheetflowasflowonaplanesurface,amore
practicallimitinthenortheastis50to100feet.
Agoodexampleofsheetflowisflowfromthecrownofafootballfield
totheedgeofthefield,wheretheflowbecomesconcentratedinagrass
swale.Inwoodsthesheetflowlengthisalsoshortbecauseflowcanbe
divertedbystonewalls,fallentrees,andtreeroots.Consideringthe
contributingarearepresentedbysheetflowinproportiontothetotal
drainagearea,thetraveltimeforsheetflowshouldbeasmallpartofthe
totaltimeofconcentration.Ifthesheetflowlengthisgreaterthan10
percentofthetotalhydrauliclengthforthewatershedorsubarea,re-
evaluatethesheetflowandtraveltimecalculations.
241 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
Q.Forsheetflow,shouldasurfacecoverofwoodswithdense
underbrushbeused?
A.Thissurfacecovershouldbeavoided,becausethenvalueforthis
covertypeisextrapolatedfromresearchdataanddoesnotrepresent
typicalconditionsintheNortheast.
Q.Doesshallowconcentratedflowneedtobeusedinthetimeof
concentrationcalculations?
A.Themethodforshallowconcentratedflowisusedtocalculatethe
traveltimeforthetransitionbetweensheetflowandopenchannelflow.
Ifcrosssectioninformationisavailablefortheshallowconcentrated
flowsegments,theycanbetreatedasopenchannelflowforcalculating
traveltime.
Q.HowcanUSGSquadsheetsbeusedtocalculatetimeof
concentrations?
A.Thefirstsegmentcanbea50-footlengthforsheetflowatthetopof
thewatershed.Shallowconcentratedflowwillrepresentsegments
acrossparallelcontourlinesanddefinedwatercoursesonthemaps.
Openchannelflowwillbeusedforstreamsindicatedbybluelineson
themaps.Afieldvisitoftheareashouldbemadetochecktheflowpath
andobtaininformationonthehydrauliccharacteristicsofthechannel.
Thisinformationshouldincludemeasuringthetopwidthanddepthof
thechannelforbank-fullconditions.
Q.Cantheuplandmethod(Figure15.2inNEH-4)beusedtocalculate
timeofconcentrations?
A.Thismethodwasoriginallydevelopedforestimatingtimeof
concentrationsinsmallruralwatersheds.Basedonmorerecent
researchandanalyses,thesheetflowequationinTR-55hassuperseded
theuplandmethod.
Q.Canothermethodsbeusedtocalculatetimeofconcentration?
A.Therecommendedmethodforcalculatingtimeofconcentrationis
thestreamhydraulicsmethod.Traveltimesarecalculatedbasedon
flowcharacteristicsforeachsegmentintheflowpath.Othermethods
canbeused,buttheyshouldbecheckedtoseeiftheresultsare
realisticforthesiteconditions.Thesamemethodshouldbeusedwhen
analyzingexistinganddevelopedsituations.
Hydrographs
Q.CanthehydrographdevelopedbytheTabularMethodbeusedfor
detentionbasinrouting?
A.ThecompositehydrographdevelopedbytheTabularMethodisonly
apartialhydrographatthedesignpointbaseduponroundedtimeof
concentrationandtraveltimevaluesinthetables.Thepartial
hydrographcanbeextrapolatedtogetatotalhydrographforrouting
byothermethods,butthisisstillanapproximationoftheentire
242 Rainfall, Runoff, and Land Use Change
hydrograph.Ifhydrographsareneededwithinthedrainagebasinora
moreprecisehydrographisneeded,anotherhydrologicmethodshouldbe
usedsuchasTR-20.
Q.DoestheTabularmethodconsiderreachrouting?
A.Thesubareahydrographistranslateddownstreambasedonthetravel
timeforthereach.Themethoddoesnotconsiderstorageroutinginthe
reach.Floodplainstorageinareachwillreducethepeakflowsimilarto
reservoirrouting,aswellaslagthetimingofthepeak.Ifreachstorage
routingneedstobeconsidered,usetheTR-20hydrologymodel.
StorageEffects
Q.Canyouaccountforpondandswampstoragewithinthedrainage
basin?
A.TheGraphicalMethodhasanadjustmentfactortoaccountforponds
andswarmsspreadthroughoutthebasinandnotinthetimeof
concentrationflowpath.InboththeGraphicalandTabularMethods,the
storageeffectswithinthetimeofconcentrationflowpathcanpartiallybe
accountedforbyincreasingthetraveltimeforthesegment,basedupon
typicalpondroutings.
TheTR-20hydrologymodelshouldbeusedinordertoanalyzetheactual
effectsofpondandswampstoragewithinthebasinbyroutingeach
storagearea.
Q.CanyougetahydrographwiththeTR-55storageroutingmethod?
A.Themethodjustdeterminesthepeakoutflowortotalstoragevolume
requiredforadetentionbasin.Itisbasedonaveragestorageandrouting
effectsformanystructuresandisontheconservativeside.Ifanoutflow
hydrographoramorerefinedstorageanalysisisneeded,theinflow
hydrographneedstoberoutedbyotherprocedures.TheTabularMethod
canbeusedtocreateanapproximateinflowhydrograph.TheTR-20
hydrologymodelcanbeusedtocreateaninflowhydrograph,conduct
storageroutingsofadetentionbasin,andcalculatetheoutflow
hydrograph.
References
Gustafson,C.J.,andL.N.Boutiette,Jr.,ControllingSurfaceWaterRunoff,
SoilConservationService,Amherst,MA,1993.
Minnick,E.L.,andH.T.Marshall,StormwaterManagementandErosion
ControlforUrbanandDevelopingAreasinNewHampshire,Rockingham
CountyConservationDistrict,August1992.
NewHampshireDepartmentofEnvironmentalServices,BestManagement
PracticestoControlNonpointSourcePollution,Amanuensis,Manchester,
NH,May1994.
243
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
NorthCarolinaSedimentControlCommission,ErosionandSediment
ControlPlanningandDesignManual,Raleigh,NC,September,1988.
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,,Washington,DC,EngineeringField
Handbook,Chapter2,EstimatingRunoffandPeakdischarge.
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,SoilConservationService,Washington,
DC,UrbanHydrologyforSmallWatersheds,TechnicalRelease55,
June,1986.
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,SoilConservationService,Amherst,MA,
SupplementtotheTR-55HydrologyProcedure,1992.
Plants, Vegetation, Soil Covers
Vegetationprotectsthe
soilsurfacefromraindrop
impact,amajorforcein
dislodgingsoilparticlesand
movingthemdownslope.It
alsoshieldsthesoilsurface
fromthescouringeffectof
overlandflowand
decreasestheerosive
capacityoftheflowing
waterbyreducingits
velocity.Vegetativecoveris
relativelyinexpensiveto
achieveandtendstobeself-
healing;itisoftentheonly
practical,long-termsolution
tostabilizationanderosion
controlonmostdisturbed
sitesinMassachusetts.
Theshieldingeffectof
aplantcanopyis
augmentedbyrootsand
rhizomesthatholdthesoil,
improveitsphysical
condition,andincreasethe
rateofinfiltration,further
decreasingrunoff.Plants
alsoreducethemoisture
contentofthesoilthrough
transpiration,thus
increasingitscapacityto
absorbwater.
244 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Planningfromthestartforvegetativestabilizationreducescost,
minimizesmaintenanceandrepair,andmakeserosionandsediment
controlmeasuresmoreeffectiveandlesscostlytomaintain.Final
landscapingisalsolesscostlywheresoilshavenotbeeneroded,slopesare
nottoosteep,andweedsarenotallowedtoproliferate.
Designprojectssothatonlytheareathatistotallynecessaryis
disturbed.Theexistingnaturalareasprovidelow-maintenance
landscaping,shade,andscreening,andsoilstability.Largetreesincrease
propertyvalue,butmustbeproperlyprotectedduringconstruction.
Besidespreventingerosion,healthyvegetativecoverprovidesastable
landsurfacethatabsorbsrainfall,cutsdownonheatreflectanceanddust,
restrictsweedgrowth,andcomplementsarchitecture.Itcreatesapleasant
environment,andanattractivesite.Propertyvaluescanbeincreased
dramaticallybysmallinvestmentsinerosioncontrol.Vegetativecoverand
landscapingrepresentonlyasmallfractionoftotalconstructioncostsand
contributegreatlytothemarketingpotentialofadevelopment.
Site Considerations
Speciesselection,establishmentmethods,andmaintenance
proceduresshouldbebasedonsitecharacteristicsincludingsoils,slope,
aspect,climate,andexpectedmanagement.
Soils
Manysoilcharacteristics-includingtexture,organicmatter,fertility,
acidity,moistureretention,drainage,andslope-influencetheselectionof
plantsandthestepsrequiredfortheirestablishment.
NatureofDisturbedSoils
Mostdisturbedsitesendup,aftergrading,withasurfaceconsistingof
acid,infertilesubsoilmaterialsthatlacknutrientsnecessaryforsupporting
plantgrowth.Suchsoilsmaynotbecapableofsupportingthedense
growthnecessarytopreventerosion.
Constructionactivitiesfurtherdecreasesoilproductivityby
increasingcompaction,makingslopessteeper,andalteringdrainage
patterns.Topsoiling,additionofsoilamendments,andspecialseedbed
preparationaregenerallyrequired.Somenativeplantspeciesarebetter
suitedtotheseconditions.
245 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
SoilsInvestigation
Thevegetativeplanshouldbebasedonthoroughsoilsamplingand
testingintheareaofplannedconstruction.Differentsoilsshouldbe
sampledseparately.ContactthelocalConservationDistrictofficefor
suggestionsonprovidersoftheseservices.Testresultsshouldinclude
limeandfertilizerrecommendations.Fertilizingaccordingtothesoil
testensuresthemostefficientexpenditureofmoneyforfertilizeranda
minimumofexcessfertilizertopollutestreamsorgroundwater.Soil
samplingshouldbeginwellinadvanceofplantingbecause1to6weeks
arerequiredtoobtainsoiltestresults.
Informationonthesoiltypeisusefulinselectingtheplantstobe
used.Nativeplantsgrowingonsimilarsoilswillbegoodcandidatesfor
revegetation.
Wetanddryareasshouldbecheckedatthetimeofmaximum
wetnessandwhenthedryareascanbedifferentiatedfromthewet
ones;makingitpossibletoplaceplantsinthemicrositesforwhichthey
arebestadapted.
SoilLimitations
Certainsoilfactorsaredifficulttomodifyandcanimposesevere
limitationsonplantgrowth.Theseincludesuchthingsasrootingdepth,
stoniness,texture,andpropertiesrelatedtotexturesuchasorganic
mattercontent,andwater-andnutrient-holdingcapacity.
Extremelycoarse(gravelly)texturesresultindroughtinessand
nutrientdeficiencies.Finetextures,ontheotherhand,impede
infiltrationanddecreasepermeability,therebyincreasingthevolumeof
runoff.Lightsandysoilsmayneedspecialtreatmentwithmulchesor
246 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
tackifierstostabilizethemsufficientlytoallowplantestablishment.Other
soilsmayhaveahardpanthatlimitswaterandrootpenetration.
Toxiclevelsofelementssuchasaluminum,iron,andmanganeseare
limitingtoplantgrowth.ThesebecomelesssolubleasthepHisraised,
however,sothattoxicityproblemscanusuallybeeliminatedbyliming.
Soilsurveyreportsmayrefertopoor,severe,anddroughty,
soils.Thesearesoilsthatrequirespecialtreatmentbeyondroutinetillage
andfertilization.
Slope
Thesteepertheslope,themoreessentialavigorousvegetativecover
is.Goodestablishmentpractices,includingseedbedpreparation,quality
seed,lime,fertilizer,mulchingandtackingarecritical.Thedegreeofslope
maylimittheequipmentthatcanbeusedinseedbedpreparation,planting,
andmaintenance;steepslopesalsoincreasecosts.
Theseverityofpasterosionwillindicatethedegreeofmechanical
stabilizationandslopepreparationnecessaryforplantestablishment.
Shallowsurfaceerosionwillindicatetheneedformaximumsurfaceplant
cover.Moredeep-seatederosionwillindicatetheneedforahigh
percentageofdeep-rootedspecies.Relativelysmallrillsandgullieswillbe
smoothedasamatterofcourseduringconstruction,whereaslargegullies
mayneedtobereworkedwithheavyequipment.
Slopeanglessteeperthan30-34percentaredifficulttorevegetate.
Steepslopesshouldbelaidbackwheneverpossible.Vegetation
establishmentisdifficultatbestonthetopsofcuts.Roundingimproves
thechancesofsuccessfulrevegetationandminimizeschancesoffuture
undercutting.
Aspect
Aspectaffectssoiltemperatureandavailablemoisture.South-and
west-facingslopestendtobehotteranddrier,andoftenrequirespecial
treatment.Forexample,mulchisessentialtoretainmoisture,anddrought-
tolerantplantspeciesshouldbeaddedtotheseedmixture.South-and
west-facingslopesalsomaybesubjecttomorefrostheavingdueto
repeatedcyclesoffreezingand
thawing.
Temperaturesareloweronnorth-
andnortheast-facingslopesthanon
south-andwest-facingslopes.Colder
temperaturesleadtolower
evapotranspirationvalueswhichresult
inmoreavailablewaterforplant
growth.Theeffectivegrowingseason
isreducedsomewhat,however;soil
temperaturesarelower,affectingseed
germination,andthepossibilityof
frostdamageisgreater.
247
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Climate
Climaticdifferencesdeterminetheappropriateplantselections
basedonsuchfactorsascold-hardiness,tolerancetohightemperatures
andhighhumidity,andresistancetodisease.Nativeplantlistsgive
historicinformationonplantsknowntohavesurvivedinregionsover
centuries.
Microclimate
Valleys,draws,andlowspotswillhavedifferentmicroclimatesfrom
immediatelyadjacenthigherareas.Theywilltendtohavehighersoil
moisturebecauseofhigherwatertables.Theywillbecolderthan
adjacenthigherground.Theseconditionswillaffectplantperformance
inthesamewaythattheydoonslopesofdifferentaspects.
Exposuretowindswillvaryfromsitetositeinageneralarea.The
windsmayoccurineithersummerorwinterorboth.Windincreases
evapotranspirationandreducestheeffectivewateravailability.Summer
windswillmakeplantestablishmentmoredifficult,andwinterwinds
mayincreasewinterdamage.
SoilpH
SoilpHmaylimitchoicesofplantspecies.Someplantsrequireacid
soils,somealkaline,andsomearetolerantofawiderangeofpH.High
soilpH(7.5andabove)orlowpH(4.5orbelow)mayrestrictavailability
ofplantnutrientsormaymaketoxicionsavailable.ExtremelylowpH
levelswillincreaseavailabilityofaluminum,andmanganeseandother
metalionsthataretoxictoplants.ThepHinsurfacesoilsmaybe
satisfactoryforplantgrowth,buthighwaycutsmayexposestratawith
abnormallyhighorlowpHlevels.
Management
Whenselectingplantspeciesforstabilization,considerpost-
constructionlanduseandtheexpectedlevelofmaintenance.Inevery
case,futuresitemanagementisanimportantfactorinplantselection.
Whereaneatappearanceisdesired,useplantsthatrespondwellto
frequentmowingandothertypesofintensivemaintenance.
Atsiteswherelowmaintenanceisdesired,longevityisparticularly
important.Trytousenativespecies.
SeasonalConsiderations
Newlyconstructedslopesandotherunvegetatedareasshouldbe
seededandmulched,orsodded,assoonaspossibleaftergrading.
Wherefeasible,gradingoperationsshouldbeplannedaroundoptimal
seedingdatesfortheparticularregion.Themosteffectivetimesfor
plantingperennialsgenerallyextendfromAprilthroughMayandfrom
AugustthroughSeptember.Outsidethesedatestheprobabilityoffailure
ishigher.Latesummer(August15-September30)isthebestperiodto
248 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
establishgrass/legumeseedings.
Ifthetimeofyearisnotsuitableforseedingpermanentcover
(perennialspecies),atemporarycovercropshouldbeplanted.Otherwise,
theareamustbestabilizedwithgravelormulch.Temporaryseedingof
annualspecies(smallgrains,Sudangrass,orGermanmillet)oftensucceeds
attimesoftheyearthatareunsuitableforseedingpermanent(perennial)
species,
DormantseedingcanbemadefromtheendofNovemberthrough
March.Thistypeofseedingneedstobeadequatelyprotectedwithmulch,
orbetteryet,erosioncontrolfabric.
Seasonalitymustbeconsideredwhenselectingspecies.Grassesand
legumesareusuallyclassifiedaswarmorcoolseasoninreferenceto
theirseasonofgrowth.Coolseasonplantsproducemostoftheirgrowth
duringthespringandfallandarerelativelyinactiveordormantduringthe
hotsummermonths,thereforelatesummerintoearlyfallisthemost
dependabletimetoplantthem.Warmseasonplantsgreenuplateinthe
spring,growmostactivelyduringthesummer,andgodormantatthefirst
frostinfall.Springandearlysummerarepreferredplantingtimesforwarm-
seasonplants.
Plant Species
Speciesselectionshouldbeconsideredearlyintheprocessof
preparingtheerosionandsedimentationcontrolplan.Forpractical,
economicalstabilizationandlong-termprotectionofdisturbedsites,
speciesselectionshouldbemadewithcare.Manywidelyoccurringplants
areinappropriateforsoilstabilizationbecausetheydonotprotectthesoil
effectively,orbecausetheyarenotquicklyandeasilyestablished.Plants
thatarepreferredforsomesitesmaybepoorchoicesforothers;somecan
becometroublesomepests.
Initialstabilizationofmostdisturbedsitesrequiresgrassesand
legumesthatgrowtogetherwithoutgaps.Thisistrueevenwherepartor
allofthesiteisplantedtotreesorshrubs.Inlandscapeplantings,
disturbedsoilbetweentreesandshrubsmustalsobeprotectedeitherby
mulchingorbypermanentgrass-legumemixtures.Mulchingaloneisan
alternative,butitrequirescontinuingmaintenance.
Mixturesvs.Single-SpeciesPlantings
Single-speciesplantingsarewarrantedinmanycases,buttheyare
moresusceptiblethanmixturestodamagefromdisease,insects,and
weatherextremes.Also,mixturestendtoprovideprotectivecovermore
quickly.Theinclusionofmorethanonespeciesshouldalwaysbe
consideredforsoilstabilizationanderosioncontrol.
Additionofaquick-growingannualprovidesearlyprotectionand
facilitatesestablishmentofperennials.Morecomplexmixturesmight
includeaquick-growingannual,oneortwolegumes,andoneortwo
perennialgrasses.
249
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
CompanionorNurseCrops
Theadditionofa
nursecrop(quick-
growingannuals
addedtopermanent
mixtures)isasound
practiceforsoil
stabilization,
particularlyon
difficultsites-those
withsteepslopes;
poor,stony,erosive
soils;lateseedings,
etc.-orinanysituationwherethedevelopmentofpermanentcoveris
likelytobeslow.Thenursecropgerminatesandgrowsrapidly,holding
thesoiluntiltheslowergrowingperennialseedlingsbecome
established.Seedingrateofthenursecropmustbelimitedtoavoid
crowding,especiallyunderoptimumgrowingconditions.
Legumes:Nitrogen-FixingPlants
Legumesshouldbeusedwhen
practicalbecauseoftheirabilitytoimprove
sitesbyaddingnitrogen.Theyshouldbe
inoculatedatplantingwithappropriate
bacteria.Commercialinoculantsare
availableformanyspecies.Nativespecies
forwhichnocommercialinoculantis
availableshouldbeinoculatedby
incorporatingsoilfromnativestandsinthe
soilsinwhichtransplantsaregrown,orby
topdressingwithnativesoils.
Annuals
Annualplantsgrowrapidlyandthendieinonegrowingseason.
Theyareusefulforquick,temporarycoverorasnursecropsforslower-
growingperennials.
Winterrye
Winterrye(grain)isusuallysuperiortootherwinterannuals
(wheat,oats,crimsonclover,etc.)bothfortemporaryseedingandasa
nursecropinpermanentmixtures.Ithasmorecoldhardinessthan
otherannualsandwillgerminateandgrowatlowertemperatures.By
maturingearly,itofferslesscompetitionduringthelatespringperiod,a
criticaltimeintheestablishmentofperennialspecies.
Ryegraingerminatesquicklyandistolerantofpoorsoils.Including
ryegraininfall-seededmixturesisalmostalwaysadvantageous,butitis
250 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
particularlyhelpfulondifficultsoilsanderodibleslopesorwhenseedingis
late.Overlythickstandsofryegrainwillsuppressthegrowthofperennial
seedlings.Limitseedingratestothesuggestedlevel.About50poundsper
acreisthemaximumforthispurpose.Wherelushgrowthisexpected,that
rateshouldeitherbecutinhalf,orryegrainshouldbeeliminatedfromthe
mixture.
Annualryegrass
Annualryegrassprovidesdensecover
rapidly,butmaybemoreharmfulthan
beneficialinareasthataretobe
permanentlystabilized.Annualryegrassis
highlycompetitive,andifincludedin
mixtures,itcrowdsoutmostotherspecies
beforeitmaturesinlatespringorearly
summer,leavinglittleornolastingcover.It
canbeeffectiveasatemporaryseeding,
butifallowedtomaturetheseed
volunteersandseriouslyinterfereswith
subsequenteffortstoestablishpermanent
cover.Winterrye(grain)ispreferablein
mostapplications.
Germanmillet
Germanmilletisafine-stemmed
summerannual,usefulfortemporary
seeding,asanursecrop,andfortacking
mulch.ItisbetteradaptedtosandysoilsthanaretheSudangrasses.
Normalseedingdatesarebetweenthelastfrostinspringandthemiddleof
August.
Sudangrass
Onlythesmall-stemmedvarietiesofSudangrassshouldbeused.Like
Germanmillet,Sudangrassisusefulfortemporaryseedingandasanurse
crop,butitisadaptedtosoilshigherinclaycontent.
Perennials
Perennialplantsremainviableoverwinterandinitiatenewgrowth
eachyear.Standsofperennialspersistindefinitelyunderproper
managementandenvironmentalconditions.Theyaretheprincipal
componentsofpermanentvegetativecover.Whereverpossible,usenative
speciesforplantings
Nativevs.Non-NativeSpecies
Ingeneral,ifaplantisindigenoustoagivenareaofthecountry,itisa
native.Somedefinenativemorenarrowly,eventoaplantindigenoustoa
givensite.
Non-nativeplantspecieshavebeenusedtocontrolerosionsincethe
dust-bowldaysofthe1930s.Theyarevigorous,establishtheirdenseroot
251 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
systemsinthesoil,andstabilizebareearth.
Thesenon-nativeplants,however,canbeverycompetitive.
Introduced,invasiveplantscancausemanymoreproblemsthanthey
willsolve.Theycrowdoutnativespeciesandreduceplantdiversity.
Theyarecapableoftakingoverlandscapes,resultinginamonoculture.
Naturalecosystemsaredegradedandthesitemaybecomevulnerable
todiseaseandpestthreats.
Evenwhennon-nativesareonlyaminorcomponentoftheseed
mix,theytendtooutperformandoverrunnativesforthefirstfew
years.Then,overthelongterm,10to15years,introducedspeciesmay
weakenanddieout.Nativespeciesgenerallyhavelong-term
superiorityovernon-nativespecies.
Non-nativestypicallyoffertwofeaturesoftenlackingwithnative
species;theyarereadilyavailableandmuchcheaperthannatives.
Comparedtoearthmovingcostsonmostsites,however,thecostof
seedisverysmall.
Inadditiontopriceandavailability,projectobjectivescanalso
affectthedecisiontoplantnativeorintroducedspecies.Forexample,
anintroducedspeciesmaybetheonlyseedavailablethatwill
establishsoonenoughtoprotectfromafast-approachingwinterand
itsstorms.
NativeSpecies
Nativeplantsevolvedunderlocalsoilandclimaticconditionsand
arebestadaptedtositessimilartothoseonwhichtheygrow.Theyare
adaptedtoannualfluctuationsinrainfallandtemperatures.Natives
oftenhaveminimalfungusandinsectproblemsorexistinreasonable
balancewithsuchpests.Atapropersite,theybecomeestablished,
reproduce,andperformsatisfactorilywithoutsupplementaryirrigation
ormaintenance.Nativeplantsblendaestheticallywiththesurrounding
vegetation.
Usingnativeplantsmaintainsthegeneticintegrityofplant
populationsinthearea.Nativeplantshaveadaptedtoanenvironment;
animportantconsiderationinestablishingenvironmentally-soundand
lowmaintenancelandscapes.
Nativeplantsareespeciallyadaptedtopoorersoilsandmay
requirenofertilizersorpesticides.Someofthem,e.g.sweetfern,refuse
togrowwell,andsometimesnotatall,ifgivenfertilizer.Nativeplants
arealsoadaptedtothesoilsandrequirelittleornowatering.
Retainingnativebuffersproducesgreatbenefitsforwildlife.
Establishingislandsofvegetationoffersincreasedbioticdiversityand
helpsproducewildlifebenefits.
Nativespeciesmaintainnaturaldiversityprovidinganalternative
toboringlandscapeswhichroutinelyappeararoundshoppingcenters,
industrialbuildingsandcondominiums.Somepeoplefeelthat
disturbedlandshouldreflectthenaturalplantsystemsinplacebefore
thesitewasdisturbed.
252 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Nativespeciesmaybeslowtoestablish,butthisisnotasignificant
drawback.Somesortofmulchisusuallyusedanywaytocontrolerosionon
newly-seededdisturbedareas.Generally,ittakesayearorsobeforenative
speciescanbeginprotectingthesoil,butwithintwoorthreeyearsthey
canprovideasmuchcoverasnon-natives.Nativespeciesarebecoming
popularforhighwayembankments,utilitycorridors,andother
developmentsites.
Theavailabilityofnativeplantingstock,seedsortransplants,is
sometimeslimitedbecauseoflackofdemandorlimitedknowledgeabout
propagationmethodsandculturalrequirements.Theremaybelimited
numbersofspeciesadaptedtoartificiallyalteredordisturbedsites.The
useofintroducedspeciesmaybenecessarywhenthenumbersofsuitable
plantspeciesislimited.Increaseddemandfornativeplantmaterials,
however,willencouragenurserysupplierstostockthem.
Non-NativeSpecies
Otherterminology:Introduced,Exotic.
Thenumberofintroducedspecieswithpotentialforrevegetationof
anyparticularsiteisusuallygreaterthanthenumberofnativespecies.The
commercialavailabilityofintroducedspeciesisusuallygreaterbecause
theyaretheplantsofourcultivatedlandscapes,andmoreinformationis
usuallyavailableabouttheirpropagationandculturalrequirements.
Introducedplantsmaysometimesbebetteradaptedtoanareathan
nativeplants.Thismaybesobecauseofrandomchanceinevolutionor
becauseevolutionarychangesinthenativeplantspectrumhavenot
occurredasrapidlyasclimaticchanges.Introducedplantssometimeshave
fewerproblemsthannativesbecausediseasesandpestshavebeenleft
behind.Introducedspeciesmaybemorepleasing,aesthetically,than
manynativesinurbanizedareasbecausetheyblendwiththesurroundings.
Therearenowabout900alienorintroducedplantspeciesin
Massachusetts,aboutathirdofthestatesflora.Intheirnativehabitats,
manyoftheseplantswererestrainedbythepestsanddiseasesthat
evolvedwiththemoverthousandsofyears.Whenbroughtintoanew
environment,however,theyarenotboundbynaturalrestraints.The
characteristicsofdiseaseresistance,fastgrowth,abundantreproduction,
easypropagation,wildlifefoodproductionallowthemtooutcompeteand
overwhelmnativeplants.
NativeGrasses
BigBluestem*Andropogongerardii
BigBluestemisalong-livedperennial,warm-seasonnativegrassthathas
excellentdroughtresistance.Itisbeingusedincriticalareaseedings
wherecoolseasonspeciescannottoleratethehightemperaturesor
coarsesoils.ItisselectedfortheNortheastforitsstandarddurability.It
growsfrom5to7feettallandisveryleafy.
BigBluestemisanerosioncontrolplantforsandandgravelpits,mine
253
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
spoil,androadsides.Itisalsoexcellentcoverforwildlife.
SeedBigBluestemintheearlyspring,takingcaretocompactthesoilafter
seeding.Seedat15to20poundsperacre.Itisslowtogerminateand
establishthefirstyearbutwillproducefairtogoodcoverbytheendof
thesecondyear.
BigBluestemgrowswellonhot,droughtysites.Ittoleratesmediumtolow
fertility,acid,sandy,loamy,andclayeysoils,haspoorshadetolerance
andpreferswell-drainedsites.
LittleBluestem*Schizachryriumscoparium
LittleBluestemisapersistent,lowmaintenance,warm-seasonbunchtype
perennialgrass.Asanativegrass,LittleBluestemisalmostalways
incorporatedintomixesusedtoproducelonglivingnativestands.Usedas
acoverplantonslopesandroadbanks.
Growswelloneitheruplandsorlowlands.Itisdroughttolerantand
adaptedtowidevarietyofsoiltypes,butisnotveryshadetolerant.Its
russet-redcolorinfallandwintermakeitdesirableforlandscaping.
Height:1-3
Seedlingvigorisweak,andcontrolofcompetitionisnecessary.Forbest
results,soilpHshouldbebetween5.5to6.5.
DeertongueDichantheliumclandestinum
Deertongueisanativewarm-seasonbunchgrassthatgrowstoaheightof
1-1/2to3feet.Ithasbroad,shortleavesandastrong,fibrousrootsystem.
ItwilltoleratesiteswithapHaslowas3.8andaluminumconcentrations
whichlimitgrowthofotherspecies.
Deertongueisexcellentforrevegetatingacidminespoilandgroundcover
forerodiblesandyareas,suchasroadbanks,ditchbanks,andgravelpits.
Theseedsareeatenbymanyspeciesofbirds.
Deertonguegrowsinlow-fertility,acid,loamy,andsandysoils.Ithas
excellentdroughttolerance,poorshadetolerance,andtolerates
moderatelywelldrainedsoil.
Establishbyseedingearlyinspring.Seed12to15poundsperacre.Itcan
beseededwith10to15poundsoftallfescueorperennialryegrassfor
quickcover.Itwillproducecompletecoverin2years.
EasternGamagrass*Tripsacumdactyloides
Anative,warm-season,perennial,tallgrassthatgrowsinlargeclumps
from1-4feetindiameteronstems3-9feettall.Regrowsvigorouslyafter
mowing.Height:3-9
Indiangrass*Sorghastrumnutans
Indiangrassisanative,perennialwarmseasonbunchtypegrassthat
grows3to5feetinheightandproducesmostheavilyfromJulythrough
September.
Indiangrassisexcellentforwildlifehabitat,criticalareaseedingandas
roadsidebeautificationanderosioncontrol.Indiangrassiswinterhardy.It
growsbestindeep,well-drainedsoil,butistolerantofmoderatelywet
soil.
254 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
TumbleLovegrass*Eragrostis
Spectabilis
Fine-leavedbunchgrass;tan,purplish,
dainty,featheryseedheads.Growsbest
insandysoil.Height:10-12"
AnnualRyegrassLoliummultiflorum
AnnualRyegrassisashortlived,annual
grassusefulforobtainingquickground
coverforlawns,slopes,andmine
spoils.Itusuallygerminatesin4to7
days,makingitveryeffectiveforsoil
erosion.Itisadaptedtoawiderangeof
soilconditions.Seedinmixturesata
rateof20to30poundsperacre.
Switchgrass*Panicumvirgatum
Switchgrassisamediumheighttotall
perennialgrassthatgrowsnativein
nontidalmarshes,streambanks,lake
shores,moistwoods,andfreshtidal
marshes.
Growsunderawiderangeofsoils:low-fertility,acid,sandy,clayey,and
loamysoils.Winterhardy,andhasexcellentheatanddroughttolerance,
lowshadetolerance.Doeswellonmoderatelywelldrainedsoils.Feathery,
openheads;orange-yellowinwinter.
Switchgrassisavaluablesoilstabilizationplantonstripminespoil,sand
dunes,dikes,andothercriticalareas.Itisalsosuitableforlowwindbreak
plantingsintruckcropfieldsandprovidesfoodandexcellentnestingand
fallandwintercoverforwildlife.
Switchgrassrequires1to2yearstobecometotallyestablished.Littleor
nomanagementisrequiredafterestablishment.
Height:4-5
Varieties:
Blackwell-reclamation(performsbetterunderlowmaintenanceand
wetsoils),4to5feettall.
Shelter-PlantMaterialCenterreleasedvariety,wildlifecover,4to6feet
tall.Besidesbeingagoodplantforrevegetationofsurfaceminespoil,sand
andgravelpits,andsteep,sandyroadsidecuts,Shelterisanexcellent
wildlifeplantthatprovidesyear-roundcoverandfoodduringthefalland
winter.Itsstiffstemsresistlodgingandwillrecovertoanuprightposition
afterwintersnowstorms.
255 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
CanadaWildryeElymuscanadensis
Acoolseason,nativegrassthatprefers
moistsites.Thisperennialbunchgrass
hasverygoodseedlingvigorandearly
springgrowth,whichmakeiteasyto
establishandcovergroundrapidly.(See
alsoWetlandGrasses.)
RiverbankWildRyeElymusriparius
Thisryegrowsalongnontidalshores,wet
woods,meadows,prairiesandalsofresh
tidalmarshes.Withtheexceptionof
havingasomewhatnoddingspike,this
perennialgrasshasverysimilar
characteristicstoVirginiaWildRye.(See
alsoWetlandGrasses.)
VirginiaWildryeElymusvirginicus
Acool-season,nativegrassthattolerates
bothmoistanddrysites,shadeandfull
sun.Mediumheightperennial.Whileitcan
beplantedalone,itmakesanexcellent
componentinafloodplainmixorahabitatmix.(SeealsoWetland
Grasses.)
BroomsedgeAndropogonvirginicus
BroomsedgeisaveryhardyperennialwhichwilltoleratebothlowpHand
fertility.Itisaclumptypegrassthatwillgrowtoaheightof1to3feet.
Mainlyfoundinuplandwetareas,anexcellentgroundcover,andprovides
feedforgameandsongbirds.
*Denoteswarm-seasongrass.
OtherGrasses
Kentuckybluegrass
Kentuckybluegrasshashigherlimeandfertilityrequirementsthansome
otherperennialgrasses.Bluegrassspreadsbystrongrhizomesand,where
adapted,isanexcellentsoilstabilizer,readilyfillingindamagedspots.It
hasundergoneintensivebreedingactivityinrecentyears,resultingin
varietieswithmoreheattoleranceandresistancetohot-weatherdiseases.
CreepingRedFescueFestucarubra
CreepingRedFescuegrowsinmediumfertility,slightlyacid,clayeyand
loamysoils.Ithasfairdroughttolerance,excellentshadetoleranceand
requireswelldrainedsoils.Itwillproduceacompletecoverofattractive,
uniformsodinoneyear.
Itisacoolseason,finetextured,lawngrassthathasnarrow,brightgreen
leaves.Similartobluegrass.
256 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Itspreadsbyshortundergroundstemstoproduceatight,densesodfor
stabilizingroadbanksandnorthfacingslopes.Above-groundstemshavea
reddishtintandgrowtoaheightof18inches.Redfescuemayturnbrown
inhot,drysummerweatherbutwillrecoverinthefall.
Redfescueisestablishedbyseedingonafirmseedbedinspringorearly
fall.Itisusuallyusedinamixconstituting25to60percentofthetotaland
seededat3to5poundsperthousandsquarefeet.Pennlawnisthemost
popularvarietyavailable.
RedTopAgrostisalba
Redtopisatough,cool-seasonperennialgrasstolerantofinfertile,
droughty,somewhatacidsoils.
RedTopwillprovidequickcoverforcriticalareassuchasgrassed
waterways,roadbanks,diversions,andstripminespoils.Otheruses
includeerosioncontrol,andtemporarygrassinturfseedings.Itcanbea
usefulcomponentofmixturesondry,stonyslopes.
Itisafast-starting,sod-forminggrassthatisabout18inchestallat
maturity.Itwillproduceeffectivegroundcoverthefirstyear.Becauseitis
faststartingandtoleratescoldtemperaturesandpoorlydrainedsoils,red
topiswidelyusedasacomponentinmixturesplantedondisturbedsites
inNortheast.
RedTopgrowsinclayey,loamy,andsandysoils.Ithaspoorshade
tolerance.
PerennialRyegrassLoliumperenne
PerennialRyegrassisafastgrowing,shorttermgrassusedforsoil
stabilizationandimprovementandlawns.Rapidgrowthrateistheprimary
conservationvalue,producingcompletecoverinafewmonths.
Itgrowsinmediumfertility,acid,clayeyandloamysoils.Ithasfairdrought
tolerance,poorshadetoleranceandwilltoleratesomewhatpoorlydrained
soil.Itgrowstoaheightof1to2feet.Manylong,narrowleavesextend
fromthebaseoftheplant.
Oftentimes,seedingmixturescontainingredfescue,redtop,Canada
bluegrass,orperennialryegrassareused;astheyprovidegoodshortterm
erosionprotection,butwillallowindigenousplantstoeventually
naturalizethesite.
Whenusedinmixes,ryegrassshouldnotexceed20%ofthemix.Theturf
varietiesarelongerlivedandincludeManhattanII,Pennantand
Pennfine.
NativeLegumes
RoundheadlespedezaLespedezacapita
Roundheadlespedezaiscommononsanddunes,dryfields,sandywoods,
androadsides.Itisimportantforsoilstabilization.ItflowersfromJuneto
September.Thefoliageiseatenbydeerandturkeys.Seedsareconsumed
byuplandbirdsandrodents.
Roundheadlespedezaseediscommerciallyavailable.Theseedshouldbe
scarifiedtoassurehighratesofgermination.Lifespan:perennial.
257
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
PanicledtickcloverDesmodiumpaniculatum
Panicledtickcloverisinfrequenttolocally
commonindrywoods,especiallyifthesoilis
rockyorsandy.Itoccasionallyisfoundon
roadsides.ItflowersfromJulytoSeptember.It
isconsumedbydomesticlivestockanddeer
whileitisimmature.Rodentsandbirdsutilize
theseeds.
Seedisnotcommerciallyavailable.Panicled
tickcloverhasnovalueforlandscapingor
erosioncontrol.Lifespan:perennial.
CanadatickcloverDesmodiumcanadense
Canadatickcloverisinfrequenttocommonin
prairiesandthicketsandalongriversand
roads.Itismostcommoninsandysoil.It
flowersfromJulytoSeptember.Foliageiseaten
bydeerandrabbits.Manykindsofrodentsandbirdseattheseeds.
Canadatickcloverispoorforerosioncontrol.Ithasnovaluefor
landscaping.Lifespan:perennial.
YellowwildindigoBaptisiatinctoria
Yellowwildindigoisscatteredtocommoninopenwoodsandclearings.
ItflowersfromlateMaythroughJuly.Lifespan:perennial.
Seedisseldomcommerciallyavailable.Mostseedisdestroyedinthe
legumebyweevils.Germinationmaybeimprovedbyscarificationand
stratification.Itisanattractivelandscapeplant.
Cautionmustbetaken,becauseitmaybepoisonoustohumans.
GroundnutApiosamericana
Groundnutisinfrequenttolocallycommoninmoistsoilsofravines,
pondandstreambanks,andthickets.Lifespan:perennial.
Seedsareeatenbyuplandgamebirdsandsongbirds.Tubersareeaten
bymice,rabbits,andsquirrels.
Seedisnotcommerciallyavailable.Theplanthasnopotentialfor
landscaping,althoughitholdspromiseasatanglevineforerosion
control.
BeachpeaLathyrusjaponicus
NativetocoastalMassachusetts.Adaptedtobeach/dunesites.Life
span:perennial.
Seededinmoist,inter-duneareas.
BushcloverLespidesacapitata
BushclovermaybeusedinlocationswhereSericeaLespedezawould
previouslyhavebeenrecommended.
258 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
NativeGroundCovers
Wintergreen Gaugtheria paceumbens
6"(Height)x3(Spread)
Acid,average/drysoil.Partialshade.Evergreen,reddishinwinter,pinkish-
whiteflowers,redberries.
Bearberry Artostaphylus uva-ursi
9"x3
Sandysoil.Fullsuntopartialshade.Evergreen,bronzeinfall,urn-shaped
flowers,redberries,sturdyandreliable.
Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon
4"x3
Cool,moistsoil.Fullsun.Evergreen,dense,glossy,redediblefruit.
Bunchberry Cornus Canadensis
6"
Moist,acidsoil.Partial/fullshade.Excellentunderpines,broad-leaved
evergreens,lovelyfruit,whorledleaves,beautiful.
Trailing arbutus Epigaea repens
5"x2
Acid,sandysoilwithoakleave/pineneedlemulch.Evergreen;dainty,fragrant
flowers,doesnottoleratedisturbance.StateflowerofMassachusetts.
Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinequefolia
35
Vine/groundcover.Tolerantastosoil.Sun/shade.Excellentlow-maintenance
cover,doesnotneedsupport,redinfall,blueberries.
CoastalDuneVegetation
Revegetationofconstructionsitesrequiresspecialattentionto
selectionofplantspecies.Intheforeduneareathereareonlyafewplants
thattoleratethestressesofthebeachenvironment.Theymustbeableto
survivesaltspray,sandblasting,burialbysand,saltwaterflooding,
drought,heat,andlownutrientsupply.
CapeAmericanbeachgrass
Americanbeachgrassisacool-seasonperennialdunegrass;fordune
buildingandasastabilizerintheforedunezone.Easytopropagate,it
establishesandgrowsrapidly,andisreadilyavailablefromcommercial
nurseries.
Itisanexcellentsandtrappercapableofgrowingupwardwithfour
feetofaccumulatingsandinoneseason.Newplantingsareusually
effectiveattrappingwind-blownsandbythemiddleofthefirstgrowing
season.Beachgrassisalsoagoodplantforinteriordunezonesaswellas
otherdroughty,sandysitesinland.
259 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Americanbeachgrassisextremelyvaluableforinitialstabilization
anddunebuildingindisturbedareas.Itisseverelyaffectedbyheatand
droughtandtendstodeteriorateanddiebehindfrontaldunesasthe
sandsupplydeclines.
Itisalsosusceptibletoafungaldisease(Marasmiusblight)anda
softscaleinsect(Eriococcuscarolinae).Beachgrassplantingsshould,
therefore,bereinforcedwithplantingsofwoodyspeciessuchasbeach
plumorbarberry.Interiorduneareasarecandidatesforawidervariety
ofcoastalwoodyshrubs.
Saltmeadowcordgrass
Awarm-seasonperennialusefulfortransplantingonlowareas
subjecttosaltwaterflooding.Itisaheavyseedproducerandisoften
thefirstplantonmoistsandflats.Itcollectsandaccumulatesblowing
sand,creatinganenvironmentsuitableforduneplants.
Saltmeadowcordgrassiseasytotransplantonmoistsitesbutdoes
notsurviveondrydunes.Plantsshouldbedugfromyoung,open
stands.Survivaloftransplantsfromolder,thickstandsispoor.Nursery
productionfromseedisrelativelyeasy,andthepot-grownseedlings
transplantwell.Propagationbyseedispossible,butthepercentageof
viableseedvaries.
Beachplum
AshruboftheNewEnglandcoastalareas,ofspecialinterestforits
ediblefruit.Itgrowswellinsandy,dry,windsweptsites,andproducesa
profusionofwhiteflowersinearlyMay.BeachPlumgrowstoabout6
feetinheightandmakesanexcellentmassedseasideplantingora
hedgetopreventerosionbecauseitcantoleratesaltspray.Nursery
grownplantsarerecommended,astransplantingfromthewildisnot
oftensuccessful.Producesflowersandfruitin3to4years;maturesin7
to8years.
BeachPlumrequirescross-pollinationtoinsurefruitproductionso
itisnecessarytohavemorethanoneplantifplumsaredesired.Beach
plumcanbegrowninareasotherthancoastaldunes.Growsinmedium-
fertility,acid,loamy,andsandysoils;excellentdroughttolerance;fair
shadetolerance;toleratesmoderatelywell-drainedsoil.
Bayberry
Bayberryisasemi-evergreenshrubthatgrowstoaheightof6to8
feet.Idealforsunny,coastalsites.Growsinlow-fertility,acid,clayey,
loamy,andsandysoils;excellentdroughttolerance,poorshade
tolerance;toleratesmoderatelywell-drainedsoil.Versatilefor
landscapingandrevegetating,sanddunesandinlandareas;berries
providefoodforbirds.Itcanalsohelpstabilizedryslopesproneto
erosion.
260 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Producesfruitin3to4years;maturesin7to8years.Fruitappears
onlywherebothmaleandfemaleshrubsareplantedinthesamearea.
Rootsfixnitrogen,whichhelpsbayberrygrowinlow-fertilitysoil.Establish
byplantingbare-rootorcontainer-grownseedlings2yearsold.
Bayberrydoesbestinopensites.Itcanberejuvenatedbycuttingit
backhard,whichstimulatesundergroundlateralstemgrowth.Stemsroot
atthenodeswherenewleavesform,andnewplantscanbeestablishedby
pinningdownaprostratestemnodetightlyagainstthesoil.
RugosaRose
RugosaRoseproduceslargebushymassesofgreenerytoppedbyred
andwhiteblossomsfromsoilthatislittlemorethanloosesand.Spreading
andsprawling,itssix-footbranchescoveredwithspines,theplantisa
formidablebarrierthatdeterstramplingfeetandanchorsdunes.
Itisusefulforroadsideanddunes,replacingplantswhichcouldnot
toleratetheabuseofpedestriantraffic.
IntertidalVegetation
Insaltwaterareas,smoothcordgrassistransplantedintheintertidal
zonefrommeansealeveltomeanhighwater,andsaltmeadowcordgrass
frommeanhighwatertothestormtidelevel.Inbrackishwaterareas(10
partsperthousandorlessofsolublesalts),giantcordgrassmaybeusedin
theintertidalzone.Greenhouse-grownseedlingsoftheseplantscanbe
obtainedfromcommercialsources,butusuallyonlyonspecialorder.
Transplantsmaybedugfromyoung,opennaturalstandsofsmoothand
saltmeadowcordgrass.
Smoothcordgrass
Smoothcordgrassisthedominantplantintheregularlyflooded
intertidalzoneofsaltwaterestuariesalongtheAtlanticandGulfCoastof
NorthAmerica.Itisadaptedtoanaerobic,salinesoilsthatmaybeclayey,
sandy,ororganic.Itwilltoleratesalinitiesof35partsperthousand(ppt)
butgrowsbestfrom10to20ppt.
Plantheightvariesfrom1to7ftdependingonenvironmental
conditionsandnutrientsupply.Itproducesadenserootandrhizomemat
thathelpspreventsoilmovement.Transplantscanbeobtainedbydigging
fromnew,openstandsofthegrassormaybegrownfromseedinpots.
SeedarecollectedinSeptemberandstored,coveredwithseawater,and
refrigerated.Theplantsandseedlingsgrowrapidlywhentransplantedon
favorablesites.
Saltmeadowcordgrass
Afine-leavedgrass,1to3ftinheight,thatgrowsjustabovethemean
hightidelineinregularlyfloodedmarshes,andthroughoutirregularlyflooded
marshes.Itcanbepropagatedinthesamewayassmoothcordgrassexcept
thatseedmaybestoreddryunderrefrigeration.Astandofsaltmeadow
cordgrassprovidesgoodprotectionfromstormwaveerosion.
261 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Giantcordgrass
Growsinbrackish,irregularly-floodedareas.Stemsarethickerand
tallerthanintheothercordgrasses,growingtoaheightof9to10feet.
Seedlingsareeasytoproduceinpotsandthesecanbesuccessfully
transplanted,butsurvivalofplantsdugfromexistingstandsispoor.
SaltgrassDistichlisspicata
Saltgrassisanotherappropriateplantforintertidalzones.
NativeShrubs
BayberryMyricapensylvanica
9(Height)x9(Spread)
Sandy/claysoils.Fullsuntohalf-shade.Excellentformassing,borders,
foundationplantings.
MountainLaurelKalmialatifolia
11x11
Acid,moist,well-drainedsoil.Sun/shade.Evergreen,magnificentin
flower,exquisiteinmass.
CommonButtonbushCephalanthusoccidentalis
9x16
Moistsoil.Sun.Looseinappearance;white,fragrantflowers;bestfor
naturalizinginwetareas.
PinxterbloomAzaleaRhododendronnudiflorum
9x9
Dry,sandy,acidsoil.Brightgreenfoliage,yellowinfall,fragrantlight-
pinkflowers,deciduous.
RoseshellAzaleaRhododendronnoxeum
9x9
Moist/drysoil.Deciduous,much-branched,brightpinkflowerswith
clove-likescent.
AmericanElderSambucuscanadensis
9x6
Moist/drysoil.Whiteprofuseflowers,ediblefruit,goodfornaturalizing.
HardhackSpireaSpiraeatomentosa
5x5
Moistsoil.Sun.Pinkspike-likeflowers,thicketofwand-likestems.
CanadaYewTaxuscanadensis
5x7
Moist,sandysoil.Needswintershade.Evergreen,hardy;suitablefor
underplantingincool,shadedsituations.
262 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
LowbushBlueberryVacciniumaugustifolium
2x2
Dry,acidsoil.Sun/partialshade.Whiteflowers,sweetberry,lustrousblue-
greenfoliage.
HighbushBlueberryVacciniumcorymbosum
9x10
Dry,acidsoil.Sun/partialshade.Excellentfallcolor,rounded,compact,
ediblefruit,whiteflower.
AmericanCranberrybushViburnumViburnummilobum
9X9
Well-drained,moistsoil.Sun/partialshade.Informalhedges;excellent
flower,fruit,foliage.
SummersweetClethraClethraalnifolia
6x5
Moist,acidsoil.Sun/shade.Whitefragrantflowers,handsomefoliage,pest-
free.
GreyDogwoodCornusracerosa
12x12
Moist,well-drainedsoil.Sun/shade.(SeealsoWetlandShrubs.)
BeakedFilbertCoryluscornuta
6x6
Well-drained,loamysoil.Sun/lightshade.Interestingbeakedfruits,refined,
ediblefruit.
CommonWinterberryIlexverticillata
8x8
Moist,acidsoil.Sun/partialshade.Shrubborders,massingwaterside
planting,maleandfemalerequiredforfruit,redfruitframedbysnow.(See
alsoWetlandShrubs.)
CommonJuniperJuniperuscommunis
7x10"
Drysoil.Sun.Usefulforundergrowthandnaturalizedplantings,extremely
hardy,evergreen.
CommonSpicebushLinderabenzdin
9x9
Moist,well-drainedsoil.Sun/halfshade.Splendidplantinflowerandfall
color,ornamentalfruit.(SeealsoWetlandShrubs.)
263 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
BushCinquefoilPotentillapruticosa
3x3
Moist,well-drainedsoil.Sun/partialshade.Lowhedge,perennialborder,
yellowflowers,gracefulappearance.
BlackhawViburnumViburnumprunifolium
13x10
Tolerantastosoil.Sun/shade.Massing,shrubborder,stifflybranched,
redinfall,whiteflowers.
RugosaRose(naturalized)Rosarugosa
5x5
Well-drainedsoil.Sun.Beautifulinfoliage,flower,fruit,hedging,low
maintenance,hardy,fragrantflowers.
NativeTrees
RedmapleAcerrubrum
50(Height)x50(Spread)
Acid,moistsoil.Oneoffirsttreestocolorinfall,dazzlingfallcolor.
SugarmapleAcersaccharum
70x50
Well-drained,slightlyacidsoil.Beautifulfallcolor,pleasinggrowth
habit.
ShadblowAmelanchiercanadensis
20x20
Average/moistsoil.Whiteflowers,ediblesweetfruit,yellowinfall.
SweetbirchBetulalenta
50x40
Rich,moist,well-drainedsoil.Reddish-brownbark,bestofbirchesfor
fallcolor.
PaperbirchBetulapapyrifera
60x30
Well-drained,acidsoil.Fullsun.Handsomeforbarkandfallcolor,
splendidinwinterwithevergreens.
CommonchokecherryPrunusvirginiana
25x22
Well-drainedsoil.Suntopartialshade.Roundedcrown,red/purple
ediblefruit,whitefragrantflowers.
WhiteoakQuercusalba
75x75
Moist,well-drainedacidsoil.Sun.Majestictreeforlargeareas.
264 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
NorthernredoakQuercusborealis
75x60
Acid,well-drainedsoil.Shadetolerant.Highwildlifevalue,ascending
branches,globular.
RosebayrhododendronRhododendronmaximum
20x10
Moist,acidsoil.Shade.Loose,openhabit;large,evergreenleaves;rose
flowers.
PussywillowSalixdiscolor
25x6
Moistsoil.Sun.Multipletrunks,leggy,highwildlifevalue.
CanadahemlockTsulacanadensis
50x30
Moist,well-drained,acidsoil.Sun/shade.Evergreenhedges,graceful,does
nottoleratewindordrought.
NannyberryviburnumViburnumlentago
20x15
Moist/drysoil.Sun/shade.Durablenaturalizingorshrubborders,white
flowers,handsomefruit,goodwinterfoodforbirds.(SeealsoWetland
Trees.)
ShagbarkhickoryCaryaovata
70x35
Adaptabletowiderangeofsoils.Ediblenuts,shaggybark,picturesque.
Usechipsforbarbecues.
PagodadogwoodCornusalternifolia
20x30
Moist,acid,well-drainedsoil.Partiallyshaded.Horizontal,low-branched,
excellenttexturaleffects.
FloweringdogwoodCornusflorida
40x40
Acid,well-drainedsoil.Four-seasoncharacter;flower,foliage,fruit,winter
habit.
WitchhazelHamamelisvirginiana
25x20
Moistsoil.Sun/shade.Shrubborder,fragrantflowers,yellowinfall.(See
alsoWetlandTrees.)
265 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
EasternredcedarJuniperusvirginiana
45x14
Moistsoil.Sun.Windbreaks,hedges,reddish-brownbark,evergreen.
EasternlarchLarixlaricina
60x25
Moist,well-drainedacidsoil.Sun.Excellentingroves,horizontal,
droopingbranches,deciduous.
EasternwhitepinePinusstrobus
70x30
Tolerantastosoil.Sun/someshade.Handsome,beautifulhedge,graceful,
plume-likebranches.
Quaking aspen Populus tremuloides
40x25
Tolerantastosoil.Narrowleavesflutterinbreeze,yellowinfall.
Black cherry Prunus serotina
50x25
Moist/drysoil.Sun.Oval-headed;lustrous,dark-greenleaves,ediblefruit.
NativeWetlandHerbsandGrasses
SweetflagAcoruscalamus
SweetFlagisaperennialherbusually1to4feettall.ItflowersfromMay
toAugustandhasaverypleasantaroma.Itgrowsinshallowwaters,
nontidalmarshes,wetmeadows,andfreshtidalmarshes.
SwampAsterAsterpuniceus
SwampAsterisapopularwetlandperennialherb.ItdiffersfromNew
EnglandAsterinthatitoftenhashairy,purplishstems.Itbloomsfrom
JulytoOctobersportingabluish,daisy-likeflower.TheSwampAster,
alsoknownastheRedStalkorPurpleStemmedAster,prefersvery
moist,swampyareas.
NoddingBurMarigoldBidenscernua
BurMarigoldisanannualherbthatreachesupto3-1/2feettall.Its
large,yellow,daisy-likeflowers,whichcontainsixtoeightpetals,will
nodastheirmaturityincreasesfromJulyintoOctober.Itgrowsin
freshwatermarshesandalongstreambanks.
BeggarTicksBidensfrondosa
Beggar-Ticks,alsoknowntomanyastheStick-Tight,isanannualherb
reachingupto4feet.Itproducessmallyellowtoorangeflowersfrom
JunetoOctober.Itisfoundinmanywetareasincludingditches,
pastures,andwetmeadowsandfields.
266 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
FringedSedgeCarexcrinita
FringedSedgeisaperennialgrasslikeplantgrowingupto4-1/2feethigh.It
flowersfromMaythroughJuneandgrowsinfreshwatermarshes,wet
meadows,forestedwetlands,pondborders,andditches.
LuridSedgeCarexlurida
Thissedgewillreachupto3-1/2feettall.ItflowersfromJuneintoOctober
andgrowsinfreshwatermarshes,wetmeadows,forestedwetlands,
ditches,andpondborders.
FoxSedgeCarexvulpinoidea
FoxSedgeisveryhardy,anidealpioneerplantwhenestablishingnew
wetlands.Itisaperennialgrasslikeplantreachingupto3-1/2feettall.It
flowersfromJunethroughAugust.Itgrowsinfreshwatermarshes,wet
meadows,andotherwetplaces.
Grass-LeavedGoldenrodSolidagograminifolia
GrassLeavedGoldenrodisaperennialherbgrowingupto4feettall.Small
yellowflowersappearonthetopofthestemfromJulythroughOctober.It
growsinnontidalmarshesandmeadows,variousopen,moistordry
inlandhabitatsandbrackishtidalmarshes.
HopSedgeCarexlupulina
Thesesedgesareperennialgrasslikeplantsverycommontowetlands.
Theyaddbeautyaswellasseedforducksandotherwildlife.Theyreach
heightsbetween1-to3feettallandbloomfromMaytoOctober.They
growwellinopenwoodlands,seasonallyfloodedareas,standingwater,
andsaturatedsoils.
RiverbankWildRyeElymusriparius
Thisryegrowsalongnontidalshores,wetwoods,meadows,prairiesand
alsofreshtidalmarshes.Withtheexceptionofhavingasomewhatnodding
spike,thisperennialgrasshasverysimilarcharacteristicstoVirginiaWild
Rye.
VirginiaWildRyeElumusvirginicus
VirginiaWildRyeisanexcellentpioneerspeciestousewhenestablishinga
newwetland.Acoolseasonperennial,itisgoodforwildlifecoverandfood
andgrowsupto5feettall.Itisalsogoodforforage.Itisfoundinflood
plains,thickets,alongroadsides,andmanyotherwetareas.Itisshade
anddroughttolerantandcanhandlewetareasbetterthanRiverbankWild
Rye.
CanadaWildRyeElymuscanadensis
CanadaWildRyeisacoolseasonperennialbunchgrass.Itisgoodfor
wildlifefoodandcover,growingupto6feettall.Itisalsogoodforforage.
Itgrowsindryormoistsoilsandisdroughttolerant.
267 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Joe-PyeWeed(SpottedFlat-Topped)Eupatoriadelphusmaculatusor
Eupatoriummaculatum
AverycommonwetlandplantinthenortheasternUnitedStates.It
growsinforestedwetlands,saturatedfieldsormeadows,andinshrub
swamps.Itcanbeidentifiedbyitspurpleorpurplespottedstemsanda
flat-toppedinflorescencewithsmallpinkishorpurplishflowersthat
bloomfromJulythroughSeptember.
BonesetEupatoriumperfoliatum
Bonesetisaperennialherbreachingupto5feethigh.Itflowersinlate
JulythroughOctober.Nontidalandfreshtidalmarshes,wetmeadows,
shrubswamps,lowwoods,shoresandothermoistareas.
ArrowArumPeltandravirginica
ArrowArumisafleshyperennialherbthatgrowsupto2feettall.
Inconspicuousflowersonaspikeenclosedwithinapointedleaf-like
structurewillappearfromMaythroughJuly.ArrowArumgrowsin
shallowwatersofponds,lakes,swamps,andmarshes.
PennsylvaniaSmartweedPolygonumpennsylvanicum
Smartweedisanannualherbreachingaheightof6-1/2feettall.Itgrows
wellinfreshwatermarshesandwetfieldsandmeadows.Itspinkor
purpleflowersareverysmallandarearrangedindenseclusters.
BlueFlagIrisversicolor
AmemberoftheIrisfamily,BlueFlagisaneye-catchingwetland
perennialherbthatgrowsinmanywetareasincludingnontidaland
tidalmarshes,wetmeadows,andshores.Ablueflowercanbeseenon
theBlueFlagfromMaythroughJuly.
RattleSnakeGrassGlyceriacanadensis
Thisperennialgrassgrowstoaheightupto3-1/2feettall.Itblooms
fromJunethroughAugustinforestedwetlands,wetmeadows,and
bogs.
FowlMannaGrassGlyceriastriata
Aperennialgrassthatwillreach4feetinheight.Itprefersfreshwater
marshes,openforestedwetlands,andothersaturatedsoils.Itblooms
fromJuneonintoSeptember.
SoftRushJuncuseffusus
SoftRushisaperennialgrass-likeplantthatgrowsupto3-1/2feettall.It
flowersfromJulyintoSeptember.Itgrowsinnontidalmarshes,wet
meadows,shrubswamps,wetpastures,andfreshtidalmarshes.
268 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
SensitiveFernOnocleasensibilis
SensitiveFerngrowsupto3-1/2feettall.ItflowersfromJuneintoOctober.
Itgrowsinnontidalmarshes,meadows,forestedwetlands,andfreshtidal
marshes,andmoistwoodlands.
RiceCutgrassLeersiaoryzoides
RiceCutgrassisamediumheighttotallperennialgrassgrowingupto5
feethigh.ItflowersfromJuneintoOctober.Itgrowsinnontidalmarshes,
wetmeadows,ditches,muddyshores,andfreshtidalmarshes.
WoolGrassScirpuscyperinus
WoolGrassisamediumheighttotallperennialgrasslikeplantthatgrows
upto6-1/2feethigh.ItflowersfromAugustthroughSeptember.Itgrowsin
nontidalmarshes,wetmeadows,swamps,andfreshtidalmarshes.
Soft-StemmedBulrushScirpusvalidus
Thisperennialherbgrowstoaheightofupto10feet.ItflowersfromJune
intoSeptember.Itgrowsininlandshallowwaters,shores,nontidal
marshes,andbrackishandfreshtidalmarshes.
CanadaGoldenrodSolidagocanadensis
CanadaGoldenrodisamediumtotallperennialherb,sportingsmallyellow
flowersinAugustthroughOctober.Itgrowswellalongstreambanks,and
inuplandwetareas.
EasternBur-WeedSparganiumamericanum
EasternBur-Weedisaperennialgrowingupto3-1/2feettall.Itflowers
fromMaythroughAugust.Itgrowsinmuddyshores,shallowwatersand
nontidalmarshes.
PrairieCordgrassSpartinapectinata
PrairieCordgrassisanativeperennialthatgrowsfrom2to7feettall.It
flowersfromJulythroughSeptemberandgrowsinwetspots.
Narrow-LeavedCattailTyphaangustifolia
Narrow-LeavedCattailprovidesfoodandshelterforwildlifeandisusedto
controlerosion.Ithasnarrowleaves(1/2"wide)andreachesupto6feet
tall.
CattailTyphalatifolia
TheCattailisaperennialherbgrowingto10feethigh.ItflowersfromMay
throughJuly.Itgrowsinnontidalmarshes,ponds,ditches,andfreshtidal
marshes.
269
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
BlueVervainVerbenahastata
BlueVervainisaperennialherbthatgrowsupto5feettall.Theflowersare
bluishtovioletandareborneonseveraldensespikes.Itsbloomsbeginin
JuneandcontinuethroughOctober.Itdoeswellinnontidalmarshes,wet
meadows,openshrubswamps,andmoistfields.
TurtleheadCheloneglabra
Turtleheadisaperennialherbgrowingupto3feettall.Theflowers,
whichbloomfromJulytoSeptember,resembleturtleheadsasthe
petalsaretwo-lippedandtubular.Itcanbefoundgrowingalongstream
banks,forestedwetlands,swampsandfreshwatermarshes.
NativeWetlandShrubsandTrees
RedOsierDogwoodCornusstolonifera
Hasredstems,greenleaves,andwhitefruit.Itsabilitytospreadby
layeringanditstoleranceofwetsoilsmakesitanexcellentchoicefor
streambankerosioncontrol.Itisalsoausefuluplandplant,providing
foodandcoverforwildlifeandcolorforshrubbordersand
landscaping.Growsinmedium-fertility,slightlyacid,clayey,loamy,and
sandysoils.Ithasmoderateshadetoleranceandpoordrought
tolerance.
Whenplantingalongstreambanks,plantatthewatersedge,using
rootedcuttingsorfreshhardwoodunrootedcuttingsthatareatleast9
to12incheslongandleaving2inchesofthestemaboveground.
Spreadsbylayeringwherestemscontacttheground.Itismoderately
fastgrowing,reachingaheightof6to10feet.
ButtonbushCephalanthusoccidentalis
ButtonBushisabroadleaved,deciduous,tallshruborsmalltree
growingto33feethigh.ItsflowersarewhiteandappearfromMay
thoughJune.Itgrowsinnontidalandfreshtidalmarshesandshrub
swamps,forestedwetlands,andbordersofstreams,lakesandponds.
GreyDogwoodCornusracemosa
GreyDogwoodisashrubsimilartoSilkyDogwood,butpossessesgrey
twigsandwhiteberries.Itgrowsinmediumfertility,acid,clayey,loamy
andsandysoils.UnlikeSilkyDogwooditrequireswell-drainedsoil.Itis
bestadaptedalongstreambanks,inforestedwetlandsandshrub
wetlands.Itcanbeestablishedbyseedorunrootedcuttings.
SilkydogwoodCornusamomum
SilkyDogwoodisabroadleaveddeciduousshrubthatgrowstoaheight
of9to12feet.Whiteflowersandblueorwhiteberriesremainuntillate
summerorearlyfall.Itisusedforstabilizinglowerslopesofstream
banks.Italsoprovidesfoodandcoverforgamebirds,songbirds,
rabbits,raccoon,andotherwildlife.
270 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
ToestablishonstreambanksplantSilkyDogwoodseedlings,rooted
cuttingsorunrootedcuttings2feetapartorbroadcastseed.Silky
Dogwoodprovideseffectivestreambankprotectionin3to5yearsand
alsoproducesfruitatthisage.SilkyDogwoodgrowsinforestedwetlands,
shrubwetlands,streambanks,andmoistwoods.Itgrowsinmedium
fertility,acid,clayey,loamy,andsandysoils.Ithasfairdroughttolerance,
fairshadetoleranceandtoleratespoorlydrainedsoil.
WitchHazelHamamelisvirginiana
WitchHazelisabroad-leaveddeciduousshruborlowtreeupto30feet
tall.ItflowersfromSeptemberintoNovember.Itgrowsinseasonally
floodedswampsandforestedwetlands,andtidalswamps.
CommonWinterberryIlexverticillata
Winterberryisabroadleaved,deciduousshrubgrowingupto16feettall.
ItflowersfromMaythroughJuly.Itgrowsinseasonallyfloodedshrub
swampsandforestedwetlands.Showyredberriesremainontheplant
untilspring.
SpicebushLinderabenzoin
Spicebushisabroadleaved,deciduousshrubgrowingupto16feettall.It
flowersfromMarchthroughJuly.Itgrowsinnontidalmarshes,ponds,
ditchesandfreshtidalwoodlands.
SwampRoseRosapalustris
SwampRoseisabroad-leaved,deciduousthornyshrubgrowingupto7
feettall.Itbloomspinkfive-petalledflowersfromMaythroughJuly.It
growsinuplandfields,thickets,andwoods,andforestedwetlands.
BlackWillowSalixnigra
Abroad-leaveddeciduousshrubortreethatcanreachaheightof70feet
tallormore.Itgrowswellinnontidalforestedwetlands,freshtidal
marshes,tidalswamps,andwetmeadows.Identifyingcharacteristicsof
theBlackWillowisitsbrownishorblackishdeeplygroovedbarkandits
narrowleaves.
CommonElderberrySambucuscanadensis
Elderberryisabroadleaveddeciduousshrubgrowingupto12feettall.It
flowersfromJunethroughJuly.Itgrowsinnontidalandfreshtidalmarshes
andswamps,meadows,oldfields,moistwoods,andalongroadsides.
ArrowwoodViburnumViburnumdentatum
Arrowwoodisabroadleaveddeciduousshrubgrowingupto15feettall.It
flowersfromMaythroughJuly.Itgrowsinnontidalandfreshtidal
marshes,shrubswamps,andforestedwetlands.Italsodoeswellinmoist
woods,andvariousdriersites.
271 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
NannyberryorWildRaisinViburnumlentago
Nannyberryisabroadleaveddeciduousshruborsmalltreegrowingup
to27feettall.Ithaslong,pointedleaveswithwingedstalks.Itflowers
fromAprilintoMayandproducesberriesinthefallthatareeatenby
wildlife.Itgrowsinforestedwetlands,openuplandwoodsandthickets,
fencerowsandroadsides.
NorthernorSmoothArrowwoodViburnumrecognitum
Arrowwoodisabroadleaveddeciduousshrubgrowingupto15feet
tall.ItflowersfromMaythroughJuly.Itgrowsinnontidalandfresh
marshes,shrubswamps,forestedwetlands,moistwoodsandvarious
driersites.
AmericanCranberrybushViburnumtrilobum
Thisshrubprovideswinterfoodforgrouse,songbirds,andsquirrels
andisusefulforhedgesandborders.Itgrowsinmedium-fertility,acid,
clayey,loamyandsandysoils.Ithaspoordroughttolerance,fairshade
toleranceandtoleratespoorlydrainedsoil.
Establishing Vegetation
SitePreparation
Thesoilonadisturbedsitemustbemodifiedtoprovidean
optimumenvironmentforgerminationandgrowth.Additionoftopsoil,
soilamendments,andtillageareusedtoprepareagoodseedbed.At
plantingthesoilmustbelooseenoughforwaterinfiltrationandroot
penetration,butfirmenoughtoretainmoistureforseedlinggrowth.
Tillagegenerallyinvolvesdisking,harrowing,raking,orsimilarmethod.
Limeandfertilizershouldbeincorporatedduringtillage.
Topsoiling
Thesurfacelayerofanundisturbedsoilisoftenenrichedinorganic
matterandhasphysical,chemical,andbiologicalpropertiesthatmake
itadesirableplantingandgrowthmedium.Topsoilshouldbestripped
offpriortoconstructionandstockpiledforuseinfinalrevegetationof
thesite.
Topsoilingmaynotberequiredfortheestablishmentofless
demanding,lowermaintenanceplants,butitisessentialonsiteshaving
criticallyshallowsoilsorsoilswithotherseverelimitations.Itisalso
essentialforestablishingfineturfandornamentals.
272 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
SoilAmendments
Liming
Limingisalmostalwaysrequiredondisturbedsitestodecreasethe
acidity(raisepH),reduceexchangeablealuminum,andsupplycalciumand
magnesium.Evenonthebestsoils,somefertilizerisrequired.Suitable
ratesandtypesofsoilamendmentsshouldbedeterminedthroughsoil
tests.Limestoneandfertilizershouldbeapplieduniformlyduringseedbed
preparationandmixedwellwiththetop4to6inchesofsoil.
Organicamendments
Organicamendments,inadditiontolimeandfertilizer,mayimprove
soiltilth,structure,andwater-holdingcapacityallofwhicharehighly
beneficialtoseedlingsestablishmentandgrowth.Someamendmentsalso
providenutrients.Examplesofusefulorganicamendmentsincludewell-
rottedanimalmanureandbedding,cropresidue,peat,andcompost.
Organicamendmentsareparticularlyusefulwheretopsoilisabsent,
wheresoilsareexcessivelydrained,andwheresoilsarehighinclay.The
applicationofseveralinchesoftopsoilusuallyeliminatestheneedfor
organicamendments.
SurfaceRoughening
Aroughsurfaceisespeciallyimportanttoseedingslopedareas.Contour
depressionsandloosesurfacesoilhelpretainlime,fertilizer,andseed.A
roughsurfacealsoreducesrunoffvelocityandincreasesinfiltration.
PermanentCover
Apermanenttypeofvegetationshouldbeestablishedassoonaspossible:
toreducedamagesfromsedimentandrunofftodownstreamareas;andto
avoidsevereerosiononthesiteitself.
Vegetationmaybeintheformofgrass-typegrowthbyseedingorsodding,
oritmaybetreesorshrubs,oracombinationofthese.Establishingthis
covermayrequiretheuseofsupplementalmaterials,suchasmulchor
jutenetting.
PlantingMethods
Seedingisthefastestandmosteconomicalmethodthatcanbeused
withmostspecies.However,somegrassesdonotproduceseedandmust
beestablishedbyplantingrunnersorstems(sprigging)orplugscutfrom
sod(plugging).Seedbedpreparation,liming,andfertilizationare
essentiallythesameregardlessofthemethodchosen.
Seeding
Uniformseeddistributionisessential.Thisisbestobtainedusinga
cycloneseeder(hand-held),dropspreader,conventionalgraindrill,
cultipackerseeder,orhydraulicseeder.Thegraindrillandcultipacker
seeders(alsocalledgrassseederpackerorBrilliondrill)arepulledbya
tractorandrequireaclean,evenseedbed.
273
Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Onsteepslopes,hydroseedingmaybetheonlyeffectiveseeding
method.Surfacerougheningisparticularlyimportantwhenpreparing
slopesforhydroseeding.Incontrasttootherseedingmethods,arugged
andeventrashyseedbedgivesthebestresults.
Hand-broadcastingshouldbeconsideredonlyasalastresort,because
uniformdistributionisdifficulttoachieve.Whenhand-broadcastingof
seedisnecessary,minimizeunevendistributionbyapplyinghalfthe
seedinonedirectionandtheotherhalfatrightanglestothefirst.Small
seedshouldbemixedwithsandforbetterdistribution.
Asodseeder(no-tillplanter)isusedtorestoreorrepairweakcover.It
canbeusedonmoderatelystonysoilsandunevensurfaces.Itis
designedtopenetratethesod,opennarrowslits,anddepositseedwith
aminimumofsurfacedisturbance.Fertilizerisappliedinthesame
operation.
Inoculationoflegumes
Legumeshavebacteria,rhizobia,whichinvadetheroothairsandform
gall-likenodules.Thehostplantsuppliescarbohydratestothe
bacteria,whichsupplytheplantwithnitrogencompoundsfixedfrom
theatmosphere.Ahealthystandoflegumes,therefore,doesnotrequire
nitrogenfertilizer.Rhizobiumspeciesarehostspecific;agivenspecies
willinoculatesomelegumesbutnotothers.Successfulestablishmentof
legumes,therefore,requiresthepresenceofspecificstrainsofnodule-
forming,nitrogen-fixingbacteriaontheirroots.Inareaswherealegume
hasbeengrowing,sufficientbacteriamaybepresentinthesoilto
inoculateseededplants,butinotherareasthenaturalRhizobium
populationmaybetoolow.
Inacidsubsoilmaterial,ifthespecificRhizobiumisnotalreadypresent,
itmustbesuppliedbymixingitwiththeseedatplanting.Culturesfor
thispurposeareavailablethroughseeddealers.
SpriggingandPlugging
Spriggingreferstoplantingstemfragmentsconsistingofrunners
(stolons)orlateral,belowgroundstems(rhizomes),whicharesoldby
thebushel.Thismethodcanbeusedwithmostwarm-seasongrasses
andwithsomegroundcovers,suchasperiwinkle.Certainduneand
marshgrassesaretransplantedusingverticalshootswithattached
rootsorrhizomes.Lawn-typeplantsareusuallyspriggedmuchmore
thickly.
Broadcastingiseasierbutrequiresmoreplantingmaterial.
Broadcastsprigsmustbepressedintothetopto1inchofsoilby
handorwithasmoothdisksetstraight,specialplanter,cultipacker,or
roller.
Pluggingdiffersfromspriggingonlyintheuseofplugscutfrom
establishedsod,inplaceofsprigs.Itisusuallyusedtointroducea
superiorgrassintoanoldlawn.Itrequiresmoreplantingstock,but
usuallyproducesacompletecovermorequicklythansprigging.
274 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
Sodding
Insodding,thesoilsurfaceiscompletelycoveredbylayingcut
sectionsofturf.Acommercialsourceofhigh-qualityturfisrequiredand
watermustbeavailable.Plantingsmustbewetdownimmediatelyafter
planting,andkeptwellwateredforaweekortwothereafter.
Sodding,thoughquiteexpensive,iswarrantedwhereimmediate
establishmentisrequired,asinstabilizingdrainagewaysandsteepslopes,
orintheestablishmentofhigh-qualityturf.Ifproperlydone,itisthemost
dependablemethodandthemostflexibleinseasonalrequirements.
Soddingisfeasiblealmostanytimethesoilisnotfrozen.
Irrigation
Irrigation,thoughnotgenerallyrequired,canextendseedingdatesintothe
summerandinsureseedlingestablishment.Damagecanbecausedbyboth
underandover-irrigating.Iftheamountofwaterappliedpenetratesonly
thefirstfewinchesofsoil,plantsmaydevelopshallowrootsystemsthat
arepronetodesiccation.Ifsupplementarywaterisusedtogetseedlings
up,itmustbecontinueduntilplantsbecomefirmlyestablished.
Mulching
Mulchisessentialtotherevegetationofmostdisturbedsites,especially
ondifficultsitessuchassouthernexposures,channels,andexcessively
drysoils.Thesteepertheslopeandthepoorerthesoil,themorevaluable
itbecomes.Inaddition,mulchfostersseedgerminationandseedling
growthbyreducingevaporation,preventingsoilcrusting,andinsulating
thesoilagainstrapidtemperaturechanges.
Mulchmayalsoprotectsurfacesthatcannotbeseeded.Mulchprevents
erosioninthesamemannerasvegetation,byprotectingthesurfacefrom
raindropimpactandbyreducingthevelocityofoverlandflow.Therearea
numberoforganicandafewchemicalmulchesthatmaybeuseful,aswell
asnetsandtackingmaterials.
Maintenance
Satisfactorystabilizationanderosioncontrolrequiresacomplete
vegetativecover.Evensmallbreachesinvegetativecovercanexpand
rapidlyand,ifleftunattended,canallowserioussoillossfromanotherwise
stablesurface.Asingleheavyrainisoftensufficienttogreatlyenlargebare
spots,andthelongerrepairsaredelayed,themorecostlytheybecome.
Promptactionwillkeepsedimentlossandrepaircostdown.
Newseedlingsshouldbeinspectedfrequentlyandmaintenance
performedasneeded.Ifrillsandgulliesdevelop,theymustbefilledin,re-
seeded,andmulchedassoonaspossible.Diversionsmaybeneededuntil
newplantstakehold.
Maintenancerequirementsextendbeyondtheseedingphase.Damage
tovegetationfromdisease,insects,traffic,etc.,canoccuratanytime.
Herbicidesandregularmowingmaybeneededtocontrolweeds;dustsand
275 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
spraysmaybeneededtocontrolinsects.Herbicidesshouldbeused
withcarewheredesirableplantsmaybekilled.Weakordamagedspots
mustberelimed,fertilized,mulched,andreseededaspromptlyas
possible.Refertilizationmaybeneededtomaintainproductivestands.
Vegetationestablishedondisturbedsoilsoftenrequiresadditional
fertilization.Frequencyandamountoffertilizationcanbestbe
determinedthroughperiodicsoiltesting.Afertilizationprogramis
requiredforthemaintenanceoffineturfandsodthatismowed
frequently.Maintenancerequirementsshouldalwaysbeconsidered
whenselectingplantspeciesforrevegetation.
References
ErnstCrownvetchFarms,Catalog,Meadville,PA.
Gray,DonaldH.andLeiser,A.T.,BiotechnicalSlopeProtectionand
ErosionControl,LeiserVanReinholdInc.,1982.
IntroducingNatives,ErosionControl,TheJournalForErosion&
SedimentControlProfessionals,Vol.2,No.4,July/August1995.
NorthCarolinaSedimentControlCommission,ErosionandSediment
ControlPlanningandDesignManual,Raleigh,NC,September,1988.
Personalcommunication,RichardJ.DeVergilio,USDA,Natural
ResourcesConservationService,Amherst,MA.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,StormwaterManagement
ManualforthePugetSoundBasin,Olympia,WA,February,1992.
Weatherbee,PamelaB.,TheMostUn-wantedPlants,Massachusetts
Wildlife,54(2),1994.
276 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
NativeGrassesandLegumesforEasternMassachusetts
Essex,Middlesex,Suffolk,Norfolk,Plymouth,Bristol,Barnstable,Dukesand
NantucketCounties
DrySites
Ticklegrass Agrostishyemalis (noEssex)(noseedsource)(coolseason)
UplandBentgrass Agrostisprennans (noseedsource)(coolseason)
Beachgrass Ammophilabrevigulata (coolseason)
BigBluestem Andropogongerardii (warmseason)
Broomsedge Andropogonvirginicus (warmseason)
CommonHairgrass Deschampsiaflexuosa (noseedsource)(warm)
Deertonguegrass Dichanthehumclandestinum(warmseason)
CanadaWildRye Elymuscanadensis (noCapeandIslands)(coolseason)
TumbleLovegrass Eragrostisspectabilis (warmseason)
RedFescue Festucarubra (coolseason)
Nimblewill Muhlenbergiaschreberi (noseedsource)
Switchgrass Panicumvirgatum (warmseason)
LittleBluestem Schizachyriumscoparium (warmseason)
Dropseed Sporaboluscryptandrus (noCapeandIslands)(warmseason)
PovertyDropseed Sporobolusvaginiflorus (Annual)(warmseason)
Indiangrass Sorghastrumnutans (warmseason)
PurpleSandgrass Triplasispurpurea (Annual)(coolseason)
WildIndigo Baptisiatinctoria
ShowyTick-Trefoil Desmodiumcanadense
BeachPea Lathyrusjaponicusvar.glaber
RoundHeadBushClover Lespidezacapitata
MoistSites
Creeping/MarshBentgrass Agrostisstoloniferavar.palustris (coolseason)
FringedBromegrass Bromusciliatus (coolseason)
DeertongueGrass Dichantheliumclandestinum (warmseason)
CanadaWildRye Elymuscanadensis (coolseason)
VirginiaWildRye Elymusvirginicus (coolseason)
PurpleLovegrass Eragrostispectinacea (warmseason)
Switchgrass Panicumvirgatum (warmseason)
FowlMeadowGrass Poapalustris (coolseason)
SaltMeadowCordgrass Spartinapatens (tidal)
GiantCordgrass Spartinacynocuroides (brackish)
EasternGammagrass Tripsacumdactyloides (warmseason)
GroundNut Apiosamericana
ShowyTick-Trefoil Desmodiumcanadense
WetSites
CreepingBentgrass Agrostisstoloniferavar.palustris (coolseason)
FringedBromegrass Bromusciliatus (coolseason)
BlueJointReedGrass Calamagrostiscanadensis (coolseason)
StoutWoodReed Cinnaarundinacea (coolseason)
CanadaMannaGrass Glyceriacanadensis (coolseason)
FowlMeadowGrass Glyceriastriata (coolseason)
RiceCutGrass Leersiaoryzoides (coolseason)
MarshMully Muhlenbergiaglomerata (noIslands)
SmoothCordgrass Spartinaaltiniflora (tidal)
FreshwaterCordgrass Spartinapectinata
277 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
NativeGrassesandLegumesforCentralandWestern
Massachusetts
Worcester,Franklin,Hampshire,HampdenandBerkshireCounties
DrySites
BigBluestem Andropogongerardii (warmseason)
Broomsedge Andropogonvirginicus (warmseason)(noBerkshireorFranklin)
CommonHairGrass Deschampsiaflexuosa (warmseason)(noseedsource)
DeertongueGrass Dicantheliumclandestinum (warmseason)
NoddingWildRye Elymuscanadensis (coolseason)
TumbleLovegrass Erogrostisspectabolis (warmseason)
RedFescue Festucarubra (coolseason)
Nimblewill Muhlenbergiaschreberi (noseedsource)
Switchgrass Panicumvirgatum (warmseason)
LittleBluestem Schizachyriumscoparium (warmseason)
YellowIndiangrass Sorghastrumnutans (warmseason)
SandDropseed Sporoboluscryptandrus (noseedsource)
PovertyDropseed Sprobolusvaginiflorus (Annual)
WildIndigo Baptisiatinctoria
ShowyTickTrefoil Desmodiumcanadense
Narrow-leafedTickTrefoil Desmodiumpaniculatum
RoundHeadBushClover Lespidezacapitata
MoistSites
Creeping/MarshBentgrass Agrostisstoloniferavar.palustris (coolseason)
FringedBromegrass BromusCiliatus (coolseason)
WoodReedgrass Cinnaarundinacea (coolseason)
RiverbankWildRye Elymusriparius (coolseason)
VirginiaWildRye Elymusvirginicus (coolseason)
GreenMuhly Muhlenbergiaglomerata
Switchgrass Panicumvirgatum (warmseason)
GroundNut Apiosamericana
ShowyTickTrefoil Desmodiumcanadense
WetSites
Creeping/MarshBentGrassAgrostisstoloniferavar.palustris (coolseason)
BlueJointReedGrass Calamagrostiscanadensis (coolseason)
WoodReedGrass Cinnaarundinacea (coolseason)
CanadaMannagrass Glyceriacanadensis (coolseason)
FowlMeadowGrass Glyceriastriata (coolseason)
RiceCutGrass Leersiaoryzoides (coolseason)
FowlMeadowGrass Poapalustris (coolseason)
FreshWaterCordgrass Spartinapectinata
CourtesyofNaturalResourcesConservationService,Amherst,MA.
Source:MassachusettsNaturalHeritageandEndangeredSpeciesProgram
278 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
TreeandShrubPlantings
TreesForDrySoils
ScientificName CommonName MatureHeight
AcerNegundo BoxElder 60
Betulapopulifolia GrayBirch 30
Pinusresinosa* RedPine 80
Pinusstrobus* EasternWhitePine 90
Pinussylvestris* ScotchPine 60
Populustremuloides QuakingAspen 50
ShrubsForDrySoils
ScientificName CommonName MatureHeight
Acerginnala AmurMaple 20
Ceanothusamericanus NewJerseyTea 2
Comptoniaperegrina SweetFern 3
Corylusamericana AmericanHazelnut 6
Gaylussaciabaccata BlackHuckleberry 3
Juniperuscommunis* CommonJuniper 3-30
Juniperusvirginiana* Red-cedar 10-90
Myricapennsylvanica Bayberry 5
Rhusaromatica FragrantSumac 3
Rhuscopallina ShiningSumac 30
Rhusglabra SmoothSumac 9-15
Rhustyphina StagbornSumac 30
Rosarugosa RugosaRose 6
Rosavirginiana VirginiaRose 3
Viburnumlentago Nannyberry 15
*evergreen
TreesForModeratelyMoistSoils
ScientificName CommonName MatureHeight
Fraxinuspennsylvanica GreenAsh 50
Piceaabies* NorwaySpruce 150
Piceapungens* ColoradoSpruce 100
Pinusstrobus* EasternWhitePine 100-150
PopulusnigraItalica LombardyPoplar 90
Pseudotsugamenziesii* Douglas-fir 100-300
Salixnigra BlackWillow 40
Sorbusamericana AmericanMountainAsh 25
Thujaoccidentalis* AmericanArbor-vitae 60
Tiliaamericana Basswood 60-80
Tsugacanadensis* CanadaHemlock 90
279 Plants, Vegetation, and Soil Cover
ShrubsForModeratelyMoistSoils
ScientificName CommonName MatureHeight
Cornusamomum
Cornusracemosa
Corylusamericana
Coryluscornuta
ForsythiaZintermedia
Hamemelisvirginiana
Ilexglabra
Myricapennsylvanica
Rhododendronmaximum
SilkyDogwood
Gray-stemmedDogwood
AmericanHazelnut
BeakedHazelnut
BorderForsythia
CommonWitchhazel
Inkberry
Bayberry
Rhododendron
6-10
6
6
12
9
15
5
5
20
*evergreen
TreesForVeryMoistSoils
ScientificName CommonName MatureHeight
Acernegunda
Acerrubrum
Acersaccharinum
Fraxinuspennsylvanica
Fraxinusnigra
Larixlaricina
BoxElder
RedMaple
SilverMaple
GreenAsh
BlackAsh
AmericanLarch
60
60
70
40
45
60
Platanusoccidentalis
Populusdeltoides
Salixnigra
Salixbebbiana
Sycamore
EasternCottonwood
BlackWillow
BebbWillow
100
70
40
25
Thujaoccidentalis WhiteCedar 60
ShrubsForVeryMoistSoils
ScientificName CommonName MatureHeight
Alnusrugosa
Alnusserulata
SpeckledAlder
SmoothAlder
20
20
Aroniaarbutifolia
Clethraalnifolia
Cornusamomum
Cornusstolonifera
Ilexverticillata
Loniceracanadensis
Lyonialigustrium
Rhododendrumcanadensis
RedChokeberry
SweetpepperBush
SilkyDogwood
RedOsierDogwood
Winterberry
CanadaHoneysuckle
Maleberry
Rhodora***
20
10
8
8
10
15
8
12
Rubusodoratus PurpleFloweringRaspberry 8
Salixdiscolor PussyWillow 10
Salixlucida ShiningWillow 8
Sambucuscanadensis Elderberry 10
Vacciniumcorymbosum HighbushBlueberry 10
Viburnumcassinoides WildRaisin 12
Viburnumacerifolium MapleleafViburnum 6
Viburnumdentatium/recognitum Arrowwood 8
Viburnumtrilobum HighbushCranberry 15
280 Soil Bioengineering
SpacingDistance
Forwatererosioncontrol:
Smalltomediumshrubs 1x1to2x2
Mediumtolargeshrubs 2x2to4x4
Trees 4x4to8x8
Forwinderosioncontrol:
Smalltomediumshrubs 2x2to4x4
Mediumtolargeshrubs 4x4to6x6
Trees 6x6to10x10
References
TechnicalassistanceprovidedbyNaturalResourcesConservationService
staffatAmherst,MA,MassachusettsNativePlantAdvisoryCommittee,and
theMassachusettsNaturalHeritageandEndangeredSpeciesProgram.
IntroducingNatives,ErosionControl,TheJournalForErosion&
SedimentControlProfessionals,Vol.2,No.4,July/August1995.
NorthCarolinaSedimentControlCommission,ErosionandSediment
ControlPlanningDesignManual,Raleigh,NC,September,1988.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,StormwaterManagement
ManualforthePugetSoundBasin,Olympia,WA,February,1992.
Soil Bioengineering
Soilbioengineeringmethodsusevegetativematerialsincombination
withmoretraditionallandshaping,rockplacement,andstructural
techniques.Bioengineeringtechniquescanbeusedforimmediate
protectionofslopesagainstsurfaceerosion,cutandfillslopestabilization,
earthembankmentprotection,andsmallgullyrepairs.
Stemsandbranchesoflivingplantsareusedassoilreinforcingand
stabilizingmaterial.Techniquesincludelivestaking,fascines,brushlayers,
branchpacking,andlivegullyrepair.Rootsdevelopandfoliagesprouts
whenthevegetativecuttingsareplacedintheground.Theresulting
vegetationbecomesamajorstructuralcomponentofthebioengineering
system.
Bioengineeringcombinesbiologicalelementswithengineeringdesign
principles.Therequirementsforbothmustbeconsideredwhenplanning
anddesigningmeasures.Engineeringrequirementsmaycallforhighly
compactedsoilforfillslopes,forexample,whileplantspreferrelatively
loosesoil.Usingasheepsfootrollerforcompactionisasolutionthatwould
integratebiologicalandengineeringrequirementsbecauseitcompactsthe
soil,butalsoallowsplantestablishmentinresultingdepressionsinthe
slope.
Vegetationcanbeusedwithrigidconstructionsuchassurface
armoring,gravityretainingwalls,androckbuttressestocreatevegetated
281 Soil Bioengineering
structures.Vegetationenhancesthestructuresandhelpsreducesurface
erosion,butusuallydoesnotprovideanyreinforcementbenefits.
Vegetatedcribwalls,gabions,androckwallsarebioengineering
techniquesthatuseporousstructureswithopeningsthroughwhich
vegetativecuttingsareinsertedandestablished.Thestructural
elementsprovideimmediateresistancetosliding,erosion,andwashout.
Asvegetationbecomesestablished,rootsdevelop,bindingtheslope
togetherinaunified,coherentmass.Overtime,thestructuralelements
diminishinimportanceasthevegetationincreasesinstrengthand
functionality.
ContactthelocalConservationCommissionregardinganystream
crossingorotherworkconductedinawetlandresourcearea.The
MassachusettsWetlandProtectionActrequiresthattheproponentfilea
RequestforDeterminationofApplicabilityorNoticeofIntent.
MaterialinthissectionisadaptedfromChapter18,Soil
BioengineeringforUplandSlopeProtectionandErosionReduction,ofthe
NaturalResourcesConservationServiceEngineeringFieldHandbook,
andfromStormwaterManagementManualforthePugetSoundBasin,
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology.
VegetativeComponents
Vegetationofferslong-termprotectionagainstsurfaceerosionon
slopes.Itprovidessomeprotectionagainstshallowmassmovement.
Vegetationhelpstopreventsurface
erosionby:
$ Bindingandrestrainingsoil
particlesinplace,
$ Reducingsedimenttransport,
$ Interceptingraindrops,
$ Retardingvelocityofrunoff,
$ Enhancingandmaintaining
infiltrationcapacity,
$ Minimizingfreeze-thawcyclesof
soilssusceptibletofrost.
Woodyvegetationhasdeeper
rootsandprovidesgreater
protectionagainstshallowmass
movementby:
$ Mechanicallyreinforcingthesoilwithroots,
$ Depletingsoil-waterthroughtranspirationandinterception,
$ Buttressingandsoilarchingactionfromembeddedstems.
282
Soil Bioengineering
Examples
Fascines:
Woodyspecies,suchasshrubwilloworshrubdogwood,areusedfor
livefascines-longbundlesofbranchcuttingsboundtogetherinto
sausage-likebundles.Thebundlesareplacedwiththestemsoriented
generallyparalleltotheslopecontour.
Livefascinesdissipatetheenergyofflowingwaterbytrappingdebris
andprovidingaseriesofbenchesonwhichgrasses,seedlings,and
transplantsestablishmoreeasily.Portionsofthelivefascinesrootand
becomepartofthestabilizingcover.Livefascinesprovideanimmediate
increaseinsurfacestabilityandcanfurtherimprovesoilstabilitytodepths
oftwotothreefeetasrootsdevelop.
Brushlayering:
Livebranchesorshootsofsuchwoodyspeciesasshrubwillow,
dogwood,orprivetareplacedinsuccessivelayerswiththestemsgenerally
orientedperpendiculartotheslopecontour.Thisorientationistheoptimal
directionformaximumreinforcingeffectinaslope.Brushlayeringcan
improvesoilstabilitytodepthsof4to5feet.
StructuralComponents
Structuralmeasureshelpstabilizeaslopeagainstshallowmass
movementandprotecttheslopeagainstrillandgullyformation.Structures
alsohelpestablishvegetationonsteepslopesorinareassubjecttosevere
erosion.Theymaymakeitfeasibletoestablishplantsonslopessteeper
thanwouldnormallybepossible.Structuresstabilizeslopesduringcritical
seedgerminationandrootgrowth.Withoutthisstabilization,vegetative
plantingswouldfailduringtheirmostvulnerabletime.
Materials
Structurescanbebuiltfromnaturalormanufacturedmaterials.
Naturalmaterials,suchasearth,rock,stone,andtimber,usuallycostless,
areenvironmentallymorecompatible,andarebettersuitedtovegetative
treatmentorslightmodificationsthanaremanufacturedmaterials.Natural
materialsmayalsobeavailableonsiteatnocost.
Somestructuresarecomprisedofbothnaturalandmanufactured
materials.Examplesincludeconcretecribwalls,steelbinwalls,gabion
wallsorrevetments,weldedwireorpolymericgeogridwalls,and
reinforcedearth.Inthesecasessteelandconcretemostlyproviderigidity,
strength,andreinforcement,whereasstone,rock,andsoilprovidemass.
Thesetypesofstructureshavespacesthatareoftenplantedwith
herbaceousorwoodyvegetation.
283 Soil Bioengineering
RetainingStructures
Aretainingstructureofsometypeisusuallyrequiredtoprotect
andstabilizeextremelysteepslopes.Lowretainingstructuresatthetoe
ofaslopemakeitpossibletogradetheslopebacktoamorestable
anglethatcanbesuccessfullyrevegetatedwithoutlossoflandatthe
crest.Structuresaregenerallycapableofresistingmuchhigherlateral
earthpressuresandshearstressesthanvegetation.
GradeStabilizationStructures
Gradestabilizationstructuresareusedtocontrolandpreventgully
erosion.Agradestabilizationstructurereducesthegradeaboveitand
dissipatestheexcessenergyofflowingwaterwithinthestructureitself.
Debrisandsedimenttendtobedepositedandtrappedupstreamofthe
structure.This,inturn,permitsestablishmentofvegetationbehindthe
structure,whichfurtherstabilizestheground.Gradestabilization
structuresmayrangefromaseriesofsimpletimbercheckdarnsto
complexconcreteoverfallstructuresandearthembankmentswithpipe
spillways.
Gullycontrolisanexampleoftheintegrationofstructuresand
vegetation.Structuralmeasuresmayberequiredintheshorttermto
stabilizecriticallocations.Thelong-termgoalistoestablishand
maintainavegetativecoverthatpreventsfurthererosion.Vegetation
alonewillrarelystabilizegullyheadcutsbecauseoftheconcentrated
waterflow,overfalls,andpervasiveforcesthatpromotegully
enlargementinanunstablechannelsystem.Initially,thevegetationand
thestructureworktogetherinanintegratedfashion.Theultimate
functionofthesestructures,however,istohelpestablishvegetation
whichwillprovidelongtermprotection.
FactorstoConsider
Bioengineeringintegratesthecharacteristicsofvegetative
componentswiththoseofstructuralcomponents.Theresultingsystems
andtheircomponentshavebenefitsandlimitationsthatneedtobe
consideredpriortoselectingthemforuse.
Bioengineeringisnotappropriateforallsitesandsituations.In
somecases,conventionalvegetativetreatment(e.g.,grassseedingand
hydromulching)workssatisfactorilyatlesscost.inothercases,the
moreappropriateandmosteffectivesolutionisastructuralretaining
systemaloneorincombinationwithbioengineering.
EnvironmentalCompatibility
Bioengineeringsystemsgenerallyrequireminimalaccessfor
equipmentandworkersandcauserelativelyminorsitedisturbance
duringinstallation.Thesearegenerallyimportantconsiderationsin
environmentallysensitiveareas,suchasparks,woodlands,andscenic
corridorswhereaestheticquality,wildlifehabitat,andsimilarvalues
maybecritical.
284
Soil Bioengineering
CostEffectiveness
Combinedslopeprotectionsystemsaremorecosteffectivethanthe
useofeithervegetativetreatmentsorstructuralsolutionsaloneinsome
instances.Whereconstructionmethodsarelaborintensiveandlaborcosts
arereasonable,thecombinedsystemsmaybeespeciallycosteffective.If
laborisscarceorcostly,however,bioengineeringsystemsmaybeless
practicalthanstructuralmeasures.
Usingnativeplantmaterialsaccountsforsomeofthecost
effectivenessbecauseplantcostsarelimitedtolaborforharvestingand
handlinganddirectcostsfortransportingtheplantstothesite.
PlantingTimes
Bioengineeringsystemsaremosteffectivewhentheyareinstalled
duringthedormantseason,usuallythelatefallwinter,andearlyspring.
Thisoftencoincideswiththetimethatotherconstructionworkisslow.
Constraintsonplantingtimesortheavailabilityoftherequired
quantitiesofsuitableplantmaterialsduringallowableplantingtimesmay
limittheusefulnessofbioengineeringmethods.
DifficultSites
Bioengineeringmaybeanalternativeforsmall,sensitive,orsteep
siteswheretheuseofmachineryisnotfeasibleandhandlaborisa
necessity.Rapidvegetativeestablishmentmaybedifficult,however,on
extremelysteepslopes.
Suitablesoilsareneededforplantgrowth.Rockyorgravellyslopes
maylacksufficientfinesormoisturetosupportplantgrowth.Restrictive
layersinthesoil,suchashardpans,mayrestrictrootgrowth.
Vegetationwouldbeoflimiteduseonslopesthatareexposedtohigh
velocitywaterfloworconstantinundation.
HarvestingLocalPlantMaterial
Vegetationcanoftenbeobtainedasdormantcuttingsfromlocal
standsofwillowsandothersuitablespecies.Thisstockisalreadywell
suitedtotheclimate,soilconditions,andavailablemoistureandisagood
candidateforsurvival.Usinglocalplantmaterialsandgatheringinthewild
couldresultinshortsuppliesorunacceptabledepletionofsitevegetation.
Somelocalitieshaveprohibitionsagainstgatheringnativeplantsand
materialsmustbepurchasedfromcommercialsources.
BiotechnicalStrengths
Bioengineeringsystemsarestronginitiallyandgrowstrongerwith
timeasvegetationbecomesestablished.Insomeinstances,theprimary
roleofthestructuralcomponentistogivethevegetationabetterchance
tobecomeestablished.Bioengineeringsystemscanusuallywithstand
heavyrainfallsimmediatelyafterinstallation.Evenifestablishedvegetation
dies,theplantrootsandsurfaceresiduestillfurnishprotectionduring
reestablishment.
285 Soil Bioengineering
DesignConsiderations
Considersitetopography,geology,soils,vegetation,andhydrology.
Avoidextensivegradingandearthworkincriticalareas.Performsoiltests
todetermineifvigorousplantgrowthcanbesupported.
TopographyandExposure
Notethedegreeofslopeinstableandunstableareas.Alsonotethe
presenceorlackofmoisture.Thepotentialforsuccessofbioengineering
treatmentscanbestbedeterminedbyobservingexistingstableslopesin
thevicinityoftheprojectsite.
Notethetypeanddensityofexistingvegetationinareaswithand
withoutmoistureandonslopesfacingdifferentdirections.Certainplants
growwelloneast-facingslopes,butwillnotsurviveonsouth-facing
slopes.
Lookforareasofvegetationthatmaybegrowingmorevigorously
thanothersitevegetation.Thisisgenerallyagoodindicatorofexcess
moisture,suchasseepsandaperchedwatertable,oritmayreflecta
changeinsoils.
GeologyandSoils
Noteevidenceofpastsliding.Ifsiteevidenceexists,determine
whethertheslideoccurredalongadeeporshallowfailuresurface.
Leaningordeformedtreesmayindicatepreviousslopemovementor
downhillcreep.Inadditiontositeevidence,checkaerialphotos,which
canrevealfeaturesthatmaynotbeapparentfromasitevisit.
Determinesoiltypeanddepth.Usethesoilsurveyreport,ifavailable.
Hydrology
Determinethedrainagearea.Notewhetherwatercanbediverted
awayfromtheproblemarea.
Arethereconcentrateddischarges?
Calculatepeakflowsthroughtheprojectarea.
Ifaseepareaisnoted,locatethesourceofthewater.Determine
whetherthewatercanbeinterceptedanddivertedawayfromtheslope
face.
Vegetation
Retainexistingvegetation,limittheremovalofvegetation.Vegetation
providesexcellentprotectionagainstsurfaceerosionandshallowslope
failures.
Bioengineeringmeasuresaredesignedtoaidorenhancethe
reestablishmentofvegetation.
Limitclearedareatothesmallestpracticalsize.
Limitdurationofdisturbancetotheshortestpracticaltime.
Removeandstoreexistingwoodyvegetationthatmaybeusedlater
intheproject.
Schedulelandclearingduringperiodsoflowprecipitationwhenever
possible.
286 Soil Bioengineering
Earthwork
Sitesusuallyrequiresomeearthworkpriortotheinstallationof
bioengineeringsystems.Asteepundercutorslumpingbank,forexample,
requiresgradingtoflattentheslopeforstability.Thedegreeofflattening
dependsonthesoiltype,hydrologicconditions,geology,andothersite
factors.
SchedulingandTiming
Planningandcoordinationareneededtoachieveoptimaltimingand
scheduling.Theseasonalavailabilityofplantsorthebesttimeofyearto
installthemmaynotcoincidewiththeconstructionseasonorwithtight
constructionschedules.Insomecases,rootedstockmaybeusedasan
alternativetounrooteddormantseasoncuttings.
VegetativeDamagetoInertStructures
Vegetativedamagetoinertstructuresmayoccurwheninappropriate
speciesorplantmaterialsthatexceedthesizeofopeningsinthefaceof
structuresareused.Vegetativedamagedoesnotgenerallyoccurfrom
roots.Plantrootstendtoavoidporous,open-facedretainingstructures
becauseofexcessivesunlight,moisturedeficiencies,andthelackofa
growingmedium.
MoistureRequirementsandEffects
Thebackfillbehindastableretainingstructureneedsspecific
mechanicalandhydraulicproperties.Ideally,thefilliscoarse-grained,free-
draining,granularmaterial.Excessiveamountsofclay,silt,andorganic
matterarenotdesirable.Freedrainageisessentialtothemechanical
integrityofanearthretainingstructureandalsoimportanttovegetation,
whichcannottoleratewaterloggedsoilconditions.
Establishingandmaintainingvegetation,however,usuallyrequires
somefine-grainedsoilsandorganicmatterinthesoiltoprovideadequate
moistureandnutrientretention.Theserequirementscanoftenbesatisfied
withoutcompromisingtheengineeringperformanceofthestructure.With
cribwalls,forexample,adequateamountsoffine-grainedsoilsorother
amendmentscanbeincorporatedintothebackfill.Gabionscanhavethe
spacesbetweenrocksfilledwithandsoiltofacilitategrowthofvegetation.
Woodyvegetativecuttingscanbeplacedbetweenthebasketsduringfilling
andintothesoilorbackfillbeyondthebaskets.Theneedsofplantsand
therequirementsofstructuresmustbetakenintoaccountwhendesigning
asystem.
287 Soil Bioengineering
Construction Materials and Techniques
GeneralConsiderations
Bioengineeringmeasureshavecertainrequirementsand
capabilities.Plantspeciesmustbesuitablefortheintendeduseand
adaptedtothesitesclimateandsoilconditions.Speciesthatrooteasily,
suchaswillow,arerequiredforsuchmeasuresaslivefascines,
brushlayer,andlivestakingorwhereunrootedstemsareusedwith
structuralmeasures.Seetheendofthissectionforalistofplantspecies
suitableforuseinbioengineeringapplicationsinMassachusetts.
Rootedplantsandlivedormantcuttingsarelivingmaterialsand
mustbehandledproperlytoavoidexcessstress,suchasdryingor
exposuretoheat.Theymustbeinstalledinmoistsoilandadequately
covered.Thesoilmustbecompactedtoeliminateorminimizeair
pocketsaroundtheburiedstems.Ifsoilsarenotatornearmoisture
capacity,theinstallationshouldbedelayedunlessdeepandregular
irrigationcanbeprovidedduringandfollowinginstallation.
Bioengineeringsystemsarebestinstalledinthelatefallatthe
onsetofplantdormancy;eitherinthewinter,aslongasthegroundis
notfrozen,orinearlyspringbeforegrowthbegins.Installationafter
initialspringgrowthmaybesuccessfulinsomecases,buttherisksof
failurearehigh.Summerinstallationisnotrecommended.Rootedplants
canbeused,buttheyaresometimeslesseffectiveandmoreexpensive.
Allinstallationsshouldbeinspectedregularlyandprovisionsmade
forpromptrepairifneeded.Initialfailureofasmallportionofasystem
normallycanberepairedeasilyandinexpensively.Neglectofsmall
failures,however,canoftenresultinthefailureoflargeportionsofa
system.
Properlydesignedandinstalledvegetativeportionsofsystemswill
becomeself-repairingtoalargeextent.Periodicpruningandreplanting
mayberequiredtomaintainhealthyandvigorousvegetation.Structural
elements,suchascribwalls,rockwalls,andgabions,mayrequire
maintenanceand/orreplacementthroughouttheirlife.Wherethemain
functionofstructuralelementsistoallowvegetationtobecome
establishedandtakeovertheroleofslopestabilization,theeventual
deteriorationofthestructuresisnotacauseforconcern.
BioengineeringMaterials
Planttolerancestodeposition,flooding,drought,andsaltshould
beconsideredinselectingspeciesforadversesiteconditions.
288 Soil Bioengineering
LocatingandSelectingPlantMaterials
CommercialSources
Commerciallygrownplantmaterialsaresuitablesourcesofvegetation
foruseinbioengineeringsystems;however,itisnecessarytoallow
adequateleadtimefortheirprocurementanddelivery.
NativeSpecies
Correctlyselectedlivedormantcuttingsharvestedfromexisting
standsoflivingwoodyvegetationarethepreferredbioengineering
materials.Theuseofindigenouslivematerialsrequirescarefulselection,
harvesting,handling,andtransporting.Theyshouldresultinplantsthat
havedeepandstrongrootsystems,arerelativelyinexpensive,areusually
effective,andcanbeinstalledquickly.
Liveplantmaterialscanbecutfromexistingnativeornaturalized
standsfoundneartheprojectsiteorwithinpracticalhaulingdistance.The
sourcesitemustcontainplantspeciesthatwillpropagateeasilyfrom
cuttings.Cuttingsarenormallyto2inchesindiameterandrangein
lengthfrom2to6feet.
Chainsaws,bushaxes,loppers,andprunnersarerecommendedfor
cuttinglivingplantmaterial.Safetyprecautionsmustbefollowedwhen
usingthesetools.Onsiteplantmaterialshouldbeharvestedwithgreat
care.Insomeplacesalargeareacanbecut,butothersitesrequire
selectivecutting.Cutsshouldbemadeatabluntangle,8to10inchesfrom
theground,toassurethatthesourcesiteswillregeneraterapidlyandina
healthymanner.
Theharvestingsiteshouldbeleftcleanandtidy.Remnantmaterials
thataretoolargeforuseinbioengineeringprojectsshouldbechippedor
leftinpilesforwildlifecover.Asitemaybeneededagainforfuture
harvestingandshouldbeleftinaconditionthatwillenhanceitspotential
forregeneration.
BindingandStorage
Livecuttingsshouldbebundledtogethersecurelyatthecollection
siteforeasyloadingandhandlingandforprotectionduringtransport.Side
branchesandbrushylimbsshouldbekeptintact.
Transporting
Thebundlesoflivecuttingsshouldbeplacedonthetransport
vehiclesinanorderlyfashiontopreventdamageandfacilitatehandling.
Theyshouldbecoveredwithatarpaulinduringtransportationtoprevent
dryingandadditionalstress.
Handling
Livecuttingsshouldarriveonthejobsitewithineighthoursof
harvestandshouldbeinstalledimmediately.Thisisespeciallycritical
whentheambienttemperatureis50degreesForabove.
Livecuttingsnotinstalledonthedaytheyarriveshouldbeplacedin
289 Soil Bioengineering
controlledstorageconditionsandprotecteduntiltheycanbeinstalled.
Wheninstorage,thecuttingsmustreceivecontinuousshade,mustbe
shelteredfromthewind,andmustbecontinuouslyprotectedfrom
dryingbybeingheeledintomoistsoilsorstoredinuncontaminated
water.Alllivecuttingsshouldberemovedfromstorageandusedwithin
2daysofharvest.
InstallingPlantMaterials
Timing
Installationoflivecuttingsshouldbeginconcurrentlywithearth
movingoperationsiftheyarecarriedoutduringthedormantseason.All
constructionoperationsshouldbephasedtogetherwheneverpossible.
Thebesttimeforinstallationofbioengineeringsystemsisduringthe
dormantseason.
PlantingMedium
Bioengineeringprojectsideallyuseonsitestockpiledtopsoilasthe
plantingmediumofchoice.Gravelisnotsuitableforuseasfillaround
liveplantmaterials.Aplantingmediumisneededthatincludesfine-
grainedsoilandorganicmaterial,andiscapableofsupportingplant
growth.
Muddysoilsthatareotherwisesuitableshouldnotbeuseduntil
theyhavebeendriedtoaworkablemoisturecontent.Heavyclays
shouldbemixedwithorganicsoilstoincreaseporosity.Selectsoil
backfilldoesnotneedtobeorganictopsoilbutitmustbeableto
supportplantgrowth.
Soilsamplesshouldbetakenoftheonsitematerialspriorto
plantinglivewoodycuttings.Soilsamplesshouldalsobetakenofallfill
materialsthatarebroughttothesitepriortouse.Nutrienttesting
shouldincludeanalysesforplantnutrients,metalcontents,andpH.
Laboratoryreportsshouldincluderecommendedfertilizerandlime
amendmentsforwoodyplantmaterials.
Allfillsoilaroundthevegetativecuttingsshouldbecompactedto
densitiesapproximatingthesurroundingnaturalsoildensities.Thesoil
aroundplantsshouldbefreeofvoids.
EstablishmentPeriod
Bioengineeringmeasuresshouldbecheckedperiodicallyafter
installation.Recommendedschedule:
Firsttwomonths:
Inspectbiweekly.Checkforinsectinfestations,soilmoisture,andother
conditionsthatcouldleadtopoorsurvivability.Takeaction,suchas
theapplicationofsupplementalwater,tocorrectanyproblems.
Nextsixmonths:
Inspectmonthly.Systemsnotinacceptablegrowingconditionshould
benotedand,assoonasseasonalconditionspermit,shouldbe
removedfromthesiteandreplacedwithmaterialsofthesamespecies
290 Soil Bioengineering
andsizesasoriginallyspecified.
Initial2-yearestablishmentperiod:
Performreestablishmentworkasneededeverysixmonths.Thiswill
usuallyconsistofreplacingdeadmaterial.
Makeadditionalinspectionsduringperiodsofdroughtorheavyrains.
Damagedsectionsshouldalwaysberepairedimmediately.
LiveStaking
Livestakinginvolves
theinsertionandtamping
oflive,rootablevegetative
cuttingsintotheground.If
correctlypreparedand
placed,thelivestakewill
rootandgrow.Stakes
createalivingrootmatthat
stabilizesthesoilby
reinforcingandbindingsoil
particlestogetherandby
extractingexcesssoil
moisture.
Livestakingincreasestheopportunityfornaturalinvasionand
establishmentofotherplantsfromthesurroundingplantcommunity.
RecommendedUses
Mostwillowspeciesrootrapidlyandbegintodryoutaslopesoon
afterinstallation.Livestakingisappropriateforrepairofsmallearthslips
andslumpsthatfrequentlyarewet.
Maybeusedforpeggingdownsurfaceerosioncontrolmaterials.
Canbeusedtostabilizeinterveningareabetweenother
bioengineeringtechniques,suchaslivefascines.
Well-adaptedtorelativelyuncomplicatedsiteconditionswhen
constructiontimeislimitedandaninexpensivemethodisnecessary.
ConstructionRecommendations
Selectcuttingsto1inchesindiameterand2to3feetlong.
Thecuttingsmusthavesidebranchescleanlyremovedandthebark
intact.
Theendsshouldbecutatanangleforeasyinsertionintothesoil.The
topshouldbecutsquare.
Cuttingsshouldbeinstalledthesamedaythattheyareprepared.
291
Soil Bioengineering
Installation
Tampthelivestakeintothegroundatrightanglestotheslope.The
installationmaybestartedatanypointontheslopeface.
Thelivestakesshouldbeinstalled2to3feetapartusingtriangular
spacing.Thedensityoftheinstallationwillrangefrom2to4stakesper
squareyard.
Thebudsshouldbeorientedup.
Aboutfour-fifthsofthelengthofthelivestakeshouldbeinstalled
intotheground.Packsoilfirmlyaroundstakesafterinstallation.
Becarefulnottosplitthestakesduringinstallation.Stakesthatdo
splitshouldbereplaced.
Anironbarcanbeusedtomakeapilotholeinfirmsoil.Drivethe
stakeintothegroundwithadeadblowhammer(hammerheadfilled
withshotorsand).
Dormant Woody Plantings
Thisinvolvestheuseoflive,dormant-stemcuttingsofwoodyplant
speciesfromto3inchesormoreindiameter.Theplantingscreatea
livingrootmatthatstabilizesthesoilbyreinforcingandbindingsoil
particlestogetherandbyextractingexcesssoilmoisture.
RecommendedUses
Dormantplantingsareappropriateforrepairofsmallearthslips
andslumpsthatfrequentlyarewet.
Canbeusedtostabilizeinterveningareabetweenother
bioengineeringtechniques,suchaslivefascines.
Atechniqueforrelativelyuncomplicatedsiteconditionswhen
constructiontimeislimitedandaninexpensivemethodisnecessary.
MaterialsandPreparation
Cuttings,stakesandpoststobeusedaslivedormantwoody
materialsshouldbeobtainedfrommoisture-lovingspeciesthatwill
eitherrootnaturallyorrespondtotreatmentwithrootinghormones.
Alwaysselecthealthymaterialsnativeoradaptabletotheplantingsite.
Theproperpreparationandhandlingofselectedmaterialsisvery
important.Makecleancutsandavoidsplitends.
Alwaysplantmaterialswiththebuttenddown.Thebuttend
shouldbetaperedtomarkitforproperorientationaswellasfacilitate
drivingitintothesoilifdonesomanually.Thetopendshouldbeflat,
especiallyonstakesandposts,tofacilitatemanualdriving.
Trimlateralbranchestoleavethebarkridgeandbranchcollar
intact.
Thediameterandlengthoftheplantmaterialsvarieswiththetype:
Dormantcutting-Thediameterofcuttingsshouldbeaminimumof
one-halfinchandamaximumoflessthanone(1)inch.Cuttingsshould
beatleast12inchesbutlessthan18inchesinlength.
292 Soil Bioengineering
Dormantstake-Stakesshouldbeonetothreeinchesindiameteratthe
topand18inchestosixfeetinlength.
Dormantpost-Postsshouldbegreaterthanthreeinchesindiameterat
thetopend.Lengthwillvarywiththedepthtosaturatedsoilandthe
differenceinfeetbetweenthechannelbottomandlowbankelevation.
However,postsshouldbeaminimumlengthequaltothedifferenceinfeet
betweenthelowestpointofchannelscourandthelowbankelevationsor
7feet,whicheverisless.
Allstakesandpostsshouldextendaminimumoftwofeetbelow
themaximumdepthofthestreambedscour.
Thereshouldbeatleasttwolateralbudsand/orterminalbudscars
abovethegroundoncuttings.Aterminalbudscarshouldbewithin1to4
inchesofthetop.Cuttingsputoutthelargestnumberandstrongestshoots
justbelowaterminalbudscar(annualgrowthscar).
Plantingmaterialsmustnotbeallowedtodryout.Theyshouldbe
keptmoistandcoveredduringtransporttotheplantingsiteandduring
plantingoperations.Materialshouldbekeptsubmergedinwateruptothe
timeofplanting.Itisbesttoplantmaterialsthesamedaytheyarecutand
prepared.OneexceptionisEasternCottonwood,whichhasexhibited
increasedsurvivalratesifsoakedinwaterfor1to2dayspriortoplanting.
Selectnativeornaturalizedspeciesthatrootreadilywithorwithout
theuseofrootinghormones.Rootinghormones,ifused,shouldbeapplied
accordingtomanufacturersrecommendations.
Woodspecieswithshort,dense,flexibletopgrowthandlarge,deep,
fibrousrootsystemsarerecommended.Otherdesirablecharacteristics
includerapidinitialgrowth,abilitytoreproducebyseedorvegetatively,
andresistancetoinsectsanddiseases.
Layout
Dormantstakesandpostsshouldbeplacedinstaggeredrowsat
two-footbytwo-foot,two-footbyfour-foot,orfour-footbyfour-foot
spacings.Dormantcuttingsmaybescatteredbetweenrowsofstakes
andposts.
Onerodingstreambanksover15feethigh,useaminimumof4rowsof
dormantstakesorposts.
Installation
Allmaterialsshouldbecutandinstalledwhileinadormantstage.The
followingperiodsarerecommendedforpracticeinstallation:November1
untilgroundbecomesfrozen,orFebruary1toApril1providedgroundis
notfrozenorbudshavenotbrokendormancy.
Besurethattheplantingmaterialisrightsideup(buttendinthe
ground).
Setthematerialsasdeepaspossiblewithatleastthebottom12
inchesintoasaturatedsoillayer.Deepplantinginsuresanadequate
moisturesupplyforrootdevelopment,minimizeswaterlossdueto
transpirationandpreventsrootbreakagecausedbymovementbetween
293 Soil Bioengineering
theplantingmaterialandthesoilduringhighvelocitywaterflows.
Avoidexcessivedamagetothebarkoftheplantingmaterial,
especiallystripping.
Besurethereisgoodcontactbetweenthesoilandplanting
material.Dormantcuttingswillhavethesoiltampedaroundthem.
Dormantmaterialsmaybeinstalledusinganironbarforcuttingsand
apostholedigger,poweredaugerorametalramonabackhoeor
similarequipmentforstakesandposts.
Insoft,nonrestrictedsoils,stakesorpostsmaybemanually
drivenintoplaceusingawoodenmaul.Ifasledgeisused,caremust
takentoavoidsplittingtheplantingmaterial.Extremecareisneededin
drivingthestakesorposts,andshouldbelimitedtosoilssuchassandy
soils,whereuseoftheothermethodsisnotfeasible.
Postlengthsshouldbeextended4to6inchestoallowforanew
flatcuttoeliminateanydamagedmaterialsaftermanualdriving.Atleast
40percent,andpreferably50percentormore,oftheplantingmaterial
shouldbebelowgroundlevelafterplanting.
Wheredamagebybeavermayoccur,treatingmaterialswitha
repellant,suchasropel,orenclosingthemwithchickenwireis
recommended.
Allstakesandpostslocatedinthestreamchannelshouldhave
aminimumof12inchesextendingabovethenormalwaterlevel.
RecommendedSpecies
Speciesselectionshouldconsiderthepositionoftheplantinthebank
profile.
Zone1
Belownormalwaterlinetoupperlimitofsaturationareakeptmoistby
capillarywatermovement.Thiszoneincludesthegreatestpotentialfor
periodicinundationsandtheleastmoisturestress.
Zone2
AreafromupperlimitofZone1to2-3feetfromthetopofthebank.This
areamaybesubjecttorapiddryingandgreatermoisturestress.
Zone3
Area2-3feetbelowthetopofthebanktoaminimumof30feetintothe
floodplain.
294 Soil Bioengineering
PlantZone CommonName/ScientificName GrowthForm
1 BlackWillow*Salixnigra Tree
1 BankersWillow*Salixcottettii Shrub
1 Purple-osierwillow*Salixpurpurea Shrub
1 SandbarWillow*Safixinterior Tree
1 CarolinaWillow*Safixcaroliniana Tree
1 Peach-leavedWillow*Salixamycdaloides Tree
1 Buttonbush*Cephalanthisoccidetalis Shrub
1,2,3 Red-osierDogwood*Comusstolonifera Shrub
2,3 SilkyDogwoodComusamomum Shrub
2,3 FloweringDogwoodComusflorida Tree
2,3 GreenAshFraxinuspennsylvanica Tree
2,3 Sycamore*Platanusoccidentalis Tree
1,2,3 BaldCypressTaxodiumdistichum Tree
1,2 RiverBirchBetulanigra Tree
1,2,3 EasternCottonwood*Populusdeltoides Tree
1,2,3 SwampCottonwood*Populusheterophylla Tree
*Thesespeciesaresuitableforuseasdormantwoodycuttings,stakesorposts.Allspeciesofwillowand
cottonwooddonotrequirehormonetreatmentforrooting.
Fascines
Fascinesarelong
bundlesoflivebranch
cuttingsboundtogether
intosausage-like
structures.Whencutfrom
appropriatespeciesand
properlyinstalledwithlive
anddeadstoutstakes,
fascineswillrootand
immediatelybeginto
stabilizeslopes.
Advantages
Aneffectivestabilizationtechniqueforslopes.
Immediatelyreducessurfaceerosionorrilling.
Enhancesvegetativeestablishmentbycreatingamicroclimate
conducivetoplantgrowth.
Capableoftrappingandholdingsoilonthefaceoftheslope,thus
reducingalongslope,intoaseriesofshorterslopes.
RecommendedUses
Toprotectslopesfromshallowslides(1to2footdepth).
Onsteep,rockyslopes,wherediggingisdifficult.
295 Soil Bioengineering
Constructionguidelines
Fascinesshouldbeplacedinshallowcontourtrenchesondry
slopesandatanangleonwetslopestoreduceerosionandshallowface
sliding.Thiscauseslittlesitedisturbancewheninstalledbyatrained
crew.
Livematerials
Cuttingsmustbefromspecies,suchasyoungwillowsorshrub
dogwoods,thatrooteasilyandhavelong,straightbranches.
Livematerialsizesandpreparation
Cuttingstiedtogethertoformlivefascinebundlesmayvaryinlength
from5to30feetorlonger,dependingonsiteconditionsandlimitations
inhandling.
Thecompletedbundlesshouldbe6to8inchesindiameter,withallof
thegrowingtipsorientedinthesamedirection.Staggerthecuttingsin
thebundlessothattopsareevenlydistributedthroughoutthelengthof
theuniform-sizedbundle.Livestakesshouldbe2feetlongincut
slopesand3feetlonginfillslopes.
Inertmaterials
Stringusedforbundlingshouldbeuntreatedtwine.
Deadstoutstakesusedtosecurethefascinesshouldbe2-footlong,
untreated,2by4lumber.Eachlengthcanbecutagaindiagonallyacross
the4-inchfacetomaketwostakesfromeachlength.Usenew,sound,
unusedlumber.Anystakesthatshatterduringinstallationshouldbe
discarded.
Installation
Preparethefascinebundlesandlivestakesimmediatelybefore
installation.
Beginningatthebaseoftheslope,digatrenchonthecontourjustlarge
enoughtocontainthelivefascine.Thetrenchwillvaryinwidthfrom12to18
inches,dependingontheangleoftheslopetobetreated.Thedepthwillbe6to
8inches,dependingontheindividualbundlesfinalsize.Placethelivefascine
intothetrench.
Drivethedeadstoutstakesdirectlythroughthelivefascineevery2to3
feetalongitslength.Extrastakesshouldbeusedatconnectionsorbundle
overlaps.Leavethetopofthestakesflushwiththeinstalledbundle.
Livestakesaregenerallyinstalledonthedownslopesideofthebundle.
Drivethelivestakesbelowandagainstthebundlebetweenthepreviously
installeddeadstoutstakes.Thelivestakesshouldprotrude2to3inchesabove
thetopofthelivefascine.Placemoistsoilalongthesidesofthelivefascine.The
topofthefascineshouldbeslightlyvisiblewhentheinstallationiscompleted.
Repeattheprecedingstepstothetopoftheslope;atintervalsonthe
contouroratanangleupthefaceofthebank.Whenpossible,placeoneortwo
rowsoverthetopoftheslope.
Longstraworsimilarmulchingmaterialshouldbeplacedbetweenrows
on2.5:1orflatterslopes,whileslopessteeperthan2.5:1shouldhavejutemesh
orsimilarmaterialplacedinadditiontothemulch.
296 Soil Bioengineering
Brushlayer
Brushlayeringconsistsofplacing
livebranchcuttingsinsmallbenches
excavatedintotheslope.Thebenches
canrangefrom2to3feetwide.These
systemsarerecommendedonslopesup
to2:1insteepnessandnottoexceed15
feetinverticalheight.
Brushlayersaresimilartofascine
systemsbecausebothinvolvethe
cuttingandplacementoflivebranch
cuttingsonslopes.Thetwotechniques
differprincipallyintheorientationof
thebranchesandthedepthtowhich
theyareplacedintheslope.In
brushlayering,thecuttingsareoriented
moreorlessperpendiculartotheslope
contour.Theperpendicularorientation
ismoreeffectiveforearthreinforcement
andmassstabilityoftheslope.
Brushlayerbranchesserveas
reinforcingunits.Theportionsofthebrushthatprotrudefromtheslope
faceassistinretardingrunoffandreducingsurfaceerosion.
Purpose
Brushlayersperformseveralimmediatefunctionsinerosioncontrol
earthreinforcement,andmassstabilityofslopes:
$ Breakinguptheslopelengthintoaseriesofshorterslopesseparated
byrowsofbrushlayer.
$ Reinforcingthesoilwiththeunrootedbranchstems.
$ Reinforcingthesoilasrootsdevelop,addingsignificantresistanceto
slidingorsheardisplacement.
$ Providingslopestabilityandallowingvegetativecovertobecome
established.
$ Trappingdebrisontheslope.
$ Aidinginfiltrationondrysites.
$ Dryingexcessivelywetsites.
$ Adjustingthesitesmicroclimate,thusaidingseedgerminationand
naturalregeneration.
$ Improvingslopestabilitybyactingashorizontalseepagedrains.
297 Soil Bioengineering
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerialsizes
Branchcuttingsshouldbeto2inchesindiameterandlong
enoughtoreachthebackofthebench.Sidebranchesshouldremain
intactforinstallation.
Installation
Startingatthetoeoftheslope,benchesshouldbeexcavated
horizontally,onthecontour,orangledslightlydowntheslope,ifneeded
toaiddrainage.Thebenchshouldbeconstructed2to3feetwide.
Thesurfaceofthebenchshouldbeslopedsothattheoutsideedge
ishigherthantheinside.
Livebranchcuttingsshouldbeplacedonthebenchinacrisscross
oroverlappingconfiguration.
Branchgrowingtipsshouldbealignedtowardtheoutsideofthe
bench.
Backfillisplacedontopofthebranchesandcompactedto
eliminateairspaces.Thebrushtipsshouldextendslightlybeyondthe
filltofiltersediment.
Eachlowerbenchisbackfilledwiththesoilobtainedfrom
excavatingthebenchabove.
Longstraworsimilarmulchingmaterialwithseedingshouldbe
placedbetweenrowson3:1orflatterslopes,whileslopessteeperthan
3:1shouldhavejutemeshorsimilarmaterialplacedinadditiontothe
mulch.
Thebrushlayerrowsshouldvaryfrom3to5feetapart,depending
upontheslopeangleandstability.
Branchpacking
Branchpackingconsistsofalternatinglayersoflivebranchcuttings
andcompactedbackfilltorepairsmalllocalizedslumpsandholesin
slopes.Branchpackingprovidesimmediatesoilreinforcement.
298 Soil Bioengineering
WherePracticeApplies
$ Effectiveinearthreinforcementandmassstabilityofsmallearthenfill
sites.
$ Producesafilterbarrier,reducingerosionandscouringconditions.
$ Repairsholesinearthenembankmentsotherthandamswherewater
retentionisafunction.
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerial
Livebranchcuttingsmayrangefrominchto2inchesindiameter.They
shouldbelongenoughtotouchtheundisturbedsoilatthebackofthe
trenchandextendslightlyfromtherebuiltslopeface.
Inertmaterial
Woodenstakesshouldbe5to8feetlongandmadefrom3-to4-inch
diameterpolesor2by4lumber,dependinguponthedepthofthe
particularslumporhole.
Installation
Startingatthelowestpoint,drivethewoodenstakesvertically3to4
feetintotheground.Setthem1to1feetapart.
Alayeroflivingbranches4to6inchesthickisplacedinthebottomof
thehole,betweentheverticalstakes,andperpendiculartotheslopeface.
Theyshouldbeplacedinacrisscrossconfigurationwiththegrowingtips
generallyorientedtowardtheslopeface.Someofthebasalendsofthe
branchesshouldtouchthebackoftheholeorslope.
Subsequentlayersofbranchesareinstalledwiththebasalendslower
thanthegrowingtipsofthebranches.
Eachlayerofbranchesmustbefollowedbyalayerofcompactedsoil
toensuresoilcontactwiththebranchcuttings.
Thefinalinstallationshouldmatchtheexistingslope.Branchesshould
protrudeonlyslightlyfromthefilledface.
Thesoilshouldbemoistormoistenedtoinsurethatlivebranchesdo
notdryout.
Thelivebranchcuttingsserveastensileinclusionsfor
reinforcementonceinstalled.Asplanttopsbegintogrow,the
branchpackingsystembecomesincreasinglyeffectiveinretardingrunoff
andreducingsurfaceerosion.Trappedsedimentrefillsthelocalizedslumps
orholes,whilerootsspreadthroughoutthebackfillandsurroundingearth
toformaunifiedmass.Branchpackingisnoteffectiveinslumpareas
greaterthan4feetdeepor5feetwide.
299 Soil Bioengineering
Live gully repair
Alivegullyrepairutilizes
alternatinglayersoflivebranch
cuttingsandcompactedsoilto
repairsmallrillsandgullies.
Similartobranchpacking.
Limitedtorillsorgullies
whichareamaximumof2feet
wide,1footdeep,and15feet
long.
Advantages
Theinstalledbranches
offerimmediatereinforcement
tothecompactedsoiland
reducethevelocityof
concentratedflowofwater.
Providesafilterbarrierthatreducesrillandgullyerosion.
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerialsizes
Livebranchcuttingsmayrangefrominchto2inchesindiameter.
Theyshouldbelongenoughtotouchtheundisturbedsoilattheback
oftherillorgullyandextendslightlyfromtherebuiltslopeface.
Inertmaterials
Fillsoiliscompactedinalternatelayerswithlivebranchcuttings.
Installation
Startingatthelowestpointoftheslope,placea3-to4-inchlayerof
branchesatlowestendoftherillorgullyandperpendiculartothe
slope.
Coverwitha6to8inchlayeroffillsoil.
Installthelivebranchesinacrisscrossfashion.Orientthegrowing
tipstowardtheslopefacewithbasalendslowerthanthegrowingtips.
Followeachlayerofbrancheswithalayerofcompactedsoilto
ensuresoilcontactwiththelivebranchcuttings.
300 Soil Bioengineering
Vegetated Structures
Vegetatedstructures
consistofeitherlowwallsor
revetments(concreteorrock
andmortar)atthefootofa
slopewithplantingsonthe
interposedbenches.
Astructureatthefoot
ofaslopeprotectstheslope
againstunderminingor
scouringandprovidesa
slightbuttressingeffect.In
thecaseoflowwalls,it
allowsregradingoftheslope
facetoamorestableanglewithoutexcessiveretreatatthecrest.
Vegetationplantedonthecrestofthewallandthefaceoftheslope
protectsagainst,erosionandshallowsloughing.Inthecaseoftiered
structures,therootsofwoodyplantsgrowintothesoilandbackfillwithin
thestructure,bindingthemtogether.Thefoliageinfrontcoversthe
structureandenhancesitsappearance.
LowWall/SlopeFacePlantings
Alowretainingstructureatthefootofaslopemakesitpossibleto
flattentheslopeandestablishvegetation.Vegetationonthefaceofthe
slopeprotectsagainstbothsurfaceerosionandshallowfacesliding.
Severaltypesofretainingstructurescanbeusedaslowwalls.The
simplesttypeisagravitywallthatresistslateralearthpressuresbyits
weightormass.Thefollowingtypesofretainingstructurescanbe
classifiedasgravitywalls:
$ Masonryandconcretewalls
$ Cribandbinwalls
$ Cantileverandcounterfortwalls
$ Reinforcedearthandgeogridwalls
Eachofthesecanbemodifiedinavarietyofwaystofitnearlyany
conditionorrequirement.Theretainingstructureshouldbedesignedbya
qualifiedengineer.
TieredWallorBenchPlantings
Thesearealternativestoalowwallwithfaceplanting.Theyallows
vegetationtobeplantedonslopesthatwouldotherwisebetoosteep.
Shrubsandtreesplantedonthebenchesscreenthestructurebehindand
lendamorenaturalappearancewhiletheirrootspermeateandprotectthe
benches.
Almostanytypeofretainingstructurecanbeusedinatieredwall
system.Atieredwallsystemprovidesnumerousopportunitiesforuseof
vegetationonsteepslopesandembankments.
301 Soil Bioengineering
Vegetated Cribwall
Acribwallisa
structureformed
byjoininga
numberofcells
togetherandfilling
themwithsoil,
gravel,orrockto
furnishstrength
andweight.A
vegetatedcribwall
isfilledwith
suitablebackfill
materialand
layersoflive
branchcuttings.Thecuttingsrootinsidethecribstructureandextend
intotheslope.Oncethelivecuttingsrootandbecomeestablished,the
subsequentvegetationgraduallytakesoverthestructuralfunctionsof
thewoodmembers.
Thecribwallprovidesimmediateprotectionfromerosion;while
establishedvegetationprovideslongtermstability.
WherePracticeApplies
Thistechniqueisappropriateatthebaseofaslopewherealow
wallmayberequiredtostabilizethetoeoftheslopeandreduceits
steepness.
Notdesignedfororintendedtoresistlarge,lateralearthstresses.
Recommendedonlytoamaximumof6feetinoverallheight,including
theexcavationrequiredforastablefoundation.
Usefulwherespaceislimitedandamoreverticalstructureis
required.
Shouldbetiltedbackorbatteredifthesystemisbuiltonasmooth,
evenlyslopedsurface.
Mayalsobeconstructedinastair-stepfashion,witheach
successivecourseoftimberssetback6to9inchestowardtheslope
facefromthepreviouslyinstalledcourse.
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerialsizes
Livebranchcuttingsshouldbeto2inchesindiameterandlong
enoughtoreachthebackofthewoodencribstructure.
302 Soil Bioengineering
Installation
Startingatthelowestpointoftheslope,excavateloosematerial2to3
feetbelowthegroundelevationuntilastablefoundationisreached.
Excavatethebackofthestablefoundation(closesttotheslope)
slightlydeeperthanthefronttoaddstabilitytothestructure.
Placethefirstcourseoflogsortimbersatthefrontandbackofthe
excavatedfoundation,approximately4to5feetapartandparalleltothe
slopecontour.
Placethenextcourseoflogsortimbersatrightangles(perpendicular
totheslope)ontopofthepreviouscoursetooverhangthefrontandback
ofthepreviouscourseby3to6inches.
Eachcourseofthelivecribwallisplacedinthesamemannerand
nailedtotheprecedingcoursewithnailsorreinforcementbars.
Whenthecribwallstructurereachestheexistinggroundelevation,
placelivebranchcuttingsonthebackfillperpendiculartotheslope;then
coverthecuttingswithbackfillandcompact.
Livebranchcuttingsshouldbeplacedateachcoursetothetopofthe
cribwallstructurewithgrowingtipsorientedtowardtheslopeface.Follow
eachlayerofbrancheswithalayerofcompactedsoiltoensuresoilcontact
withthelivebranchcuttings.Someofthebasalendsofthelivebranch
cuttingsshouldreachtoundisturbedsoilatthebackofthecribwallwith
growingtipsprotrudingslightlybeyondthefrontofthecribwall.
Vegetated Gabions
Emptygabionsare
placedinposition,wiredto
adjoininggabions,filled
withstonesandthen
foldedshutandwiredat
theendsandsides.Live
branchesareplacedon
eachconsecutivelayer
betweentherockfilled
baskets.Thesewilltake
rootinsidethegabion
basketsandinthesoil
behindthestructures.In
timetherootsconsolidate
thestructureandbinditto
theslope.
303 Soil Bioengineering
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerialsizes
Branchesshouldrangefromto1inchindiameterandmustbe
longenoughtoreachbeyondthebackoftherockbasketstructureinto
thebackfill.
Installation
Startingatthelowestpointoftheslope,excavateloosematerial2
to3feetbelowthegroundelevationuntilastablefoundationisreached.
Excavatethebackofthestablefoundation(closesttotheslope)
slightlydeeperthanthefronttoaddstabilitytothestructure.Thiswill
provideadditionalstabilitytothestructureandensurethattheliving
branchesrootwell.
Placethefabricatedwirebasketsinthebottomoftheexcavation
andfillwithrock.
Placebackfillbetweenandbehindthewirebaskets.
Placelivebranchcuttingsonthewirebasketsperpendiculartothe
slopewiththegrowingtipsorientedawayfromtheslopeandextending
slightlybeyondthegabions.Thelivecuttingsmustextendbeyondthe
backsofthewirebasketsintothefillmaterial.Placesoiloverthe
cuttingsandcompactit.
Repeattheconstructionsequenceuntilthestructurereachesthe
requiredheight.
Vegetated Rock Wall
Vegetatedrockwallsdifferfromconventionalretainingstructures
inthattheyareplaced
againstrelatively
undisturbedearthand
arenotintendedtoresist
significantlateralearth
pressures.Avegetated
rockwallisa
combinationofrockand
livebranchcuttingsused
tostabilizeandprotect
thetoeofsteepslopes.
Thissystemis
appropriateatthebaseof
aslopewherealowwall
mayberequiredto
stabilizethetoeofthe
slopeandreduceitssteepness.
304 Soil Bioengineering
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerialsizes
Livecuttingsshouldhaveadiameterofto1-inchandbelong
enoughtoreachbeyondtherockstructureintothefillorundisturbedsoil
behind.
Inertmaterials
Inertmaterialsconsistofrocksandfillmaterialforthewall
construction.Rockshouldnormallyrangefrom8to24inchesindiameter.
Largerbouldersshouldbeusedforthebase.
Installation
Startingatthelowestpointoftheslope,removeloosesoiluntila
stablebaseisreached.Thisusuallyoccurs2to3feetbelowground
elevation.Excavatethebackofthestablefoundation(closesttotheslope)
slightlydeeperthanthefronttoaddstabilitytothestructure.
Excavatetheminimumamountfromtheexistingslopetoprovidea
suitablerecessforthewall.
Provideawell-drainedbaseinlocationssubjecttodeepfrost
penetration.
Placerockswithatleastathree-pointbearingonthefoundation
materialorunderlyingrockcourse.Theyshouldalsobeplacedsothat
theircenterofgravityisaslowaspossible,withtheirlongaxisslanting
inwardtowardtheslopeifpossible.
Whenarockwallisconstructedadjacenttoanimpervioussurface,
placeadrainagesystematthebackofthefoundationandoutsidetoeof
thewalltoprovideanappropriatedrainageoutlet.
Overallheightoftherockwall,includingthefooting,shouldnot
exceed5feet.
Awallcanbeconstructedwithaslopingbenchbehindittoprovidea
baseonwhichlivebranchcuttingscanbeplacedduringconstruction.Live
branchcuttingsshouldalsobetampedorplacedintotheopeningsofthe
rockwallduringorafterconstruction.Thebuttendsofthebranches
shouldextendintothebackfillorundisturbedsoilbehindthewall.
Thelivebranchcuttingsshouldbeorientedperpendiculartothe
slopecontourwithgrowingtipsprotrudingslightlyfromthefinishedrock
wallface.
305 Soil Bioengineering
Joint Planting
Jointplantingor
vegetatedriprapinvolves
tampinglivecuttingsof
rootableplantmaterialinto
soilbetweenthejointsor
openspacesinrocksthat
havepreviouslybeen
placedonaslope.
Alternatively,thecuttings
canbetampedintoplaceat
thesametimethatrockis
beingplacedontheslope
face.
Rootsimprove
drainagebyremovingsoilmoisture.Overtime,theycreatealivingroot
matinthesoilbaseuponwhichtherockhasbeenplaced.Theroot
systemsofthismathelptobindorreinforcethesoilandtoprevent
washoutoffinesbetweenandbelowtherockunits.
ConstructionRecommendations
Livematerialsizes
Thecuttingsmusthavesidebranchesremovedandbarkintact.
Theyshouldrangeindiameterfrominchto1inchesandbe
sufficientlylongtoextendintosoilbelowtherocksurface.
Installation
Tamplivebranchcuttingsintotheopeningsoftherockduringor
afterconstruction.Thebuttendsofthebranchesshouldextendintothe
backfillorundisturbedsoilbehindtheriprap.
Orientthelivebranchcuttingsperpendiculartotheslopewith
growingtipsprotrudingslightlyfromthefinishedfaceoftherock.
306 Soil Bioengineering
Slope Stabilization
Bioengineeringtechniquesforslopestabilizationinvolveusinga
combinationofvegetativeandmechanicalmeasuresonsteepslopes,cut
andfillbanks,andunstablesoilconditionsthatcannotbestabilizedusing
ordinaryvegetativetechniques.
Advantages
Vegetationreducessheeterosiononslopesandimpedessedimentat
thetoeoftheslope.
Wheresoilsareunstableandliabletoslipduetowetconditions,
utilizationofsoilmoisturebyvegetationcanreducetheproblem.
Shrubsandtreesshelterslopesagainsttheimpactofrainstorms,and
thehumusformedbydecayingleavesfurtherhelpstoimpederunoff.
Mechanicalmeasureshelptostabilizesoillongenoughtoallow
vegetationtobecomeestablished.
Disadvantages/Problems
Theplantingofnon-seededmaterialsuchaslivewillowbrushisa
specializedoperationandcannotbehighlymechanizedorinstalledby
unskilledlabor.
Themethodsdescribedareeffectivebutrequirefamiliaritywithsoils,
hydrology,andotherphysicaldatatodesignmeasuresthatwillsolvethe
problem.
DesignandConstructionRecommendations
Thefollowingbioengineeringmethodscanbeusedafterslopeshave
beenprotectedbydiversionofrunoff.
Sodwallsorretainingbanks
Thesemaybeusedtostabilizeterraces.Sodispiledbytiltingit
slightlytowardtheslopeandshouldbebackfilledwithsoilandcompacted
astheyarebuiltup.Sodwallscanbeassteepas1:8butshouldnotbe
higherthan5feet.
307 Soil Bioengineering
Timberframestabilization
Thiscanbeeffectiveongradientsupto1:1.Thefollowingstepsare
involvedinconstruction:
$ Laysoilretardingframesof2x
4in.verticalmembersand1x4in.
horizontalmembersonslopes.
Framesonslopesover15feetin
lengthneedtobeanchoredto
slopetopreventbuckling.
$ Attach14gaugegalvanized
wiresforanchoringwiremesh.
$ Fillframeswithmoisttopsoil
andcompactthesoil.
$ Spreadstraw6inchesdeepoverslope.
$ Coverstrawwith14gauge4-inchmeshgalvanizedreinforcedwire.
$ Securewiremeshatleast6feetbackoftopslope.
$ Plantgroundcoverplantsthroughstrawintotopsoil.
Wovenwillowwhips
Maybeusedtoformlivebarriers
forimmediateerosioncontrol.
Construction:
$ Three-footpolesarespacedat5
footdistancesanddrivenintothe
slopetoadepthof2feet.
$ Two-footwillowsticksare
insertedbetweenpolesatonefoot
distances.
$ Livewillowbranches5feetlong
aresunktoadepthof1inchand
interwovenwithpolesandstocks.
$ Spacesbetweenthewovenfencesarefilledwithtopsoil.Fences
aregenerallyarrangedparalleltotheslopeorinagridpatterndiagonal
tothedirectionoftheslope.
308 Soil Bioengineering
Streambank Stabilization
Oftenchannelreachescanbe
madestablebyestablishing
vegetationwhereerosionpotentialis
lowandinstallingstructural
measures,oracombinationof
vegetativeandstructuralmeasures
onmorevulnerableareas;suchas
theoutsideofchannelbendsand
wherethenaturalgradesteepens.
Anyworkinoradjacenttoa
streamshouldbecoordinatedwith
thelocalConservationCommission,
anddoneinaccordancewith
wetlandsprotectionlaws.
Advantages
Bioengineeringtechniquesaregenerallylesscostlythanstructural
practicesandmorecompatiblewithnaturalstreamcharacteristics.
Rootsandrhizomesstabilizestreambanks.
Certainreedsandbulrusheshavethecapabilityofimprovingwater
qualitybyabsorbingcertainpollutantssuchasheavymetals,detergents,
etc.
Plantsregeneratethemselvesandadapttochangingnatural
situations,thusofferingadistincteconomicadvantageovermechanical
stabilization.
Mechanicalmaterialsprovideforinterimandimmediatestabilization
untilvegetationtakesover.
Onceestablished,vegetationcanoutlastmechanicalstructuresand
requireslittlemaintenancewhileregeneratingitself.
Aestheticbenefitsandimprovedwildlifeandfisherieshabitat.
Disadvantages/Problems
Nativeplantsmaynotbecarriedbyregularnurseriesandmayneedtobe
collectedbyhand,orobtainedfromspecialtynurseries.Nurserieswhichcarry
theseplantsmayrequirealongleadtimeforlargeorders.
Flowretardingaspectsofvegetatedwaterwaysneedtobetakenintoaccount.
309 Soil Bioengineering
PlanningConsiderations
Streambankscanbedividedinto:
$ Aquaticplantzones,atthemeanlow-waterlevel;
$ Reedbankzones,coveredatbankfullstage;
$ Lowerriparianzonesoropenfloodwayzonesnaturallycovered
withwillowsandshrubberyplants;
$ Upperriparianareasorfloodfringeareasthatwouldnaturallybe
coveredwithcanopy-formingtrees.
Aquaticplant
zones
Aquatic
plantsareoften
considered
weedsanda
nuisance,though
theydoslow
downstreamflow
andprotectthe
streambed.
Primaryemphasisofstreambankstabilizationliesinthebankfullzone.
Reedbankzone
Thereedbankzoneformsapermeableobstacle,slowingdowncurrent
wavesbyfriction.Plantshoots,witharootclump,canbeplantedinpitsat
to1footdepthbelowwater,orinareedroll.
Lowerriparianzone
Lowerriparianzonesoftenhaveanaturalgrowthofwillow,alder,
cottonwood,smallmaples,andvariousberries.Thesevegetativetypescan
bereintroducedondenudedfloodplainstostabilizethesoilwiththeir
roots.Inperiodsofhighwater,theirupperbranchesreducethespeedof
thecurrentandtherebytheerosiveforceofwater.Themostcommonly
usedvegetativestabilizeriswillow;becauseofitscapabilitytodevelop
secondaryrootsoncuttrunksandtothrowupsuckers.Willowsare
plantedeitherasindividualcuttingsboundtogetherinvariousformsor
wiredtogetherinfascines.
Slipbanksofthelowerriparianzoneandtidalbankscanbestabilized
withgrass.Firstthebankneedstobegradedtoamaximumslopeof3:1.
Topsoilshouldbeconservedforreuse;limeandfertilizershouldbe
applied.Coarsegrassandbeachgrassshouldbeplantedatthewaters
edgetotrapdriftsand;andbermudagrass,suitableforperiodic
inundation,shouldoccupythefaceoftheslope,followedbytallfescueon
higherground.
310 Soil Bioengineering
Inthelowerriparianzone(openfloodway)bankstabilizationefforts
shouldbeconcentratedoncriticalareasonly.Thestabilizingeffectofriprap
canbesupplementedwithwillowswhichwillbindsoilthroughtheirrootsand
screenthebank.Bankscanbepavedwithstone(setinsand).Willowcuttings
injointsneedtobelongenoughtoextendtonaturalsoilandshouldhave2
to4budsabovesurface.Willowbranchesinriprapshouldbeinstalled
simultaneously.
Branchesshouldextend1footintothesoilbelowstoneand1feet
aboveground,pointingdownstream.
Bioengineering Techniques for Streambank
Stabilization
ReedRoll
Atrench1-feetwideanddeepisdugbehinda
rowofstakes;wirenettingisthenstretchedfromboth
sidesbetweenuprightplanks;coarsegravelisdumped
onthisandcoveredwithreedclumpsuntilthetwo
edgesofthenettingcanjustbeheldtogetherwith
wire.Theupperedgeoftherollshouldnotbemore
thantwoinchesabovewaterlevel.Theplanksarethen
removedandgapsintheditcharebackfilled.
ReedBerm
Reedberms,consistingofa
combinationofreedsandriprap,break
waveactionanderosionofbanksby
currents.Banksshouldnotexceeda2:1
slope.Riprapisplacedtoformaberm
thatextendsbeyondthesurfaceat
meanlow-waterlevel,separatingthe
reedbedfromthebodyofwater.
Fascines
Packedfascine-workcanbe
employedoncutbanks.Itconsistsof
onefootlayersofbranchescovered
withyoung,freshlycutshootssecured
bystakes.Thespacesbetweenthe
shootsarefilledwithdirtandanother
layerisaddedontop.
311 Soil Bioengineering
Brush-mesh
Avariationisthebrush-mesh
technique,whichisdesignedtostabilize
breachedcutbanksandtoencouragethe
depositionofsediment.Itinvolvesthe
followingsteps:
$ Placementofpolesat10footdistance.
$ Placementoflargebranchesandbrush
facingthestream.
$ Settingcuttingsoflivewillowbranchesbetweenthebrush
vertically,and
$ Securingverticalwillowswithcuttingssetdiagonallyfacingthe
streamflow.
Streamsinurbansettingsmaycarryanincreaseinrunoffofsuch
greatmagnitudethattheycannotbemaintainedinanaturalstate.Soil
bioengineeringmethodscanprovideforstabilizationmoreaesthetically
andwithhighereffectivenessthanpurelymechanicaltechniques.This
appliesprimarilyto:thereedbankzoneandthelowerriparianzone.
Thefollowingtechniquesapplytothereedbankzone:
WillowMattress
Willowmattressesaremadefrom4to6
footwillowswitchessetintosixinchtrenches
andhelddownbystakesthatarebraidedor
wiredtogether.Theentiremattressislightly
coveredwithsoil.
Willow
Jetty
Willowjettiescanbe
constructedatthewaterlevelto
stabilizeacutbankbydeflectingthe
currentandbyencouraging
depositionofsediment.
$ Digditchesdiagonallyto
directionofflow,andplacefillto
formbermdownstreamfromditch.
$ Set2-footwillowbranches(4-
footmaybeneeded)at45degree
angleand3-inchspacingfacing
downstream.
$ Weighdownbrancheswith
riprapextendingbeyondwater
level.
312 Soil Bioengineering
WillowGabions
Willowgabionscanbeused
whenahard-edgedeffectis
desiredtodeflecttheerodingflow
ofwater.Livewillowbranches,
pointingdownstream,areinserted
throughthewiremeshwhenthe
gabionispackedwithstoneandanadditionoffinermaterials.Branches
needtobelongenoughtoextendthroughthegabionintothesoilofthe
bank.Theyalsoshouldbeplacedatananglebackintotheslope.
Pilingrevetment
Pilingrevetmentwithwire
facingsissuitedforthestabilization
ofcutbankswithdeepwater.It
involvesthefollowingsteps:
$ Driveheavytimbers(8-12inch
diameter)on6to8-footcenters
alongbanktobeprotectedtopoint
ofrefusaloronehalflengthofpile
belowmaximumscour.
$ Fastenheavywirefencingtothepostandifthestreambedissubjectto
scour,extendithorizontallyonthestreambedforadistanceequaltothe
anticipateddepthofscourandweightwithconcreteblocks.Asscour
occurs,thissectionwilldropintoplace.
$ Pilebrushonthebanksideofthefence,andplantwillowsaplingson
banktoencouragesedimentdeposits.
WillowBranchMatRevetment
Willowbranchmatrevetmenttakesthefollowingstepstoinstall:
$ Gradeslopetoapproximately2:1andexcavatea3footditchatthetoe
ofslope.
belownormalwaterline
bypackingwithlarge
stones.
$ Drive3-footwillow
stakes2feeton
centertoholddown
brush;connectstakes
withNo.9galvanized
wireandcoverbrush
slightlywithdirtto
encouragesprouting.
$ Laylivewillowbrushwithbuttsupslopeandanchormatintheditch
313 Soil Bioengineering
Maintenance
Undernormalconditions,maintenanceneedsshouldbeminorafter
thesystemisestablished.Maintenancegenerallyconsistsoflight
pruningandremovalofundesirablevegetation.Heavypruningmaybe
requiredtoreducecompetitionforlightorstimulatenewgrowthinthe
projectplantings.
Anewlyinstalledbioengineeringproject,however,willneed
periodicinspectionsuntilitisestablished.Newvegetationisvulnerable
totrampling,drought,grazing,nutrientdeficiencies,toxins,andpests,
andmayrequirespecialattentionattimes.
Inmanysituations,installedbioengineeringsystemsbecome
sourcesitesforfutureharvestingoperations.Selectiveremovalof
vegetationmayberequiredtoeliminateundesirableinvadingspecies.
Theyshouldbecutoutevery3to7years.
Moreintensivemaintenancemaybeneededtorepairproblem
areascreatedbyhighintensitystormsorotherunusualconditions.Site
washoutsshouldberepairedimmediately.Generally,reestablishment
shouldtakeplaceforaone-yearperiodfollowingconstruction
completionandconsistofthefollowingpractices:
$ Replacementofbranchesindeadunrootedsections
$ Soilrefilling,branchpacking,andcompactinginrillsandgullies
$ Insectanddiseasecontrol
$ Weedcontrol
Gullies,rills,ordamagedsectionsshouldberepairedusingof
healthy,livebranchcuttings;preferablyinstalledduringthedormant
season.Usethebranchpackingsystemforlargebreaks,andthelive
gullyrepairsystemforbreaksupto2feetwideand2feetdeep.Ifthe
dormantseasonhaspassed,considerusingrootedstock.
FinalCheck
Afinalcheckshouldbemadetwoyearsaftertheinstallationis
completed.Healthygrowingconditions(overallleafdevelopmentand
rootedstems)shouldexistasfollows:
Livestakes 70%-100%growing
Livefascines 20%-50%growing
Livecribwall 30%-60%growing
Brushlayers 40%-70%growing
Branchpacking 40%-70%growing
Livegullyrepair 30%-50%growing
Vegetatedrockwall 50%-80%growing
Vegetatedgabion 40%-60%growing
Jointplanting 50%-70%growing
Growthshouldbecontinuouswithnoopenspacesgreaterthan2
feetinlinearsystems.Spacestwofeetorlesswillfillinwithout
hamperingtheintegrityoftheinstalledlivingsystem.
314 Soil Bioengineering
References
Goldsmith,W.andBestmann,L.,AnOverviewofBioengineeringforShore
Protection,ProceedingsofConferenceXXIII,InternationalErosionControl
Association,Reno,Nevada,February1992.
Gray,DonaldH.andLeiser,A.T.,BiotechnicalSlopeProtectionand
ErosionControl,LeiserVanReinholdInc.,1982.
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,NaturalResourcesConservationService
EngineeringFieldHandbook,Chapter18,SoilBioengineeringforUpland
SlopeProtectionandErosionReduction.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,StormwaterManagement
ManualforthePugetSoundBasin,Olympia,WA,February,1992.
HerbaceousPlantsforStreambankSoilBioengineering
ApplicationsinMassachusetts
NativePlantsSuitedforPlantinginSaturatedSoilsand/orCoir
Geotextile1/:
ScientificName CommonName Notes
Asclepiasincarnata Swampmilkweed Peatplugs/pots.
Acornscalamusorantericanus SweetFlag Plantsinpeatplugs/
potsor dormant
rootcuttings.
Calamagrostiscanadensis BlueJointReedGrass Peatplugs/pots.Can
beseededifno
standingorflowing
water.
Carexspp. Sedges Somenativespecies
are:comosa,
crinita,intumescens,
lurida,strictaand
vulpanoidea.Peat
plugs/potsorbare-
rootedOK.
Cinnaarundinacea WoodReedGrass Peatplugs/pots.Can
beseededif
nostandingor
flowingwater.
Distichlisspicata SeaShoreSaltgrass Peatplugs/pots.
Coastalareasonly.
Eupatoriumperfoliatum BonesetandJoe-PyeWeed Peatplugs/pots.
andE.purpureum
Soil Bioengineering 315
ScientificName CommonName Notes
GlyceriacanadensisandG.striata MannaGrasses Peatplugs/pots
orbare-rooted
plants.Canbe
seededifno
standingor
flowingwater.
Irisversicolor BlueFlagIris Dormantplants.
JuncuscanadensisandJ.effusus Rushes Peatplugs/pots
orbarerooted
plants.
Leersiaoryzoides RiceCutGrass Peatplugs/puts.
Canbeseededif
nostandingor
flowingwater.
Pontederiacordata PickerelWeed Peatpotsorbare
rootedplants.
Sagittaria latifolia Arrowhead Plantastuberor
inpeatplug/put.
Scirpusspp. Bulrushes Somenative
speciesare:
S.acutus,
S.atrovirens,S.
cyperinus,S.
pungens,S.
validus.Peat
plugsorbare
rootplants.
Sparganiumspp. BurReed S.americanum
andS.
eutycarpumare
nativespecies.
Spartinaalterniflora SaltMarshGrasses Peatplugs/pots.
Plantingswithin
propertidalzone
iscritical.
Spartinapectinata FreshWaterCordgrass Peatpots/pots.
TypalatifoliaandTangustifolia Cattails Peatpotsorbare
rootplants.
Verbenahastata BlueVervain Peatplugs/pots.
316 Soil Bioengineering
HerbaceousPlantsforStreambankSoilBioengineering
ApplicationsinMassachusetts(Continued)
GrassesSuitedforPlantingonStreambanksinCombinationwith
BioengineeredApplications2/3/:
Name Status Application Notes
Agrostisalba Introduced Allbankzones CoolSeason.
RedTop
Agrostisstolonifera,var.palustris Native Lowtomid CoolSeason.
Creeping/MarshBentgrass statewide bankzone
Ammophilabreviligulata Nativetocoastal Sandy,gravelly Cape
AmericanBeachgrass counties droughtybank cultivaris
nativetoMA
Useculms
toestablish
Andropogongerardii Native Droughty Warm
BlueBigstem statewide upperbank season
Andropogonvirginicus Native Midtoupper Warm
Broomsedge statewide bankzone season
exceptBerkshire
andFranklin
Dichantheliumclandestinum Native Midtoupper Warmseason.
DeertongueGrass statewide bankzone
Elymuscanadensis Native Midtoupper Coolseason.
NoddingWildRye statewide bankzone
Festucarubra Nativeawayfrom Midtoupper Coolseason.
RedFescue coastalareas. bankzone Shade
Introducedto tolerant
coast.
Loliumperenne Introduced Midtoupper Coolseason.
PerennialRyegrass bankzone Fast
growing-
shortterm.
Panicumvirgatum Native Midtoupper Warmseason.
Switchgrass statewide bankzone
Sorghastrumnutans Native Midtoupper Warmseason
Indiangrass statewide bankzone
Schizachyriumscoparium Native Upperbank Warmseason
LittleBluestem Statewide zone
Notes:
BankZones:
Lowerisatornearthenormalwaterlinetotheupperlimitofsaturation
duetocapillaryaction.
Midisthesurfaceareaabovetheupperlimitofthelowerzonetoabout3
feetfromthetopofbank.
317 Soil Bioengineering
Upperisthesurfaceareaabout3feetfromthetopofbankand
extendingintotheriparianzone.
SeedingPeriods:
WarmseasongrassesareseededinspringuptoJune1,orasadormant
seedingNovember-March.
CoolseasongrassesareseededinspringuptoJune1,orinlate
summer/earlyfallAugust15-October.
1/TablepreparedbyR.DeVergilio,NaturalResourcesConservation
Service,Amherst,MA.,withtechnicalinputfromM.Marcus,New
EnglandWetlandPlants,Inc.,AmherstMA.TechnicalreviewbyC.Miller,
PlantMaterialsSpecialist,NRCS,Somerset,NJ.
2/TablepreparedbyR.DeVergilio,NaturalResourcesConservation
Service,Amherst,MA.,withtechnicalinputfromC.Miller,Plant
MaterialsSpecialist,NRCS,SomersetNJ.
3/Grassesareusuallyseededuponthebankoroveraparticular
bioengineeringapplication,howevermostspecieslistedarealso
commerciallyavailableasrootedplants.
4/Beachgrassisestablishedbyvegetativemeansonly(plantingof
dormantculms).
NativeplantreviewbyTheMassachusettsNativePlantAdvisory
Committee,1/29/96
318
Soil Bioengineering
WoodyPlantsforStreambankSoilBioengineeringApplicationsin
Massachusetts
Size, PlantMaterial Rooting
Name Native Form Type1/ Ability Notes
Alnusrugosa/serrulata Statewide LargeShrubs RootedPlantsonly Poor Goodforlowtomidbankzone
Speckled/SmoothAlder
Aroniaarbutifolia Statewide Shrub RootedPlantsonly Poor Goodforlowtomidbankzone
RedChokecherry
Baccharishalimifolia Coastonly Med.Shrub Facines Good Goodforlowtomidbankzone.
EasternFalseWillow Cuttings Resistanttosaltspray
RootedPlants
Cephalanthusoccidentalis Statewide Med.Shrub Layering Good Goodforlowbankzone.Prefersat
ButtonBush Cuttings leastperiodicinundation.
RootedPlants
Cletheraalnifolia Statewide Med.Shrub Rootedplantsonly Poor Goodformid-upperbankzone.
SweetPepperBush Goodforsalttolerance.
Cornusamomum Statewide SmallShrub All V.Good Goodforallbankzones.Tolerates
SilkyDogwood shade.
Cornusracemosa Statewide Med.Shrub All Good Goodformid-upperbankzone.
GrayDogwood Toleratesshadeanddrought.
Cornussericea WesternMAonly2/ Med.Shrub All V.Good Goodforallbankzones.
RedOsierDogwood
Ilexopaca SEMA Sm.Tree RootedPlantonly Poor Goodforupperbankzone.Shadand
AmericanHolly droughttolerant.
Ilexverticillata Statewide Med.Shrub Rootedplantonly Poor Midtolowerbanks.Prefers
WinterberryHolly seasonalflooding.
Linderabenzoin Statewide Shrub RootedPlantonly Poor Allbankzones.Good
Spicebush shadetolerance.
Populusbalsamifera W.MAonly2/ Tree(seenote) All V.Good 3/Usecautiouslyonstreambanks.
BalsamPoplar Goodforriparianzone.
Populusdeltoides W.MAonly2/ Tree(seenote) All V.Good 3/Usecautiouslyonstreambank.
EasternCottonwood Goodforriparianzone.
Rhododendronviscosum Statewide Med.Shrub RootedPlantonly Poor Goodformid-tolowerbankzones
319 Soil Bioengineering
WoodyPlantsforStreambankSoilBloengineeringApplicationsin
Massachusetts(Continued)
Size, PlantMaterial Rooting
Name Native Form Type1 Ability Notes
Rosapalustris Statewide Sm.Shrub Facines Good Low-midbankzone
SwampRose RootedPlants
Salixamygdaloides No-Introduced Lg.Shrub All V.Good Goodforallbankzones
PeachleafWillow
Salixdiscolor Statewide Med.Shrub All V.Good Goodforallbankzones
PussyWillow
Salixeriocephala Statewide Lg.Shrub All,Butno V.Good Goodforallbankzones.
ErectWillow BrushMattress
Salixexigua CTRiverValley Lg.Shrub All Good Midtolowerbankzones
SandbarWillow
Salixnigra Statewide Tree(seenote) All V.Good 3/Usecautiouslyonstreambank.
BlackWillow Goodforriparianzone.
SalixHumilis Statewide Med.Shrub All Good Goodforbankzones
PrarieWillow
Salixpupurea No-(seenote) Lg.Shrub All V.Good StreamcoCultivarreleasedbyNRCS.
PurpleosierWillow Allbankzones
Salixxcottetii No-(seenote) Sm.Shrub All V.Good BankerscultivarreleasedbyNRCS.
DwarfWillow Lowtomid-bankzones
Sambucuscanadensis Statewide Sm.Shrub Facines Good Goodformid-bankzone.Usewith
AmericanElderberry Cuttings othergoodrootingspeciesonly.
Spireatomentosa Statewide Sm.Shrub Layering Poor-Fair Midtoupperbank.Usewithother
SteepleBush goodrootingspeciesonly.
Virburnumdentatum SouthandEast Med.Shrub RootedCuttings Fair Goodformid-bankzone
SouthernArrowood andplants
Virburnumrecognitum NorthandWest Med.Shrub Rootedplants Poor Goodforallbankzones.Rooted
NorthernArrowood cuttingsgood.
Virburnumtrilobum4/ Yes,butnot Med.Shrub RootedPlants Poor Goodforallbankzones.Goodshade
AmericanCranberryBush Capeandislands tolerance.
Virburnumlentago Yes,butnotCape Lg.Shrub Facines,Stakes Fair Goodformid-bank.Toleratesshade.
Nannyberry andislands Usewithothergoodrootingspecies
only.
320 Soil Bioengineering
Notes:
TablepreparedbyR.DeVergilio,NaturalResourcesConservationService,
AmherstMA.AdaptedfromNRCSdatabasePlantsForBioEngineering,
Uses,H.W.Everett,11/95.NativeplantreviewbytheMassachusetts
NativePlantAdvisoryCommittee.
SpecialNote......StreamcoandBankersarenotnativetoMassachusetts.
Itisrecommendedtheyonlybeusedincombinationwithnativespecies.
1/PlantMaterialTypes:AllincludesDormantFascines,Stakes,Brush
Mattresses,Layering,andCuttingsaswellasRootedCuttingsandPlants.
2/WesternMass.includesBerkshire,Franklin,Hampshire,andHampden
Counties.
3/Treespecies,suchascottonwood,poplarandblackwillow,are
recommendedforriparianareaplantingsandarenotrecommendedfor
establishmentuponthestreambankitselfduetopotentialforwindthrow
atmaturity,andsubsequentdamagetothestreambank.
4/ViburnumopulusissimilartoV.trilobumandisoftenconfusedwithit.
V.opulusisintroducedtoMassachusetts.
StreambankZones:
Lowerisatornearthenormalwaterlinetotheupperlimitofsaturation
duetocapillaryaction.
Midisthesurfaceareaabovetheupperlimitofthelowerzonetoabout3
feetfromthetopofbank.
Upperisthesurfaceareaabout3feetfromthetopofbankandextending
intotheriparianzone.
Erosion and Sediment Control Best
Management Practices for Individual
Homesites and Small Parcels
Constructiononsmalldevelopmentscancauselargeamountsof
sedimenttobetransportedtoreceivingwaters.Thefollowingaresomeof
thedamagingactivitiesandconditionsthatmayoccurduring
development:
Exposedandunprotectedsoilisoftenleftthroughoutthe
development.Whenrunoffoccurs,sedimentistransportedintothenearest
stormwaterfacilityorstream,eventuallycloggingit.
Vehiclesandheavyequipmenttracksoilfromthedevelopmentonto
thestreet.Gulliesformedbytiretracksbecomechannelsforrunoffflow.
Vegetationborderingstreamsorlakesisoftenremovedduring
construction.Thisincreasesthewatertemperaturebyremovingshade.An
increaseinwatertemperaturecancontributetoalgaebloomsandmay
changethespeciescompositionofthelakeorstream.Becausethe
vegetationhasbeenremoved,thereisnobarriertopreventsedimentfrom
enteringthestream.Thiscanclogspawninggroundsandfishgills.
321
BMPs for Homesites and Small Parcels
Theseproblemsmayoccurduringworkperformedby
subcontractorswhoareon-siteforaveryshorttime.Cooperationand
communicationbetweendevelopers,builders,andsubcontractorsare
essentialtominimizeerosionanddamagetotheenvironment.
ClearingandGrading
Planandimplement
properclearingandgrading
ofthesite.Itisimportantto
clearonlytheareasneeded,
thuskeepingexposedareas
toaminimum.Phasethe
clearingsothatonlythose
areasthatareactively
beingworkedare
uncovered.Clearinglimits
shouldbeflaggedpriorto
thestartofclearingwork.
ExcavatedBasement
Soil
Locateexcavatedbasementsoilareasonabledistancebehindthe
curb,suchasinthebackyardorsideyardarea.Thiswillincreasethe
distanceerodedsoilmusttraveltoreachthestormsewersystem.Soil
pilesshouldbecovereduntilthesoiliseitherusedorremoved.Piles
shouldbesituatedsothatsedimentdoesnotrunintothestreetor
adjoiningyards.
Backfilling
Backfillbasementwallsassoonaspossibleandroughgradethelot.
Thiswilleliminatelargesoilmoundswhicharehighlyerodibleand
preparesthelotfortemporarycoverwhichwillfurtherreduceerosion
potential.
RemovalofExcessSoil
Removeexcesssoilfromthesiteassoonaspossibleafter
backfilling.Thiswilleliminateanysedimentlossfromsurplusfill.
ManagementOfSoilBanks
Ifalothasasoilbankhigherthanthecurb,atrenchorberm
shouldbeinstalledmovingthebankseveralfeetbehindthecurb.This
willreducetheoccurrenceofgullyandrillerosionwhileprovidinga
storageandsettlingareaforstormwater.
322
BMPs for Homesites and Small Parcels
ConstructionRoadAccess
Applygravelorcrushedrocktothedrivewayareaandrestricttruck
traffictothisoneroute.Drivewaypavingcanbeinstalleddirectlyoverthe
gravel.Thismeasurewilleliminatesoilfromadheringtotiresandstopssoil
fromwashingintothestreet.Thismeasurerequiresperiodicinspection
andmaintenanceincludingwashing,top-dressingwithadditionalstone,
reworkingandcompaction.
SoilStabilization
Stabilizedenudedareasofthesitebymulching,seeding,planting,or
sodding.
StreetCleaning
Provideforperiodicstreetcleaningtoremoveanysedimentthatmay
havebeentrackedout.Sedimentshouldberemovedbyshovellingor
sweepingandcarefullyremovedtoasuitabledisposalareawhereitwillnot
bere-eroded.
References
Lobdell,Raymond,AGuidetoDevelopingandRe-DevelopingShoreland
PropertyinNewHampshire,NorthCountryResourceConservationand
DevelopmentArea,Inc.,Meredith,NH,1994.
MinnesotaPollutionControlAgency,DivisionofWaterQuality,Protecting
WaterQualilyinUrbanAreas,BestManagementPracticesfor
Minnesota,MN,October,1989.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,StormwaterManagement
ManualforthePugetSoundBasin,Olympia,WA,February,1992.
Erosion and Sediment Control Best
Management Practices for Sand and
Gravel Pits
Erosionfromsandandgravelpitscancontributealargeamountof
sedimenttoadjacentwatercourses.Sandandgravelalsoprovidesavery
porousmediumfortransportingsolublepollutantstotheunderlying
groundwater.Manysandandgraveloperationsarelocatedwithinornear
therechargeareaofpublicandprivatewells.Amajorthreatto
groundwaterexistswhenexcavationactivitiestakeplaceintheseareas.
Exposureofthesaturatedzoneinrechargeareascanleavegroundwater
resourcesvulnerabletocontaminationbecauseitdecreasesfiltering.An
addedproblemisthatabandonedexcavationpitshavebeenusedforthe
unregulateddisposalofsolidandliquidwastesandsalt-ladensnow.
323 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
TheinformationinthissectionwasadaptedfromResource Extraction,
Guidelines for Sand and Gravel Pits,inChapterFouroftheMassachusetts
Nonpoint Source Management Manual,Appendix D, Vegetating New
Hampshire Sand and Gravel Pits,inStormwater Management and Erosion
Control for Urban and Developing Areas in New Hampshire,and
Revegetating Sand and Gravel Pits in the Northeast StatesbyDickerson,
Kelsey,Godfrey,Gaffney,andMiller.
Soilerosion,aesthetics,andadverseimpactsonwaterqualityare
concernsassociatedwiththeoperation,maintenance,andclosureof
sandandgravelpits.Agoodvegetativecoverofgrassesandlegumes
canalleviatetheseconcerns.Vegetativecoverwillretardsurfacerunoff
andpreventerosion,reducingthesedimentationofnearbystreams,
waterways,andwaterbodies.Vegetativecoverwillenhancethe
aestheticsofsandandgravelpitswhileprovidingnestingandescape
coverforwildlife.
Controllingtheremovalofsoilinrechargeareasisacommonly
usedtechniquetominimizegroundwaterimpacts.Manymunicipalities
statewidehaveadoptedearthremovalbylawswhichlimitexcavation
withinvarieddistancestothewatertable(rangingfrom4feetto10
feet).Whenregulatingexcavationactivities,theseasonalandannual
fluctuationsinthewatertableshouldbeconsidered.Toinsure
maximumgroundwaterprotection,localcontrolsshouldbedesignedto
incorporatemoreconservativegroundwatertableestimates.
Massachusettslaw(310CMR22.21(2)(b)6)prohibitstheremoval
ofsoil,loam,sand,gravelorothermineralsubstancewithin4feetofthe
historicalhighgroundwatertableelevation.Theregulationsdoallowfor
removalofsoilprovidedthesamesoilisreplacedatafinalgradegreater
than4feetabovethehistoricalhighwatermarkwithin45days.Thisis
intendedtofacilitatenecessary,shorttermexcavation/soilmovement
activitieswhileinsuringthatsandandgraveldepositsassociatedwith
favorablegroundwaterareasarenotreplacedwithmaterialsofpoorer
quality.Buildingfoundationsandutilityworkarealsogivenexemptions
underthisprovision.
Sandandgravelpitsaredifficultsitestopermanentlyvegetate.The
difficultyisduetodroughtyconditions,lowsoilorganicmatter,lowsoil
fertility,andlackoftopsoil.Stockpilingtopsoilcangreatlyreducethe
difficultyofestablishingvegetation.Mosttownby-lawsprohibitselling
324 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
topsoil.A4-inchcapoftopsoilwillusuallybesufficientforestablishing
selectedvegetationthatisotherwisecompatiblewiththesitecondition.
Recommendationsforsandandgravelpitoperation.
InformationNeededForDevelopingAStabilizationPlan
Topographyfortheoriginalgroundsurfacebasedonnogreaterthan
five-footcontourintervals(2footcontourlevelsshouldbeprovided
wheneverpossible).
Logofsoilboringstakentothedepthoftheproposedexcavation.The
numberofboringstakenwillvarywiththesizeandgeologicalmake-upof
thesite.
Topographicalmapshowingplannedfinalgrades,drainagefacilities,
etc.afterexcavation.
OperationStandards
Noexcavationshouldbecloserthan200feettoanexistingpublicway
unlessspecificallypermittedbyauthorizedofficial.Noexcavationshould
approachneighboringlotlinescloserthan50feet.(Noexcavationcloser
than50feet.)Naturalvegetationshouldbeleftandmaintainedonthe
undisturbedlandforscreeningandnoisereductionpurposes.
Allloadedvehiclesshouldbesuitablycoveredtopreventdustand
contentsfromspillingandblowingfromtheload.
Theactivegravelremovaloperationareashouldnotexceedatotal
areaofthreeacresatanyonetime.
Allaccessroadsleadingtopublicwaysshouldbetreatedwithstone,
orothersuitablematerialtoreducedustandmudforadistanceof200feet
backfromsaidpublicway;unlessthereisastabilizedconstruction
entrance/tirewashatpointsofvehicularingress/egress.Anyspillageon
publicwaysshouldbecleanedupbytheoperator.
Accessroadsshouldbeconstructedatanangletothepublicwayor
constructedwithacurvesoastohelpscreentheoperationfrompublic
view.
Mostcommunitieslimitgravelremovalclosetotheseasonalhigh
watertable;usuallyarangeof2to10feetaboveseasonalhighwatertable.
Thiselevationshouldbeestablishedfromtestpitsorsoilboringsandthe
levelrelatedtoapermanentmonumentontheproperty.Thisinformation
shouldshowonthetopographicplan.
Duringoperations,whenanexcavationislocatedcloserthan200feet
fromaresidentialareaorpublicwayandwheretheexcavationwillhavea
depthofmorethan15feetwithaslopeinexcessof1:1,afenceatleast
fourfeethighshouldbeerectedtolimitaccesstothisarea.
Noareashouldbeexcavatedsoastocauseaccumulationoffree
standingwater.Permanentdrainageshouldbeprovidedasneededin
accordancewithgoodconstructionpractices.Drainageshouldnotlead
directlyintostreamsorponds.
325 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
Alltopsoilandsubsoilshouldbestrippedfromtheoperationarea
andstockpiledforuseinrestoringtheareaaftertheremovaloperation
hasceased.
Noexcavationshouldbeallowedcloserthan100feetfroma
naturalstream.
RestorationStandards
Slopesshouldbeleftnosteeperthan3:1;toprovidestabilityand
facilitateseedingefforts.
Avoidlongslopestohelppreventerosionandtoallowaccessfor
seeding,mulching,andmaintenance.Controlslopelengthbyinstalling
oneterrace(10feetwideandslopedintothecutslope)forevery40
verticalfeet.
Alldebris,stumps,boulders,etc.,shouldberemovedfromthesite
anddisposedofinanapprovedlocation,orinthecaseofinorganic
material,buriedandcoveredwithaminimumoftwofeetofsoil.
Followingexcavationandassoonaspossiblethereafter,ground
levelsandgradesshouldbeestablishedasshownonthecompleted
topographicalplan.
Constructdiversionsattopsofslopestodivertrunoffwateraway
fromtheslopebankstoastableoutlet.
Constructrocklinedchutesorequivalenttoconductconcentrated
flowofwatertostableoutlets.
Removelargestones,boulders,andotherdebristhatwillhinder
theseedingprocessandtheestablishmentofvegetation.
Spreadaminimumdepthof4inchesoftopsoiloverthesite,if
available.Supplementasnecessarywithsubsoilretainedfrom.pit
operations.
Retainedsubsoilandtopsoilshouldberespreadoverthedisturbed
areatoaminimumdepthoffourinches.Seedwithagrassorlegume
mixturedesignedforthespecificsite.(Recommendationsfollow.)
Treesorshrubsshouldbeplantedtoprovidescreening,natural
beauty,anderosioncontrolduringtheestablishmentperiod.
Uponcompletionoftheoperation,thelandshouldbeleftsothat
naturalstormdrainageleavesthepropertywithintheoriginal
watercoursesthatexistedpriortoconstruction.Therateandvolumeof
surfacewaterrunoffshouldnotbeincreasedasaresultofthe
excavationoperations.
Obtainsoilsamplesbycollecting6to8smallsamples(oneortwo
handfulseach)ofsoilmaterialfromtheupper4inchesoftheareatobe
seeded.Mixthesmallsamplestoobtainonecompositesample.
Usepartofthesampleforasoiltesttodeterminelimeandfertilizer
needs.Runthebalanceofthesample(s)throughasieveanalysisto
determinethepercentbyweightpassingaNo.200sieve.Thosepassing
arecalledfines.
Ifnosoiltestsaremade,soilcanbetreatedwiththreetonsoflime
peracreand1,000poundsof10-10-10fertilizerperacre.Basinglimeand
326 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
fertilizerrecommendationsonactualsoiltestsispreferable,however,and
willresultinmuchbetterlong-termvegetativeperformance.
PlantingProcedures
SpeciesandVarietySelection
Selectagrass/legumemix(seechartfollowing)basedonthepercent
weightpassingaNo.200sieveasoutlinedabove.Thestandard
conservationmixesavailablefromlocalseedsuppliersarenot
recommendedondroughtysites.Thesemixesusuallyprovideagreen
coververyquickly,buttheplantspeciesbegintodieintwotofouryears
onsterileanddroughtysites.
WherepercentbyweightpassingaNo.200sieveislessthan15,select
optionsfromMix1.
Mix2isrecommendedifsuppressionofwoodygrowthisdesiredand
thereismorethan15percentbyweightpassingaNo.200sieve.
WherepercentbyweightpassingaNo.200sieveisbetween15and20,
useMix1or2.WherepercentbyweightpassingaNo.200sieveisabove
20,useMix1,2,or3.
LimeandFertilizerDetermination
Mix1-Ifsoiltestdataisnotavailable,limeattherateof1ton/acre(50
lbs/1,000sqft).Fertilizewith500lbs/acre(11lbs/1,000sqft)of10-20-20or
equivalent.Incorporatelime,fertilizer,andseedusingrakesifseedingis
donebyhand.Itishighlyrecommendedtouseabulldozertotrackthe
siteafterseeding.Trackingwillincorporatethelime,fertilizer,andseedto
promoteseedgermination.
Mix2-Inlieuofasoiltest,limeattherateof2tons/acre(90lbs/1,000sq
ft).Fertilizewith500lbs/acre(11lbs/1,000sqft)of1020-20orequivalent.
Theseedneedstobeincorporatedintothesoiltoensuresuccessandto
shortenestablishmenttime.Thisismostcriticalforthelargeseeded
legumesinMix2.Ontheflatterslopes,useabulldozertotrackinthe
seed.
327 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
Mix1.Warmseasongrasses.
Optionsfor
Varieties,listedin variousSituations(1)
Species preferentialorder(selectone) LbsPerAcre(PLS)
(2) (3) (4)
Switchgrass Trailblazer,Pathfinder 6 2 6
BigBluestem Niagara,Kaw 4 2 4
LittleBluestem Aldous,Camper,Blaze 2
DeertongueGrass 5-10
IndianGrass 5-10
Notes:
(1)Warmseasongrassseedissoldandplantedonthebasisofpureliveseeds
(PLS).Anadjustmentismadetothebulkpoundsofseedtocompensatefor
inertmaterialanddeadseed.
(2)Thiscombinationmostcloselyrepresentsthenaturallyoccurring
vegetationwherewarmseasongrassesarenativeinthenortheast.
(3)Thiscombinationhasthefastestestablishmentandcover.
(4)Thiscombinationisthesimplestandmaybeeasiertoobtain.Options2or
1,however,willproducebetterresults.
Mix2.Legumesandcoolseasongrass.
Varieties,listedin
Species preferentialorder(selectone) LbsPerAcre
Flatpea(1) Lathco 10
Perennialpea(1) Lancer 10
PerennialRyegrass 10
Tallfescue Ky-31,Rebel,Ken-Hi 10
RedTop 1
Notes:
(1)Theselegumesmustbeinoculatedattimeofseeding.Ifseedingbyhand,
useastickingagent,suchascolaormilktostickinoculanttoseed.Ifseeding
withhydroseeder,use4timestherecommendedrateofinoculant.
328 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
MulchDeterminationforHydroandHandSeeding
MulchingforMix1
Useweed-freemulch.Cleanstrawisrecommended.Mulchatthemaximum
rateof500-700lbs/acre.Highermulchingratesandmulchwithweedseed
contentwillinhibitseedingsuccesssignificantly.Iftheerosionhazardis
lowandtheseedisincorporated,mulchingisnotnecessaryforseeding
success.Donotapplymulchpriortotrackingwithabulldozer.
MulchingforMix2
Mulchwithweed-freehayorstrawandmulchattherateof2-3tons/acre.
Thehighermulchingrateisrecommendedwhereseedincorporationis
difficult.
SeedingMethods
Alternative1-Largeareasand/orsteepslopes
Applylime,seed,andfertilizerwithahydroseederand,dependingonthe
consistencyofthesoilmaterial,steepnessofslope,andseedmixtureused:
Presstheseedintothesoilbytrackingwithabulldozer,or
Covertheseedbywalkingbackandforthoversteeploosesandy
slopes,or
Applymulchandatackifiertoholdthemulchinplace.
Alternative2-Flattogentlyslopingareas
(2:1slopesmaximum)Applylime,seed,andfertilizerusingfarmtype
spreaders,andtrackthesitewithabulldozerorapplymulchaccordingto
thecircumstances.
Alternative3-Smallareas
Applylime,seed,andfertilizerbyhandandrake.
SeedingDates
BestseedingperiodisbetweensnowmeltsinthespringandendsMay
15.Earlyseedingisveryimportant,especiallyforMix1.Actualseeding
datedependsonweatherconditions,butsubstantialfailurecanbe
expectedifseedingisdonelate.
Latesummerandearlyfallseedingsarenotrecommended.Iflate
seasonseedingsarenecessary,theyshouldbedoneafterOctober20to
preventfallgerminationandsubsequentwinterkill.
ResponseofSeeding
TheplantspeciesinMixes1and2germinateandgrowslowly.
Completecovermaynotoccurfor2-4years.Awellestablishedstand,
however,willlastforyears.
Follow-upseedingmaybeneededtoestablishvegetationonthemore
difficultpartsofsomesites.Theneedtodofollow-upseedingcanbe
determinedtheyearaftertheinitialplanting.
329 BMPs for Sand and Gravel Pits
Maintenance
Substantialstandvigorcanbeachievedifthesiteistopdressed
withfertilizeroneyearafterplanting.IftopdressingMix1,fertilize
betweenJune15andJuly15.Thetimingofthistopdressing,is
important.Mixes2shouldbetopdressedintheearlyspring.
TopdressMixes1withabalancedfertilizer,applying50lbsof
nitrogen/acre.Forexample,apply250lbsof20-20-20/acre.
TopdressMix2with500lbsof0-20-20/acreinApril,May,orJune.
Ifmowingisdesiredtosuppresswoodygrowth,mowMix1about
mid-Julyleavingastubbleheightof6-8inches.Itisnotnecessaryto
mowMix2.Agoodcoverofflatpeawillpreventinvasionofwoody
species.
References
Dickerson,JohnA.,Kelsey,T.L.,Godfrey,R.G.,Gaffney,F.B.,Miller,C.,
RevegetatingSandandGravelPitsintheNortheastStates,____.
MassachusettsDepartmentofEnvironmentalProtection,Officeof
WatershedManagement,NonpointSourceProgram,Massachusetts
NonpointSourceManagementManual,Boston,Massachusetts,June,
1993.
Minnick,E.L.,andH.T.Marshall,StormwaterManagementandErosion
ControlforUrbanandDevelopingAreasinNewHampshire,Rockingham
CountyConservationDistrict,August1992.
A Sample Erosion and Sedimentation Control
Plan
Thissampleplanisforinstructivepurposesonly.Thespecific
numberofmaps,practices,drawings,specifications,andcalculations
requireddependsonthesizeandcomplexityofthedevelopment.The
designershouldselectthemostpracticalandefficientpracticesto
controlerosionandpreventsedimentfromleavingthesite.Theplan
shouldbeorganizedandpresentedinaclear,concisemanner.Sufficient
designandbackgroundinformationshouldbeincludedtofacilitate
review.Constructiondetailsshouldbepreciseandclearforusebyan
experiencedgeneralcontractor.
Duetosizeandspacelimitations,thefollowingsectionsofthe
erosionandsedimentationcontrolplanhavenotbeenincludedwiththis
sample:vicinitymap,sitetopographymap,sitedevelopmentplan,
erosionandsedimentationcontrolplandrawing,detaildrawingsand
specificationsfortheselectedpractices,vegetationplan,and
supportingcalculations.
330 Sample Plan
Sample
EROSIONANDSEDIMENTATIONCONTROLPLANABC
INDUSTRIES,INC.
ANYTOWN,MASSACHUSETTS
JULY1995
TableofContents
Item Page
Narrative 367
ConstructionSchedule 371
MaintenancePlan 372
VicinityMap (notincluded)
SiteTopographicMap (notincluded)
SiteDevelopmentPlan (notincluded)
SiteErosionandSedimentationPlanDrawings (notincluded)
DetailDrawingsandSpecificationsforPractices (notincluded)
VegetationPlan (notincluded)
SupportingCalculations (notincluded)
Sample Plan 331
Narrative
ProjectDescription
Thepurposeoftheprojectistoconstructtwolargecommercial
buildingswithassociatedpavedroadsandparkingarea.Another
buildingwillbeaddedinthefuture.Approximately6acreswillbe
disturbedduringthisconstructionperiod.Thesiteconsistsofatotalof
11.1acresandislocatedinANYTOWN,Massachusetts.
SiteDescription
Thesitehasrollingtopographywithslopesgenerally4to6
percent.Slopessteeperto10to20percentinthenorthwestportionof
thepropertywhereasmallhealed-overgullyservesastheprincipal
drainagewayforthesite.Thesiteisnowcoveredwithwoody
vegetation,predominantlywhitepines,15to20feethigh.Thereisno
evidenceofsignificanterosionunderpresentsiteconditions.Theold
drainagegullyindicatessevereerosionpotentialandreceivesflowfrom
5acresofwoodsoff-site.Thereisonelargeoaktree,locatedinthe
westerncentralportionoftheproperty,andabufferarea,frontingTerri
Road,thatwillbeprotectedduringconstruction.
AdjacentProperty
Landuseinthevicinityiscommercial/industrial.Theland
immediatelytothewestandsouthhasbeendevelopedforindustrial
use.Areastothenorthandeastareundevelopedandheavilywooded,
primarilyinwhitepine.HocuttCreek,theoff-siteoutletforrunoff
discharge,ispresentlyawellstabilized,gently-flowingperennialstream.
SedimentcontrolmeasureswillbetakentopreventdamagetoHocutt
Creek.Approximately5acresofwoodedareatotheeastcontribute
runoffintotheconstructionarea.
Soils
ThesoilintheprojectareaismappedasPaxton(seeNatural
ResourcesConservationService,soilsurveyforyourtown)finesandy
loaminBandCslopeclasses.Paxtonsoilsareconsideredmoderately
welltosomewhatpoorlydrainedwithpermeabilityratesgreaterthan6
inches/houratthesurfacebutlessthan0.1inches/hourinthesubsoil.
Thesubsurfaceispalebrownsandyloam,6inchesthick.Thesubsoil
consistsofapalebrownandbrownishyellowsandyclayloamranging
tolightgrayclay,36inchesthick.Below36inchesisalayeroffine
sandyloamto77inches.Thesoilerodibility(Kfactor;seesoilsurvey
foranexplanation)rangesfrom0.20atthesurfaceto0.37inthesubsoil.
Duetotheslowpermeabilityofthesubsoilthatwillbeexposedduring
grading,asurfacewetnessproblemwithhighrunoffisanticipated
followingsignificantrainfallevents.Nogroundwaterproblemisexpected.
Thetightclayinthesubsoilwillmakevegetationdifficulttoestablish.
Sometopsoilexistson-siteandwillbestockpiledforlandscaping.
332 Sample Plan
Planned Erosion and Sedimentation Control
Practices
SedimentBasin
Asedimentbasinwillbeconstructedinthenorthwestcornerofthe
property.Allwaterfromdisturbedareas,about6acres,willbedirectedto
thebasinbeforeleavingthesite.(NOTE:Theundisturbedareastotheeast
andnorthcouldhavebeendiverted,butthiswasnotproposedbecauseit
wouldhaverequiredclearingtothepropertylinetobuildthediversion
andtherequiredoutletstructure.)
ConstructionEntrance
Atemporarygravelconstructionentrancewillbeinstallednearthe
north-westcorneroftheproperty.Duringwetweatheritmaybenecessary
towashvehicletiresatthislocation.Theentrancewillbegradedsothat
runoffwaterwillbedirectedtoaninletprotectionstructureandawayfrom
thesteepfillareatothenorth.
BlockandGravelInletProtection
Atemporaryblockandgravelinletprotectiondevicewillbeinstalled
atthedropinletlocatedonthesouthsideoftheconstructionentrance.
Runofffromthedevicewillbedirectedintothesedimentbasin.(NOTE:
Thepresenceofthisdevicereducesthesedimentloadonthesediment
basinandprovidessedimentprotectionforthepipe.Inaddition,sediment
removalatthispointismoreconvenientthanfromthebasin.)
TemporaryDiversions
Temporarydiversionswillbeconstructedabovethe3:1cutslopes
southofBuildingsAandBtopreventsurfacerunofffromerodingthese
banks.(NOTE:Sediment-freewatermaybedivertedawayfromtheproject
sedimentbasin.)Atemporarydiversionwillbeconstructednearthe
middleofthedisturbedareatobreakupthislong,potentiallyerosiveslope
shouldthegradingoperationbetemporarilydiscontinued.Atemporary
diversionwillbeconstructedalongthetopedgeofthefillslopeattheend
ofeachdayduringthefillingoperationtoprotectthefillslope.This
temporarydiversionwilloutlettotheexistingundisturbedchannelnear
thenorthedgeoftheconstructionsiteand/ortothetemporaryinlet
protectiondeviceattheconstructionentranceasthefillelevation
increases.
LevelSpreader
Alevelspreaderwillserveastheoutletforthediversioneastof
BuildingAandsouthofBuildingB.Theareabelowthespreaderis
relativelysmoothandheavilyvegetatedwithaslopeofapproximately4
percent.
Sample Plan 333
TreePreservationandProtection
Aminimum2foothighprotectivefencewillbeerectedaroundthe
largeoaktreeatthedriplinetopreventdamageduringconstruction.
Sedimentfencematerialsmaybeusedforthispurpose.
LandGrading
Heavygradingwillberequiredonapproximately6acres.The
flatterslopeaftergradingwillreducetheoverallerosionpotentialofthe
site.Thebuildingswillbelocatedonthehighercutareas,andthe
accessroadandopenlandscapedareaswillbelocatedonfillareas.
Allcutslopeswillbe3:1orflattertoavoidinstabilitydueto
wetness,providefillmaterial,giveanopenareaaroundthebuildings,
andallowvegetatedslopestobemowed.Cutslopeswillbefinegraded
immediatelyafterroughgrading;thesurfacewillbediskedand
vegetatedaccordingtotheVegetationPlan.
Fillslopeswillbe2:1withfilldepthsasmuchas12to15feet.Fill
willbeplacedinlayersnottoexceed9inchesindepthandcompacted.
Thefillslopeinthenorthportionofthepropertyisthemost
vulnerableareatoerosiononthesite.Temporarydiversionswillbe
maintainedatthetopofthisfillslopeatalltimes,andthefilling
operationwillbegradedtopreventoverflowtothenorth.Fillingwillbe
doneasacontinuousoperationuntilfinalgradeisreached.
Thepavedroadlocatedonthefillwillbeslopedtothesouthand
willfunctionasapermanentdiversion.Theareaadjacenttotheroads
andparkingareawillbegradedtoconductrunofftotheroadculverts.
Runoffwaterfromthebuildingswillbegutteredtothevegetated
channels.Thefinishedslopefacetothenorthwillnotbeback-bladed.
Thetop2to6incheswillbeleftinalooseandroughenedcondition.
Plantingswillbeprotectedwithmulch,asspecifiedintheVegetation
Plan.
Aminimum15footundisturbedbufferwillbemaintainedaround
theperimeterofthedisturbedarea.(NOTE:Thiswillreducewaterand
winderosion,helpcontainsediment,reducedust,andreducefinal
landscapingcosts.)
TemporarySedimentTrap
Asmallsedimenttrapwillbeconstructedattheintersectionofthe
existingroadditchandchannelnumber3toprotecttheroadditch.
Approximately2acresofdisturbedareawilldrainintothistrap.
SedimentFence
Asedimentfencewillbeconstructedaroundthetopsoilstockpile
andalongthechannelbermadjacenttothedeepcutarea,asnecessary
topreventsedimentfromenteringthechannels.
334 Sample Plan
SodDropInletProtection
Permanentsoddropinletprotectionwillreplacethetemporaryblock
andgravelstructurewhenthecontributingdrainageareahasbeen
permanentlyseededandmulched.
GrassedWaterway
Grassedwaterwayswithtemporarystraw-netlinerswillbe
constructedaroundBuildingsAandBtocollectandconveysitewaterto
theprojectssedimentbasin.
Shouldthedisturbedareasadjoiningthechannelsnotbestabilizedat
thetimethechannelsarevegetated,asedimentfencewillbeinstalled
adjacenttothechanneltopreventchannelsiltation.
Riprap-LinedWaterways
Ariprapchannelwillbeconstructedintheoldgullyalongthenorth
sideofthepropertystartinginthenorthwestcornerafterallother
constructioniscomplete.Thischannelwillreplacetheoldgullyasthe
principaloutletfromthesite.
ConstructionRoadStabilization
Assoonasfinalgradeisreachedontheentranceroad,thesubgrade
willbeslopedtodraintothesouthandstabilizedwitha6inchcourseof
inchstone.Theparkingareaanditsentranceroadwillalsobestabilized
withinchstonetopreventerosionanddustduringtheconstructionof
thebuildingsandpriortopaving.
OutletStabilization
Ariprapapronwillbelocatedattheoutletofthethreeculvertsto
preventscour.
SurfaceRoughening
The3:1cutslopeswillbelightlyroughenedbydiskingjustpriorto
vegetating,andthesurface4to6inchesofthe2:1fillslopeswillbeleftina
looseconditionandgroovedonthecontour.
Surfacestabilization
Surfacestabilizationwillbeaccomplishedwithvegetationandmulch
asspecifiedintheVegetationPlan.OnelargeoaktreesouthwestofBuilding
AandabufferareabetweentheparkinglotandTerriRoadwillbe
preserved.Roadwayandparkinglotbasecourseswillbeinstalledassoon
asfinishedgradeisreached.
Sample Plan 335
Dustcontrol
Dustcontrolisnotexpectedtobeaproblemduetothesmallareaof
exposure,theundisturbedperimeteroftreesaroundthesite,andthe
relativelyshorttimeofexposure(nottoexceed9months).Should
excessivedustbegenerated,itwillbecontrolledbysprinkling.
ConstructionSchedule
1.Obtainplanapprovalandotherapplicablepermits.
2.Flagtheworklimitsandmarktheoaktreeandbufferareafor
protection.
3.Holdapre-constructionconferenceatleastoneweekpriortostarting
construction.
4.Installthesedimentbasinasthefirstconstructionactivity.
5.Installthestormdrainwiththeblockandgravelinletprotectionatthe
constructionentrance/exit.
6.Installthetemporarygravelconstructionentrance/exit.
7.Constructthetemporarydiversionsabovetheproposedbuildingsites.
Installthelevelspreaderandsedimenttrapandvegetatedisturbedareas.
8.Completesiteclearingexceptfortheoldgullyinthenorthwestportion
ofthesite.Thisareawillbeclearedduringthelastconstructionphasefor
theinstallationoftheriprapchannel.
9.Clearthewastedisposalareainthenortheastcorneroftheproperty,
onlyasneeded.
10.Roughgradesite,stockpiletopsoil,constructchannels,installculverts
andoutletprotection,andinstallsedimentfenceasneeded.Maintain
diversionsalongthetopofthefillslopedaily.
11.Finishtheslopesaroundthebuildingsassoonasroughgradingis
complete.Leavethesurfaceslightlyroughenedandvegetateandmulch
assoonaspossible.
12.Completethefinalgradingforroadsandparkingandstabilizewith
gravel.
13.Completethefinalgradingforthebuildings.
14.Completethefinalgradingofgrounds,topsoilcriticalareas,and
permanentlyvegetate,landscape,andmulch.
15.Installtheriprapoutletchannelandextendripraptopipeoutletunder
entranceroad.
16.Afterthesiteisstabilized,removealltemporarymeasuresandinstall
permanentvegetationonthedisturbedareas.
17.Estimatedtimebeforefinalstabilizationis9months.
336 Sample Plan
MaintenancePlan
1.Allerosionandsedimentcontrolpracticeswillbecheckedforstability
andoperationfollowingeveryrunoff-producingrainfallbutinnocaseless
thanonceeveryweek.Anyneededrepairswillbemadeimmediatelyto
maintainallpracticesasdesigned.
2.Thesedimentbasinwillbecleanedoutwhenthelevelofsediment
reaches2feetbelowthetopoftheriser.Gravelwillbecleanedorreplaced
whenthesedimentpoolnolongerdrainsproperly.
3.Sedimentwillberemovedfromthesedimenttrapandblockandgravel
inletprotectiondevicewhenstoragecapacityhasbeenapproximately50
percentfilled.Gravelwillbecleanedorreplacedwhenthesedimentpool
nolongerdrainsproperly.
4.Sedimentwillberemovedfrombehindthesedimentfencewhenit
becomesaboutfootdeepatthefence.Thesedimentfencewillbe
repairedasnecessarytomaintainabarrier.
5.Allseededareaswillbefertilized,reseededasnecessary,andmulched
accordingtospecificationsintheVegetationPlantomaintainavigorous,
densevegetativecover.
Note:TheappropriateofficialfromAnytown,Massachusettsshould
conductregular(weeklyorbi-weekly)inspectionsofthesiteandcontrol
measurestoensureproperfunctioning.Ordersshouldbeissuedifany
conservationpracticeisobservedtobemalfunctioningorincorrectly
built.
References
MassachusettsDepartmentofEnvironmentalProtection,Officeof
WatershedManagement,NonpointSourceProgram,Massachusetts
NonpointSourceManagement,Boston,Massachusetts,June,1993.
337
Glossary
Accessroad:Atemporaryorpermanentroad
overwhichtimberistransportedfromaloading
sitetoapublicroad.Alsoknownasahaulroad.
Acre-foot:Anengineeringtermusedtodenotea
volume1acreinareaand1footindepth.
Adsorption:Theadhesionofonesubstanceto
thesurfaceofanother.
Aggrade:Thealterationofachannelcausedby
thedepositionofsediment.
Aggregate:Thestoneorrockgravelneededfor
aninfiltrationpractice,suchasaninfiltration
trenchordrywell.
Alignment:Thehorizontalrouteordirectionof
anaccessroad.
Alluvial:Pertainingtomaterialthatis
transportedanddepositedbyrunningwater.
Allochthonous:Derivedfromoutsideasystem,
suchasleavesofterrestrialplantsthatfallintoa
stream.
Angleofrepose:Themaximumslopeorangleat
whichamaterial,suchassoilorlooserock,
remainsstable.Anglebetweenthehorizontal
andthemaximumslopethatasoilassumes
throughnaturalprocesses.
Anti-seepCollar:Adeviceconstructedarounda
pipeorotherconduitplacedthroughadam,
dike,orleveeforthepurposeofreducing
seepagelossesandpipingfailures.
Anti-vortexDevice:Afacilityplacedatthe
entrancetoapipeconduitstructuresuchasa
dropinletspillwayorhoodinletspillwayto
preventairfromenteringthestructurewhenthe
pipeisflowingfull.
Apron:Afloororliningtoprotectasurfacefrom
erosion,forexample,thepavementbelowchutes,
spillways,oratthetoesofdams.Erosionprotection
placedbelowthestreambedinanareaofhighflow
velocity,suchasdownstreamfromaculvert.
Aquifer:Ageologicformationorstructurethat
transmitswaterinsufficientquantityto
supplytheneedsforawaterdevelopment;
usuallysaturatedsands,gravel,fractures,and
cavernousandvesicularrock(Soil
ConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Autochthonous:Derivedfromwithinasystem,
suchasorganicmatterinastreamresulting
fromphotosynthesisbyaquaticplants.
Backfill:Theoperationoffillinganexcavation
afterithasoncebeenmade.
Backwater:Thewaterretardedupstreamofa
damorbackedupintoatributarybyafloodin
themainstream.
Bankfullevent(alsobankfulldischarge):Aflow
conditioninwhichstreamflowcompletelyfills
thesteamchanneluptothetopofthebank.In
undisturbedwatersheds,thedischarge
conditionoccursonaverageevery1.5to2
yearsandcontrolstheshapeandformof
naturalchannels.(Schueler,1987)
Barrel:Theconcreteorcorrugatedmetalpipe
ofaprincipalspillwaythatpassesrunofffrom
theriserthroughtheembankment,andfinally
dischargestothepondsoutfall.
BaseFlow:Thestreamdischargefrom
groundwaterrunoff.
Bedding:(1)Theprocessoflayingadrainor
otherconduitinitstrenchandtampingearth
aroundtheconduittoformitsbed.The
mannerofbeddingmaybespecifiedto
conformtotheearthloadandconduit
strength.(2)Asitepreparationtechnique
wherebyasmallridgeofsurfacesoilisformed
toprovideanelevatedplantingorseedbed.It
isusedprimarilyinwetareastoimprove
drainageandaerationforseeding.
Glossary 339
Bedload:Thesedimentthatmovesbysliding,
rolling,orboundingonorverynearthe
streambed;sedimentmovedmainlybytractiveor
gravitationalforcesorbothbutatvelocitiesless
thanthesurroundingflow.
Bedrock:Themoreorlesssolidrockinplace
eitheronorbeneaththesurfaceoftheearth.It
maybesoftorhardandhaveasmoothor
irregularsurface.
Berm:(1)Ahorizontalstriporshelfbuiltintoan
embankmentorcut,tobreakthecontinuityofa
longslope,usuallyforthepurposeofreducing
erosion,improvingstability,ortoincreasethe
thicknessorwidthofanembankment.(2)Alow
earthfillconstructedinthepathofflowingwater
todivertitsdirection,orconstructedtoactasa
counterweightbesidetheroadfilltoreducethe
riskoffoundationfailure(buttress).
BestManagementPractice(BMP):Astructural,
nonstructural,ormanagerialtechnique
recognizedtobethemosteffectiveandpractical
meanstopreventandreducenonpointsource
pollutants.Shouldbecompatiblewiththe
productiveuseoftheresourcetowhichapplied
andshouldbecosteffective.
BlindDrain:Atypeofdrainconsistingofan
excavatedtrenchrefilledwithpreviousmaterials,
suchascoarsesand,gravelorcrushedstones,
throughwhosevoidswaterpercolatesandflows
towardanoutlet.OftenreferredtoasaFrench
drainbecauseofitsinitialdevelopmentand
widespreaduseinFrance.
BorderingVegetatedWetlands:Freshwater
wetlandswhichborderoncreeks,rivers,streams,
ponds,andlakes.Thetypesoffreshwater
wetlandsarewetmeadows,marshes,swamps,
andbogs.Theyareareaswherethetopography
islowandflat,andwherethesoilsareannually
saturated.
BorrowArea:Asourceofearthfillmaterialsused
intheconstructionofembankmentsorother
earthfillstructures.
Borrowpit:Anexcavationsiteoutsidethelimits
ofconstructionthatprovidesnecessary
material,suchasfillmaterialforembankments.
Bottomlands:Atermoftenusedtodefine
lowlandsadjacenttostreams(floodplainsin
ruralareas).
Broad-baseddip:Asurfacedrainagestructure
specificallydesignedtodrainwaterfroman
accessroadwhilevehiclesmaintainnormal
travelspeeds.
Brushbarrier:Asedimentcontrolstructure
createdofslashmaterialspiledatthetoeslope
ofaroadorattheoutletsofculverts,turnouts,
dips,andwaterbars.
Bufferarea:Adesignatedareaaroundastream
orwaterbodyofsufficientwidthtominimize
entranceofsedimentandpollutantsintothe
waterbody.
CantileverOutlet:Adischargepipeextending
beyonditssupport.
CatchBasin:Anundergroundbasincombined
withastormsewerinlettotrapsolids.
ChannelErosion:Thewidening,deepening,and
headwardcuttingofsmallchannelsand
waterways,duetoerosioncausedbyflowing
water.
Channel:Anopencutintheearthssurface,
eithernaturalorartificial,thatconveyswater.
Checkdam:Asmalldamconstructedinagully
todecreasetheflowvelocity,minimizechannel
scour,andpromotedepositionofsediment.
Chemigation:Theadditionofoneormore
chemicalstotheirrigationwater.
Chemigatedwater:Watertowhichfertilizersor
pesticideshavebeenadded.
340 Glossary
Chopping:Amechanicaltreatmentwhereby
vegetationisconcentratednearthegroundand
incorporatedintothesoiltofacilitateburningor
seedlingestablishment.
Chute:Adeviceconstructedtoconveywateron
steepgrades,linedwitherosionresistant
materials.
Composting:Acontrolledprocessofdegrading
organicmatterbymicroorganisms.
Conduit:Aclosedfacilityusedforthe
conveyanceofwater.
Constructedwetlands:Thosewetlandsthatare
intentionallycreatedonsitesthatarenot
wetlandsfortheprimarypurposeofwastewater
orurbanrunofftreatmentandaremanagedas
such.
Contour:Animaginarylineonthesurfaceofthe
earthconnectingpointsofthesameelevation.A
linedrawnonamapconnectingpointsofthe
sameelevation.
Conveyancesystem:Thedrainagefacilities,both
naturalandhuman-made,whichcollect,contain,
andprovidefortheflowofsurfacewaterand
urbanrunofffromthehighestpointsontheland
downtoareceivingwater.Thenaturalelements
oftheconveyancesystemincludeswalesand
smalldrainagecourses,streams,rivers,lakes,
andwetlands.Thehuman-madeelementsofthe
conveyancesystemincludegutters,ditches,
pipes,channels,andmostretention/detention
facilities(WashingtonDepartmentofEcology,
1992).
Covercrop:Aclose-growingcropgrownprimarily
forthepurposeofprotectingandimprovingsoil
betweenperiodsofregularcropproductionor
betweentreesandvinesinorchardsand
vineyards(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Cradle:Adevice,usuallyconcrete,usedto
supportapipeconduit.
Cropresidue:Theportionofaplantorcropleft
inthefieldafterharvest.
Croprotation:Thegrowingofdifferentcropsin
recurringsuccessiononthesameland.
Crown:Aconvexroadsurfacethatallowsrunoff
todraintoeithersideoftheroadprism.
Cubicfootpersecond:Rateoffluidflowatwhich
1cubicfootoffluidpassesameasuringpointin
1second.Abbreviated:cfs.Synonym:Second-
foot;CUSEC.
Culvert:Ametal,wooden,plastic,orconcrete
conduitthroughwhichsurfacewatercanflow
underoracrossroads.
Culvert,Box:Generallyarectangularorsquare
concretestructureforcarryinglargeamountsof
waterunderaroadway.
Cut-and-Fill:Processofearthmovingby
excavatingpartofanareaandusingthe
excavatedmaterialforadjacentembankmentsof
fillareas.
CutoffTrench:Along,narrowexcavation
constructedalongthecenterlineofadam,dike,
levee,orembankmentandfilledwithrelatively
imperviousmaterialintendedtoreduceseepage
ofwaterthroughporousstrata.
Dam:Abarriertoconfineorraisewaterfor
storageordiversion,tocreateahydraulichead,
topreventgullyerosion,orforretentionofsoil,
rock,orotherdebris.
Defoliant:Aherbicidethatremovesleavesfrom
treesandgrowingplants.
Denitrification:Theanaerobicbiological
reductionofnitratenitrogentonitrogengas.
Deposition:Theaccumulationofmaterial
droppedbecauseofaslackeningmovementof
thematerial-waterorwind(SoilConservation
SocietyofAmerica,1982).
Glossary
341
Desiccant:Achemicalagentusedtoremove
moisturefromamaterialorobject(Soil
Conservation,ofAmerica,1982).
DesignStorm:Arainfalleventofspecific
frequencyandduration(e.g.,astormwitha2-
yearfrequencyand24-hourduration)thatisused
tocalculaterunoffvolumeandpeakdischarge
rate.
Detention:Thetemporarystorageofstorm
runoff;usedtocontrolthepeakdischargerates,
andwhichprovidessettlingofpollutants.
DetentionStorage:Thestorageofstormrunoff
waterforcontrolledreleaseduringor
immediatelyfollowingthedesignstorm.
DetentionTime:Theamountoftimethatrunoff
wateractuallyisstored.Theoreticaldetention
timeforarunoffeventistheaveragetimerunoff
ofwaterresidesinthebasinoveraperiodof
release.
Dike:Atemporarybermorridgeofcompacted
soilthatchannelswatertoadesiredlocation.An
embankmenttoconfineorcontrolwater,
especiallyonebuiltalongthebanksofariverto
preventoverflowoflowlands;alevee.
Disking(harrowing):Amechanicalmethodof
scarifyingthesoiltoreducecompeting
vegetationandtoprepareasitetobeseededor
planted.
Diversion:Achannelwithasupportingridgeon
thelowersideconstructedacrossoratthe
bottomofaslopeforthepurposeofintercepting
surfacerunoff.
Drain:Usuallyapipe,ditch,orchannelfor
collectingandconveyingwater.
Drainage:Ageneraltermappliedtotheremoval
ofsurfaceorsubsurfacewaterfromagivenarea
eitherbygravityorbypumping.
Drainagearea:Thecontributingareatoasingle
drainagebasin,expressedinacres,square
miles,orotherunitofarea.
Drainagestructure:Anydeviceorlandform
constructedtointerceptand/oraidsurface
waterdrainage.
DryWell:Anexcavatedpitbackfilledwith
aggregateoraconstructedchamberplacedin
anexcavationandbackfilledwithaggregate
aroundthechamber.Providestemporaryrunoff
storageandallowsstoredrunofftoinfiltrate
intothesoil.
Duff:Theaccumulationofneedles,leaves,and
decayingmatterontheforestfloor.
Effluent:Solid,liquid,orgaseouswastesthat
entertheenvironmentasaby-productofman-
orientedprocesses(SoilConservationSociety
ofAmerica,1982).
EmergencyorEarthSpillway:Adepressionin
theembankmentofapondorbasinthatisused
topasspeakdischargesgreaterthanthe
maximumdesignstormcontrolledbythepipe
spillwayofthepond.
Empirical:Originatinginorrelyingorbasedon
factualinformation,observation,ordirect
senseexperience.
Ephemeralstream:Achannelthatcarrieswater
onlyduringandimmediatelyfollowing
rainstorms.
EquivalentOpeningSize(EOS):Pertainsto
geotextilefabricfilter.ItistheEquivalent
OpeningSizeofthefabricasitrelatestotheUS
StandardSieveDesignationusedinSoil
MechanicsLaboratories.
Erosion:Wearingawayoflandbyrunningwater,
waves,wind,ice,abrasion,andtransportation.
342 Glossary
Fallow:Allowingcroplandtolieidle,eithertilled
oruntilled,duringthewholeorgreaterportion
ofthegrowingseason(SoilConservationSociety
ofAmerica,1982).
Fieldcapacity:Thesoil-watercontentafterthe
forceofgravityhasdrainedorremovedallthe
wateritcan,usually1to3daysafterrainfall.
Fillslope:Thesurfaceformedwhereearthis
depositedtobuildaroadortrail.
FilterFabric:Textileofrelativelysmallmeshor
poresizethatisusedto(1)allowwatertopass
throughwhilekeepingsedimentout
(permeable),or(2)preventbothrunoffand
sedimentfrompassingthrough(impermeable).
Filterfence:Atemporarybarrierusedto
interceptsediment-ladenrunofffromsmall
areas.
Flood:Waterfromariver,stream,watercourse,
ocean,lake,orotherbodyofstandingwaterthat
temporarilyoverflowsorinundatesadjacent
landsandwhichmayaffectotherlandsand
activitiesthroughstageelevation,backwater
and/orincreasedgroundwaterlevel.
FloodControl:Theeliminationorreductionof
floodlossesbytheconstructionoffloodstorage
reservoirs,channelimprovements,dikesand
levees,by-passchannels,orotherengineering
works.
FloodFrequency:SeeRecurrenceInterval.
FloodPlain:Foragivenfloodevent,thatareaof
landadjoiningacontinuouswatercoursewhich
hasbeencoveredtemporarilybyfloodwater.
FloodStorage:Storageofwaterduringfloodsto
reducedownstreampeakflows.
FloodStorageArea:Floodstorageareaisthat
portionoftheimpoundmentareathatmayserve
asatemporarystorageareaforfloodwaters.
Flume:Anopenconduitonapreparedgrade,
trestle,orbridgeforthepurposeofcarrying
wateracrosscreeks,gullies,ravines,orother
obstructions;alsousedinreferenceto
calibrateddevicesusedtomeasuretheflowof
waterinopenconduits(SoilConservation
SocietyofAmerica,1982).
Forb:Abroad-leafherbaceousplantthatisnota
grass,sedge,orrush.
Ford:Submergedstreamcrossingwheretreadis
reinforcedtobearintendedtraffic.
Freeboard:Theverticaldistancefromthetopof
anembankmenttothehighestwaterelevation
expectedforthelargestdesignstormstored.
Thespaceisrequiredasasafetymarginina
pondorbasin.
Geotextile:Aproductusedasasoil
reinforcementagentandasafiltermedium.Itis
madeofsyntheticfibersmanufacturedina
wovenorloosenonwovenmannertoforma
blanket-likeproduct.
Grade:(1)Theinclinationorslopeofachannel,
conduit,etc.,ornaturalgroundsurface,usually
expressedintermsofthepercentageofnumber
ofunitsofverticalrise(orfall)perunitof
horizontaldistance.(2)Tofinishthesoil
surface,aroadbed,topofembankment,bottom
ofexcavation,etc.
GradeStabilizationStructure:Apermanent
structureusedtodropwaterfromahigher
elevationtoalowerelevationwithoutcausing
erosion.
GrassedWaterwayorOutlet:Anaturalor
constructedchannelshapedorgradedand
establishedwithsuitablevegetationasneeded
forthesafedisposalofrunoffwater.
Headwater:(1)Theupperreachesofastream
nearitssource;(2)theregionwhereground
watersemergetoformasurfacestream;or(3)
thewaterupstreamfromastructure.
Glossary 343
Heavymetals:Metallicelementswithhighatomic
weights,e.g.,mercury,chromium,cadmium,
arsenic,andlead.Theycandamagelivingthings
atlowconcentrationsandtendtoaccumulatein
thefoodchain.
Herbaceous:Avascularplantthatdoesnot
developwoodytissue(SoilConservationSociety
ofAmerica,1982).
Herbicide:Achemicalsubstancedesignedtokill
orinhibitthegrowthofplants,especiallyweeds
(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Highwatermark:SeeOrdinaryhighwatermark.
Highlyerodiblesoils:Anysoilwithanerodibility
class(Kfactor)greaterthanorequalto.43inany
layer.
Holdingpond:Areservoir,pit,orpond,usually
madeofearth,usedtoretainpollutedrunoff
waterfordisposalonland(SoilConservation
SocietyofAmerica,1982).
Hybrid:Aplantresultingfromacrossbetween
parentsofdifferentspecies,subspecies,or
cultivar(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Hydraulicgradient:Aprofileofthepiezometric
levelofthewater,representingthesumofthe
depthofflowandthepressure.Inopenchannel
flowitisthewatersurface.
Hydricsoil:Asoilthatissaturated,flooded,or
pondedlongenoughduringthegrowingseason
todevelopanaerobicconditionsintheupper
part.
Hydrograph:Agraphshowingvariationinthe
waterdepthordischargeinastrewnorchannel
versustime.
Hydrology:Thesciencethatdealswiththe
processesgoverningthedepletionand
replenishmentofthewaterresourcesoftheland
areasoftheearth.
Hydrophyte:Aplantthatgrowsinwaterorin
wetorsaturatedsoils(SoilConservation
SocietyofAmerica,1982).
Impervious:Atermappliedtoamaterial
throughwhichwatercannotpass,orthrough
whichwaterpasseswithgreatdifficulty.
ImperviousArea:Impermeablesurfaces,suchas
pavementorrooftops,whichpreventthe
infiltrationofwaterintothesoil.
Inert:Asubstancethatdoesnotreactwith
othersubstancesunderordinaryconditions.
Infiltration:Thepenetrationofwaterthrough
thegroundsurfaceintosubsurfacesoil.
InfiltrationTrench:Anexcavatedtrench,usually
2to10feetdeepthatisbackfilledwithacoarse
gradedstoneaggregate.Itprovidestemporary
storageofrunoffandpermitsinfiltrationinto
thesurroundingsoil.
Insecticide:Apesticidecompoundspecifically
usedtokillorcontrolthegrowthofinsects.
Interflow:Theportionofrainfallthatinfiltrates
intothesoilandmoveslaterallythroughthe
uppersoilhorizonsuntilinterceptedbya
streamchanneloruntilitreturnstothesurface
in,forexample,awetland,spring,orseep.
Intermittentstream:Awatercoursethatflowsin
awell-definedchannelonlyindirectresponse
toaprecipitationevent.Itisdryforalargepart
oftheyear.
Invert:Thefloor,bottom,orlowestportionof
theinternalcrosssectionofaconduit.
Lateral:Secondaryorsidechannel,ditch,or
conduit(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
344
Glossary
Leachate:Liquidsthathavepercolatedthrougha
soilandthatcontainsubstancesinsolutionor
suspension(SoilConservationSocietyof
America,1982).
Leaching:Theremovalfromthesoilinsolution
ofthemoresolublematerialsbypercolating
waters(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Legume:Amemberofalargefamilythatincludes
manyvaluablefoodandforagespecies,suchas
peas,beans,peanuts,clovers,alfalfas,sweet
clovers,lespedezas,vetches,andkudzu(Soil
ConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Levee:SeeDike.
LevelSpreader:Anoutletconstructedatzero
percentgradeacrosstheslopethatallows
concentratedrunofftobedischargedassheet
flowatanon-erosivevelocityontonaturalor
man-madeareasthathaveexistingvegetation
capableofpreventingerosion.
Micronutrient:Achemicalelementnecessaryin
onlyextremelysmallamounts(lessthan1part
permillion)forthegrowthofplants(Soil
ConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Mineralsoil:Organic-freesoilthatcontainsrock
lessthan2inchesinmaximumdimension.
Mulch:Anaturalorartificiallayerofplant
residueorothermaterialscoveringtheland
surfacethatconservesmoisture,holdssoilin
place,aidsinestablishingplantcover,and
minimizestemperaturefluctuations.
Mulching:Providinganyloosecovering,suchas
grass,straw,bark,orwoodfibers,forexposed
soilstohelpcontrolerosionandprotect
exposedsoil.
Nonpointsource:Anysourceofwaterpollution
thatdoesnotmeetthelegaldefinitionofpoint
sourceinsection502(14)oftheCleanWater
Act.Nonpointsourcepollutiongenerallyresults
fromlandrunoff,precipitation,atmospheric
deposition,drainage,seepage,orhydrologic
modification.
Nutrients:Elements,orcompounds,essentialasraw
materialsfororganismgrowthanddevelopment,
suchascarbon,nitrogen,phosphorus,etc.(Soil
ConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Ordinaryhighwatermark:Anelevationthat
markstheboundaryofalake,marsh,or
streambed.Itisthehighestlevelatwhichthe
waterhasremainedlongenoughtoleaveits
markonthelandscape.Typically,itisthepoint
wherethenaturalvegetationchangesfrom
predominantlyaquatictopredominantly
terrestrial.Thelineontheshoreestablishedby
thefluctuationsofwaterandindicatedby
physicalcharacteristicssuchasaclear,natural
lineimpressedonthebank;shelving;changesin
thecharacterofsoildestructiononterrestrial
vegetation,orthepresenceoflitteranddebris;
orotherappropriatemeansthatconsiderthe
characteristicsofthesurroundingarea.
Organicdebris:Particlesofvegetationorother
biologicalmaterialthatcandegradewater
qualitybydecreasingdissolvedoxygenandby
releasingorganicsolutesduringleaching.
Organophosphate:Pesticidechemicalthat
containsphosphorus,usedtocontrolinsects.
Organophosphatesareshortlived,butsomecan
betoxicwhenfirstapplied.
OutletProtection:Arocklinedapronorother
acceptableenergydissipatingmaterialplacedat
theoutletofapipeorpavedchannelanda
stabledownstreamreceivingchannel.
Outslope:Toshapetheroadsurfacetocause
drainagetoflowtowardtheoutsideshoulder.
Pavedflume:Apermanentlinedchannel
constructedonarelativelysteepslope.Its
purposeistoconductconcentratedrunoffdown
theslopewithoutcausinganerosionproblem
eitherontheslopeorattheoutlet.
Glossary
345
Peakdischarge:Themaximuminstantaneousrate
ofnowduringastorm,usuallyinreferencetoa
specificdesignstormevent.
Peakrateofrunoff:Themaximumrateofrunoff
duringagivenrunoffevent.
Pervious:Atermappliedtoamaterialthrough
whichwaterpassesrelativelyfreely.
Percolation:Thedownwardmovementofwater
throughthesoil(SoilConservationSocietyof
America,1982).
Perennialplant:Aplantthathasalifespanof3or
moreyears(SoilConservationSocietyof
America,1982).
Perennialstream:Awatercoursethatflows
throughoutamajorityoftheyearinawell-
definedchannel.
Permanentstorage:Theportionofapondor
infiltrationBMPwhichisbelowtheelevationof
thelowestoutletofthestructure.
Permanentwiltingpoint:Thesoilwatercontentat
whichhealthyplantscannolongerextractwater
fromthesoilataratefastenoughtorecover
fromwilting.Thepermanentwiltingpointis
consideredthelowerlimitofplant-available
water.
Permeability:Thequalityofasoilhorizonthat
enableswaterorairtomovethroughit;maybe
limitedbythepresenceofonenearly
impermeablehorizoneventhoughtheothersare
permeable(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Pesticide:Anychemicalagentusedforcontrolof
plantoranimalpests.Pesticidesinclude
insecticides,herbicides,fungicides,nematocides,
androdenticides.
Pioneerroads:Temporaryaccesswaysusedto
facilitateconstructionequipmentaccesswhen
buildingpermanentroads.
Plant-availablewater:Theamountofwaterheld
inthesoilthatisavailabletoplants;the
differencebetweenfieldcapacityandthe
permanentwiltingpoint.
Pointsource:Anydiscernible,confinedand
discreteconveyance,includingbutnotlimited
toanypipe,ditch,channel,tunnel,conduit,
well,discretefissure,container,rollingstock,
concentratedanimalfeedingoperation,or
vesselorotherfloatingcraft,fromwhich
pollutantsareormaybedischarged.
Pollutant:Dredgedspoil,solidwaste,incinerator
residue,sewage,garbage,sewagesludge,
munitions,chemicalwastes,biological
materials,radioactivematerials,heat,wrecked
ordiscardedequipment,rock,sand,cellardirt,
andindustrial,municipal,andagricultural
wastedischargedintowater(Section502(6)of
TheCleanWaterActasamendedbytheWater
QualityActof1987,Pub.L.100-4).
Postdevelopmentpeakrunoff:Maximum
instantaneousrateofflowduringastorm,after
developmentiscomplete.
Precipitation:Anymoisturethatfallsfromthe
atmosphere,includingsnow,sleet,rain,and
hail.
PrincipalorPipeSpillway:Apipestructure
normallyconsistingofaverticalconduit(riser)
andahorizontaloutletconduit(barrel).Itis
usedtocontrolthewaterlevelandthe
dischargefromapondorbasin.
Rainfalldata:Theaveragedepth,ininches,of
rainfalloccurringoverawatershedor
subwatershedforagivenfrequencyand
durationstormevent.
Reach:Anylengthofriverorchannel.Usually
usedtorefertosectionswhichareuniformwith
respecttodischarge,depth,areaorslope,or
sectionsbetweengagingstations.
346 Glossary
penetratedbyplantroots(SoilConservation
Recurrenceinterval:Theaverageintervaloftime
withinwhichagiveneventwillbeequalledor
exceededonce.Foranannualseriesthe
probabilityinanyoneyearistheinverseofthe
recurrenceinterval.Thusafloodhavinga
recurrenceintervalof100years(100-year
frequencystorm)hasa1percentprobabilityof
beingequalledorexceededinanyoneyear.
Releaserate:Therateofdischargeinvolumeper
unittimefromadetentionfacility.
Residue:Seecropresidue.
Retardingbasin:Abasinstoragedesignedand
operatedtoreducethefloodflowsofastream
throughtemporarystorage.
Retention:Theholdingofrunoffinabasin
withoutreleaseexceptbymeansofevaporation,
infiltration,oremergencybypass.
Retentionstorage:Thestorageofstormrunoff
waterforreleaseaftertheendofthedesign
stormatatimeandinamountsthatcanbe
convenientlyhandledby,thedrainagesystem.
Returnflow:Thatportionofthewaterdiverted
fromastreamthatfindsitswaybacktothe
streamchanneleitherassurfaceorunderground
flow(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Right-of-way:Theclearedareaalongtheroad
alignmentthatcontainstheroadbed,ditches,
roadslopes,andbackslopes.
Riprap:Acombinationofgradedstone,cobbles,
andbouldersusedtoprotectstreambanks,
bridgeabutments,orothererodiblesitesfrom
runofforwaveaction.
Riser:Averticalpipeconnectedtoabarrel,
extendingfromthebottomofapondthatisused
tocontrolthedischargerateforaspecificdesign
storm.
Rootzone:Thepartofthesoilthatis,orcanbe,
SocietyofAmerica,1982).
Runoff:Thatpartofprecipitationorsnowmelt
thatrunsoffthelandintostreamsorother
surfacewater.
RunoffCurveNumber:AfactorintheNRCS/SCS
HydrologicSoilCoverComplexrunoff
determinationmethod.Relatesmassrainfallto
massrunoff.Itisbasedonsoilcharacteristics,
covertypeandlandtreatment.
Salinity:Theconcentrationofdissolvedsolidsor
saltinwater(SoilConservationSocietyof
America,1982).
Scour:Soilerosionwhenitoccursunderwater,
asinthecaseofastreambed.
Seedbed:Thesoilpreparedbynaturalor
artificialmeanstopromotethegerminationof
seedsandthegrowthofseedlings.
Sediment:Theproductoferosionprocesses,the
solidmaterial,bothmineralandorganic,thatis
insuspension,isbeingtransported,orhasbeen
movedfromitssiteoforiginbyair,water,
gravity,orice.
SedimentBasin:Abasinconstructedtocollect
andstoresedimentorotherwaterbornedebris.
Sedimentation:Theprocessoractofdepositing
sediment(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Seepage:Waterescapingthroughoremerging
fromthegroundalonganextensivelineor
surfaceascontrastedwithaspring,wherethe
wateremergesfromalocalizedspot(Soil
ConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Settleablesolids:Solidsinaliquidthatcanbe
removedbystillingaliquid.Settlingtimesofone
hourormorearegenerallyused.
Sheetflow:Water,usuallystormrunoff,flowingin
athinlayeroverthegroundsurface.
Glossary 347
Siltfence:Atemporarybarrierusedtointercept
sediment-ladenrunofffromsmallareas.
Sinkhole:Adepressionintheearthssurface
causedbydissolvingofunderlyinglimestone,
salt,orgypsum;drainageisthroughunderground
channels;maybeenlargedbycollapseofacavernroof
(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Slope:Amountofdeviationofasurfacefromthe
horizontal,measuredasanumericalratio,asa
percent,orindegrees.Expressedasaratio,the
firstnumberisthehorizontaldistance(run)and
thesecondnumberistheverticaldistance(rise),
as2:1.A2:1slopeisa50percentslope.
Expressedindegrees,theslopeistheanglefrom
thehorizontalplane,witha90degreeslopebeing
vertical(maximum)anda45degreeslopebeinga
1:1slope.
Sludge:Thematerialresultingfromchemical
treatmentofwater,coagulation,orsedimentation
(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
Soilprofile:Averticalsectionofthesoilfromthe
surfacethroughallitshorizons,includingC
horizons(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Soilsurvey:Ageneraltermforthesystematic
examinationofsoilsinthefieldandin
laboratories;theirdescriptionandclassification;
themappingofkindsofsoil;theinterpretationof
soilsaccordingtotheiradaptabilityforvarious
crops,grasses,andtrees;theirbehaviorunder
useortreatmentforplantproductionorforother
purposes;andtheirproductivityunderdifferent
managementsystems(SoilConservation,Society
ofAmerica,1982).
StormSewer:Aclosedconduitforconducting
stormwaterthathasbeencollectedbyinletsor
byothermeans.
StormRunoff:Thewaterfromprecipitation
runningofffromthesurfaceofadrainagearea
duringandimmediatelyfollowingaperiodof
rain.
StraworHayBaleBarrier:Atemporary
obstructionofstraworhayinstalledacrossor
atthetoeofaslope.Itinterceptsanddetains
smallamountsofsedimentfromunprotected
areasoflimitedextentandreducerunoff
velocitydowntheslope.
SubsurfaceDrain:Aconduitsuchastile,pipeor
plastictubing,installedbeneaththeground
surfacethatcollectsand/orconveysexcess
wateremanatingfromthesoil.
Surfacedetention:Thestormrunoffdetainedon
thesurfaceofthegroundatornearwherethe
rainfalloccurred,andwhichwilleitherrunoff
slowlyorinfiltrateintothesoil.
Surfaceinfiltration:Thatrainfallwhich
percolatesintothegroundsurfaceandwhich
thereforedoesnotcontributedirectlytothe
stormrunoffflow.
Surfacewater:Allwaterwhosesurfaceis
exposedtotheatmosphere.
Suspendedsediment:Theveryfinesoilparticles
thatremaininsuspensioninwaterfora
considerableperiodoftime.
Swale:Anaturaldepressionorwideshallow
ditchusedtotemporarilystore,route,orfilter
runoff.
Temporarysedimenttrap:Asmalltemporary
pondingareathatisformedbyexcavationor
constructinganearthenembankmentacrossa
drainagewaytoreduceflowvelocitiesthus
allowingsoilparticlestofalloutofsuspension
beforedischargingintothedownstreamwaters.
TemporaryGradeStabilizationStructure:A
temporarybarrierofrock,timberorstrawor
haybalesconstructedacrossaswaleor
drainageditchtoreduceflowvelocity.
348 Glossary
Tillage:Theoperationofimplementsthroughthe
soiltoprepareseedbedsandrootbeds,control
weedsandbrush,aeratethesoil,andcause
fasterbreakdownoforganicmatterandminerals
toreleaseplantfoods(SoilConservationSociety
ofAmerica,1982).
Tilth:Thephysicalconditionofthesoilas
relatedtoitseaseoftillage,itsfitnessasa
seedbed,anditsimpedancetoseedling
emergenceandrootpenetration(Soil
ConservationSocietyofAmerica,1982).
TimeofConcentration:Thetimerequiredfor
surfacerunofffromthemosthydraulically
remotepartofadrainagebasintoreachthe
basinoutletorthepointunderconsideration.
TimeofFlow:Thetimerequiredforwatertoflow
inastormdrainfromthepointwhereitentersto
anygivenpointorlocationbeyondtheinlet.
Topography:Therelativepositionsand
elevationsofthenaturalorman-madefeatures
ofanareathatdescribetheconfigurationofits
surface(SoilConservationSocietyofAmerica,
1982).
Trashrack:Abarrierconstructedtocatchdebris
andexcludeitfromenteringadownstream
conduit.
Trench:Anexcavationmadeforinstallingpipes,
masonrywalls,andotherpurposes.Atrenchis
distinguishedfromaditchinthattheopeningis
temporaryandiseventuallybackfilled.
Turbidity:Acloudyconditioninwaterdueto
suspendedsiltororganicmatter.
Turnout:Adrainageditchthatdrainswateraway
fromroadsandroadditches.
Vegetatedbuffer:Stripsofvegetationseparatinga
waterbodyfromalandusewithpotentialtoact
asanonpointpollutionsource;vegetatedbuffers
(orsimplybuffers)arevariableinwidthandcan
rangeinfunctionfromavegetatedfilterstripto
awetlandorriparianarea.
Vegetatedfilterstrip:Anareaofvegetationfor
runofftoflowthroughwhenitleavesa
disturbedsitebeforeitentersintoadesigned
drainagesystem.
Vegetatedswale:Anaturalorconstructedbroad
channelwithdensevegetationdesignedtotreat
runoffanddisposeofitsafelyintothenatural
drainagesystem.Swalesaredesignedtoremove
pollutantsfromstormwaterrunoff,increase
infiltrationandreducetheerosionpotentialat
thedischargepoint.
Waterbar:Adiversionditchand/orhump
installedacrossatrailorroadtodivertrunoff
fromthesurfacebeforetheflowgainsenough
volumeandvelocitytocausesoilmovementand
erosion,anddeposittherunoffintoadispersion
area.
Watercourse:Adefinitechannelwithbedand
bankswithinwhichconcentratedwaterflows
continuously,frequentlyorinfrequently.
Watertable:Theuppersurfaceoftheground
waterorthatlevelbelowwhichthesoilis
saturatedwithwater;locusofpointsinsoil
wateratwhichthehydraulicpressureisequal
toatmosphericpressure(SoilConservation
SocietyofAmerica,1982).
Watershed:Adrainageareaorbasininwhichall
landandwaterareasdrainorflowtowarda
centralcollectorsuchasastream,river,orlake
atalowerelevation.
Weir:Deviceformeasuringorregulatingtheflow
ofwater.
Wetlands:Areasthatareinundatedorsaturated
bysurfaceorgroundwateratafrequencyand
durationtosupport,andthatundernormal
circumstancesdosupport,aprevalenceof
vegetationtypicallyadaptedforlifeinsaturated
soilconditions;wetlandsgenerallyinclude
swamps,marshes,bogs,andsimilarareas.
349
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C
Subject Index
A
conservationplan,42
excelsior,114
annualplants,249
conservationpractices,54
exposedsurfaces,105
aspect,246
conservationpracticeselection,54 F
asphaltsprayemulsion,116
conservationprinciples,38
fascine,282,294,310
B
constructionentrance,68
fill,38,103
beachgrass,133,258
constructionroadstabilization,71
filter,126,127
bedrock,depthto,22
constructionschedule,50
filterberm,82
bestmanagementpractices
constructiontraffic,46
filterfabric,116,126
selection,55
cornstalks,114
filterstrip,84
homesites,smallparcels,for,320
covertype,235
floodhazardpotential,22
sandandgravelpits,for,322
cribbing,log,199
floodplain,37
bioengineering,199,280-320
cribwall,vegetated,301
flowvelocity,74
borrowarea,47,104
culvert,186,189,190
flume,86
bridge,186,189
cuts,38,46,103
ford,187,190
brushbarrier,62
D G
brush-mesh,311
debrisdisposal,56
gabions,88,198
brushlayer,282,296
disposalarea,47
gabions,vegetated,302,312
branchpacking,297
diversion,26,73
geotextiles,90,127
buildingconstruction,59
diversiondike,75
glassfibermulch, 116
bufferstrip,36
diversion,temporary,77
gradecontrolstructure,31
bufferzone,49,63
dormantplantings,198,291-294
gradestabilizationstructure,92,282
drainage,21,30
grading, 56
calciumchloride,81
drainagearea,234
grass,159,252-256,271,274
channelstabilization,60
dustcontrol,47,80
grasses,native,252,276,277
checkdam,64
grasses,other,255 E
chemicalanchor,116
erosion,8,9,15
grasses,wetland,222,265-269
clearing,56
erosionandsedimentcontrol
grassedwaterway,33,178,222
climate,10,12,247
plan,42
gravelmulch,115
coastaldunevegetation,258-260
sampleplan,329
gravelpits,322
coconutfiber,116
practices,42
gridpaver,199
companioncrops,249
excavations,58,124
groundcover,35,258
compost,114
groundwater,18
Index 355
gullyerosion,8,57
gullyrepair,299
haymulch,115
haybalebarrier,95,181
herbs,native,wetland,265-269
homesite,320
hydricsoil,22
hydrographs,241
H
native,256
levelspreader,75,109
lime,272
linedchannel,34
linedwaterway,34
livegullyrepair,299
livestaking,290
lowwallplanting,300
M
outletstabilization,118
pavedsurface,105
peatmoss,115
perennials,250
perimeterprotection,47
permanentcover,157,272
pH,soil,247
plantspecies,248
annual,249
P
hydrologiccondition,236
manure,114
hydrologicmethods,237
mattress,willow,311
bioengineering,for,280-320
hydrologicsoilgroups,235
microclimate,247
coastaldune,258
hydrology,urban,232-243
moisturerequirement,283
dormantplanting,for,293-294
hydroseeding,35
mulch,36,81,112
gravelandsandpits,for,322
I
anchoring,116
groundcovers,258
impermeablesurfaces,effectof,13
types,114-116
intertidal,260
inclusion,23
mulch,chemical,81,116
legumes,276,277
inletprotection,34,46,93
mulching,112,274,325
mixturesvs.singlespecies,248
inoculation,legume,273
N
nativevs.non-nativespecies,250
inspectionandmaintenance,51
nvalue,241
native,251
intertidalvegetation,260
nativespecies,250
non-native,252
irrigation,274
grasses,252,276,277
shrubs,261-263
J
groundcovers,258
wetlandherbsandgrasses,265-269
jetty,willow,311
legumes,256,276,277
plantingmethods,272
jointplanting,305
wetlandherbsandgrasses,265-
coolseason,159
jutenetting,115
269
warmseason,160
L
netting,115
plasticmulch,116
landgrading,102
nursecrop,249
plugging,273
landstabilization,102 O preconstruction,52
ledge,35
legumes,159,249,276,277
inoculation,273
organicsoilamendment,272
outletprotection,118
preservingnaturalvegetation,121
356 Index
R
sedimentcontrol,45,57 soilbioengineering,199,280-320
raindroperosion,8
sedimentfence,45,146 soilcharacteristics,10,21
rainfall,232,234
sedimentpond,32,45 soilcompaction,17
rainfalldistribution,240
sedimenttrap,32,45,152,189 soilconditions,adverse,38
rainfalltypes,240
seedmixtures soilcover,243
reedberm,310
gravelpit,327 soillimitations,21,245
reedroll,310
permanent,161,162 soilpermeability,10
retainingstructures,283
temporary,169 soilphase,23
retainingbank,306
wetland,165 soilseries,23
retainingwall,28,40
seeding,35,272,328 soilstructure,10
revetment,312
seedingdates,160,169,328 soilsurveyreport,23
rillerosion,8,57
seeding,permanent,157 soilsurveyreportstatus,24
riparianareas,63
seeding,temporary,167 soiltexture,10
riprap,31,125,198
seepage,38,60 soils,10,244,285
roadrunoff,55
settlement,soil,38 soils,disturbed,244
roads,55
sheeterosion,8 soilsinvestigation,245
rockdam,129
sheetflow,245 sprigging,273
rockwall,vegetated,303,304
shrubplanting,212 stabilizationprinciples,38
runoff,13,44,48,232,237
shrubspecies,278-279 stockpiles,56,104
S
bioengineering,for,318-319 storageeffects,242
sandbag,64
nativewetland,261-262 stormdrain,34,48
sanddunestabilization,133
siltcurtain,171 stormrunoff,58
sandfence,135
sitepreparation,56 strawmulch,115
sandpits,322
slope,25 strawbalebarrier,34,95,181
sandblowstabilization,133
slopedrain,27,172 strawfiber,116
sawdust,114
slopepaving,28 streamcorridor,63
scheduling,50
slopestabilization,29,306-307 streamcrossing,48,59,185
season,247,248
smallparcel,320 streambankprotection,48,59,192
seasonalwatertable,22
sod,40,176-180 vegetativemethods,193
sedimentation,9,15
sodwall,306 structuralmethods,193
sedimentbasin,32,45,138
sodding,35,176,274 streambankstabilization,30,59,
soilbinder,114 192,308-313
Index 357
streambankvegetativezones,310
uplandmethod,241
structuralmeasures,31
utilities,47,59
structure,vegetated,300
V
subsurfacedrain,201
vegetatedcribwall,301
sumppit,204
vegetatedstructures,300
surfacecover,11,46
vegetation,243
surfaceroughening,29,205,272
vegetation,preserving,47,123
surfacerunoff,37
vegetativecover,10,243
swale,215
vegetativemeasures,31,193
T W
terrace,208
waterbar,219
tieredwallplanting,327
watertable,22,38
tilth,23
watertransmission,232
timberframestabilization,307
watershed,234
timeofconcentration,240
waterway,grassed,33,178,222
tirewash,68-70
waterway,lined,34
topography,10,12,237
wetlandgrasses,265-269
topsoiling,271
wetlandherbs,265-269
TR-20,239,240
wetlandshrubsandtrees,261,262
TR-55,238,240
willowmattress,311
treeplanting,134,212
willowwhip,woven,307
treespecies,134,278-279
woodchips,114
bioengineering,for,318,319
woodexcelsior,114
native,263-265
woodfiber,114
trees,134,261,263
nativewetland,261,262
trees,preserving,123
U
urbanization,effectsof,13,232
urbanhydrology,232-243