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Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic

Authors : Serge Ankri,David Mirelman

Volume 1, Issue 2, February 1999, Pages 125129
Copyright 1999 ditions scientifiques et mdicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has a variety of antimicrobial activities. Allicin in its pure form
was found to exhibit i) antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-
resistant enterotoxicogenic strains of Escherichia coli; ii) antifungal activity, particularly against Candida albicans; iii) antiparasitic
activity, including some major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia; and iv) antiviral
activity. The main antimicrobial effect of allicin is due to its chemical reaction with thiol groups of various enzymes, e.g. alcohol
dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase, and RNA polymerase, which can affect essential metabolism of cysteine proteinase activi ty
involved in the virulence of E. histolytica.


Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic)
Authors : J. C. Harris, S. Cottrell, S. Plummer, D. Lloyd
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
October 2001, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 282-286
Although garlic has been used for its medicinal properties for thousands of years, investigations into its mode of action are relatively
recent. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions; not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal, but it also has beneficial
effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. Resurgence in the use of natural herbal alternatives has brought the use of
medicinal plants to the forefront of pharmacological investigations, and many new drugs are being discovered. This review aims to
address the historical use of garlic and its sulfur chemistry, and to provide a basis for further research into its antimicrobial properties.


Natural microflora of prepeeled garlic and their resistance to garlic
antimicrobial activity
Authors : S.T. Shim, K.H. Kyung

Volume 16, Issue 2, April 1999, Pages 165172
Copyright 1999 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

Prepeeled garlic carried 10
cfu g
micro-organisms; 10
times more than freshly peeled garlic. Scanning electron micrographs
revealed the presence of various types of micro-organisms on the surface of the garlic. Fifty-one lactic acid bacteria, 40 non-lactic acid
bacteria and 15 yeasts were isolated from prepeeled garlic with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria predominating among the lactic
acid bacteria, andLeuconostococcurring most frequently. Twenty-six isolates of lactic acid bacteria grown in MRS broth with 20% garlic
juice or higher were extremely resistant to garlic. Gram negative rod-shaped bacteria were the most frequently occurring non-lactic acid
bacteria, with a predominance of the generalPseudomonasandEnterobacter. Cryptococcus neoformanswas the only species of yeast
isolated. The inhibitory action of methyl methanethiosulfonate, but not of iodoacetate, appeared similar to that of garlic.

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions (Allium cepa) and garlic
(Allium sativum)

Author : N. Benkeblia
Volume 37, Issue 2, March 2004, Pages 263268
Copyright 2003 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Antimicrobial activity of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 ml/l) of essential oil extracts of three type of onions (green,
yellow and red) and garlic against two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus,Salmomella Enteritidis, and three fungi, Aspergillus
niger, Penicillium cyclopium and Fusarium oxysporum, was investigated. The essential oil (EO) extracts of these Allium plants (garlic
and onions) exhibited marked antibacterial activity, with garlic showing the highest inhibition and green onion the lowest. Comparatively,
50 and 100 ml/l concentrations of onions extracts were less inhibitory than 200, 300 and 500 ml/l concentrations. However, with garlic
extract, high inhibitory activity was observed for all tested concentrations. S. aureus showed less sensitivity towards EO extracts
inhibition, however S. Enteritidis was strongly inhibited by red onion and garlic extracts. The fungus F. oxysporum showed the lowest
sensitivity towards EO extracts, whereas A. niger and P. cyclopium were significantly inhibited particularly at low concentrations.
Conclusively, where seasoning is desired, essential oil extracts of onions and garlic can be used as natural antimicrobial additives for
incorporating in various food products.

Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic Oil against Human Enteric Bacteria: Evaluation of
Methodologies and Comparisons with Garlic Oil Sulfides and Garlic Powder

Authors : Z. M. Ross, E. A. O'Gara, D. J. Hill, H. V. Sleightholme, and D. J. Maslin

o Received 19 June 2000.
o Accepted 9 November 2000.
* Corresponding author. Mailing address: University of Wolverhampton, School of Health Sciences, 62-68 Lichfield St.,
Wolverhampton WV1 1DJ, United Kingdom.
The antimicrobial effects of aqueous garlic extracts are well established but those of garlic oil (GO) are little known.
Methodologies for estimating the antimicrobial activity of GO were assessed and GO, GO sulfide constituents, and garlic
powder (GP) were compared in tests against human enteric bacteria. Test methodologies were identified as capable of
producing underestimates of GO activity. Antimicrobial activity was greater in media lacking tryptone or cysteine,
suggesting that, as for allicin, GO effects may involve sulfhydryl reactivity. All bacteria tested, which included both gram-
negative and -positive bacteria and pathogenic forms, were susceptible to garlic materials. On a weight-of-product basis,
24 h MICs for GO (0.02 to 5.5 mg/ml, 62 enteric isolates) and dimethyl trisulfide (0.02 to 0.31 mg/ml, 6 enteric isolates)
were lower than those for a mixture of diallyl sulfides (0.63 to 25 mg/ml, 6 enteric isolates) and for GP, which also
exhibited a smaller MIC range (6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml, 29 enteric isolates). Viability time studies of GO and GP
against Enterobacter aerogenes showed time- and dose-dependent effects. Based upon its thiosulfinate content, GP was more
active than GO against most bacteria, although some properties of GO are identified as offering greater therapeutic
potential. Further exploration of the potential of GP and GO in enteric disease control appears warranted.