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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
The word plastics has been deeply ingrained into our society and culture, to
the point that many consider this the age of plastics. The word itself applies to
materials that can be shaped and formed, however, today we use it to describe
a polymer which contains additives, such as pigments, fillers, antioxidants, and
UV-protectors, to name a few. Polymers are materials composed of molecules of
high molecular weight. The unique material properties of plastics and versatile
processing methods are attributed to their molecular structure. The ease with
which polymers are processed and with which one can consolidate several parts
into a single part, as well as their high strength - to - weight ratio, make them the
most sought after materials today.
1.1 STATISTICAL DATA
In the last century, plastics have gained significant importance in the technological
as well as economic arena. Fig. 1.1 compares the production of plastics' resins
in the past 55 years to steel and aluminum. Before 1990, the figure depicts the
production in the Western World and after that year, when the iron curtain came
down, the worldwide production. Table 1.1 presents the per capita polymer resin
use, by region, for 1980 and 2002 as well as the projected 2010 yearly production.
In general, the plastics industry can be broken down into three distinct sub-
categories:
Plastics resin manufacturers and suppliers
Plastics product manufacturing (Original Equipment Manufacturers (0EM
Plastics machinery (Machinery supplier)
The over 18,000 different grades of resins, available today in the U.S., can be
divided into two general categories - thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers.
Of the over 31 million tons of polymers produced in the United States in 1993,
90% were thermoplastics. Figures 1.2 and 1.3 show a percentage break down of
U.S. polymer production of thermoplastics and thermosets, respectively. Each is
Table 1.1: Regional Break-Down of Per-Capita-Plastics Use in Kilograms
Phenolic & other tar
acids
34%
Polyvinyl chloride &
copolymers
19%
Thermoplastic
polyester
4%
Acrylonitrile-
butadiene- styrene
3%
All others
4%
Urethane
24%
Polypropylene
18%
Linear low density
polyethylene
8%
Urea
18%
Low density
polyethylene
15%
1.2: Break down of US thermoplastic production into common types.
1.3: Break-down of US thermoset production into common types.
Statistical data
2010
1 Introduction
2000
4.5
4.2
5.1
4.3
8.5
3.0
6.5
2.8
1990
Annual % change (2002-2010)
1980
37
146
30.5
136
24
108
24
10
2010
Year
26
105
20.5
97
12.5
85
14.5
8
2002
1970
10
45
7.5
40
8.5
50
2
3
1980
1960
- Polymers (Density 1.1 g/cm')
/
!/
_ Polymers (without synthetic rubber and fibers)
Steel (Density 7.8 g/cm')
/ ./
- Aiuminum (Density 2.7 g/cm')
/1
/
,
//
'//
./
/
/:
~ _ ........
1 / ~ 7 ~
----
...... ----
~
.-
J.-./
= = ~ ~
........-:::::/
~
- -------
,.-.-.-------- - ------------- --.---------- -
o
1950
25
Worldwide
US
Latin America
Europe
Eastern Europe
Japan
South East Asia
Africa Middle East
Region
50
200
250
75
225
175
E
t:
,g 150
'E
-'= 125
t:
o
g 100
-0
e
a.
2
Today, the plastics industry implements polymers in a wide variety of ap-
plications as shown in Figs. 1.4 and 1.5 for thermoplastics and thermosets, re-
spectivelly. As depicted in the figures, packaging accounts for over one-third of
the captive use of thermoplastics, whereas construction accounts for about half
that number, and transportation accounts for only 4% of the total captive use of
thermoplastics. On the other hand, 69% of thermosets are used in building and
construction, followed by 8% used in transportation.
broken down into its most common types. Of the thermoplastics, polyethylenes
are by far the most widely used polymeric material, accounting for 41 % of the
U.S. plastic production.
Figure 1.1: World production of raw materials (after Ehrenstein).
Figure 1.5: Break down of US thermoset applications into common areas.
5
137,800
112,100
95,300
94,900
89,100
74,400
70,000
52,800
51,700
50,900
No. of Employees State
California
Ohio
Michigan
Texas
illinois
Pennsylvania
Indiana
New York
North Carolina
Wisconsin
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
and plastics categories
Regional Break-Down of Per-Capita-Plastics Use in Kilograms
Plastics are organic and semi-organic materials that have as their main attribute
a very large molecular weight. These very large molecules, or macromolecules,
give themtheir distinct properties and material behavior, when compared to other
materials used in manufacturing or found in nature.
Figure 1.6 presents the classification, break-down and provenance of plastics.
As presented in the figure polymers can be placed into either a thermoset, ther-
moplastic or elastomer category. Thermoplastics in turn include a special family
which is relatively new, called thermoplastic elastomers. However, all these ma-
terials have in common that they are made of huge molecules. Some of these
molecules are uncrosslinked, which means that each molecule can move freely
relative to its neighbors, and others are crosslinked, which means that "bridges",
or physical links interconnect the polymer molecules. Thermoplastics and un-
vulcanized elastomers are uncrosslinked. Vulcanized rubber, or elastomers, and
thermosets are cross-linked.
Thermoplastics are those polymers that solidify as they are cooled, no longer
allowing the long molecules to move freely. When heated, these materials re-
gain the ability to "flow", as the molecules are able to slide past each other with
ease. Furthermore, thermoplastic polymers are divided into two classes: amor-
phous and semi-crystalline polymers. Amorphous thermoplastics are those with
molecules that remain in disorder as they cool, leading to a material with a fairly
random molecular structure. An amorphous polymer solidifies, or vitrifies, as
The transportation sector is one of the fastest growing areas of application for
both thermoplastic and thermosetting resins. In the U.S. alone, plastics encom-
pass a $310 billion industry that supplies 1.4 million jobs. Table 1.2 presents
the top 10 states in the U.S. in terms of number of employees. These 10 states
employ almost 60% of the US plastics workers.
1.2 POLYMER AND PLASTICS CATEGORIES
1 Introduction
Packaging
32%
Tranportation
8%
BUilding &
construction
14%
Others
14%
Consumer &
institutional products
13%
Building &
contruction
69%
Other
11% Electrical
eqUipment Consumer &
4% institutional
products
4%
Exports
12%
Transportation
equipment
4%
Furniture &
furnishings
5%
Figure 1.4: Break down of US thermoplastic applications into common areas.
4
Figure 1.6: Classification, break-down and provenance of plastics in materials science.
it is cooled below its glass transition temperature. Semi-crystalline thermoplas-
tics, on the other hand, solidify with a certain order in their molecular structure.
Hence, as they are cooled, they harden when the molecules begin to arrange
in a regular order below what is usually referred to as the melting temperature.
The molecules in semi-crystalline polymers that are not transformed into ordered
regions remain as small amorphous regions. These amorphous regions within
the semi-crystalline domains lose their "flowability" below their glass transition
temperature. Most semi-crystalline polymers have a glass transition tempera-
ture at subzero temperatures, hence, behaving at room temperature as rubbery
or leathery materials. On the other hand, thermosetting polymers solidify by
being chemically cured. Here, the long macromolecules cross-link with each
other during cure, resulting in a network of molecules that cannot slide past each
other. The formation of these networks causes the material to lose the ability
to "flow" even after reheating. The high density of cross-linking between the
molecules makes thermosetting material stiff and brittle. Thermosets also ex-
hibit a glass transition temperature which is sometimes near or above thermal
degradation temperatures. Compared to thermosets, elastomers are only lightly
cross-linked which permits almost full extension of the molecules. However,
the links across the molecules hinder them from sliding past each other, making
even large deformations reversible. One common characteristic of elastomeric
materials is that the glass transition temperature is much lower than room tem-
perature. Their ability to "flow" is lost after they are vulcanized or cross-linked.
Unlike other materials such as metals, plastics have numerous grades and
variations of every type of resin. These variations include different addi-
tives, fillers and reinforcing fibers, to name a few. Early on, plastics were
lauded as the "material made to measure"; today, this has become reality
and an everyday attribute that we take for granted.
The strange molecular structure of polymers leads to peculiar behavior not
observed with other materials. Such behavior includes viscoelasticity and
other non-Newtonian effects during deformation, such as shear thinning.
These characteristics not only affect how a final product may perform
in its lifetime, controlling how we must approach design, but also the
actual manufacturing process, such as mold filling, extrusion die flow, etc.
This will often lead to residual stresses, as well as molecular and filler
orientation, which causes anisotropy in the final part. General material
science of polymers is covered in Chapter 2 of this handbook. Several
standard tests are available to evaluate the performance ofa material. These
tests are described in detail in Chapter 3 of this handbook.
During design and manufacturing of a product, material cost often be-
comes the most influential parameter. However, today we must also factor
in ecological and environmental aspects. These include the effects of ad-
ditives such as solvents or certain flame-retardants on the health of factory
workers, as well as the environmental impact in general. In addition, the
production of a product must keep in mind that the material used should
be recyclable. Recycling issues are also introduced in Chapter 2 of this
handbook.
One of the great advantages of polymers is the low energy required during
manufacturing. The melting, shaping and solidification all take place in an
integrated fashion. Chapter 4 presents the various plastics manufacturing
techniques, as well as material preparation andpost-processing procedures.
The design, performance and recyclability of a product is directly coupled
to the choice of material and its additives as well as chosen processing tech-
nique and corresponding processing conditions. This can be referred to as
the 5 P's: Polymer, Process, Product, Performance and Post-consumer life.
Design aspects are covered in Chapter 5, plastics materials are presented
in Chapter 6, and plastics additives are covered in Chapter 7.
cross-linked elastomers at room temperature are significantly above their
transition temperature, they are very soft and very compliant elastic solids.
Although this handbook heavily concentrates on thermoplastic polymers, we
tried to incorporate thermosets as well as elastomers whenever necessary
fitting. Finally, the following generalizations can be made of plastics and
serve as a general guide to this Plastics Handbook:
1 Introduction
Ceramics (ionic bonds) Polymers (covalent bonds)
Synthetic polymers
Elastomers (rUbbers)
/ ----------=--
1 OrganiC! I Inorganic (glass)
/
"'---c-h-em-iC-a\-'=:"'-1 1----="-Bio-iO-gi-ca\--
+ t
__C_h_em-;-iC_a_\_-,I 1---Bi-O\-09-ica-I--
t
Thermosets
Monomer prod"uction
Classification
Dominating atoms
Polymerization
Bonds
Type
6
Table 1.3: Alphabetical overview of co=only used acronyms for plastics
In the plastics industry it is common to define a polymer by the chemical family
it belongs to, and assign an abbreviation based on the chemistry. However, many
times instead of using the standardized descriptive symbol, often engineers use
the tradename given by the resin supplier.
This bookuses the standardized notation presentedin Table 1.3. The symbols
which have been marked with an asterisk (*) have been designated by the ISO
standards, in conjunction with the material data bank CAMPUS. The plastics
presented in the table are presented in detail in Chapter 6 of this handbook.
Furthermore, the acronyms presented in Table 1.3 may have additional symbols
separated with a hyphen, such PE-LD for low density polyethylene, or PVC-P for
plasticized PVC. The symbols for the most common characteristics are presented
in Table 1.4.
Table 1.5 presents the most commonly used plasticizers and the symbols
used to describe them. Plasticizers are also covered in detail in Chapter 6 of this
handbook.
1.3 PLASTICS ACRONYMS
9
Continued on next page
Chemical notation
COC-Copolymer
Cellulose propionate
Chloroprene rubber
Casein formaldehyde, artificial hom
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber
Cellulose triacetate
Diphenylene polycarbonate
Ethylene-propylene
Ethylene vinylacetate rubber
Ethylene acrylic acid ester-maleic acid anhydride-copoly
Ethylene butene
Ethylene butylacrylate
Ethylcellulose
Ethylene copolymer bitumen-blend
Epichlorohydrine rubber
Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
Ethylene ethylacrylate copolymer
Ionomer Copolymer
Ethylene methacrylic acid ester copolymer
Epoxy Resin
see EPDM
Ethylene propylene diene rubber
Ethylene propylene rubber
Polyethylene oxide tetrasulfide rubber
Epichlorohydrin ethylene oxid rubber (terpolymer)
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
Polyetherurethane rubber
Ethylene vinylacetate
Ethylene vinylalcohol, old acronym EVOH
Furfurylalcohol resin
Polyfluoroethylene propylene
Furan formaldehyde
Perfluoro rubber
Fluoro rubber
Propylene tetrafluoroethylene rubber
Phosphazene rubber with fluoroalkyl- or fluoroxyalkyl gr
Halogenated butyl rubber
Hydrated NBR rubber
Intrinsically conductive polymers
Butyl rubber (CIIR, BIIR)
Isoprene rubber
Styrene isoprene rubber
Liquid crystal polymer
Liquid silicone rubber
Methylmethacrylate acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
Methacrylate butadiene styrene
Methylcellulose (cellulose derivate)
Melamine formaldehyde
Tetrafluoroethylene perfluoromethyl vinyl ether copolyme
Methylfluoro silicone rubber
Acronyms
Acronym
COP
CP
CR
CSF
CSM
CTA
DPC
E/P*
EAM
EAMA
EB
EBA
EC
ECB
ECO
ECTFE
EEAK
ElM
EMA
EP*
EP(D)M
EPDM
EPM
ET
ETER
ETFE
EU
EVAC*
EVAL
FA
FEP
FF
FFKM
FKM
FPM
FZ
HIIR
HNBR
ICP
IIR
IR
IRS
LCP*
LSR
MABS*
MBS*
MC
MF*
MFA
MFQ
1 Introduction
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
Acrylate rubber, (AEM, ANM)
Acrylonitrile-chlorinated polyethylene-styrene
Acrylic ester-ethylene rubber
Acrylate ethylene polymethylene rubber
Acrylonitrile ethylene propylene diene styrene
Nitroso rubber
Acrylonitrile methylmethacrylate
Acrylonitrile butadiene acrylate
Acrylonitrile methacrylate
seeACS
Acrylonitile styrene acrylic ester
Polyesterurethane rubber
Bromobutyl rubber
Butadiene rubber
Cellulose acetate
Cellulose acetobutyrate
Cellulose acetopropionate
Cresol formaldehyde
Hydratisierte cellulose, Zellglas
Chloro butyl rubber
Chlorinated polyethylene rubber
Carboxymethylcellulose
Cellulose nitrate, Celluloid
Epichlorhydrine rubber
Cyclopolyolefine-Copolymers
Chemical notation
Continued on next page
ABS*
ACM
ACS
AECM
AEM
AES
AFMU
AMMA
ANBA
ANMA
APE-CS
ASA*
AU
BIIR
BR
CA
CAB
CAP
CF
CH
CIIR
CM
CMC
CN
CO
COC*
Acronym
8
10
Acronym
MMAEML
MPF*
MPQ
MQ
MS
MUF
MUPF
MVFQ
NBR
NCR
NR
PA
PAll*
PAI2*
PA46*
PA6*
PA61O*
PA612*
PA66*
PA69*
PAA
PAC
PAE
PAEK*
PAl
PAMI
PAN*
PANI
PAR
PARA
PARI
PB
PBA
PBI
PBMI
PBN
PBO
PBT*
PC*
PCPO
PCTFE
PDAP
PDCPD
PE*
PE-HD
PE-BMW
PE-LD
PE-LLD
PE-MD
PE-UHMW
1 Introduction
Chemical notation
Methylmethacrylate exo-methylene lactone
Melamine phenolic formaldehyde
Methylphenylene silicone rubber
Polydimethylsilicone rubber
see PMS
Melamine urea formaldehyde
Melamine urea phenolic formaldehyde
Fluoro silicone rubber
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
Acrylonitrile chloroprene rubber
Natural rubber
Polyamide (other notations see Section 6.7)
Polyamide from aminoundecanoic acid
Polyamide from dodecanoic acid
Polyamide from polytetramethylene adipic acid
Polyamide from e-caprolactam
Polyamide from hexamethylene diamine sebatic acid
Polyamide from hexamethylene diamine dodecanoic acid
Polyamide from Hexamethylene diamine adipic acid
Polyamide from hexamethylene diamine acelaic acid
Polyacrylic acid ester
Polyacetylene
Polyarylether
Polyarylether ketone
Polyamidimide
Polyaminobismaleinimide
Polyacrylonitrile
Polyaniline, polyphenylene amine
Polyarylate
Polyarylamide
Polyarylimide
Polybutene
Polybutylacrylate
Polybenzimidazole
Polybismaleinimide
Polybutylene naphthalate
Polyoxadiabenzimidazole
Polybutylene terephthalate
Polycarbonate (from bisphenol-A)
Poly-3,3-bis-chloromethylpropylene oxide
Polychlorotrifluoro ethylene
Polydiallylphthalate resin
Polydicyclopentadiene
Polyethylene
Polyethylene-high density
Polyethylene-high molecular weight
Polyethylene-low density
Polyethylene-linear low density
Polyethylene medium density
Polyethylene-ultra high molecular weight
Continued on next page
Plastics Acronyms
Acronym
PE-ULD
PE-VLD
PE-X
PEA
PEDT
PEEEK
PEEK
PEEKEK
PEEKK
PEI*
PEK
PEKEEK
PEKK
PEN*
PEOX
PESI
PES*
PET*
PET-G*
PF*
PFMT
PFU
PHA
PHB
PHFP
PI*
PIB
PISO
PK*
PLA
PMA
PMI
PMMA*
PMMI
PMP
PMPI
PMS
PNF
PNR
PO
PO
POM*
pp*
PPA
PPB
PPC
PPE*
PPI
PPMS
PPOX
Chemical notation
Polyethylene-ultra low density
Polyethylene-very low density
Polyethylene, crosslinked
Polyesteramide
Polyethylenedioxythiophene
Polyetheretheretherketone
Polyetheretherketone
Polyetheretherketoneetherketone
Polyetheretherketoneketone
Polyetherimide
Polyetherketone
Polyetherketoneetheretherketone
Polyetherketoneketone
Polyethylenenaphthalate
Polyethylene oxide
Polyesterimide
Polyethersulfone
Polyethylene terephthalate
Polyethylene terephthalate, glycol modified
Phenolic formaldehyde resin
Polyperfluorotrimethyltriazine rubber
Polyfuran
Polyhydroxyalkanoate
Polyhydroxybutyrate
Polyhexafluoropropylene
Polyimide
Polyisobutylene
Polyimidsulfone
Polyketone
Polylactide
Polymethylacrylate
Polymethacrylimide
Polymethylmethacrylate
Polymethacrylmethylimide
Poly-4-methylpentene-1
Poly-m-phenylene-isophthalamide
Poly-a-methylstyrene
Fluoro-phosphazene rubber
Polynorbornene rubber
Polypropylene oxide rubber
General notation for polyolefins, polyolefin-derivates u
Polyoxymethylene (polyacetal resin, polyformaldehyde)
Polypropylene
Polyphthalamide
Polyphenylenebutadiene
Polyphthalate carbonate
Polyphenylene ether, old notation PPO
Polydiphenyloxide pyromellitimide
Poly-para-methylstyrene
Polypropylene oxide
Continued on next page
11
12
Acronym
PPP
PPQ
PPS*
PPSU*
PPTA
PPV
ppy
PPYR
PPYV
PS*
PSAC
PSIOA
PSS
PSU*
PT
PTFE*
PTHF
PTT
PUR*
PVAC
PVAL
PVB
PVBE
PVC*
PVCIEVA
PVDC*
PVDF
PVF
PVFM
PVK
PVME
PVMQ
PVP
PVZH
PZ
RF
SAN*
SB*
SBMMA
SBR
SBS
SCR
SEBS
SEPS
SEPDM
SI
SIMA
SIR
SIS
SMAB
1 Introduction
Chemical notation
Poly-para-phenylene
Polyphenylchinoxaline
Polyphenylene sulfide
Polyphenylene sulfone
Poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide
Polyphenylene vinylene
Polypyrrol
Polyparapyridine
Polyparapyridine vinylene
Polystyrene
Polysaccharide, starch
Polysilicooxoaluminate
Polystyrenesulfonate
Polysulfone
Polythiophene
Polytetrafiuoroethylene
Polytetrahydrofuran
Polytrimethyleneterephthalate
Polyurethane
Polyvinylacetate
Polyvinylalcohol
Polyvinyl butyral
Polyvinyl isobutylether
Polyvinyl chloride
Polyvinyl chloride-ethylene vinylacetate
Polyvinylidene chloride
Polyvinylidene fluoride
Polyvinyl fluoride
Polyvinyl formal
Polyvinyl carbazole
Polyvinyl methylether
Polymethylsiloxane phenyl vinyl rubber
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone
Polyvinyl cyclohexane
Phosphazene rubber with phenoxy groups
Resorcin formaldehyde resin
Styrene acrylonitrile
Styrene butadiene
Styrene butadiene methylmethacrylate
Styrene butadiene rubber
Styrene butadiene styrene
Styrene chloroprene rubber
Styrene ethene butene styrene
Styrene ethene propene styrene
Styrene ethylene propylene diene rubber
Silicone, Silicone resin
Styrene isoprene maleic acid anhydride
Styrene isoprene rubber
Styrene isoprene styrene block copolymer
Styrene maleic acid anhydride butadiene
Continued on next page
Plastics Acronyms
Acronym
SMAH*
SP
TCF
TFEHFPVDF
TFEP
TM
TOR
TPA*
TPC*
TPE
TPE-A
TPE-C
TPE-O
TPE-S
TPE-U
TPE-V
TPO*
TPS*
TPU*
TPV*
TPZ*
UP
UP*
VCE
VCEMAK
VCEVAC
VCMAAN
VCMAH
VCMAI
VCMAK
VCMMA
VCOAK
VCPAEAN
VCPE-C
VCVAC
VCVDC
VCVDCAN
VDFHFP
VF
VMQ
vu
XBR
XCR
XF
XNBR
XSBR
Chemical notation
Styrene maleic acid anhydride
Aromatic (saturated) polyester
Thiocarbonyldifluoride copolymer rubber
Tetrafiuoroethylene hexafluoropropylene vinylidene fluor
Tetrafluoroethylene hexafiuoropropylene
Thioplastics
Polyoctenamer
Thermoplastic elastomers based on polyamide
Thermoplastic elastomers based on copolyester
Thermoplastic elastomers
see TPA
see TPC
see TPO
see TPS
see TPU
see TPV
Thermoplastic elastomers based on olefins
Thermoplastic elastomers based on styrene
Thermoplastic elastomers based on polyurethane
Thermoplastic elastomers based on crosslinked rubber
Other thermoplastic elastomers
Urea formaldehyde resin
Unsaturated polyester resin
Vinylchloride ethylene
Vinylchloride ethylene ethylmethacrylate
Vinylchloride ethylene vinylacetate
Vinylchloride maleic acid anhydride acrylonitrile
Vinylchloride maleic acid anhydride
Vmylchloride maleinimide
Vinylchloride methacrylate
Vmylchloride methylmethacrylate
Vinylchloride octylacrylate
Vinylchloride acrylate rubber acrylonitrile
Vinylchloride-chlorinated ethylene
Vinylchloride vinylacetate
Vinylchloride vinylidenechloride
Vmylchloride vinylidenechloride acrylonitrile
Vinylidenechloride hexafiuoropropylene
Vulcanized fiber
Polymethylsiloxane vinyl rubber
Vinylesterurethane
Butadiene rubber, containing carboxylic groups
Chloroprene rubber, containing carboxylic groups
Xylenol formaldehyde resin
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, containing carboxylic gr
Styrene butadiene rubber, containing carboxylic groups
13
Table 1.5: Commonly Used Plasticizers and Their Acronyms
Continued on next page
Commonly Used Symbols Describing Polymer Characteristics
15
Di-n-octylphthalate
Dinonylphthalate
Dioctyladipate, also diethylhexyladi-
pate, DEHA no longer used
Dioctylphthalate, dioctyldecylphthalate
Dioctylsebacate
Dioctylazelate
DiphenyIkresylphosphate
Diphenyloctylphosphate
Dipropylphthalate
Epoxidized linseed oil
Epoxidized soy bean oil
Octyldecyladipate
Octyldecylphthalate
Paraffin oil
Tributylphosphate
Trichlorethylphosphate
Trikresylphosphate
Triisooctyltrimellitate
Trioctylphosphate
Triphenylphosphate
Chemical notation
DOP, DEHP, DODP
DOS
DOZ
DPCF
DPOF
DPP
ELO
ESO
ODA
ODP
PO
TBP
TCEF
TCF
TIOTM
TOF
TPP
Acronym
DNOP
DNP
DOA(DEHA)
Plastics Acronyms
1 Introduction
Dioctyldecylphthalate
Alkylsulfone acid ester
Benzylbutylphthalate
Dibutyladipate
Dibutylphthalate
Dibutylsebacate
Dicyclohexylphthalate
Diethylphthalate
Dihexylphthalate
Diisobutylphthalate
Diisodecylphthalate
Diisononyladipate
Dimethylphthalate
Dimethylsebazate
Dinonyladipate
Di-n-octyl-n-decylphthalate
Chemical notation
Amorphous
Block-copolymer
Biaxially oriented
Chlorinated
Copolymer
Expanded (foamed)
Grafted
Homopolymer
Highly crystalline
High density
High impact
High molecular weight
Impact
Low density
Linear low density
Metallocene catalyzed
Medium density
Oriented
Plasticized
Randomly polymerized
Unplasticized
Ultra high molecular weight
Ultra low density
Very low density
Cross-linked
Peroxide cross-linked
Electrically cross-linked
Material characteristic
DODP
ASE
BBP
DBA
DBP
DBS
DCHP
DEP
DHXP
DIBP
DIDP
DINA
DMP
DMS
DNA
DNODP
Acronym
Symbol
A
B
BO
C
CO
E
G
H
HC
HD
ill
HMW
I
LD
LLD
(M)
MD
o
P
R
U
UHMW
ULD
VLD
X
XA
XC
Table 1.4:
14
Osswald Baur . Brinkmann
Oberbach . Schmachtenberg
International
Plastics
Handbook
The Resource for Plastics Engineers
HANSER
Hanser Publishers, Munich Hanser Gardner Publications, Cincinnati