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Price estimation assignment

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SCIENCE

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) QUANTITY SURVEYOR

UEBQ 3153 ESTIMATING

Name Students ID Year of Study

Chua Sin Joo 1003713 Y5S1

Kenneth Tan Tay Sir 1205856 Y3S1

Ng Min Yi 0903995 Y5S1

Tan Chow Yang 0908124 Y5S1

2

Table of content

Introduction.. 3

Methods.4

Results....7

Discussion11

Reference.13

3

INTRODUCTION

In accordance to the parameters outlined in the assignment question for UEBQ3153

Estimating, this report analyses cost data from a Bill of Quantities. By this way, our

group found the Bill of Quantity of a project at Lot PT 585 and PT 586, Mukim

Kuala Lumpur which including 1 block penthouse apartment 3 storey, 1 storey

public facilities, 1 storey of car park and 4 unit of 3 storey bungalow villa. After

discussion among our group, we decided to select the apartment unit D on bill no.2 to

carry out the analyses. Base on the outlined in the assignment question, the analyses

cost data is to determine the 'Actual Total Bill Value (RM)', 'Mean Bill Value (RM)',

'Total Bill Value of Cost Significant Elements (CSE) (RM)', 'Number of Total

Elements (TE)', 'Number of CSE in Total', 'CSE/TE (per cent)', 'Total Bill Value of

CSE/Actual Total Bill Value (per cent)', 'Total Bill Value of Cost Significant Work

Packages (CSWP) (RM)', 'Number of Total Work Items (WI)', 'Number of CSWI in

Total', 'CSWI/WI (per cent)', 'Total Bill Value of CSWP/Actual Total Bill Value (per

cent)', and 'Cost Model Factor (CMF)' from the Bill of Quantity.

4

METHODS

Actual Total Bill Value (RM)

The total sums of the cost all elements in the Bill of Quantities.

Mean Bill Value (RM)

According to Tas, E., and Yaman, H. (2005), the mean value is calculated as the total

bill value of the project divided by the number of items contributing to total bill

value.

Total Bill Value of Cost Significant Elements (CSE) (RM)

In principle, the total bill value of cost-significant items is the total bill values of all

items whose individual value is greater than the Mean Bill Value. From the research

by professional, 80-90% of total project costs were consumed by 10-20% of the BnQ

items which is cost significant element (CSE).

Number of Total Elements (TE)

Quantity of all elements in the Bill of Quantities.

Number of CSE in Total

Quantity of all Cost-Significant Elements in the Bill of Quantities (i.e. above Mean

Bill Value).

CSE/TE (per cent)

The ratio of the (Quantity of all Cost-Significant Elements)/(Quantity of all elements)

by percentage.

5

Total Bill Value of CSE/Actual Total Bill Value (per cent)

The ratio of the (Total Bill Value of all Cost-Significant Elements)/(actual Total Bill

Value) by percentage.

Total Bill Value of Cost Significant Work Packages (CSWP) (RM)

Smith, N. J. (Ed.). (1995) states that typically 10-20% of the significant items in the

bill of quantities represent 80-90% of the total value then if the insignificant items

could be identified and eliminated from the bill of quantities, which would then be

known as a 'simplified bill', the estimator's task would be simplified. Once the items

of small value have been eliminated, the remaining significant items can be packaged

with similar items without any adverse effect on accuracy. The remaining groupings

of items are known as 'work packages'. A standard set of work packages holds a

fixed proportion of the contract sum for a certain type of job.

Thus, for the purpose of this report, the total bill value of cost-significant work

packages are the total bill values of all work items whose individual value is greater

than the Mean Bill Value.

Number of Total Work Items (WI)

Quantity of all work items in the Bill of Quantities.

Number of CSWI in Total

Quantity of all Cost-Significant Work Items in the Bill of Quantities (i.e. above

Mean Bill Value).

CSWI/WI (per cent)

The ratio of the (Quantity of all Cost-Significant Work Items)/(Quantity of all Work

Items) by percentage.

Total Bill Value of CSWP/Actual Total Bill Value (per cent)

The ratio of the (Total Bill Value of all Cost-Significant Work Items)/(actual Total

Bill Value) by percentage.

6

Cost Model Factor (CMF)

The ratio of the value of packages in the model to the total bill value is known as the

cost-model factor.

Thus, the mean value of the ratio (value of CSEs)/(total bill value) or (value of

CSWPs)/(total bill value).

7

RESULTS

Question 6

Based on the BQ found, find the:

a. Actual Total Bill Value (RM)

Item RM

1 Substructure 172,917.40

2 Frame 496,458.16

3 Upper Floors 386,521.07

4 Roof And Roof Plumbing 224,190.51

5 Lift Wall 65,967.57

6 Staircase 69,701.62

7 External Walls 67,597.00

8 Windows and Doors 22,078.00

9 Internal Walls 93,881.00

10 Wall Finishes 283,733.21

11 Floor Finishes 256,062.87

12 Ceiling Finishes 146,314.65

13 Sanitary Wares And Fittings 16,113.60

Actual Total Bill Value 2,301,536.66

b. Mean Bill Value (RM)

Actual Bill Value Number of Item = Mean Bill Value (RM)

2301536.66 13= RM

177,041.28

c. Total Bill Value of Cost Significant Elements (CSE) (RM)

Item RM

1 Frame 496,458.16

2 Upper Floors 386,521.07

3 Roof And Roof Plumbing 224,190.51

4 Wall Finishes 283,733.21

5 Floor Finishes 256,062.87

Total (RM) 1,646,965.82

d. Number of Total Elements (TE) = 13

e. Number of CSE in Total = 5

8

f. CSE/TE (per cent)

5/ 13 x 100% = 38.46%

g.

Total Bill Value of CSE/ Actual Total Bill Value (per

cent)

(RM 1,646,965.82 RM 2,301,536.66) x 100%

= 71.56%

h. Cost Model Factor (CMF)

(Total Bill Value of CSE / Actual Total Bill Value (per cent) / 100%

71.56% 100% = 0.7156

9

Question 7

Based on the BQ found, find the

a. Actual Total Bill Value (RM)

Item RM

D Excavation and Earthwork 6,531.10

F Concrete Work 1,196,492.56

G Brickwork and Blockwork 157,398.00

K Waterproofing and Asphalt work 78,463.78

L Roofing 90,546.00

N Structural Steelwork 36,695.00

P Metalwork 7,489.00

Q

Plumbling and Mechanical

Engineering Installations 12,742.60

S Floor, Wall and Ceiling Finishing 713,628.62

U Painting and Decorating 1,550.00

Total of 10 Threats 2,301,536.66

b. Mean Bill Value (RM)

Actual Total Bill Value (RM) / No. of Threats

RM 2,301,536.66 10 =

RM

230,153.67

c.

Total Bill Value of Cost Significant Work Packages

(CSWP)(RM)

Item RM

F Concrete Work 1,196,492.56

S Floor, Wall and Ceiling Finishing 713,628.62

Total 1,910,121.18

d.

Number of Total Work Items

(WI) = 10

e. Number of CSWI in Total = 2

f. CSWI/WI (per cent)

2/10 x 100% = 20.00%

10

g. Total Bill Value of CSWP/Actual Total Bill Value (per

cent)

RM1,910,121.18 / RM2,301,536.66

x100% = 82.99%

h. Cost Model Factor (CMF)

(Total Bill Value of CSE / Actual Total Bill Value (per cent) /

100%

82.99% 100% = 0.8299

11

DISCUSSION

The calculation we did based on the same bills and contracts in the different

calculation methods, as the result show, different method had carried out different

result.

Question 6, is the Cost Significant Methods, the items we carried straight

forward from the summary page of the BoQ. The highest cost is the 2nd element

Frame, which normally are the major work in a construction project. The lowest cost

is the 13th element Sanitary Wares and Fittings, which the works are normally,

conduct by the sub-contractor.

After calculated the mean value in Question No.6, we get an amount of RM

177,041.28. We carried the amount to get the Total Bill Value of Cost Significant

Elements (CSE). There are total of 5 items which had over 50% compare with the

Mean Value.

From the Paretos law we can know that, the theory concluded that 20% of

the total cost in a BoQ was occupied by 75% to 95% of the BoQ items. It is widely

accepted that BoQs contain many low value items, and it is preferable to apply in

the details work. The results we get in the Question 6 are not really meet to the

Paretos law theory which advocates 80-20 rule.

Question 7 is slightly different compare with Question 6. Before proceed to

the calculation work, we need to group all the low value items based on the thread

of SMM2 (Standard Methods of Measurement 2). After we the grouping works, we

get a total of 10 groups for whole BoQ which are listed below:

12

D. Excavation and Earthwork

F. Concrete Work

G. Brickwork and Blockwork

K. Waterproofing ad Asphalt work

L. Roofing

N. Structural Steelwork

P. Metalwork

Q. Plumbling and Mechanical Engineering Installations

S. Floor, Wall and Ceiling Finishing

U. Painting and Decorating

From the list we sorted out in the calculation part, Group F considered the

highest amount compare with other groups. This is because the majority work such

as concrete, formwork, reinforcement work and etc. are under the F. Concrete Work

according to the SMM2. The 2

nd

highest amount is Group S Floor, Wall and

Ceiling Finishing, generally this group also consider large amount of works compare

with other bills. The lowest amount is Group U Painting and Decorating.

The mean value of Question 7 is RM 230,153.67. There are only two threads

/ groups exceed 50% of this amount which are Group F and S. The results carried out

by Question 7 nearly to meet with the Paretos law which there are 20% which

become the cause of the 80% of effects.

Although we are using the same BoQ to carry both of the calculations, but its

show the different result. Question 6 is based on the partial work grouping, and

Question 7 is based on the work packages. The different number of groups and

amount affected the result. The Question No.7, as applied in the construction project

it can be said that 20% of the work items contribute to 80% of the total building

cost.

13

References:

1) Barnes, N. M. L., & Thompson, P. (1971). Civil engineering bills of

quantities. Construction Industry Research and Information Association.

2) Branco, F. A., & De Brito, J. (2004). Handbook of concrete bridge

management. ASCE Publications.

3) Moyles, B. F. (1973). An analysis of the contractors estimating process.

Department of Civil Engineering, Loughborough University of Technology.

4) Short GS (1970). Summing Up. Second Conference on Contracting in Civil

Engineering since Banwell. EDC for Civil Engineers and Municipal

Engineers, National Economic Development Office.

5) Smith, N. J. (Ed.). (1995). Project cost estimating. Thomas Telford.

6) Tas, E., & Yaman, H. (2005). A building cost estimation model based on cost

significant work packages. Engineering, Construction and Architectural

Management, 12(3), 251-263.

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