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Electrical Science

1
The Bipolar Junction Transistor ( B.J.T.)
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Symbols
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How to remember the Symbols
The NPN transistor has an arrow that is:
N not
P pointing
N in
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Transistor Biasing
The base emitter junction must be forward
biased.
The base collector must be reverse
biased.
A
d
d
Add the two batteries to the circuit on the right.Use the correct bias.
What type of transistor is this ?
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C B E
I I I + =
This Rule must be memorised!
Transistor Currents
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Question
A transistor has a collector current of 0.1 Amps.
The base current is 100 micro Amps.
Find the emitter current, in milli amps.
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Solution:
First we convert all units to milli amps:
1) Collector current = 0
.
1 Amps. This is 100 milli Amps.
Base current is 100 micro Amps. This is 0
.
1 milli amps.
2) The formula:
Emitter current = 0
.
1 mA + 100 mA.
Emitter current = 100
.
1 mA
C B E
I I I + =
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How transistors work
A small tap can control
the flow of water from
a pressure hose.
A small signal on the base
of a transistor can control
the flow of current
from collector to emitter.
Tap = Base
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A Transistor amplifies signals.
The transistor makes the
signal louder.
A small signal
is sent in.
A large signal comes out.
Unlike a resistor or capacitor.
a transistor must be powered
By a battery.
We say it is an active device.
For example a radio receives a weak signal at the aerial Vin.
It is amplified using a transistor and sent out to the speaker V out.
V in
The battery power supply is called Vcc,
because the voltage is connected indirectly to the collector.
V out
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Using an analogue meter to test Transistors
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Testing a Transistor in Circuit with a multimeter
o
Vce Vc
Vbe
12 V
+
V
V
V
V
5 V
The Base Emitter PN junction uses 0.7 volts to
turn on the transistor, which joins the collector to the emitter.
Question: a)State the voltage reading on each meter.
b) Name these voltage readings. Vcc,Vce,Vbe, Vbb.
Vbb
Vcc
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Parameters
1) Current Gain:
B
C
fe
DC
I
I
h called also is this
current base
current collector
= = B
3) POWER:
Transistor can only dissipate a limited amount of power.
If the maximum power is exceeded the transistor will
overheat and be damaged.
2) CURRENT
Transistor can only carry a limited current. If the
maximum current is exceeded the transistor will
overheat and be damaged.
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Question
A transistor has a maximum power rating of half
a watt. Its maximum voltage supply V
CE
is 20V
and maximum current I
C
is 50 mA.
a) Fill in the following grid.
b) Will any of these situations damage the
transistor?
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Solution
a)
b) Yes. When the current is100mA the limit is exceeded,
and the transistor damaged.
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Heat Sinks
To cool down some transistors metal plates are attached
to them.
Without these heat sinks they would overheat.
These remove heat from the transistor just like the metal
fins on a motor bike, or a radiator in a car.
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Transistor Cases
emitter
base
collector
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The Transistor as a Switch.
The LED will light because the
Base has more than 0.7V which
turns the transistor on so the
collector is connected to the
emitter.
Find the voltage at A.
+
V2
10V
D1
LED1
Q1
NPN
R4
50
R3
1k
R2
100
R1
100
Resistor
A
500
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volts 3 . 3 V
00 5 . 0066 0 V
R . I V
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
volt 6 6 V
1000 . 0066 0 V
R . I V
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A. 0066 0 I
500 1000
10
I
R R
V
I
4
4
4 r4 4
3
3
3 r3 3
r4 and r3
r4 and r3
4 3
r4 and r3
r4 and r3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
=
+
=
r
r
r
r
r
r
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The Transistor as a Switch.
This LED will NOT light because
the Base has less than 0.7V which
turns off the transistor and so the
collector is disconnected from the
emitter.
Find the voltage at point A.
Resistor
A
50
1K
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volts 48 . 0 V
0 5 . 00952 0 V
R . I V
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
volt 52 . 9 V
1000 . 00952 0 V
R . I V
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A. 00952 0 I
50 1000
10
I
R R
V
I
4
4
4 r4 4
3
3
3 r3 3
r4 and r3
r4 and r3
4 3
r4 and r3
r4 and r3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
=
+
=
r
r
r
r
r
r
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Is the LED on ? Explain your answer
1k
9k
Solution:
The LED is off
because the transistor is on
and so short circuiting it.
On means collector is connected to emitter.
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volts 9 V
9000 .
1000
1
V
R . I V
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
volt 1 V
1000 .
1000
1
V
R . I V
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
mA. 1 I
10000
10
I
R R
V
I
4
4
4 r4 4
3
3
3 r3 3
r4 and r3
r4 and r3
4 3
r4 and r3
r4 and r3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
+
=
r
r
r
r
r
r
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State the voltage bias on the base.
VCC
+30V
R1
22k
RC
1.0k
R2
10k
RE
1.0k
Solution : The voltage at the base is 9.38 Volts.
A
Resistor
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Question
If the current gain B
DC
is 50 find
a) I
B
b) I
C
c) IE
d) VB
e) VC
+
VCC
20V
+
VBB
3V
RC
1.0k
RB
10k
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+
VCC
20V
+
VBB
3V
RC
1.0k
RB
10k
IB
Ic
IE
VB
VC
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Solution a)
First we find IB
IB is the current in the base.
Current is V/R
V is 3 - 0.7 dropped by the base emitter PN
junction.
The base current = 2.3/10,000
IB = 0.000230 Amps.
IB = 0.230 milli Amps.
IB = 230 micro Amps.
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Solution b)
To find IC
We know: Gain means output compared to
input.
Gain = IC / IB
Multiply both sides by IB
Gain IB = IC
IC = 50 . 230 u Amps
IC = 11500 u Amps
IC = 11
.
5 mA.
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Solution c)
To find IE.
IE = IC + IB
=11.7 mA
Solution d)
VB is always 0.7 volts higher than the voltage at the emitter.
In this case the emitter is grounded so VB is 0.7 volts
Solution e)
Vc is Vcc the voltage dropped across Rc.
Vc = 20 (11.5 mA)(1 k)
Vc = 8.5 volts.
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a) You measure the voltage across
R1 as 4.5 volts.
Find Vce.
b) R5 uses 0.1 m Volts.
Find the current through it.
c) Find Ic.
d) Find the current Gain of the
circuit.
e) Find Ie.
+
V2
10V
D1
LED1
Q1
NPN
R4
50
R3
1k
R2
100
R1
100
R5 = 120 ohms
Question:
The transistor is not fully on.
We say it is not saturated.
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Answer
A) The supply is 10 volts
R1 uses 4.5 volts.
R2 uses 4.5 volts. Same resistance and current.
The diode used 0.7 volts.
These add up to 9.7 volts.
So the transistor uses 0.3 volts between collector and
emitter and this is called Vce.
B) Using Ohms Law :
uA 0.83 I
A 0.00000083 I
120
Volts 1 000 0
I
120
Volts m 1 0
I
resistor THAT
resistor THAT across voltage The
resistor a routh current th The
R5
R5
R5
R5
=
=

=
=
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c) Solution( Use Ohms Law)
Amps m 45 I
amps 045 . 0 I
100
volts 4.5
I
resistor THAT
resistor THAT across voltage The
resistor a routh current th The
R1
R1
R1
=
=
=
=
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Solution part d
54216 Gain
ma 00083 0
ma 45
Gain
Ib
Ic
Gain
=

=
=
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ma 45.00083 Ie
mA .00083 ma 45 Ie
Ib Ic Ie
d)
=
+ =
+ =
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Q15 March 2005
Redraw the transistors and show the direction of conventional current
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Q15 March 2005
Solution:
1) Fill in the P and N terminals.
2) Fill in the battery + and -.
The Base emitter must be forward biased. The base collector reverse biased.
N
N
N
P
P
P
+
+
+
-
-
-
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Q15 March 2005
Solution:
Conventional current flows from the + of the battery to the of the battery.
N
N
N
P
P
P
+
+
+
-
-
-
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Q15 May 2005
The hfe of an NPN transistor is 250.
If the transistor is operating under non-saturated conditions in a circuit and
the collector current found to be 25mA determine the base current.
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Solution
100 micro amps.
Saturation: means the transistor is turned on fully.
Increasing the voltage on the base will have no effect.
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Question
A transistor circuit has the follow measurements.
Vcc 30 V
IB = 0.25 mA
Ic = 50 mA
Find IE.