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SAP BW ETL Fundamentals

Fundamentals of ETL Service Architecture


ETL service comprises of two parts: Staging engine and Storage Service. Staging
engine manages staging process for all data received from several source systems. It
interfaces with the AW scheduler and monitor for scheduling and monitoring data load
processes. !owever" Storage Service manages and provides access to data targets in SA#
W and the aggregates that are stored in relational and multidimensional data$ase
management systems.
It is true" however" that the e%traction technology provided as an integral part of SA# W
is restricted to data$ase management systems supported $y mySA# technology and that it
does not allow e%tracting data from other data$ase systems li&e I' I'S and Sy$ase. It
also does not support proprietary file formats such as dase file formats" 'icrosoft
Access file formats" 'icrosoft E%cel file formats" and others. (n the other hand" the ETL
services layer of SA# W provides all the functionality re)uired to load data from non*
SA# systems in e%actly the same way as it does for data from SA# systems. SA# W
does not in fact distinguish $etween different types of source systems after data has
arrived in the staging area. The ETL services layer provides open interfaces for loading
non*SA# data.
E%traction at Service Levels
SA# W can $e integrated with other SA# components $ased on application
programming interface +A#I, service. It provides a framewor& to ena$le comprehensive
data replication $ased on data e%tractors that encapsulate the application logic. -ata
E%tractor fills the e%tract structure of data source with a data from data source and offers
sophisticated handling of changes. In addition to supporting e%tractors" the service A#Is
also ena$le online access via .emote/u$e technology and fle%i$le staging for
hierarchies. (n the other hand SA# provides an open interface called Staging usiness
Application #rogramming Interface +A#I, to e%tract data from non*SA# sources. A#I
serves the purpose of connecting third* party ETL tools to SA# W and provides access
to SA# W o$0ects which facilitates use of customer e%traction routines. -ata can $e
e%tracted at the data$ase level $y using: - connect" flat files and 1'L. - connect
facilitates e%traction directly from -'S. In this the metadata files are loaded $y
replicating metadata ta$les and views into the metadatory repository of SA# W. -ata
can also $e uploaded from flat files $y creating routines for e%traction of data and 1'L
files can $e e%tracted through 1'L via Administrator Wor&$ench in SA# W.
SA# W provides three ways to e%tract data at the data$ase or file level: - /onnect"
flat file transfer" and 1'L. SA# W provides fle%i$le capa$ilities for e%tracting data
directly from .-'S ta$les using - /onnect.
SAP BW ETL Components
/omponents of ETL Services at -ata$ase of File Level
2 (perational -ata Store: It stores detailed data and supports tactical" day*to*day decision
ma&ing. A SA# view (-S as a near real*time informational environment that supports
operational reporting $y interacting with e%isting transactional systems" data warehouses"
or analytical applications. SA# W allows fle%i$le access to data in the (-S" the data
warehouse" and the multidimensional models.
2 -ata 'arts: A data mart provides the data needed $y a decentrali3ed function"
department" or $usiness area. 4ou need to weight the pros and cons $efore developing a
data mart. For e%ample" a data mart can $e implemented faster and cheaper than a data
warehouse" sometimes costing 567 less than a full data warehouse. ut as data marts
proliferate" the cost advantages can disappear. The IT organi3ation must maintain the
individual data marts and the multitude of ETL and warehouse management processes
that go with them. 'ultiple data marts can complicate data integration efforts" increase
the amount of inconsistent data" re)uire more $usiness rules" and create the data
stovepipes that data warehousing strives to eliminate.
2 Interfaces: The data mart interface ena$les users to transfer and update transactional
data and metadata from one SA# W system to other SA# W systems.
2 (pen !u$ Services: The open hu$ service is used to share data in SA# W with non*
SA# data marts" analytical applications" and other applications. This service controls data
distri$ution and maintains data consistency across systems. With the open hu$ service"
actual data and the corresponding metadata are retrieved from Info/u$es or (-S o$0ects.
SAP BW Integration
Analysis of W support navigation facilities integrated to W 8.6
(LA# A#I: SA# W 8.6 comes with the (LA# A#I Interface +(I, which provides
functions that can $e used $y third party reporting tools to access W Info cu$es. It
provides an open interface to access any information that is availa$le through (LA#
engine.
Integrating with 1'L: (LA# A#I serves as the $asis for the SA# implementation of
1'L for analysis. It is an 1'L A#I $ased on Simple ($0ect Access #rotocol +S(A#,
designed for standardi3ed access to an analytical data provider over the we$. The 1'L
interface introduced with SA# W 8.6 release accepts 1'L data streams compliant with
the S(A#. 9nli&e all other SA# W interfaces in 1'L interface the actual data transfer
is initiated $y the source system.
SAP BW Conclusion
/onclusion
With the growing networ& of processes and systems" the need for efficient management
support systems is also increasing. !owever for this it is not enough to place a company
strategically and give guidelines for its further development. Instead it is essential to have
real time analysis and graphical visuali3ation of the &ey performance indicators. In SA#
W automatic assimilation and analysis of information is possi$le. W gives a holistic
view of the company $y considering $oth the financial data and non* financial assets of
the company. As corporate planning is often not done in one common planning tool +e.g.
turnover plan in a sales system and cost center plan in e%cel, studying interdependencies
and coordination among them has $ecome even more tedious. Thus the strategic
management system must esta$lish a planning process through all levels of planning in
the company to ma&e the data availa$le for all responsi$le persons in one system. With
SA# W it is possi$le to upload data of different planning tools" manipulate planning
data and write $ac& changed data to the operational system. SA# W can also $e used as
early warning system to inform the responsi$le persons a$out critical indicators on the
$asis of already defined thresholds of these indicators.
(utloo&
SA# W has the usual data warehouse layers accompanied $y administrative services
through the Administrative Wor&$ench. It allows e%change of data and metadata with
other systems and tools in the case of SA#*specific interfaces li&e Staging A#I and the
(LA# A#I and supports other industry standard interfaces allowing easy access to data
and metadata maintained in SA#. Also" the metadata o$0ects that are availa$le in SA# W
are used to $uild (perational data stores" data warehouses and info marts. Thus" the
services provided $y SA# with SA# W ma&es it a ma0or tool for complete corporate
information and strategy management.
(pen !u$ Services: The (pen !u$ Service allows controlled distri$ution of consistent
data from any SA# W Info#rovider to flat files" data$ase ta$les and other applications
with full support for delta management" selections" pro0ections and aggregation. (pen
!u$ Services have InfoSpo&es as their core metadata o$0ects. With the SA# 8.6 release
InfoSpo&es have $ecome generally availa$le.
/ontent 'anagement Framewor&: The SA# We$ /ontent 'anagement Server stores
unstructured information that users can go through and use efficiently. Integration with
the SA# W content management framewor& provides an integrated view on structured
and unstructured information to the end user.
SAP Business Warehouse Topics
:. Fundamentals: What is ;etWeaver< What is I< What is SA# W or usiness
Information Warehouse< What is SA# .8< -ecision support in an Enterprise. -ecision
support v=s (perational .eporting. (LT# v=s (LA#. Fundamentals a$out wor&ing of SA#
.8. Fundamentals a$out
wor&ing of SA# W.
>. Functions of W: .eporting +-ecision Support and (perational," (pen !u$ +Supply
-ata to E%ternal Applications," #lanning +usiness #lanning and Simulation ? #S,.
SE'?#S is now W*#S. W as E-W +Enterprise -ata Warehouse,.
8. -ata 'odeling: -ata modeling concepts. /oncepts $ehind various -ata 'odels used
in (LT# and (LA#. Why different -ata 'odels< '-' v=s E.'. E%tended Star Schema
used in SA# W.
@. SA# W Terminology: /ommunication Structure in SA# .8" E%tract Structure" 9ser
E%it" Transfer Structure" -atasource" Source System" #SA" Transfer rules"
/ommunication Structure in W" 9pdate .ules" Infocu$e" (-S +(perational -ata
Store," Infoo$0ect" 'aster -ata
+Attri$utes" Te%ts and !ierarchies," /haracteristics and Aey Figures" Infoprovider"
-atatarget" Infoprovider v=s -atatarget" Infoarea" Application /omponents" Administrator
Wor& ench" 'ultiprovider" Infoset" e% Buery" Infoset Buery" /lassic Infoset.
C. -ata Flow: !ow the data flows from Source System in to W< -ata Flow -iagram for
SA# .8 (LT# System to SA# W. Types of 9pdates ? -irect v=s Fle%i$le. !ow the
elements descri$ed a$ove are used in -ata Flow<
D. Infoo$0ect: !ow to create Infoo$0ect< Types of Infoo$0ects. /haracteristics and Aey
Figures" 'aster -ata" Special types +9nit=/urrency" -ate," -ata Structures in Infoo$0ect.
!ow to Load -ata in to Infoo$0ect< !ow is the Infoo$0ect used in .eporting< Elo$al
Transfer .outine ? !ow to use Elo$al Transfer .outine< Why it is used. 'anagement of
overlapping 'aster -ata from
'ultiple Sources. /reating -irect 9pdate Infosources Automatically. Infoo$0ect as
Infoprovider.
F. Types of 9pdates: Additive" (verwrite. Where to maintain update type for -atasource<
Which o$0ects use these update types +(-S=Infocu$e<'aster -ata,<
5. Infocu$e: !ow to create an Infocu$e< Types of Infocu$es +Transactional" asic"
.emote=Girtual," -ata Structures in an Infocu$e. 9pdate types for Infocu$e. !ow is the
data updated in the Infocu$e< Girtual Aey Figures.
H. (-S ($0ect: !ow to /reate (-S ($0ect< Structure of (-S ($0ect. 9pdste types in
(-S ($0ect. 9pdate 'echanism. -ata structures in an (-S ($0ect.
:6. Infosource: /reating Infosource" 9pdate and Transfer .ules" 9pdate .outine"
Transfer .outine" Start .outine" Start up .outine.
::. AW ? Administrator Wor& ench: Functions of AW ? 'odeling" 'onitoring"
.eporting Agent" Transport /onnection" -ocuments" usiness /ontent" Translation"
'etadata .epository.
:>. Transports: !ow transports wor& in W. !ow to create Transports< Efficient ways to
create Transports in -ifferent Scenarios.
:8. usiness /ontent: Standard usiness /ontent in .8 and W. Transferring
-atasources and Application /omponent !ierarchy in .8. .eplication of -atasources.
Activation of usiness /ontent. !ow to Activate usiness /ontent ? various Scenarios.
:@. -ata E%traction 9sing Flat Files: !ow to generate Transfer Structure from
/ommunication Structure< Loading -ata using Flat File.
:C. -ata E%traction from SA# .8 ? -ata /ollection: Transaction #rocessing in SA# .8.
9pdate types in SA# .8. !ow I-eltaJ is managed< G8 /ontrol. -irect and Bueued
-elta. 9pdate 'echanism in SA# .8. 'anipulation of -ata in SA# .8. Transaction 9ser
E%its" LIS 9ser E%its.
W 9ser E%its.
:D. -ata E%traction from SA# .8 ?Application Specific: Infrastructure needed for
loading data ? -atasource" L(*/oc&pit -atasources" /(K#A" FI*SL" FIKLine Item
E%traction" LIS E%traction.
:F. L(*/oc&pit E%traction: -emonstrate each step in data e%traction $y performing
transactions in SA# .8.
:5. -ata E%traction from SA# .8 ? Eeneric: !ow to /reate Eeneric -atasource< -elta
'anagement. Eeneric -elta.
:H. -ata E%traction from SA# .8 ? 'aintain -atasource: What is * -irect Access" -elta"
Inversion" Selection" Field onlyL" !ide. !ow to 'aintain -atasource<
>6. -ata E%traction from SA# .8 ? 'odifying -ata: 'anipulation of Transaction -ata =
'aster -ata = Te%ts = !ierarchies. !ow to program in 9ser E%it< /oncept of #ro0ect.
Function 'odules used for -ata 'anipulation.
>:. 'odify -atasource: -emo the process of modifying 'aster -ata Source $y adding
additional field and filling it with -ata in W.
>>. -ata E%traction from 1'L Source: 1'L Integration" /reating Flat File -atasource
and generating 'yself -atasource. /reate and 'aintain I-elta BueueJ in W System.
>8. - /onnect: /oncepts.
>@. -ata 'art Interface: E%traction within W System. (-S to (-S" (-S to Infocu$e
and Infocu$e to Infocu$e E%traction.
>C. (pen !u$ Services: Infospo&e" /reate and Schedule Infospo&e. W as (pen !u$ or
-ata !u$.
>D. #erformance 'anagement: !ow to improve performance of -ata Load and Buery<
#artitioning. Inde%es in Infocu$es and (-SMs. Aggregates on Infocu$es. /ompression.
>F. #roduction Support: 'onitoring No$s" #rocess /hains" Event /hains" Infopac&age
Eroups" /reating and Triggering Events" /ommon #ro$lems" !ow to Fi% them.
>5. W #resentation ? Bueries: e% Analy3er" Buery -esigner" Bueries in standard E%cel
Front end" Functions" Formulas" /alculated and .estricted Aey Figures" Ta$ular -isplay.
Buery Giews. E%ception .eporting.
>H. We$ Interface: Launching Bueries in We$ Front end. uilding simple We$ site for
launching Bueries.
86. We$ Application -esigner: We$ Templates. /reating We$ Template with /ompany
Logo. Adding more than one Buery in a We$ #age.
8:. .eporting Agent: -emo * Scheduling a Buery with e%ceptions to run at certain time
and send e*mail with the result as attachment.
8>. .eport to .eport Interface: Also &nown as ..I or Buery Nump. Nump from Aggregate
to -etailed Buery with selections from the Aggregate Buery.
88. B O A: B O A on all topics covered.
8@. E%ercises: E%ercises on W /onfiguration" E%traction and #resentation. Also"
Important e%ercises are availa$le in Audio Gisual format on the we$site.
What Is a Data Warehouse?
Since the $eginning of movement toward data warehousing" data warehouses have $een
defined as $eing:
Su!ect"oriented. -ata is organi3ed around a ma0or o$0ect or process of an
organi3ation./lassic e%amples include su$0ect area data$ases for customer" material"
vendor" and transaction.
Integrated. The data from various su$0ect areas should $e rationali3ed with one another.
#onvolatile. -ata in a data warehouse is not updated. (nce a record is properly placed in
the warehouse" it is not su$0ect to change. This contrasts with a record of data in an online
environment" which is indeed very much su$0ect to change.
Time"variant. Arecord is accurate only as of some moment in time. In some cases the
moment in time is a single moment. In other cases it is a span of time. ut in any case"
the values of data found in a data warehouse are accurate and relevant only to some
moment in time.
Created $or the purpose o$ management decisions.
The preceding definition has remained unchanged since the inception of the data
warehouse. In addition" the data warehouse provides:
-etailed or granular data
Integrated data
!istorical data
Easy*access data
The data warehouse is at the center of the $usiness intelligence environment. The data
warehouse represents the single version of truth for the corporation and holds data at a
granular level. In addition" the data warehouse contains a ro$ust amount of historical
data. The need for a data warehouse is as true within the confines of SA# as it is outside
of SA#. And the elements of a data warehouse are as valid for SA# as for the non*SA#
environment.
The data warehouse evolves from these re)uirements and supports the process of moving
data from source systems" transforming" and cleansing the data so that it may $e stored in
an integrated data model at an atomic level of granularity. There are many factors that
influence the design of a data warehouse and the structure that data records are stored. We
discuss some of these factors in the ne%t sections.
Evolution o$ SAP BW
Evolution of SA# usiness Information Warehouse
A Buic& Loo& at SA# .=8 Architecture and Technologies
Founded in :HF> in 'annheim" Eermany" as Systemanalyse und #rogrammen*twic&lung
to produce and mar&et standard software for integrated $usiness solutions" today that
company is &nown as SA# +Systems" Applications and #roducts in -ata #rocessing,"
head)uartered in Walldorf" Eermany. SA# $uilt pac&aged applications for mainframe
computers" called SA# .=>. As the client=server technologies emerged in the early :H56s"
SA# launched a ma0or initiative to engineer powerful three*tiered integrated $usiness
applications under one framewor&. The SA# .=8 product is the outcome of that initiative.
;ote (ften" people as& what .=> and .=8 mean. The letter . stands for real*time" and >
and 8 represent two*tiered and three*tiered architectures" respectively. SA# .=> is for
mainframes only" whereas SA# .=8 is three*tiered implementation using client=server
technology for a wide range of platforms*hardware and software. When implementing a
We$ front*end to an SA# .=8 implementation" the three*tiered architecture $ecomes
multi*tiered depending on how the We$
server is configured against the data$ase server or how the We$ server Itself distri$utes
the
transaction and presentation logic.
All SA# .=8 $usiness applications use an active dictionary to store all $usiness rules
defined to run $usiness. These $usiness and wor&flow rules &eep information flowing
among application modules in a controlled and secured fashion. The PAA# Wor&$enchP
is used to develop $usiness programs using the Advanced usiness Application
#rogramming +AA#, language. The asis technology is responsi$le for managing .=8
infrastructure such as software installation" operations" and administration.
SA# .=8Qs multi*tiered architecture ena$les its customers to deploy .=8 with or without
an application server. /ommon three*tiered architecture consists of the following three
layers:
R -ata 'anagement
R Application Logic
R #resentation
The -ata 'anagement layer manages data storage" the Application layer performs
$usiness logic" and the #resentation layer presents information to the end user.
'ost often" the -ata 'anagement and Application Logic layers are implemented on one
machine" whereas wor&stations are used for presentation functions. This two*tiered
application model is suited $est for small $usiness applications where transaction
volumes are low and $usiness logic is simple.
When the num$er of users or the volume of transactions increases" separate the
application logic from data$ase management functions $y configuring one or more
application servers against a data$ase server. This three*tiered application model for SA#
.=8 &eeps operations functioning without performance degradation. (ften" additional
application servers are configured to process $atch 0o$s or other long and intense
resource*consuming tas&s. This separation of the application server ena$les system
operations staff to fine*tune individual application servers suited for specific data
processing tas&s.
.eporting Environment in SA# .=8
/omparing SA# .=8 .eporting Systems
Limitations of SA# .=8 .eporting
%eproting Environment in SAP %&' continues
R Buality 'anagement Information System +B'IS,
R .etail Information System +.IS,
R Warehouse 'anagement Information System +W'IS,
R Transportation Information System +TIS,
9nder the LIS environment" several predefined data$ase ta$les ena$le customers to
)uic&ly develop reports. The following descri$es how LIS reporting systems wor&.
ased on $usiness events in .=8*for e%ample" creating an order +transaction GA6:,*the
LIS Interface +/ommunication Structure, gives selected data generated $y transactions to
update rules that in turn update special ta$les" called information structures.
.=8 transaction ta$les and LIS information structures are updated in two modes:
synchronous and asynchronous. When the synchronous mode is selected" $oth the
transaction ta$les and information structures are updated simultaneously. !owever" when
the asynchronous mode is selected" transaction ta$les are updated first" and information
structures later. In this case" you will not find up*to*the*second information in LIS info
structures for reporting. The reason is that the .=8 system commits transaction data
)uic&ly and notifies the end user that the transaction is complete. This ena$les the end
user to start another transaction. ut in the $ac&ground" SA# .=8 delivers the LIS ta$le
update 0o$ to another dialog wor& process to update LIS information structures. This
delay might range from a few seconds to a few minutes" depending on your systemQs
availa$le resources.
Transaction ('(: is used to define the synchroni3ation scheme for a specific LIS
information structure. LIS information structures are simple data$ase ta$les named S66:
through S@HH. These ta$les are used for reporting and analysis. 4ou can define your own
custom information structures to capture specific data for reporting +name range SC66
through SHHH,. SA# W pulls data from all LIS information structures defined in SA#
.=8S however" the update logic for SA# W*specific information structures varies from
traditional update rules used for LIS reporting.
Tip The LIS*supported reporting environment does not access original transaction ta$les
at analysis time. 4ou are limited to the analytical data stored in an information structure
$ut have full visi$ility to the reference data stored in SA# .=8. -esign your custom
information structures to capture document*level details if that is what you need for
analysis.
Financial Information System
The Financial Information System consists of the following ma0or su$*information
systems:
R Treasury Information System +TIS,
R Finance Information System +FIS,
R /ontrolling*#rofita$ility Analysis +/(*#A,
R Enterprise /ontrolling*#rofit /enter Accounting +E/*#/A,
The FIS allow users to carry out evaluations for customers" such as payment and cash*
flow historyS currency ris&S and overdue items" such as due*date $rea&down. The
financial accounting ta$les are the primary data source for FIS.
#rofita$ility analysis provides sales" mar&eting" product management" and corporate
planning analysts with information for the purpose of controlling and decision ma&ing.
This re)uires data from several application modules within SA# .=8" such as revenue and
sales deductions from the sales and distri$ution module" special direct cost from financial
accounting" and pro0ect costs from pro0ect systems.
E%ecutive Information System +EIS,
9nder the (IW framewor&" information o$0ects are stored in their own data$ase o$0ects
within an .=8 instance. Information in such data o$0ects is designed for summari3ed data
for senior management. -ata in EIS is pulled from any SA# module desired into a
structure called an aspect. An aspect can have up to >CD fields split $etween
characteristics and value fields. Two hundred user*defined characteristics are availa$le
for all aspects within an instance.
SA# delivers programs that can pull data from the Sales and -istri$ution Sales
Information System +S-SIS," /ontrolling*#rofita$ility Analysis +/(*#A," /ontrolling
(verhead 'anagement +/(*('," Enterprise /ontrolling*#rofit /enter Accounting +E/*
#/A," Financial Eeneral Ledger +FI*EL," Financial Special #urpose Ledger +FI*SL," and
Financial /onsolidation +FI*L/,.
-ata is loaded via $atch 0o$s" not as in LIS" which is $ased on SA# .=8 $usiness events.
EIS reports are client specific and have to $e created from scratch. A client is a logical
organi3ation of a specific $usiness community and associated configurations in one SA#
.=8 instance. Several clients can co*e%ist in an .=8 instance" each governed $y its own
configuration" the $usiness rules.
-ata from an aspect can $e pulled in an E%cel spreadsheet for analysis. .eport #ainter is
used to create forms for the report and provides powerful graphical capa$ilities such as
charts and graphs" with the e%ception of visual controls and drill*down reporting
capa$ilities" such as $uttons and navigation tree visual controls.
%eporting Environment in SAP %&'
SA# offers a collection of more than >"666 powerful and fle%i$le $usiness reports in .=8.
These reports are spread across all application modules. ;avigating through several
information systems to find specific reports is a huge challenge. SA# also provides
several reporting tools in .=8 to $uild )ueries and reports against operational data. -etails
of such tools are discussed later in this chapter.
The Simplification Eroup at SA# has developed .eport ;avigator and .eport Tree tools
that ma&e it easier to organi3e and search reports in .=8..
'a0or application modules in .=8 fall in the following $usiness areas:
R Logistics
R Financials
R !uman resources
R Industry specific
Several information systems e%ist in .=8 that provide a reporting and data analysis
environment limited to specific application modules. Information systems in .=8 are
similar to data marts where su$0ect*specific data is collected and stored in data$ase ta$les
dedicated for reporting.
.=8 information systems provide you with information that enhances the capa$ilities of
more than >"666 standard .=8 reports. !ere you can com$ine data from non*.=8 data
sources with .=8 data for reporting. In the following sections" I will discuss data
warehousing environments provided within .=8 for data analysis and reporting for
information systems relevant to usiness Information Warehouse.
(pen Information Warehouse and Information Systems in SA# .=8
Information systems in SA# .=8 are components of SA#Qs (pen Information Warehouse
+(IW, framewor&. The vision $ehind (IW is to provide a cross*application data analysis
environment providing very summari3ed information with charts and graphs suited $est
for senior e%ecutives.
Individual information systems*LIS" FIS" !IS" and so on*in SA# .=8 are limited to a
specific application area and associated data o$0ects" e%cept the EIS. These information
systems provide an effective method of retrieving summari3ed data. Following are the
ma0or information systems in .=8:
R E%ecutive Information System +EIS,
R Logistics Information System +LIS,
R Financial Information System +FIS,
R !uman .esources Information System +!IS,
Eranularity of data availa$le in information systems depends on the type of reporting
environment selected. At the EIS level" you access summari3ed information that can go
hori3ontally across one or more application modules. In other information systems" you
are limited to only one application area at a time. With AA#=Buery and AA#" you can
access transaction ta$lesS hence" access to transaction level detailed information is
availa$le. AA# Buery and .eport Writer=.eport #ainter are regarded as ad hoc
reporting tools.
Logistics Information System +LIS,
The LIS is widely used $y .=8 customers and plays a ma0or role in preparing information
for SA# W. It consists of the following su$*information systems +the list may vary
$ased on the SA# .=8 (LT# release,:
R Sales Information System +SIS,
R #urchasing Information System +#IS,
R Inventory /ontrolling +I;G/(,
R Shop Floor Information System +SFIS,
R #lant 'aintenance Information System +#'IS,
%eproting Environment in SAP %&' continues
R Buality 'anagement Information System +B'IS,
R .etail Information System +.IS,
R Warehouse 'anagement Information System +W'IS,
R Transportation Information System +TIS,
9nder the LIS environment" several predefined data$ase ta$les ena$le customers to
)uic&ly develop reports. The following descri$es how LIS reporting systems wor&.
ased on $usiness events in .=8*for e%ample" creating an order +transaction GA6:,*the
LIS Interface +/ommunication Structure, gives selected data generated $y transactions to
update rules that in turn update special ta$les" called information structures.
.=8 transaction ta$les and LIS information structures are updated in two modes:
synchronous and asynchronous. When the synchronous mode is selected" $oth the
transaction ta$les and information structures are updated simultaneously. !owever" when
the asynchronous mode is selected" transaction ta$les are updated first" and information
structures later. In this case" you will not find up*to*the*second information in LIS info
structures for reporting. The reason is that the .=8 system commits transaction data
)uic&ly and notifies the end user that the transaction is complete. This ena$les the end
user to start another transaction. ut in the $ac&ground" SA# .=8 delivers the LIS ta$le
update 0o$ to another dialog wor& process to update LIS information structures. This
delay might range from a few seconds to a few minutes" depending on your systemQs
availa$le resources.
Transaction ('(: is used to define the synchroni3ation scheme for a specific LIS
information structure. LIS information structures are simple data$ase ta$les named S66:
through S@HH. These ta$les are used for reporting and analysis. 4ou can define your own
custom information structures to capture specific data for reporting +name range SC66
through SHHH,. SA# W pulls data from all LIS information structures defined in SA#
.=8S however" the update logic for SA# W*specific information structures varies from
traditional update rules used for LIS reporting.
Tip The LIS*supported reporting environment does not access original transaction ta$les
at analysis time. 4ou are limited to the analytical data stored in an information structure
$ut have full visi$ility to the reference data stored in SA# .=8. -esign your custom
information structures to capture document*level details if that is what you need for
analysis.
Financial Information System
The Financial Information System consists of the following ma0or su$*information
systems:
R Treasury Information System +TIS,
R Finance Information System +FIS,
R /ontrolling*#rofita$ility Analysis +/(*#A,
R Enterprise /ontrolling*#rofit /enter Accounting +E/*#/A,
The FIS allow users to carry out evaluations for customers" such as payment and cash*
flow historyS currency ris&S and overdue items" such as due*date $rea&down. The
financial accounting ta$les are the primary data source for FIS.
#rofita$ility analysis provides sales" mar&eting" product management" and corporate
planning analysts with information for the purpose of controlling and decision ma&ing.
This re)uires data from several application modules within SA# .=8" such as revenue and
sales deductions from the sales and distri$ution module" special direct cost from financial
accounting" and pro0ect costs from pro0ect systems.
E%ecutive Information System +EIS,
9nder the (IW framewor&" information o$0ects are stored in their own data$ase o$0ects
within an .=8 instance. Information in such data o$0ects is designed for summari3ed data
for senior management. -ata in EIS is pulled from any SA# module desired into a
structure called an aspect. An aspect can have up to >CD fields split $etween
characteristics and value fields. Two hundred user*defined characteristics are availa$le
for all aspects within an instance.
SA# delivers programs that can pull data from the Sales and -istri$ution Sales
Information System +S-SIS," /ontrolling*#rofita$ility Analysis +/(*#A," /ontrolling
(verhead 'anagement +/(*('," Enterprise /ontrolling*#rofit /enter Accounting +E/*
#/A," Financial Eeneral Ledger +FI*EL," Financial Special #urpose Ledger +FI*SL," and
Financial /onsolidation +FI*L/,.
-ata is loaded via $atch 0o$s" not as in LIS" which is $ased on SA# .=8 $usiness events.
EIS reports are client specific and have to $e created from scratch. A client is a logical
organi3ation of a specific $usiness community and associated configurations in one SA#
.=8 instance. Several clients can co*e%ist in an .=8 instance" each governed $y its own
configuration" the $usiness rules.
-ata from an aspect can $e pulled in an E%cel spreadsheet for analysis. .eport #ainter is
used to create forms for the report and provides powerful graphical capa$ilities such as
charts and graphs" with the e%ception of visual controls and drill*down reporting
capa$ilities" such as $uttons and navigation tree visual controls.
Data load in SAP BW
What is the strategy to load for e%ample C66"666 entries in W +material master"
transactional data,<
!ow to separate this entries in small pac&ages and transfer it to W in automatic<
Is there some strategy for that<
Is there some configuration for that<
See (SS note @::@D@ +e%ample concerning Info Structures from purchasing documents,
to create smaller 0o$s in order to integrate a large amount of data.
For e%ample" if you wish to split your C66"666 entries in five intervals:
* /reate C variants in .'/E;EA9 for each interval
* /reate C 0o$s +S'8D, that e%ecute .'/E;EA9 for each variant
* Schedule your 0o$s
* 4ou can then see the result in .SA8
Loading Data From a Data Target
Can (ou please guide me $or carr(ing out his activit( )ith some important steps?
I am having $e) re*uest )ith the )ithout data mart status+ ,o) can I use onl( them
- create a e.port datasource?
Can (ou please tell me ho) m( data mechanism )ill )or/ a$ter the loading?
Follow these steps:

:. Select Source data target+ in u r case 1, " in the conte%t menu clic& on /reate E%port
-atasources.
-ataSource + InfoSource, with name 5+name of datatarget, will $e generated.

>. In 'odelling menu clic& on Source Systems" Select the logical Source System of your
W server" in the conte%t menu clic& on .eplicate -ataSource.

8. In the -ata'odelling clic& on Infosources and search for infosource 5+name of
datatarget,. If not found in the search refresh it. Still not find then from -ata'odelling
clic& on Infosources" in right side window again select Infosources" in the conte%t menu
clic& on insert Lost ;odes.
;ow search you will definately found.

@. ;o goto .eceiving -ataTargets + in your case 4:"4>"48, create update rules.
In the ne%t screen select Infocu$e radio $utton and enter name of Source -atatarget +in u
r case 1,. clic& ;e%t screen utton + Shift FF," here select Addition radio $utton" then
select Source &eyfield radio $utton and map the &eyfields form Source cu$e to target
cu$e.

C. In the -ata'odelling clic& on Infosources select infoSource which u replicated earlier
and create infopac&age to load data.