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124

Assistance for decisions: Burnt-on sand

125

Assistance for decisions: Burnt-on sand

A

Clay-bonded sand

B

Moulding plant

Examine lustrous carbon production Measure active carbon in moulding sand, examine lustrous carbon producer, use
Examine lustrous carbon production
Measure active carbon in moulding sand,
examine lustrous carbon producer, use material
with greater lustrous carbon production;
increase ignition loss in moulding sand
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no
Content of low-melting-point material in moulding sand
Examine content of
low-melting-point material
promotes adherence. Examine new sand for impurities.
Reduce dust content. Add new sand if necessary.
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no
Examine oolitization
High degree of oolitization reduces melting point.
Add new sand if necessary.
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no
Contact IKO
Examine compaction yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO C Gating and pouring practice Examine gating
Examine compaction
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
C
Gating and pouring practice
Examine gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check pouring temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Poorly compacted sections are at risk of overheating. Achieve more even compaction.

Poorly compacted sections are at risk of overheating. Achieve more even compaction.

Poorly compacted sections are at risk of overheating. Achieve more even compaction.
Poorly compacted sections are at risk of overheating. Achieve more even compaction.
are at risk of overheating. Achieve more even compaction. Gather and interpret data Excessive quantities of

Gather and interpret data

Excessive quantities of metal and

Excessive quantities of metal and

over-rapid pouring rates cause local overheating. Achieve better distribution of metal.

over-rapid pouring rates cause local overheating. Achieve better distribution of metal.
Excessive quantities of metal and over-rapid pouring rates cause local overheating. Achieve better distribution of metal.
Excessive quantities of metal and over-rapid pouring rates cause local overheating. Achieve better distribution of metal.
local overheating. Achieve better distribution of metal. Gather and interpret data Excessively high temperatures

Gather and interpret data

Excessively high temperatures promote sand adhesion. Reduce pouring temperature.

Excessively high temperatures promote sand adhesion. Reduce pouring temperature.

Excessively high temperatures promote sand adhesion. Reduce pouring temperature.
Excessively high temperatures promote sand adhesion. Reduce pouring temperature.
interpret data Excessively high temperatures promote sand adhesion. Reduce pouring temperature. Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

126

Assistance for decisions: Cods and edge disintegration

127

Assistance for decisions: Cods and edge disintegration

A

Moulding plant

B

Clay-bonded sand

Examine stripping process yes Defect remedied no Examine prefilling yes Defect remedied no Examine patterns
Examine stripping process
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine prefilling
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine patterns
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine compacting pressure
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Check moulding flasks for uneven stripping (most frequent cause of defect)

Check moulding flasks for uneven stripping (most frequent cause of defect)

Check moulding flasks for uneven stripping (most frequent cause of defect)
Check moulding flasks for uneven stripping (most frequent cause of defect)
flasks for uneven stripping (most frequent cause of defect) Gather and interpret data Examine moulding plant

Gather and interpret data

Examine moulding plant for uneven sand filling

data Examine moulding plant for uneven sand filling Gather and interpret data Check mould tapers, correct

Gather and interpret data

Check mould tapers, correct if necessary

Check mould tapers, correct if necessary

Check mould tapers, correct if necessary
Check mould tapers, correct if necessary
and interpret data Check mould tapers, correct if necessary Gather and interpret data Examine mould hardness,

Gather and interpret data

Examine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure if necessary

Examine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure if necessary

Examine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure if necessary
Examine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure if necessary
mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure if necessary Gather and interpret data Examine cluster content yes

Gather and interpret data

Examine cluster content yes Defect remedied no Examine fines yes Defect remedied no Examine sand
Examine cluster content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine fines
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine sand temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine moisture of used sand
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Reduce clusters. Use sand aerator. Reduce fines and bentonite contents if necessary.

Reduce clusters. Use sand aerator. Reduce fines and bentonite contents if necessary.

Reduce clusters. Use sand aerator. Reduce fines and bentonite contents if necessary.
Reduce clusters. Use sand aerator. Reduce fines and bentonite contents if necessary.
aerator. Reduce fines and bentonite contents if necessary. Gather and interpret data Reduce inert, non-ignitable fines

Gather and interpret data

Reduce inert, non-ignitable fines content. Increase new sand content if necessary.

Reduce inert, non-ignitable fines content. Increase new sand content if necessary.

Reduce inert, non-ignitable fines content. Increase new sand content if necessary.
Reduce inert, non-ignitable fines content. Increase new sand content if necessary.
fines content. Increase new sand content if necessary. Gather and interpret data Reduce sand temperature if

Gather and interpret data

Reduce sand temperature if too high. Install a sand cooler if necessary.

Reduce sand temperature if too high. Install a sand cooler if necessary.

Reduce sand temperature if too high. Install a sand cooler if necessary.
Reduce sand temperature if too high. Install a sand cooler if necessary.
temperature if too high. Install a sand cooler if necessary. Gather and interpret data Pre-wetting of

Gather and interpret data

Pre-wetting of used sand increases plasticity and reduces the risk of cod and edge disintegration.

Pre-wetting of used sand increases plasticity and reduces the risk of cod and edge disintegration.

Pre-wetting of used sand increases plasticity and reduces the risk of cod and edge disintegration.
Pre-wetting of used sand increases plasticity and reduces the risk of cod and edge disintegration.
of used sand increases plasticity and reduces the risk of cod and edge disintegration. Gather and

Gather and interpret data

128

Assistance for decisions: Erosion

129

Assistance for decisions: Erosion

A

Clay-bonded sand

Examine binder content yes Defect remedied no Examine compactability yes Defect remedied no Examine inert,
Examine binder content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine compactability
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine inert, non-active fines content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Erosion can be expected below

Erosion can be expected below

a critical amount of bentonite. Increase bentonite content if necessary.

a critical amount of bentonite. Increase bentonite content if necessary.
Erosion can be expected below a critical amount of bentonite. Increase bentonite content if necessary.
Erosion can be expected below a critical amount of bentonite. Increase bentonite content if necessary.
of bentonite. Increase bentonite content if necessary. Gather and interpret data At a compactability of less

Gather and interpret data

At a compactability of less than 30 %,

At a compactability of less than 30 %,

the bentonite is no longer totally developed. If necessary, increase compactability.

the bentonite is no longer totally developed. If necessary, increase compactability.
At a compactability of less than 30 %, the bentonite is no longer totally developed. If
At a compactability of less than 30 %, the bentonite is no longer totally developed. If
totally developed. If necessary, increase compactability. Gather and interpret data Insufficient bonding of sand

Gather and interpret data

Insufficient bonding of sand occurs with too high a proportion of inert fines.

Insufficient bonding of sand occurs with too high a proportion of inert fines.

Insufficient bonding of sand occurs with too high a proportion of inert fines.
Insufficient bonding of sand occurs with too high a proportion of inert fines.
of sand occurs with too high a proportion of inert fines. Gather and interpret data Examine

Gather and interpret data

Examine sand temperature yes Defect remedied no Examine sand grain size yes Defect remedied no
Examine sand temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine sand grain size
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon producer
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine salt content of sand
Severe drying occurs at high sand temperatures. Reduce sand temperature to below 40 °C.

Severe drying occurs at high sand temperatures. Reduce sand temperature to below 40 °C.

Severe drying occurs at high sand temperatures. Reduce sand temperature to below 40 °C.
Severe drying occurs at high sand temperatures. Reduce sand temperature to below 40 °C.
sand temperatures. Reduce sand temperature to below 40 °C. Gather and interpret data With coarse sand,

Gather and interpret data

With coarse sand, individual grains

With coarse sand, individual grains

can be torn from the mould, use finer sand

can be torn from the mould, use finer sand
With coarse sand, individual grains can be torn from the mould, use finer sand
With coarse sand, individual grains can be torn from the mould, use finer sand
grains can be torn from the mould, use finer sand Gather and interpret data With low

Gather and interpret data

With low lustrous carbon production,

With low lustrous carbon production,

the metal stream can tear away sand grains. Increase activity of lustrous carbon producer.

the metal stream can tear away sand grains. Increase activity of lustrous carbon producer.
low lustrous carbon production, the metal stream can tear away sand grains. Increase activity of lustrous
low lustrous carbon production, the metal stream can tear away sand grains. Increase activity of lustrous
sand grains. Increase activity of lustrous carbon producer. Gather and interpret data High salt content in

Gather and interpret data

High salt content in water or sand leads to deactivation of bentonite.

High salt content in water or sand leads to deactivation of bentonite.

High salt content in water or sand leads to deactivation of bentonite.
High salt content in water or sand leads to deactivation of bentonite.
Gather and interpret data High salt content in water or sand leads to deactivation of bentonite.

Gather and interpret data

130

Assistance for decisions: Erosion

131

Assistance for decisions: Explosive penetration

B

Moulding plant

A

Clay-bonded sand

Examine compaction
Examine compaction

Examine compaction

Examine compaction
Examine compaction
Examine compaction
Examine compaction
Examine compaction
Moulding plant A Clay-bonded sand Examine compaction Defect remedied no Contact IKO With low compaction there
Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

With low compaction there is insufficient bonding,

With low compaction there is insufficient bonding,

sand must be more evenly distributed. Increase pressure of plant if necessary.

sand must be more evenly distributed. Increase pressure of plant if necessary.
compaction there is insufficient bonding, sand must be more evenly distributed. Increase pressure of plant if
compaction there is insufficient bonding, sand must be more evenly distributed. Increase pressure of plant if
evenly distributed. Increase pressure of plant if necessary. Gather and interpret data With too high a

Gather and interpret data

With too high a pouring rate, erosion

With too high a pouring rate, erosion

occurs at overheated points. Reduce pouring rate.

occurs at overheated points. Reduce pouring rate.
With too high a pouring rate, erosion occurs at overheated points. Reduce pouring rate.
With too high a pouring rate, erosion occurs at overheated points. Reduce pouring rate.
occurs at overheated points. Reduce pouring rate. Gather and interpret data Excessive quantities of metal will

Gather and interpret data

Excessive quantities of metal will cause overheating and erosion. Achieve better metal distribution.

Excessive quantities of metal will cause overheating and erosion. Achieve better metal distribution.

Excessive quantities of metal will cause overheating and erosion. Achieve better metal distribution.
Excessive quantities of metal will cause overheating and erosion. Achieve better metal distribution.
overheating and erosion. Achieve better metal distribution. Gather and interpret data yes C Gating and pouring

Gather and interpret data

yes
yes
better metal distribution. Gather and interpret data yes C Gating and pouring practice Examine pouring rate

C Gating and pouring practice

Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate

Examine pouring rate

Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
data yes C Gating and pouring practice Examine pouring rate Defect remedied no Examine quantity of
Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Examine quantity of inflowing metal

Examine quantity of inflowing metal

Examine quantity of inflowing metal
Examine quantity of inflowing metal
Examine quantity of inflowing metal
Examine quantity of inflowing metal
Examine quantity of inflowing metal
Examine quantity of inflowing metal
rate Defect remedied no Examine quantity of inflowing metal yes yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO
yes yes
yes
yes
Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

Reduce moisture content Adjust compactability to minimum yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data no
Reduce moisture content
Adjust compactability to minimum
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no
Low degree of mulling necessitates
Examine degree of mulling
a higher water content.
Water is released at an early stage when casting.
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no
Inert fines requires a lot of water which is rapidly
Examine proportion of inert fines
released on heating. Reduce inert fines content
(dust, bentonite, lustrous carbon carrier).
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no
Reduce bentonite content
Lower bentonite contents require less water.
Use higher bentonite quality if necessary.
yes
Defect remedied
Gather and interpret data
no

Contact IKO

132

Assistance for decisions: Explosive penetration

132 Assistance for decisions: Explosive penetration Examine sand grain size Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon
Examine sand grain size

Examine sand grain size

Examine sand grain size
Examine sand grain size
Examine sand grain size
Examine sand grain size
Examine sand grain size
Examine sand grain size
for decisions: Explosive penetration Examine sand grain size Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon producer Defect

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Examine lustrous carbon producer

Examine lustrous carbon producer

Examine lustrous carbon producer
Examine lustrous carbon producer
Examine lustrous carbon producer
Examine lustrous carbon producer
Examine lustrous carbon producer
Examine lustrous carbon producer
size Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon producer Defect remedied no Contact IKO Higher AFS values

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

Higher AFS values reduce danger of explosive penetration. Use finer sand if necessary.

Higher AFS values reduce danger of explosive penetration. Use finer sand if necessary.

Higher AFS values reduce danger of explosive penetration. Use finer sand if necessary.
Higher AFS values reduce danger of explosive penetration. Use finer sand if necessary.
of explosive penetration. Use finer sand if necessary. Gather and interpret data More active lustrous carbon

Gather and interpret data

More active lustrous carbon producers require less water. Less material usage and coke formation.

More active lustrous carbon producers require less water. Less material usage and coke formation.

More active lustrous carbon producers require less water. Less material usage and coke formation.
More active lustrous carbon producers require less water. Less material usage and coke formation.
require less water. Less material usage and coke formation. Gather and interpret data Reduce compacting pressure.

Gather and interpret data

Reduce compacting pressure. If necessary, increase uniformity of compacting.

Reduce compacting pressure. If necessary, increase uniformity of compacting.

Reduce compacting pressure. If necessary, increase uniformity of compacting.
Reduce compacting pressure. If necessary, increase uniformity of compacting.
Reduce compacting pressure. If necessary, increase uniformity of compacting.

Gather and interpret data

Over-rapid pouring rate leads to explosive penetrations. Reduce pouring rate.

Over-rapid pouring rate leads to explosive penetrations. Reduce pouring rate.

Over-rapid pouring rate leads to explosive penetrations. Reduce pouring rate.
Over-rapid pouring rate leads to explosive penetrations. Reduce pouring rate.
rate leads to explosive penetrations. Reduce pouring rate. Gather and interpret data yes yes B Moulding

Gather and interpret data

yes yes
yes
yes

B Moulding plant

Examine compacting pressure

Examine compacting pressure

Examine compacting pressure
Examine compacting pressure
Examine compacting pressure
Examine compacting pressure
Examine compacting pressure
Examine compacting pressure
data yes yes B Moulding plant Examine compacting pressure Defect remedied no Contact IKO yes C

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

yes
yes
compacting pressure Defect remedied no Contact IKO yes C Gating and pouring practice Examine pouring rate

C Gating and pouring practice

Examine pouring rate

Examine pouring rate

Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
Examine pouring rate
IKO yes C Gating and pouring practice Examine pouring rate Defect remedied no Contact IKO yes

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

yes
yes
Examine pouring rate Defect remedied no Contact IKO yes 133 Assistance for decisions: Lustrous carbon inclusions

133

Assistance for decisions: Lustrous carbon inclusions

A

Resin-bonded sand

Examine core binder yes Defect remedied no Examine gas removal from cores yes Defect remedied
Examine core binder
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine gas removal from cores
yes
Defect remedied
no
Pre-treatment of cores
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Measure lustrous carbon production of the binder. Use binder with lower lustrous carbon production.

Measure lustrous carbon production of the binder. Use binder with lower lustrous carbon production.

Measure lustrous carbon production of the binder. Use binder with lower lustrous carbon production.
Measure lustrous carbon production of the binder. Use binder with lower lustrous carbon production.
binder. Use binder with lower lustrous carbon production. Gather and interpret data Improve gas removal, core

Gather and interpret data

Improve gas removal, core venting, coarser sand grain, core prints.

Improve gas removal, core venting, coarser sand grain, core prints.

Improve gas removal, core venting, coarser sand grain, core prints.
Improve gas removal, core venting, coarser sand grain, core prints.
gas removal, core venting, coarser sand grain, core prints. Gather and interpret data Dry cores. Coat

Gather and interpret data

Dry cores. Coat cores at critical points. Addition of oxidation agents.

Dry cores. Coat cores at critical points. Addition of oxidation agents.

Dry cores. Coat cores at critical points. Addition of oxidation agents.
Dry cores. Coat cores at critical points. Addition of oxidation agents.
and interpret data Dry cores. Coat cores at critical points. Addition of oxidation agents. Gather and

Gather and interpret data

134

Assistance for decisions: Lustrous carbon inclusions

135

Assistance for decisions: Lustrous carbon inclusions

B

Clay-bonded sand

C

Moulding plant

Examine lustrous carbon production in moulding sand yes Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon producer
Examine lustrous carbon production
in moulding sand
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon producer
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine gas permeability
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Measure active carbon. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer.

Measure active carbon. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer.

Measure active carbon. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer.
Measure active carbon. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer.
active carbon. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Gather and interpret data Use less active lustrous

Gather and interpret data

Use less active lustrous carbon producer if necessary. Use slower-reacting materials.

Use less active lustrous carbon producer if necessary. Use slower-reacting materials.

Use less active lustrous carbon producer if necessary. Use slower-reacting materials.
Use less active lustrous carbon producer if necessary. Use slower-reacting materials.
carbon producer if necessary. Use slower-reacting materials. Gather and interpret data Use coarser sand if possible.

Gather and interpret data

Use coarser sand if possible. Reduce fines.

Use coarser sand if possible. Reduce fines.

Use coarser sand if possible. Reduce fines.
Use coarser sand if possible. Reduce fines.
interpret data Use coarser sand if possible. Reduce fines. Gather and interpret data Examine compaction yes

Gather and interpret data

Examine compaction yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO D Gating and pouring practice Examine gating
Examine compaction
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
D
Gating and pouring practice
Examine gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine pouring data
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Reduce compaction by increasing compactability or reducing compacting pressure.

Reduce compaction by increasing compactability or reducing compacting pressure.

Reduce compaction by increasing compactability or reducing compacting pressure.
Reduce compaction by increasing compactability or reducing compacting pressure.
increasing compactability or reducing compacting pressure. Gather and interpret data Turbulence leads to lustrous

Gather and interpret data

Turbulence leads to lustrous carbon inclusions. Strive for laminar pouring.

Turbulence leads to lustrous carbon inclusions. Strive for laminar pouring.

Turbulence leads to lustrous carbon inclusions. Strive for laminar pouring.
Turbulence leads to lustrous carbon inclusions. Strive for laminar pouring.
to lustrous carbon inclusions. Strive for laminar pouring. Gather and interpret data Higher pouring temperatures reduce

Gather and interpret data

Higher pouring temperatures reduce the risk of lustrous carbon inclusions.

Higher pouring temperatures reduce the risk of lustrous carbon inclusions.

Higher pouring temperatures reduce the risk of lustrous carbon inclusions.
Higher pouring temperatures reduce the risk of lustrous carbon inclusions.
and interpret data Higher pouring temperatures reduce the risk of lustrous carbon inclusions. Gather and interpret

Gather and interpret data

136

Assistance for decisions: Graphite degeneration

136 Assistance for decisions: Graphite degeneration A Metallurgy     Adjust residual magnesium content to match

A Metallurgy

   
    Adjust residual magnesium content to match gating,

Adjust residual magnesium content to match gating,

Examine residual magnesium content

 

subversive elements, pouring temperature and casting systems.

elements, pouring temperature and casting systems. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
elements, pouring temperature and casting systems. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Examine content of subversive elements

Examine content of subversive elements Proportions of subversive elements such as antimony, lead,

Proportions of subversive elements such as antimony, lead,

 

cadmium, titanium and, to a lesser extent, aluminium, copper and zinc must be kept low.

lesser extent, aluminium, copper and zinc must be kept low. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret
lesser extent, aluminium, copper and zinc must be kept low. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Contact IKO

B

Gating and pouring practice

 
 

Check pouring temperature

  Check pouring temperature Reduce pouring temperature. Cool melt more rapidly.

Reduce pouring temperature. Cool melt more rapidly.

 
   
     
 
 
 
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Contact IKO

137

Assistance for decisions: Graphite degeneration

IKO 137 Assistance for decisions: Graphite degeneration C Resin-bonded sand     Sulphur content sometimes

C Resin-bonded sand

   
    Sulphur content sometimes high due to PTS

Sulphur content sometimes high due to PTS

Examine sulphur content

 

or other binding systems. Reduce quantities. Use other methods.

other binding systems. Reduce quantities. Use other methods. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
other binding systems. Reduce quantities. Use other methods. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Coat cores and moulds

Coat cores and moulds Seal surface by coating.

Seal surface by coating.

 

Gas cannot enter mould cavity. Apply coating more thickly if necessary.

enter mould cavity. Apply coating more thickly if necessary. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
enter mould cavity. Apply coating more thickly if necessary. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Contact IKO

D Clay-bonded sand

 
 
  Oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour

Oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour

Examine formation of oxidizing gases

 

react with the residual magnesium content. Reduce formation of these substances.

magnesium content. Reduce formation of these substances. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
magnesium content. Reduce formation of these substances. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Contact IKO

138

Assistance for decisions: Graphite degeneration

139

Assistance for decisions: Fissure defects

 

A

Metallurgy

Examine sulphur content in moulding sand yes Defect remedied no Examine formation of hydrocarbons yes
Examine sulphur content
in moulding sand
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine formation of hydrocarbons
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Use low-sulphur carbon carrier. Examine inflowing core sand for sulphur.

Use low-sulphur carbon carrier. Examine inflowing core sand for sulphur.

Use low-sulphur carbon carrier. Examine inflowing core sand for sulphur.
Use low-sulphur carbon carrier. Examine inflowing core sand for sulphur.
carbon carrier. Examine inflowing core sand for sulphur. Gather and interpret data Use sufficient quantities of

Gather and interpret data

Use sufficient quantities of lustrous carbon producer. Increase lustrous carbon production if necessary.

Use sufficient quantities of lustrous carbon producer. Increase lustrous carbon production if necessary.

Use sufficient quantities of lustrous carbon producer. Increase lustrous carbon production if necessary.
Use sufficient quantities of lustrous carbon producer. Increase lustrous carbon production if necessary.
producer. Increase lustrous carbon production if necessary. Gather and interpret data Examine nitrogen content yes

Gather and interpret data

Examine nitrogen content yes Defect remedied no Check titanium content yes Defect remedied no Check
Examine nitrogen content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check titanium content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check CE value
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Nitrogen content of more than 100 ppm

Nitrogen content of more than 100 ppm

can lead to defects in grey and SG cast iron. Examine charge materials; modify as appropriate.

can lead to defects in grey and SG cast iron. Examine charge materials; modify as appropriate.
of more than 100 ppm can lead to defects in grey and SG cast iron. Examine
of more than 100 ppm can lead to defects in grey and SG cast iron. Examine
cast iron. Examine charge materials; modify as appropriate. Gather and interpret data Titanium bonds nitrogen; add

Gather and interpret data

Titanium bonds nitrogen; add pure titanium if necessary. Increase titanium level to 0.03 %.

Titanium bonds nitrogen; add pure titanium if necessary. Increase titanium level to 0.03 %.

Titanium bonds nitrogen; add pure titanium if necessary. Increase titanium level to 0.03 %.
Titanium bonds nitrogen; add pure titanium if necessary. Increase titanium level to 0.03 %.
titanium if necessary. Increase titanium level to 0.03 %. Gather and interpret data Critical CE values

Gather and interpret data

Critical CE values between 3.4 and 3.8. Increase to 3.8 if necessary.

Critical CE values between 3.4 and 3.8. Increase to 3.8 if necessary.

Critical CE values between 3.4 and 3.8. Increase to 3.8 if necessary.
Critical CE values between 3.4 and 3.8. Increase to 3.8 if necessary.
Gather and interpret data Critical CE values between 3.4 and 3.8. Increase to 3.8 if necessary.

Gather and interpret data

140

Assistance for decisions: Fissure defects

141

Assistance for decisions: Fissure defects

B

Resin-bonded sand

C

Clay-bonded sand

Check nitrogen content of binder yes Defect remedied no Examine gas formation yes Defect remedied
Check nitrogen content of binder
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine gas formation
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine release of gas
yes
Defect remedied
no
Add iron oxide
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Reduce or avoid nitrogen-containing binders, hardeners, admixtures.

Reduce or avoid nitrogen-containing binders, hardeners, admixtures.

Reduce or avoid nitrogen-containing binders, hardeners, admixtures.
Reduce or avoid nitrogen-containing binders, hardeners, admixtures.
or avoid nitrogen-containing binders, hardeners, admixtures. Gather and interpret data Use low-gas binders. Reduce

Gather and interpret data

Use low-gas binders. Reduce quantity of binder.

Use low-gas binders. Reduce quantity of binder.

Use low-gas binders. Reduce quantity of binder.
Use low-gas binders. Reduce quantity of binder.
data Use low-gas binders. Reduce quantity of binder. Gather and interpret data Improve gas removal. Venting.

Gather and interpret data

Improve gas removal. Venting. Coarser sand.

Improve gas removal. Venting. Coarser sand.

Improve gas removal. Venting. Coarser sand.
Improve gas removal. Venting. Coarser sand.
interpret data Improve gas removal. Venting. Coarser sand. Gather and interpret data Iron oxide prevents nitrogen

Gather and interpret data

Iron oxide prevents nitrogen absorption by the melt.

Iron oxide prevents nitrogen absorption by the melt.

Iron oxide prevents nitrogen absorption by the melt.
Iron oxide prevents nitrogen absorption by the melt.
data Iron oxide prevents nitrogen absorption by the melt. Gather and interpret data Reduce moisture content

Gather and interpret data

Reduce moisture content yes Defect remedied no Examine nitrogen contents yes Defect remedied no Examine
Reduce moisture content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine nitrogen contents
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon producers
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Gas absorption increases due to residual moisture. Reduce quantity of bentonite and inert dust.

Gas absorption increases due to residual moisture. Reduce quantity of bentonite and inert dust.

Gas absorption increases due to residual moisture. Reduce quantity of bentonite and inert dust.
Gas absorption increases due to residual moisture. Reduce quantity of bentonite and inert dust.
moisture. Reduce quantity of bentonite and inert dust. Gather and interpret data Reduce nitrogen contents by

Gather and interpret data

Reduce nitrogen contents by adding new sand.

Reduce nitrogen contents by adding new sand.

Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Use lustrous carbon producer with low nitrogen content.

Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Use lustrous carbon producer with low nitrogen content.

by adding new sand. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Use lustrous carbon producer with low
by adding new sand. Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Use lustrous carbon producer with low
Use lustrous carbon producer with low nitrogen content. Gather and interpret data More active lustrous carbon

Gather and interpret data

More active lustrous carbon producers

More active lustrous carbon producers

with low nitrogen content preferable. Quantity and release of gas / unit of time should be kept low.

with low nitrogen content preferable. Quantity and release of gas / unit of time should be
carbon producers with low nitrogen content preferable. Quantity and release of gas / unit of time
carbon producers with low nitrogen content preferable. Quantity and release of gas / unit of time
low nitrogen content preferable. Quantity and release of gas / unit of time should be kept

Gather and interpret data

142

Assistance for decisions: Fissure defects

143

Assistance for decisions: Micro-cavities

D

Gating and pouring practice

A

Metallurgy

Examine gating yes Defect remedied no Check pouring temperature yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO
Examine gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check pouring temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Shortened flow channels prevent gas absorption. Avoid turbulence.

Shortened flow channels prevent gas absorption. Avoid turbulence.

Shortened flow channels prevent gas absorption. Avoid turbulence.
Shortened flow channels prevent gas absorption. Avoid turbulence.
flow channels prevent gas absorption. Avoid turbulence. Gather and interpret data Faster and hotter pouring leads

Gather and interpret data

Faster and hotter pouring leads to improved liberation of gases.

Faster and hotter pouring leads to improved liberation of gases.

Faster and hotter pouring leads to improved liberation of gases.
Faster and hotter pouring leads to improved liberation of gases.
and hotter pouring leads to improved liberation of gases. Gather and interpret data Examine solidification range

Gather and interpret data

Examine solidification range yes Defect remedied no Examine gas contents yes Defect remedied no Contact
Examine solidification range
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine gas contents
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
B
Clay-bonded sand
Examine gas formation
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Defect occurs only in metals with a wide solidification range. Reduce CE value. Remove low-melting-point

Defect occurs only in metals with a wide solidification range. Reduce CE value. Remove low-melting-point components (in case of grey iron, phosphorus content).

solidification range. Reduce CE value. Remove low-melting-point components (in case of grey iron, phosphorus content).
solidification range. Reduce CE value. Remove low-melting-point components (in case of grey iron, phosphorus content).
components (in case of grey iron, phosphorus content). Gather and interpret data Combine gases or remove

Gather and interpret data

Combine gases or remove by degassing

Combine gases or remove by degassing

Combine gases or remove by degassing
Combine gases or remove by degassing
and interpret data Combine gases or remove by degassing Gather and interpret data Check gasification rate

Gather and interpret data

Check gasification rate and quantity of lustrous carbon producers. Reduce quantities if necessary. Check bentonite

Check gasification rate and quantity of lustrous carbon producers. Reduce quantities if necessary. Check bentonite content and mould moisture, reduce if necessary.

carbon producers. Reduce quantities if necessary. Check bentonite content and mould moisture, reduce if necessary.
carbon producers. Reduce quantities if necessary. Check bentonite content and mould moisture, reduce if necessary.
Reduce quantities if necessary. Check bentonite content and mould moisture, reduce if necessary. Gather and interpret

Gather and interpret data

144

Assistance for decisions: Micro-cavities

144 Assistance for decisions: Micro-cavities Examine inert content in dust yes Defect remedied no Apply facing
Examine inert content in dust yes Defect remedied no Apply facing sand yes Defect remedied
Examine inert content in dust
yes
Defect remedied
no
Apply facing sand
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
C
Resin-bonded sand
Examine gas formation
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Excessive dust contents bind water and reduce gas permeability. Reduce inert dust contents if necessary.

Excessive dust contents bind water and reduce gas permeability. Reduce inert dust contents if necessary.

Excessive dust contents bind water and reduce gas permeability. Reduce inert dust contents if necessary.
Excessive dust contents bind water and reduce gas permeability. Reduce inert dust contents if necessary.
gas permeability. Reduce inert dust contents if necessary. Gather and interpret data Apply chrome ore sand

Gather and interpret data

Apply chrome ore sand or other materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.

Apply chrome ore sand or other materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.

Apply chrome ore sand or other materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.
Apply chrome ore sand or other materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.
materials with good heat conductivity at critical points. Gather and interpret data Check gasification rate and

Gather and interpret data

Check gasification rate and quantity of binder. Reduce quantity, use slow-reacting binder.

Check gasification rate and quantity of binder. Reduce quantity, use slow-reacting binder.

Check gasification rate and quantity of binder. Reduce quantity, use slow-reacting binder.
Check gasification rate and quantity of binder. Reduce quantity, use slow-reacting binder.
of binder. Reduce quantity, use slow-reacting binder. Gather and interpret data 145 Assistance for decisions:

Gather and interpret data

145

Assistance for decisions: Micro-cavities

interpret data 145 Assistance for decisions: Micro-cavities Apply facing sand materials yes Defect remedied no
Apply facing sand materials yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO D Moulding plant Examine mould
Apply facing sand materials
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
D
Moulding plant
Examine mould stability
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine radii of moulds
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Use materials with high heat conductivity at critical points.

Use materials with high heat conductivity at critical points.

Use materials with high heat conductivity at critical points.
Use materials with high heat conductivity at critical points.
materials with high heat conductivity at critical points. Gather and interpret data Swelling and expansion of

Gather and interpret data

Swelling and expansion of mould increase risk of defect.

Swelling and expansion of mould increase risk of defect.

Compact mould evenly. Reduce compactability. Reduce bentonite content.

Compact mould evenly. Reduce compactability. Reduce bentonite content.
and expansion of mould increase risk of defect. Compact mould evenly. Reduce compactability. Reduce bentonite content.
and expansion of mould increase risk of defect. Compact mould evenly. Reduce compactability. Reduce bentonite content.
evenly. Reduce compactability. Reduce bentonite content. Gather and interpret data Increase edge radii. Reduces the

Gather and interpret data

Increase edge radii. Reduces the risk of gas transfer points.

Increase edge radii. Reduces the risk of gas transfer points.

Increase edge radii. Reduces the risk of gas transfer points.
Increase edge radii. Reduces the risk of gas transfer points.
content. Gather and interpret data Increase edge radii. Reduces the risk of gas transfer points. Gather

Gather and interpret data

146

Assistance for decisions: Pitted surfaces

147

Assistance for decisions: Pitted surfaces

A

Clay-bonded sand

B

Metallurgy

Check fluoride content in moulding sand yes Defect remedied no Check water content yes Defect
Check fluoride content in moulding sand
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check water content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine feeder material in moulding sand
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Use more new sand where content is too high

Use more new sand where content is too high

Use more new sand where content is too high
Use more new sand where content is too high
no Contact IKO Use more new sand where content is too high Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

Water content should be as low as possible. Reduce bentonite content, reduce dust content if

Water content should be as low as possible. Reduce bentonite content, reduce dust content if necessary.

Water content should be as low as possible. Reduce bentonite content, reduce dust content if necessary.
Water content should be as low as possible. Reduce bentonite content, reduce dust content if necessary.
Reduce bentonite content, reduce dust content if necessary. Gather and interpret data Remove all feeder materials.

Gather and interpret data

Remove all feeder materials. Fluoride-containing feeder residues cause surface reactions.

Remove all feeder materials. Fluoride-containing feeder residues cause surface reactions.

Remove all feeder materials. Fluoride-containing feeder residues cause surface reactions.
Remove all feeder materials. Fluoride-containing feeder residues cause surface reactions.
Fluoride-containing feeder residues cause surface reactions. Gather and interpret data Examine Mg content Defect remedied

Gather and interpret data

Examine Mg content

Examine Mg content

Examine Mg content
Examine Mg content
Examine Mg content
Examine Mg content
Examine Mg content
Examine Mg content
reactions. Gather and interpret data Examine Mg content Defect remedied no Contact IKO Keep Mg content
Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

Keep Mg content in melt as low as possible.

Keep Mg content in melt as low as possible.

Keep Mg content in melt as low as possible.
Keep Mg content in melt as low as possible.
no Contact IKO Keep Mg content in melt as low as possible. Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

Use as few feeders as possible. Use insulation feeders if possible.

Use as few feeders as possible. Use insulation feeders if possible.

Use as few feeders as possible. Use insulation feeders if possible.
Use as few feeders as possible. Use insulation feeders if possible.
few feeders as possible. Use insulation feeders if possible. Gather and interpret data Reduce pouring temperature

Gather and interpret data

Reduce pouring temperature

Reduce pouring temperature

Reduce pouring temperature
Reduce pouring temperature
Gather and interpret data Reduce pouring temperature Gather and interpret data yes C Gating and pouring

Gather and interpret data

yes
yes
Reduce pouring temperature Gather and interpret data yes C Gating and pouring practice Examine need for

C Gating and pouring practice

Examine need for feeder consumption

Examine need for feeder consumption

Examine need for feeder consumption
Examine need for feeder consumption
Examine need for feeder consumption
Examine need for feeder consumption
Examine need for feeder consumption
Examine need for feeder consumption
and pouring practice Examine need for feeder consumption Defect remedied no Check pouring temperature Defect remedied
Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Check pouring temperature

Check pouring temperature

Check pouring temperature
Check pouring temperature
Check pouring temperature
Check pouring temperature
Check pouring temperature
Check pouring temperature
Examine need for feeder consumption Defect remedied no Check pouring temperature Defect remedied no yes yes
Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
yes yes
yes
yes

Contact IKO

148

Assistance for decisions: Surface blowholes

149

Assistance for decisions: Surface blowholes

A

Resin-bonded sand

B

Clay-bonded sand

Examine core venting yes Defect remedied no Examine binder yes Defect remedied no Examine moisture
Examine core venting
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine binder
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine moisture content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check gas permeability of cores
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Examine core prints, enlarge venting channels.

Examine core prints, enlarge venting channels.

Examine core prints, enlarge venting channels.
Examine core prints, enlarge venting channels.
Contact IKO Examine core prints, enlarge venting channels. Gather and interpret data Examine quantities, type and

Gather and interpret data

Examine quantities, type and gas release of the binder. Reduce.

Examine quantities, type and gas release of the binder. Reduce.

Examine quantities, type and gas release of the binder. Reduce.
Examine quantities, type and gas release of the binder. Reduce.
quantities, type and gas release of the binder. Reduce. Gather and interpret data Perform core-drying, store

Gather and interpret data

Perform core-drying, store dry, reduce moisture absorption.

Perform core-drying, store dry, reduce moisture absorption.

Perform core-drying, store dry, reduce moisture absorption.
Perform core-drying, store dry, reduce moisture absorption.
Perform core-drying, store dry, reduce moisture absorption. Gather and interpret data Use coarser core sands. Reduce

Gather and interpret data

Use coarser core sands. Reduce fines such as Fe 2 O 3 .

coarser core sands. Reduce fines such as Fe 2 O 3 . Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

Check sand moisture yes Defect remedied no Check gas permeability yes Defect remedied no Check
Check sand moisture
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check gas permeability
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check sand temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine bentonite
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Reduce moisture content. Improve degree of mulling.

Reduce moisture content. Improve degree of mulling.

Reduce moisture content. Improve degree of mulling.
Reduce moisture content. Improve degree of mulling.
IKO Reduce moisture content. Improve degree of mulling. Gather and interpret data Proportion of fine materials

Gather and interpret data

Proportion of fine materials may be too high.

Proportion of fine materials may be too high.

Check inert fines, bentonite content, lustrous carbon carrier content; sand may be too fine.

Check inert fines, bentonite content, lustrous carbon carrier content; sand may be too fine.

materials may be too high. Check inert fines, bentonite content, lustrous carbon carrier content; sand may
materials may be too high. Check inert fines, bentonite content, lustrous carbon carrier content; sand may
lustrous carbon carrier content; sand may be too fine. Gather and interpret data High sand temperature

Gather and interpret data

High sand temperature can lead to condensation of water on chaplets and cold cores.

High sand temperature can lead to condensation of water on chaplets and cold cores.

High sand temperature can lead to condensation of water on chaplets and cold cores.
High sand temperature can lead to condensation of water on chaplets and cold cores.
lead to condensation of water on chaplets and cold cores. Gather and interpret data Check development

Gather and interpret data

Check development rate of bentonite, inert fines etc. Use high quality bentonite.

Check development rate of bentonite, inert fines etc. Use high quality bentonite.

Check development rate of bentonite, inert fines etc. Use high quality bentonite.
Check development rate of bentonite, inert fines etc. Use high quality bentonite.
data Check development rate of bentonite, inert fines etc. Use high quality bentonite. Gather and interpret

Gather and interpret data

150

Assistance for decisions: Surface blowholes

151

Assistance for decisions: Penetration

 

A

Clay-bonded sand

Examine lustrous carbon carrier yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO C Moulding plant Examine compaction
Examine lustrous carbon carrier
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
C
Moulding plant
Examine compaction
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
D
Gating and pouring practice
Check pouring temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Replace fast-reacting products. Reduce quantities.

Replace fast-reacting products. Reduce quantities.

Replace fast-reacting products. Reduce quantities.
Replace fast-reacting products. Reduce quantities.
IKO Replace fast-reacting products. Reduce quantities. Gather and interpret data Determine mould hardness, reduce

Gather and interpret data

Determine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure.

Determine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure.

Determine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure.
Determine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure.
data Determine mould hardness, reduce compacting pressure. Gather and interpret data Liquidus temperature should be

Gather and interpret data

Liquidus temperature should be noticeably exceeded.

Liquidus temperature should be noticeably exceeded.
Liquidus temperature should be noticeably exceeded.
Liquidus temperature should be noticeably exceeded.
data Liquidus temperature should be noticeably exceeded. Gather and interpret data Avoid turbulence, optimize pouring

Gather and interpret data

Avoid turbulence, optimize pouring times. Separate slags; optimize pouring pressure.

Avoid turbulence, optimize pouring times. Separate slags; optimize pouring pressure.

Avoid turbulence, optimize pouring times. Separate slags; optimize pouring pressure.
Avoid turbulence, optimize pouring times. Separate slags; optimize pouring pressure.
pouring times. Separate slags; optimize pouring pressure. Gather and interpret data Check sand grain size yes

Gather and interpret data

Check sand grain size yes Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon production yes Defect remedied
Check sand grain size
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon production
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check proportion of fines
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine compactability
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.

Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.

Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.
Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.
above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary. Gather and interpret data Low lustrous

Gather and interpret data

Low lustrous carbon production promotes penetration

Low lustrous carbon production promotes penetration

through greater wetting of sand; measure active carbon; increase addition of carbon carrier if necessary.

through greater wetting of sand; measure active carbon; increase addition of carbon carrier if necessary.

penetration through greater wetting of sand; measure active carbon; increase addition of carbon carrier if necessary.
penetration through greater wetting of sand; measure active carbon; increase addition of carbon carrier if necessary.
carbon; increase addition of carbon carrier if necessary. Gather and interpret data Large quantities of fines

Gather and interpret data

Large quantities of fines reduce pore diameter.

Large quantities of fines reduce pore diameter.

Check de-dusting, provide dust admixture, increase coke content if necessary.

Check de-dusting, provide dust admixture, increase coke content if necessary.
quantities of fines reduce pore diameter. Check de-dusting, provide dust admixture, increase coke content if necessary.
quantities of fines reduce pore diameter. Check de-dusting, provide dust admixture, increase coke content if necessary.
provide dust admixture, increase coke content if necessary. Gather and interpret data High compactability leads to

Gather and interpret data

High compactability leads to under-compacted sections.

High compactability leads to under-compacted sections.

Keep compactability as low as possible. Improve flowability.

Keep compactability as low as possible. Improve flowability.
High compactability leads to under-compacted sections. Keep compactability as low as possible. Improve flowability.
High compactability leads to under-compacted sections. Keep compactability as low as possible. Improve flowability.
to under-compacted sections. Keep compactability as low as possible. Improve flowability. Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

152

Assistance for decisions: Penetration

153

Assistance for decisions: Penetration

B

Resin-bonded sand

C

Moulding plant

Check sand grain size yes Defect remedied no Apply coatings yes Defect remedied no Examine
Check sand grain size
yes
Defect remedied
no
Apply coatings
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine binding agent
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.

Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.

Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.
Penetration occurs above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary.
above a critical pore size. Use finer sand if necessary. Gather and interpret data Seal pores

Gather and interpret data

Seal pores by applying coatings. Use thicker applications if required.

Seal pores by applying coatings. Use thicker applications if required.

Seal pores by applying coatings. Use thicker applications if required.
Seal pores by applying coatings. Use thicker applications if required.
by applying coatings. Use thicker applications if required. Gather and interpret data Highly viscous binding agents

Gather and interpret data

Highly viscous binding agents result in uncompacted core sections; use binder with low viscosity. Examine

Highly viscous binding agents result in uncompacted core sections; use binder with low viscosity. Examine lustrous carbon producers. Binders with high lustrous carbon production preferable.

use binder with low viscosity. Examine lustrous carbon producers. Binders with high lustrous carbon production preferable.
use binder with low viscosity. Examine lustrous carbon producers. Binders with high lustrous carbon production preferable.
Binders with high lustrous carbon production preferable. Gather and interpret data Check compaction yes Defect

Gather and interpret data

Check compaction yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO D Gating and pouring practice Check gating
Check compaction
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
D
Gating and pouring practice
Check gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check pouring temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Make compaction more uniform. Examine deeper cods. Ensure even prefilling.

Make compaction more uniform. Examine deeper cods. Ensure even prefilling.

Make compaction more uniform. Examine deeper cods. Ensure even prefilling.
Make compaction more uniform. Examine deeper cods. Ensure even prefilling.
more uniform. Examine deeper cods. Ensure even prefilling. Gather and interpret data Excessive quantities of inflowing

Gather and interpret data

Excessive quantities of inflowing metal cause overheating. Achieve more even and better metal distribution. Check

Excessive quantities of inflowing metal cause overheating. Achieve more even and better metal distribution. Check pattern plate arrangement.

of inflowing metal cause overheating. Achieve more even and better metal distribution. Check pattern plate arrangement.
of inflowing metal cause overheating. Achieve more even and better metal distribution. Check pattern plate arrangement.
better metal distribution. Check pattern plate arrangement. Gather and interpret data Reduce pouring temperature if

Gather and interpret data

Reduce pouring temperature if necessary

Reduce pouring temperature if necessary

Reduce pouring temperature if necessary
Reduce pouring temperature if necessary
pattern plate arrangement. Gather and interpret data Reduce pouring temperature if necessary Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

154

Assistance for decisions: Pinholes

155

Assistance for decisions: Pinholes

A

Metallurgy (ferrous metals)

Check nitrogen content of melt yes Defect remedied no Check charge materials for oxides and
Check nitrogen content of melt
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check charge materials
for oxides and hydroxides
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check aluminium content
yes
Defect remedied
no
Check titanium content
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Nitrogen content too high due to charge make-up. Reduce steel content for grey and SG

Nitrogen content too high due to charge make-up. Reduce steel content for grey and SG cast irons.

Nitrogen content too high due to charge make-up. Reduce steel content for grey and SG cast
Nitrogen content too high due to charge make-up. Reduce steel content for grey and SG cast
make-up. Reduce steel content for grey and SG cast irons. Gather and interpret data Use oxide-free

Gather and interpret data

Use oxide-free and rust-free materials. In case of return scrap, watch for adhering feeders.

Use oxide-free and rust-free materials. In case of return scrap, watch for adhering feeders.

Use oxide-free and rust-free materials. In case of return scrap, watch for adhering feeders.
Use oxide-free and rust-free materials. In case of return scrap, watch for adhering feeders.
In case of return scrap, watch for adhering feeders. Gather and interpret data Reduce aluminium content;

Gather and interpret data

Reduce aluminium content; this reduces the reaction of water vapour with residual aluminium.

Reduce aluminium content; this reduces the reaction of water vapour with residual aluminium.

Reduce aluminium content; this reduces the reaction of water vapour with residual aluminium.
Reduce aluminium content; this reduces the reaction of water vapour with residual aluminium.
the reaction of water vapour with residual aluminium. Gather and interpret data The same applies as

Gather and interpret data

The same applies as with aluminium.

The same applies as with aluminium.

Titanium is used in melt beforehand to avoid pinholes. Hydrogen absorption increases in circulation.

Titanium is used in melt beforehand to avoid pinholes. Hydrogen absorption increases in circulation.

as with aluminium. Titanium is used in melt beforehand to avoid pinholes. Hydrogen absorption increases in
as with aluminium. Titanium is used in melt beforehand to avoid pinholes. Hydrogen absorption increases in
pinholes. Hydrogen absorption increases in circulation. Gather and interpret data Check manganese content Defect

Gather and interpret data

Check manganese content
Check manganese content

Check manganese content

Check manganese content
Check manganese content
Check manganese content
Check manganese content
Check manganese content
Gather and interpret data Check manganese content Defect remedied no Contact IKO Manganese forms MnS slags

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

Manganese forms MnS slags with sulphides in the melt,

Manganese forms MnS slags with sulphides in the melt,

which play a part in the formation of CO micro-holes. Reducing Mn content can be

which play a part in the formation of CO micro-holes. Reducing Mn content can be helpful.

with sulphides in the melt, which play a part in the formation of CO micro-holes. Reducing
with sulphides in the melt, which play a part in the formation of CO micro-holes. Reducing
of CO micro-holes. Reducing Mn content can be helpful. Gather and interpret data High nitrogen contents

Gather and interpret data

High nitrogen contents can stem from lustrous carbon

High nitrogen contents can stem from lustrous carbon

producers and, in particular, from core binders. Reduce proportion by adding new sand if necessary.

producers and, in particular, from core binders. Reduce proportion by adding new sand if necessary.
from lustrous carbon producers and, in particular, from core binders. Reduce proportion by adding new sand
from lustrous carbon producers and, in particular, from core binders. Reduce proportion by adding new sand
lustrous carbon producers and, in particular, from core binders. Reduce proportion by adding new sand if

Gather and interpret data

Reducing water content results in lower quantities of water vapour and hydrogen.

Reducing water content results in lower quantities of water vapour and hydrogen.

Reducing water content results in lower quantities of water vapour and hydrogen.
Reducing water content results in lower quantities of water vapour and hydrogen.
results in lower quantities of water vapour and hydrogen. Gather and interpret data Increased lustrous carbon

Gather and interpret data

Increased lustrous carbon production in moulding sand

Increased lustrous carbon production in moulding sand

causes a reducing atmosphere in mould cavity and thus diminished likelihood of initial CO micro-holes.

causes a reducing atmosphere in mould cavity and thus diminished likelihood of initial CO micro-holes.
in moulding sand causes a reducing atmosphere in mould cavity and thus diminished likelihood of initial
in moulding sand causes a reducing atmosphere in mould cavity and thus diminished likelihood of initial
and thus diminished likelihood of initial CO micro-holes. Gather and interpret data yes B Clay-bonded sand

Gather and interpret data

of initial CO micro-holes. Gather and interpret data yes B Clay-bonded sand Check nitrogen content Defect
yes
yes

B Clay-bonded sand

Check nitrogen content
Check nitrogen content

Check nitrogen content

Check nitrogen content
Check nitrogen content
Check nitrogen content
Check nitrogen content
Check nitrogen content
interpret data yes B Clay-bonded sand Check nitrogen content Defect remedied no Check moisture Defect remedied

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Check moisture

Check moisture

Check moisture
Check moisture
Check moisture
Check moisture
Check moisture
Check moisture
Check nitrogen content Defect remedied no Check moisture Defect remedied no Check lustrous carbon carriers Defect

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Check lustrous carbon carriers

Check lustrous carbon carriers

Check lustrous carbon carriers
Check lustrous carbon carriers
Check lustrous carbon carriers
Check lustrous carbon carriers
Check lustrous carbon carriers
Check lustrous carbon carriers
content Defect remedied no Check moisture Defect remedied no Check lustrous carbon carriers Defect remedied no

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

156

Assistance for decisions: Pinholes

157

Assistance for decisions: Surface roughness

C

Resin-bonded sand

A

Clay-bonded sand

Examine nitrogen in core
Examine nitrogen in core

Examine nitrogen in core

Examine nitrogen in core
Examine nitrogen in core
Examine nitrogen in core
Examine nitrogen in core
Examine nitrogen in core
Examine nitrogen in core Defect remedied no Add iron oxide

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Add iron oxide

Add iron oxide

Add iron oxide
Add iron oxide
Add iron oxide
Add iron oxide
Add iron oxide
Add iron oxide
Examine nitrogen in core Defect remedied no Add iron oxide

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

Urea-containing resins release nitrogen.

Urea-containing resins release nitrogen.

Binders with low urea content reduce nitrogen pick-up in the melt and have a generally

Binders with low urea content reduce nitrogen pick-up in the melt and have a generally positive effect.

release nitrogen. Binders with low urea content reduce nitrogen pick-up in the melt and have a
release nitrogen. Binders with low urea content reduce nitrogen pick-up in the melt and have a
pick-up in the melt and have a generally positive effect. Gather and interpret data Iron oxide

Gather and interpret data

Iron oxide admixtures prevent nitrogen absorption in the melt and have a generally positive effect.

Iron oxide admixtures prevent nitrogen absorption in the melt and have a generally positive effect.

Iron oxide admixtures prevent nitrogen absorption in the melt and have a generally positive effect.
Iron oxide admixtures prevent nitrogen absorption in the melt and have a generally positive effect.
absorption in the melt and have a generally positive effect. Gather and interpret data Shortened flow

Gather and interpret data

Shortened flow channels reduce gas absorption and counteract the risk of pinholes.

Shortened flow channels reduce gas absorption and counteract the risk of pinholes.

Shortened flow channels reduce gas absorption and counteract the risk of pinholes.
Shortened flow channels reduce gas absorption and counteract the risk of pinholes.
reduce gas absorption and counteract the risk of pinholes. Gather and interpret data Slag-free pouring reduces

Gather and interpret data

Slag-free pouring reduces the risk of CO micro-holes into which N 2 and H 2

Slag-free pouring reduces the risk of CO micro-holes into which N 2 and H 2 diffuse.

Slag-free pouring reduces the risk of CO micro-holes into which N 2 and H 2 diffuse.
Slag-free pouring reduces the risk of CO micro-holes into which N 2 and H 2 diffuse.
of CO micro-holes into which N 2 and H 2 diffuse. Gather and interpret data yes

Gather and interpret data

yes yes
yes
yes

D Gating and pouring practice

Examine gating

Examine gating

Examine gating
Examine gating
Examine gating
Examine gating
Examine gating
Examine gating
data yes yes D Gating and pouring practice Examine gating Defect remedied no Examine for presence

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Examine for presence of slag

Examine for presence of slag

Examine for presence of slag
Examine for presence of slag
Examine for presence of slag
Examine for presence of slag
Examine for presence of slag
Examine for presence of slag
gating Defect remedied no Examine for presence of slag Defect remedied no Contact IKO yes yes

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

yes yes
yes
yes
Examine sand grain size yes Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon production yes Defect remedied
Examine sand grain size
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon production
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon producer
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine fines content
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Use finer sand grain if necessary.

Use finer sand grain if necessary.

Use finer sand grain if necessary.
Use finer sand grain if necessary.
remedied no Contact IKO Use finer sand grain if necessary. Gather and interpret data Measure active

Gather and interpret data

Measure active carbon.

Increase additions of carbon carrier.

active carbon. Increase additions of carbon carrier. Gather and interpret data Use carbon carrier with higher

Gather and interpret data

Use carbon carrier with higher lustrous carbon producing capacity.

Use carbon carrier with higher lustrous carbon producing capacity.

Use carbon carrier with higher lustrous carbon producing capacity.
Use carbon carrier with higher lustrous carbon producing capacity.
carrier with higher lustrous carbon producing capacity. Gather and interpret data Increase fines if necessary. Use

Gather and interpret data

Increase fines if necessary. Use lustrous carbon carrier with higher coke producing capacity.

Increase fines if necessary. Use lustrous carbon carrier with higher coke producing capacity.

Increase fines if necessary. Use lustrous carbon carrier with higher coke producing capacity.
Increase fines if necessary. Use lustrous carbon carrier with higher coke producing capacity.
Increase fines if necessary. Use lustrous carbon carrier with higher coke producing capacity. Gather and interpret

Gather and interpret data

158

Assistance for decisions: Surface roughness

159

Assistance for decisions: Sand inclusions

B

Moulding plant

A

Moulding plant

Examine compaction yes Defect remedied no Examine mould surface yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO
Examine compaction
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine mould surface
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
C
Gating and pouring practice
Check pouring temperature
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

If possible, compact evenly and more effectively. Reduce compactability.

If possible, compact evenly and more effectively. Reduce compactability.

If possible, compact evenly and more effectively. Reduce compactability.
If possible, compact evenly and more effectively. Reduce compactability.
compact evenly and more effectively. Reduce compactability. Gather and interpret data Improve adherence of sand at

Gather and interpret data

Improve adherence of sand at the surface. Avoid drying out.

Improve adherence of sand at the surface. Avoid drying out.

Improve adherence of sand at the surface. Avoid drying out.
Improve adherence of sand at the surface. Avoid drying out.
Improve adherence of sand at the surface. Avoid drying out. Gather and interpret data Apply materials

Gather and interpret data

Apply materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.

Apply materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.

Apply materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.
Apply materials with good heat conductivity at critical points.
materials with good heat conductivity at critical points. Gather and interpret data Examine mould for pressure

Gather and interpret data

Examine mould for pressure points yes Defect remedied no Examine pattern plates yes Defect remedied
Examine mould for pressure points
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine pattern plates
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine mould stripping process
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine core setting
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Separate flasks after assembling

Separate flasks after assembling

and perform visual inspection. Blow out mould flasks, fit pressure pads is necessary.

and perform visual inspection. Blow out mould flasks, fit pressure pads is necessary.

Separate flasks after assembling and perform visual inspection. Blow out mould flasks, fit pressure pads is
Separate flasks after assembling and perform visual inspection. Blow out mould flasks, fit pressure pads is
Blow out mould flasks, fit pressure pads is necessary. Gather and interpret data Inspect patterns for

Gather and interpret data

Inspect patterns for cracks and smoothness.

Inspect patterns for cracks and smoothness.

Increase tapers and radii of patterns if necessary. Heat pattern plates; use release agent.

Increase tapers and radii of patterns if necessary. Heat pattern plates; use release agent.
for cracks and smoothness. Increase tapers and radii of patterns if necessary. Heat pattern plates; use
for cracks and smoothness. Increase tapers and radii of patterns if necessary. Heat pattern plates; use
if necessary. Heat pattern plates; use release agent. Gather and interpret data Examine mould flasks for

Gather and interpret data

Examine mould flasks for even stripping.

Examine mould flasks for even stripping.

Examine possibility of cracks and disintegration. Correct if necessary.

Examine possibility of cracks and disintegration. Correct if necessary.
Examine mould flasks for even stripping. Examine possibility of cracks and disintegration. Correct if necessary.
Examine mould flasks for even stripping. Examine possibility of cracks and disintegration. Correct if necessary.
of cracks and disintegration. Correct if necessary. Gather and interpret data Check for edge crumbling when

Gather and interpret data

Check for edge crumbling when coring up and for core misalignment. Employ automatic core insertion.

Check for edge crumbling when coring up and for core misalignment. Employ automatic core insertion.

Check for edge crumbling when coring up and for core misalignment. Employ automatic core insertion.
Check for edge crumbling when coring up and for core misalignment. Employ automatic core insertion.
for edge crumbling when coring up and for core misalignment. Employ automatic core insertion. Gather and

Gather and interpret data

160

Assistance for decisions: Sand inclusions

160 Assistance for decisions: Sand inclusions Examine mould hardness Defect remedied no Contact IKO Examine prefilling,
Examine mould hardness

Examine mould hardness

Examine mould hardness
Examine mould hardness
Examine mould hardness
Examine mould hardness
Examine mould hardness
Examine mould hardness
for decisions: Sand inclusions Examine mould hardness Defect remedied no Contact IKO Examine prefilling, improve

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

Examine prefilling, improve uniformity. Reduce mould compaction if necessary.

Examine prefilling, improve uniformity. Reduce mould compaction if necessary.

Examine prefilling, improve uniformity. Reduce mould compaction if necessary.
Examine prefilling, improve uniformity. Reduce mould compaction if necessary.
improve uniformity. Reduce mould compaction if necessary. Gather and interpret data Increase compactability. High

Gather and interpret data

Increase compactability.

High compactability reduces the risk of over-compaction and increases plasticity.

the risk of over-compaction and increases plasticity. Gather and interpret data Increase bentonite content,

Gather and interpret data

Increase bentonite content, increase mixing times.

Increase bentonite content, increase mixing times.

Try to achieve better bentonite development. Improve pre-wetting.

Try to achieve better bentonite development. Improve pre-wetting.
Increase bentonite content, increase mixing times. Try to achieve better bentonite development. Improve pre-wetting.
Increase bentonite content, increase mixing times. Try to achieve better bentonite development. Improve pre-wetting.
achieve better bentonite development. Improve pre-wetting. Gather and interpret data Limit proportion of dead-burnt

Gather and interpret data

Limit proportion of dead-burnt inert fines to

Limit proportion of dead-burnt inert fines to

2 – 2.5 % with 10 % activated clay. Restrict by adding new sand or

2 – 2.5 % with 10 % activated clay. Restrict by adding new sand or bentonite if necessary.

of dead-burnt inert fines to 2 – 2.5 % with 10 % activated clay. Restrict by
of dead-burnt inert fines to 2 – 2.5 % with 10 % activated clay. Restrict by
clay. Restrict by adding new sand or bentonite if necessary. Gather and interpret data yes B

Gather and interpret data

sand or bentonite if necessary. Gather and interpret data yes B Clay-bonded sand Examine compactability Defect
yes
yes

B Clay-bonded sand

Examine compactability
Examine compactability

Examine compactability

Examine compactability
Examine compactability
Examine compactability
Examine compactability
Examine compactability
Examine compactability Defect remedied no Examine bentonite content Defect remedied no Examine inert dust content

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Examine bentonite content

Examine bentonite content

Examine bentonite content
Examine bentonite content
Examine bentonite content
Examine bentonite content
Examine bentonite content
Examine bentonite content
Examine compactability Defect remedied no Examine bentonite content Defect remedied no Examine inert dust content

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no
Examine inert dust content

Examine inert dust content

Examine inert dust content
Examine inert dust content
Examine inert dust content
Examine inert dust content
Examine inert dust content
Examine inert dust content
Examine compactability Defect remedied no Examine bentonite content Defect remedied no Examine inert dust content

Defect remedied

Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
Defect remedied
no
no

Contact IKO

161

Assistance for decisions: Sand inclusions

no Contact IKO 161 Assistance for decisions: Sand inclusions Examine cluster formation yes Defect remedied no
Examine cluster formation yes Defect remedied no Examine lustrous carbon producer yes Defect remedied no
Examine cluster formation
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine lustrous carbon producer
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
C
Resin-bonded sand
Examine core strength
yes
Defect remedied
no

Contact IKO

Clustering depends on mixer types and total dust content.

Clustering depends on mixer types and total dust content.

Clustering depends on mixer types and total dust content.
Clustering depends on mixer types and total dust content.
Clustering depends on mixer types and total dust content. Gather and interpret data Reduce quantity of

Gather and interpret data

Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer.

Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer.

Use material of higher lustrous carbon production capacity if necessary.

Use material of higher lustrous carbon production capacity if necessary.
Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Use material of higher lustrous carbon production capacity if necessary.
Reduce quantity of lustrous carbon producer. Use material of higher lustrous carbon production capacity if necessary.
of higher lustrous carbon production capacity if necessary. Gather and interpret data Where core breakage occurs,

Gather and interpret data

Where core breakage occurs, increase binder content as appropriate. Improve compaction.

Where core breakage occurs, increase binder content as appropriate. Improve compaction.

Where core breakage occurs, increase binder content as appropriate. Improve compaction.
Where core breakage occurs, increase binder content as appropriate. Improve compaction.
data Where core breakage occurs, increase binder content as appropriate. Improve compaction. Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

162

Assistance for decisions: Sand inclusions

163

Assistance for decisions: Slag inclusions

D

Gating and pouring practice

A

Metallurgy

Examine gating yes Defect remedied no Examine pouring rate yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO
Examine gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine pouring rate
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
Improve distribution of gates if possible; avoid turbulence.

Improve distribution of gates if possible; avoid turbulence.

Improve distribution of gates if possible; avoid turbulence.
Improve distribution of gates if possible; avoid turbulence.
Improve distribution of gates if possible; avoid turbulence. Gather and interpret data Reduce pouring rate if

Gather and interpret data

Reduce pouring rate if necessary.

Reduce pouring rate if necessary.

Reduce pouring rate if necessary.
Reduce pouring rate if necessary.
Gather and interpret data Reduce pouring rate if necessary. Gather and interpret data   Examine melt

Gather and interpret data

 

Examine melt

  Examine melt Examine melt for slag formation.

Examine melt for slag formation.

 

Reduce oxygen-affinitive elements (Al, Mg, Mn). Reduce sulphur content if necessary.

elements (Al, Mg, Mn). Reduce sulphur content if necessary. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
elements (Al, Mg, Mn). Reduce sulphur content if necessary. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Examine inoculation

Examine inoculation Examine dissolution capacity of inoculant.

Examine dissolution capacity of inoculant.

 

Avoid mould inoculation if necessary. Re-specify type and grain of inoculant.

if necessary. Re-specify type and grain of inoculant. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
if necessary. Re-specify type and grain of inoculant. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 
 
  Examine reaction of lining with the melt, particularly at

Examine reaction of lining with the melt, particularly at

Examine ladle lining

 

metal / atmosphere interface. Use refractory mixtures. If necessary, improve drying of ladle.

refractory mixtures. If necessary, improve drying of ladle. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
refractory mixtures. If necessary, improve drying of ladle. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 
 
  Avoid inflow of slag into ladle. Retain slag when pouring.

Avoid inflow of slag into ladle. Retain slag when pouring.

Examine de-slagging of ladle

 

Use teapot spout ladle; use slag-forming admixture if necessary. Clean ladle after pouring.

admixture if necessary. Clean ladle after pouring. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
admixture if necessary. Clean ladle after pouring. yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data  
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data
yes
yes

Defect remedied

yes Defect remedied Gather and interpret data

Gather and interpret data

 
 
no
no
 

Contact IKO

164

Assistance for decisions: Slag inclusions

165

Assistance for decisions: Slag inclusions

B

Gating and pouring practice

Examine pouring conditions yes Defect remedied no Examine gating yes Defect remedied no Contact IKO
Examine pouring conditions
yes
Defect remedied
no
Examine gating
yes
Defect remedied
no
Contact IKO
C
Clay-bonded sand
Examine inert dust content
yes
Defect remedied
no