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RESEARCH PROPOSAL- EFFECT OF ROSELLE (HIBISCUS sabdariffa)

TEA ON PRE-HYPERTENSIVE ADULT VOLUNTEERS IN BARANGAY


_______, DAVAO CITY, PHILIPPINES.

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
Hypertension is a common global health problem with significant
mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is leading cause of hypertension
worldwide. Despite the diversity of pharmacological agents to treat high
blood pressure, sub-optimal control remains a significant problem in as
many as 43% of the patients.(Joshi UH et al, 2012).This study mainly
focuses on better herbal alternative of current allopathic remedies like the
use of hibiscus tea as a supplement to control hyper tension. Hibiscus
sabdariffa tea has a substantial anti-hypertensive effect attribute to
vasorelaxant, diuretic and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme(ACE) inhibiting
anthocyanin content.(McKay, Diane, 2009)
Hibiscus sabdariffa is a shrub belonging to the family Malvaceae.It is
thought to be native to Asia(India to Malaysia) or Tropical Africa.
(N.Mahadevan, 2008) It is a tropical plant widely cultivated in Africa. The
common name used by the folk people is Roselle. It is known as Bissap in
West Africa where it is the national drink of Senegal, Karkady in the Middle
east and flor de Jamaica in Latin America. Some other common names of
hibiscus tea are red sorrel, asua de Jamaica, Lo-shen, Sudan tea, sour tea,
karkade.(Tseng TH, 1997) The Roselle plant parts have been reported to be
folk remedy for cancer, obesity, diabetes and hypertension specifically
(Elsevier Ireland, 2009). Interestingly, one of the most common ingredients
found in commercial herbal tea blends sold in US is Hibiscus sabdariffa.
(Suhaila M, Tee P, 2002)
Previous phytochemical studies on Hibiscus sabdariffa have reported
the presence of phenolics, organic acids, sterols, terpenoids,
polysacharidess and some minerals. The phenolic content of the plant
consists mainly of anthocyanins.(ali et al., 2005). Hibiscus sabdariffa
extracts have shown a broad range of therapeutic effects including anti-
hypertensive effect. (Herrera-Arellano et al., 2007) Hibiscus calyx extract
contains hibiscus acid or (+) hydroxycitric acid, known as (+)HCA. Its isomer
(-)HCA is an inhibitor of citrate lyase and because of this, it has been
proposed as an anti-obesity agent. (O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, 2009).
Different works postulated that the hypotensive action could be
ascribed to a direct vase-relaxant effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa. (Adegunloye
et al., 1996) Another possible mehaanism may be inhibition of angiotensin I
converting enzyme(ACE). The latter action has been demonstrated that
(Hibiscus sabdariffa extract) HSE has a vasodialator effect.(Ajay et al., 2007)
In another study, it has been demonstrated that HSE exerts
antihypertensive action through two modes of action that are
complementary: diuretic and ACE inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme)
(Herrera-Arellano et al., 2003).
Observational studies show that diet high in plant foods are
associated with a lower risk of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular
disease and some forms of cancer(Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, et al,1993). The
health benefits of plant foods appear not to be simply attributable to their
macro and micronutrient content alone but also to the presence of
phytochemicals (Kromhout D, et al, 1996). Many polyphenols, particularly
flavonoids, possess relatively potent anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-
inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-viral activities.(van
Nood E, et.al, 2001)



GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
To determine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on pre-hypertensive
adult volunteers, in barangay____, Davao city, Philippines.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE:
To determine the demographic profile of the subjects with pre-
hypertension in terms of:
1) Age (30-60)
2) Sex (male/female)
3) Present medical condition
4) Family history
5) BMI(18.5-34.9 kg/m2)

NULL HYPOTHESIS (Ho):
There is no effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa tea on pre-hypertensive
adult volunteers in Barangay_____, Davao city, Philippines.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
The main purpose of the study is to provide a supplement to keep
blood pressure in control with a simple lifestyle change of drinking Hibiscus
sabdariffa tea. Hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases,
which are the most common cause of office visits, hospitalization and death
in both men and women.



DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1)Hibiscus sabdariffa
Roselle is a species of hibiscus of family Malvaceae native to West
Africa. It is an annual herb or woody-based subshrub, growing 2-2.5m tall.
(Princeton University, 2006)
2)Hypertension
Hypertension is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of
blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as it flows through them.
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart
to the bodys tissues. (Mosbys Medical Dictionary 8
th
edition, 2009,
Elsevier)

Blood pressure range: (Blood Pressure Association UK, 2008)











Blood Pressure Level
(mmHg)
Category Systolic Diastolic
Normal <120 <80
Prehypertension 120-139 80-89
High Blood Pressure
Stage 1
hypertension
140-159 90-99
Stage 2
hypertension
>160 >100
Legend
< means LESS THAN
> means GREATER THAN or EQUAL TO
3)Prehypertension
Slightly elevated blood pressure is known as hypertension.
Prehypertension will likely turn into high blood pressure (hypertension) if
they dont make lifestyle changes, such as to start exercising and eating,
drinking healthier. Both prehypertension and hypertension increase the risk
of heart attack, stroke and heart failure. (Craig Weber, M.D. 2006)
4)Calyx
The whorl of sepals of a flower collectively forming the protective
outer floral envelop or layer around a bud. (Princeton University, 2012)
5)Tea
A drink made by pouring boiling water onto dried leaves, fruits,
flowers of some plants, especially herbs. These infusions can be used as
beverages or medicines. (William Collins Dictionary, 2009)