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2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 ANSYS, Inc.

Proprietary
2008 International
ANSYS Conference
Fatigue Assessment of Weld Joints
Using ANSYS, BSS & FE-Safe **
Zhichao Wang , Manager Of Analytical Services
Aditya Sakhalkar, Engineering Specialist
Emerson Climate Technology
** BSS, Battelle Structural Stress Method Proposed by Dr. Dong and
His Colleagues at Battelle
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Fatigue Assessment of Weld Joints Using
ANSYS, BSS (Verity) & FE-Safe **
Background
Battelle Structural Stress (BSS) Method & Mesh
Sensitivity
Master S~N Curve?
Example Application
References
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Background
Fatigue Assessment Unwelded Structures
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Background
Fatigue Assessment Welded Structures
Its been commonly recognized that the fatigue life of the
polished specimen is dominated by fatigue crack initiation,
whereas that of welded structures is dominated by small
crack propagation from some pre-existing discontinuity.
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Background
Fatigue Assessment Welded Structures
Nominal Stress Method (BS,IIW)
The nominal stress range is used to develop the
S~N curves using samples with actual weld joint
geometry
The life curves refer to particular weld details,
there is no need for the user to attempt to quantify
the local stress concentration effect of the weld
detail itself
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Background
Fatigue Assessment Welded Structures
Hotspot Stress Approach (structural stress,
geometric stress, BS, IIW, CEN,DNV)
This procedure uses hot-spot stress range as a
parameter
The SN curves are obtained from tests of actual
welded joints based on the hot-spot stress range
rather than the nominal stress range
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Background
Fatigue Assessment Welded Structures
Local Notch Stress Method (ASME, BS, IIW).
The notch stress approach attempts to include all
sources of stress concentration in the stress used
with the design S~N curve
Thus a single S~N curve may be sufficient for a
given type of material
The problem is that the local geometry of the toe
or root of a weld is highly variable
It may be hard to achieve consistent results
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
The Fracture Mechanics Approach (For crack propagation life)
The parameter widely used is SIF, K
The fatigue resistance is represented by fatigue crack growth rate
da/dN
Many crack propagation laws are available
The simplest one is Paris Law in which the crack growth law
approximates to a linear relationship:
For a flaw size starts from a
0
to a critical fatigue crack size a
f
, the
remaining fatigue life N under stress range S is obtained by
integrating Eq (1):
Verity Equivalent Structural Stress Method (Battelle)
Equivalent Structural Stress + Single Master S~N Curve
n
da
C ( K) (1)
dN
=
f
0
a
n
a
da
C N (2)
( K)
=

Background
Fatigue Assessment Welded Structures
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
(b) Comparison of SCF predicted by various modeling
procedures and extrapolation based HSS at the weld toe [12].
(c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method
H o t S po t N o m i n a
N o m i n al
l
F E
( H um an F ac to r )
~
0

< <

X
~0.4 t
H o t S p o t

F E

N o m i n al

(a) Normal Stress at the sharp corner


(Structural Stress)
t

x
s
p
A
A
P
Y
X
0.4 t
A
A
t
Battelle Structural Stress (BSS) Method &
Mesh Sensitivity
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Calculation of Structure Stress
3-D Solid Element:
i. Calculate nodal force
ii. Transformation of nodal force to neutral
axis to obtain resultant forces (N, m).
iii.Calculationof structural stress
Shell Element:
i. Calculate nodal force ( N
/
, m
/,
Q
/
)
ii. Calculation of structural stress
Because equilibrium has to be satisfied
Thus: m
/
=m
Q
/
=Q And
N
/
=N
t
m
N
( )=
A
t
b
m
()=
W
( ) ( )
,
/ /
t t t t
m m b b
= =
The equations in the calculation of
structural stress are the same. Hence, the
structural stress is mesh independent
N
P
1
P
2
Q
m
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
N
/
Q
/
m
/
P
1
P
2
t
X
Y
F
x
P
1
P
2
F
y
Neutral axis
t

t
m

t
b

)
t
(
)
t
m
( )
t
b
(
N
P
1
P
2
Q
m
N
P
1
P
2
Q
m
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
N
/
Q
/
m
/
P
1
P
2
N
/
Q
/
m
/
P
1
P
2
t
X
Y
P
1
P
2
P
1
P
2
t
X
Y
F
x
P
1
P
2
F
y
Neutral axis
F
x
P
1
P
2
F
y
F
x
P
1
P
2
F
y
Neutral axis
t

t
m

t
b

t
m

t
b

)
t
(
)
t
m
( )
t
b
(
)
t
(
)
t
m
( )
t
b
(
Why BSS Is Not Sensitive To FE Mesh?
(c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method (c) Structural Stress Using Verity Method
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Most codes divide weld joints into different types
Categorization of Weld Joints (BS 7608)
Weld Joints (IIW)
Master S~N Curve
Weld Joint Categorization
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Example Design S~N curves for welded
joints: (a) Steel weld joint S~N curves
(BS 7608); (b) Weld joint type and S~N
curves (IIW recommendations); (c)
Aluminum weld joint S~N curves (IIW
recommendations)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Multiple S~N curves provide flexibility
for the selection of life curves and
increase difficulty to select the proper
one due to the variation of actual joints
Master S~N Curve
Multiple S~N Curves
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Nominal Stress Method (BS) Hot Spot Stress Method (IIW)
BSS Method
Weld Joints (IIW)
Master S~N Curve
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(a) Weld geometry with a hypothetical crack l
(b) Actual normal stress distribution
(c) Simplification
(d) Decomposition
(e) Equilibrium-equivalent structural stress or far-field stress
(f) Self-equilibrating stress (notch stress) with respect to a reference depth t
1
( b )
t
A
A
x

l 0
( a )
A
A
t
l
( c )
t
1
t
1
2
3
1

A
A
R
1
R
2

t
1
t
1
2
3
A
A

t

A
A
t

t
1
t
1
2
3
A
A

( d )
( e )
( f )
/ t
x
= -
/ t
x
= +
Master S~N Curve?
A Unified Stress Intensity Factor
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
t
( ) ( ) (0 l t) + < <
s n
K K = K
Notch Stress
Structural Stress, Far field stress
The drive force for crack to start and grow is the crack tip stress, introduce crack
surface traction p
s
called self equilibrating surface traction due to (notch effect)
x
t /
s
( ) (p , (0 l t ) ) ( ) = < <
s s s
K K K
t
l
( a ) ( b )
A
A
t

t
1
t
1
2
3
A
A

( c )
t
s
p
l
( d )

t
1
t
3
A
A
l
/
s x
t
p =f

= f

( e )
Master S~N Curve?
A Unified Stress Intensity Factor
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
t
s
(p ( ) (0 l t ) ) + < <
n s
K = K K
Notch Effect
Structural Stress, Far field stress
t
l
( d )
( e )
A
A
t

( f )
t
s
p
l
Notch Effect
Notch Effect
Far Field SIF
Far Field SIF
Stress intensity solutions
using published weight
function results: (a) remote
tension; (b) remote
bending.
Master S~N Curve?
A Unified Stress Intensity Factor
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
a/t a/t
t
s
(p ( ) (0 l t ) ) + < <
n s
K = K K
Introduction of notch induced SIF magnification factor M
kn
:
t
t
s
(p ) ( )
1.0 (0 l t)
( )
+
< <

kn
s n
n
K
M =
K
K
t
( ) (0 l t) < <
kn n
K = M K
Comparisons of stress intensity magnification factor M
kn
at 135 sharp V
notch for various specimen geometries and loading conditions:
(a) Edge crack solutions; (b) Elliptical crack solutions for a/c =0.4
SIF Magnification Factor M
kn
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
m
n
n m
kn n
Paris Law:
da
C K (a)
dN
Introduce t
da
CM K
dN
heUnifiedSIF :
(b) =
=
Figures showed the
significant improvement
for the application of
Paris Law and its
application
More important the
crack starts from zero
that covers crack
initiation life
Modified Paris Law
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

=
=
=
=

=
=

- m
s

f
m
1
n m
2
n
kn
kn n
a a
n m
a 0
m b
n
m
kn
Using the Unified Paris Law,
da
N (b)
CM K
Introductionof
S~Ncurvecanbeobtained
1
N t I(r) (c)
C
d(a/t)
Where,
generallizedSIF ra
da
C
I(r)
M {f (a
M K (a)
dN
nge
/t) r[f (a/t) f
, leads
(a
to,
/t)]
=
=

a/t 1
m
a/t 0
(d)
}
1
2 m 1 1
m
2m m m
2 m 1
2
1
1
m
m m
m
Then
C t I(r) N (e)
Introduce Equivalent Structrual Stress Range,
t I(r)
C N (f)

=
=
=
s
s
s s
S

S
Master S~N Curve
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Verity, Fe-Safe Weld analysis
Ansys Preprocessing
Ansys Post processing
- Meshing per Verity requirements
- Linear material properties
- Apply load
- Solution
Verity Analysis (Eq. Structural Stress
calculations along the weld line)
- Fe-Safe analysis (Weld life calculations
using Master S-N curve)
- Import .rst file
- Post processing
Verity result validation
and comparison
Reliability Testing
Calibration
Quantify loading
relative to the test
for FEA
Example Application
ANSYS, Verity, Fe-Safe: Weld Analysis Procedure
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Suction Fitting
Shell
Weld Line
Element Type: Solid 186
Hex elements along weld line
Linear material properties
(E = 29,000 Ksi, = 0.29)
Symmetry BC
On sides
Top & Bottom
fixed
Ansys Preprocessing- FE Model
Mesh Requirements
Shell Elements:
3D mid-surface element with no through-
thickness dimension
Solid Element:
Rectangular faces required along the through-
thickness cut from the weld line
Regular mesh along the through thickness cut
from weld line
Recommended elements: Hexahedral (brick)
and Pentahedral (wedge)
Tetrahedral elements can be used. Requires
special handling.
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Verity Procedures
Structural
Stresses
calculated
along the
weld line at each node
Fe-Safe builds a connectivity
table and maps the stresses
to elemental stresses.
These stresses are inserted
into the stress matrix to be
used for fatigue evaluation
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Fe-Safe Analysis Weld life predictions
using Master S~N Curve
Fully reverse loading
defined
Fe-Safe calculates weld
fatigue life based on the
Battelles Master SN
curve
The weld life (log N) data
at each node is written in
the ANSYS .rst format
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Minimum life at element # 4436, node # 4212
ANSYS Post processing Weld Life Results
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Conservative life estimate!
Predicted Failure Location correlated well with the test failures!!
Comparison of Verity Predictions with
Reliability Test Results
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Conclusions
The Structural Stress Method developed at Battelle is mesh
insensitive that removes the uncertainty in the calculation of
structural stress for weld joint fatigue assessment
The nature of weld joint fatigue is considered through the introduction
of Equivalent Structural Stress based on fracture mechanics, which
enable most fatigue curves of weld joints merged into a narrow band,
the Master S~N curve. Thus one S~N curve can be used for majority
of weld joints
ANSYS could be used for the fatigue assessment of welded joints in
conjunction with Verity & Fe-Safe
Verity Generally provides conservative estimate of the weld life
Good correlation with the predicted and test failure locations
Note:
We believe that the weld joints have to be stress concentration
dominant to achieve consistent results with test data
2008 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
References
[1]. BS PD 5500: , BSI Standards, London, 2000.
[2]. European Standard for Unfired Pressure Vessels, EN 13445: 2002, BS EN 13445:2002, BSI, London, 2002
[3]. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for construction of pressure vessels, Division
2- Alternative rules, ASME, 2003.
[4]. Carl E. Jaske, FSRF for WPVP, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, AUGUST 2000, Vol. 122, 297-304
[5]. S.J.Maddox, Review of fatigue assessment procedures, Int. J. of Fatigue, Vol. 25, 12, 2003, 1359-1378.
[6]. Maddox S J: 'Fatigue aspects of pressure vessel design, Spence J and Tooth A S, E & F N Spon, London,
1994.
[7]. Harrison J D and Maddox S J: 'A critical examination of rules for the design of pressure vessels subject to
fatigue loading' in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on 'Pressure Vessel Technology', Mech E, London, 1980.
[8]. Taylor N (Ed): 'Current practices for design against fatigue in pressure equipment', EPERC Bulletin No.6,
European Commission, NL-1755ZG, Petten, The Netherlands, 2001.
[9]. Dong, P., 2005, A Robust Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Analysis of Offshore/Marine Structures,
Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering , Vol. 127, pp. 68-74.
[10]. Dong, P., 2001, A Structural Stress Definition and Numerical Implementation for Fatigue Evaluation of
Welded Joints, Int. J. Fatigue, 23/10, pp. 865876.
[11]. Dong, P., Hong, J. K, Osage, D., and Prager, M., Assessment of ASMEs FSRF Rules for Pipe and Vessel
Welds Using A New Structural Stress Method, Welding In the World, Vol. 47, No. 1/2, 2003, pp. 3143.
[12] Dong, P., Hong, J. K., Osage, D., Prager, M., 2002, Master S-N Curve Method for Fatigue Evaluation of
Welded Components, WRC Bulletin, No. 474, August.
[13]. Lankford, J. , Fatigue of Eng Mater and Structures 5 (1982), pp233-248
[14]. R. Craig McClung, et al, Behavior of Small Fatigue Cracks, ASME, Vol. 19, Fatigue & Fracture, P153
[15]. Fricke W., 2001, Recommended Hot-Spot Analysis Procedure for Structural Details of FPSOs and Ships
Based on Round-Robin FE Analysis, ISOPE Proceedings, Stavanger, Norway, June.