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15 visualizzazioni18 pagineexplained about symmetrical components in three phase electrical systems

Aug 31, 2014

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explained about symmetrical components in three phase electrical systems

© All Rights Reserved

15 visualizzazioni

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explained about symmetrical components in three phase electrical systems

© All Rights Reserved

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5.0 Introduction

When performing steady-state analysis of

high voltage transmission systems, we make

use of the per-phase equivalent circuit.

For distribution systems, however, there are

two major impediments to using per-phase

equivalent circuits for steady-state analysis.

These impediments are

!. The flows are not balanced.

". The mechanical design of the conductors

is asymmetric.

The meaning of #" needs some elaboration.

$ symmetric mechanical design is one in

which each phase conductor sees e%actly the

same inductive effects as every other

conductor comprising the circuit. The

equilateral configuration, shown in Fig. !, is

a symmetric mechanical design.

!

Fig. ! &quilateral 'onfiguration

(ecause of many different influences on

design of conductor configuration )e.g., cost

of right-of-way, clearance between phases,

costs and strength of tower*pole and

corresponding supports, etc.+, the equilateral

configuration is not often utili,ed.

-onetheless, it is possible to achieve the

effect on inductance of a symmetric design

by transposing the conductors so that each

conductor resides in the same physical

location for !*. the total length of the line.

/et, transposition costs money, and because

distribution systems typically operate

unbalanced anyway, it is usually not done

for distribution feeders.

"

The effect of asymmetry is often ignored,

however, and analysis is done on the feeder

assuming the design is symmetric. $lthough

this approach does incur error, it is common

because the alternative is more laborious.

0n that case, we have only the problem of

unbalanced loading on the phases.

There is a very elegant approach available

for analy,ing symmetric three-phase circuits

that are unbalanced. The approach was

developed by a man named 'harles

Fortescue and reported in a famous paper in

!1!2. 0t is now called the method of

symmetrical components. We will spend a

little time studying this method before we

move on to a more general method.

.

5.1 Symmetrical Components: Motivation

3ef $ symmetrical set of phasors have

equal magnitude 4 are !"56 out of phase.

7oal 3ecompose a set of three

unsymmetrical phasors into

8ne unsymmetric but equal set

Two symmetrical sets

Then we can analy,e each set individually.

0n what follows, we will illustrate that

Step 1 $ unsymmetrical set, not summing

to 5, can be decomposed into two

unsymmetrical sets

oan 9equal: set and an

ounsymmetrical set that does sum to 5;

Step 2 $n unsymmetrical set that sums to

5 can be decomposed into two

symmetrical sets

<

Step 1 'onsider a set of phasors that do not

add to ,ero )because of different magnitudes

or because of angular separation different

than !"56 or because of both+. $ssume that

they have phase sequence a-b-c.

$dd them up, as in Fig. ", i.e.,

c b a R

V V V V + + =

5

)!+

a-b-c

=

c

=

b

=

a

=

>

5

=

c

=

b

=

a

a-b-c

Fig. " $ddition of ?nsymmetrical @hasors

Ao we see from )!+ that

5

5

= + +

R c b a

V V V V

)"+

3efine

5

5

.

!

R

V V =

).+

Then

5 .

5

= + + V V V V

c b a

)<+

( ) ( ) ( ) 5

5 5 5

= + + V V V V V V

c b a

)B+

B

3efine

( )

( )

( )

5

5

5

V V V

V V V

V V V

c C

b B

a A

=

=

=

)C+

Then

5 = + +

C C A

V V V

)D+

'onclusion We obtain an unsymmetrical set

of voltages that sum to 5 by subtracting =

5

from each original phasor, where =

5

is !*. of

the resultant phasor, illustrated in Fig. ..

=

'

=

(

=

$

=

>

5

=

c

=

b

=

a

a-b-c

-=

5

E-=

>

5

*.

Fig. . Aubtracting =

5

from unsymmetrical

phasors

Step 2 Fow to decompose =

$

, =

(

, and =

'

into two symmetrical setsG

'an we decompose =

$

, =

(

, =

'

into " a-b-c

symmetrical setsG

C

$s a test, try to add any " a-b-c symmetrical

sets and see what you get. Aee Fig. <.

a-b-c

=

c!

=

b!

=

a!

a-b-c

=

c"

=

b"

=

a"

=

'

=

(

=

$

=

c"

=

b"

=

a"

a-b-c

=

c!

=

b!

=

a!

Fig. < $dding " symmetrical a-b-c sets

-ote that in adding the " phasor sets, we add

the two a-phase phasors, the two b-phase

phasors, and the two c-phase phasors.

D

8ne can observe from Fig. < that the

resultant phasor set, denoted by the solid

lines, are in fact symmetricalH

0n fact, it is possible to prove

mathematically that the sum of any " a-b-c

symmetrical sets is always another

symmetrical set.

IetJs try a different thing. IetJs try to add

two symmetrical sets, but letJs have one be

a-b-c )called positive sequence+ and another

be a-c-b )called negative sequence+.

$s before, in adding the " phasor sets, we

add the two a-phase phasors, the two b-

phase phasors, and the two c-phase phasors.

The result of our efforts in shown in Fig. B.

2

a-b-c

=

c!

=

b!

=

a!

a-c-b

=

b"

=

c"

=

a"

=

'

=

(

=

b"

=

c"

=

a"

a-c-b

=

c!

=

b!

=

a!

=

$

Fig. B $dding a symmetrical a-b-c set to a

symmetrical a-c-b set

The resultant phasor set is unsymmetricalH

We can guarantee that these unsmmetrical

phasors sum to ,ero, since we just added

two phasor sets that sum to ,ero, i.e.,

1

=

a!

K=

b!

K=

c!

E5

=

a"

K=

b"

K=

c"

E5

------------------- )2+

=

$

K=

(

K=

'

E5

-ow consider Fig. B again. $ssume that

someone hands you the unsymmetrical set of

phasors =

$

, =

(

, and =

'

.

'an you decompose them into the two

symmetrical setsG

'an you be assured that two such

symmetrical sets e%istG

The answer is yes, you can be assured that

two such symmetrical sets e%ist. FortescueJs

paper contains the proof.

0 will simply argue that the three phasors

given in Fig. C, =

$

, =

'

, and =

'

, are quite

general, with the single e%ception that they

sum to ,ero.

!5

'laim We can represent $-/

unsymmetrical set of . phasors that sum to 5

as the sum of " constituent symmetrical sets

$ positive )a-b-c+ sequence set and

$ negative )a-c-b+ sequence set.

7iven this claim, then the following theorem

holds.

Theorem We can represent $-/

unsymmetrical set of . phasors as the sum of

. constituent sets, each having . phasors

$ positive )a-b-c+ sequence set and

$ negative )a-c-b+ sequence set and

$n equal set

These three sets we will call, respectively,

@ositive

( )

! ! !

, ,

c b a

V V V

-egative

( )

" " "

, ,

c b a

V V V

,ero

( )

5 5 5

, ,

c b a

V V V

sequence components.

!!

The implication of this theorem that any

unsymmetrical set of . phasors =

a

, =

b

, =

c

can be written in terms of the above

sequence components in the following way

" ! 5

a a a a

V V V V + + =

" ! 5

b b b b

V V V V + + =

)1+

" ! 5

c c c c

V V V V + + =

We can write the equations of )1+ in a more

compact fashion, but first, we must describe

a mathematical operator that is essential.

5.2 The a-operator

To begin on familiar ground, we are all

conversant with the operator 9j: which is

used in comple% numbers.

>emember that 9j: is actually a vector with

a magnitude and an angle

= 15 ! j

)!5+

!"

0n the same way, we are going to define the

9a: operator as

= !"5 ! a

)!!+

0t is easy to show the following relations

= !"5 !

"

a

)!"+

= 5 !

.

a

)!.+

a a = = !"5 !

<

)!<+

We also have that

= = + C5 ! !

"

a a

)!B+

as illustrated in Fig. C

Fig. C 0llustration of !Ka

-ote that

= = C5 ! "<5 !

"

a

)!C+

Aimilarly, we may show that

= = + C5 ! !

"

a a

)!D+

= .5 . ! a

)!2+

!.

= .5 . !

"

a

)!1+

= !B5 . ! a

)"5+

= !B5 . !

"

a

)"!+

$nd there are many more relations like this

that are sometimes helpful when dealing

with symmetrical components. )Aee the te%t

called 9$nalysis of faulted power systems:

by @aul $nderson, pg. !D.+

5. Symmetrical components: the math

We repeat equations )1+ below for

convenience

" ! 5

a a a a

V V V V + + =

" ! 5

b b b b

V V V V + + =

)1+

" ! 5

c c c c

V V V V + + =

We can relate the three different quantities

having the same subscript.

Lero sequence quantities These quantities

are all equal, i.e.,

!<

5 5 5

c b a

V V V = =

)""+

@ositive sequence quantities The relation

between these quantities can be observed

immediately from the phasor diagram and

can be e%pressed using the a-operator.

a-b-c

=

c!

=

b!

=

a!

Fig. D @ositive sequence components

! !

! " !

a c

a b

aV V

V a V

=

=

)".+

-egative sequence quantities The relation

between these quantities can be observed

immediately from the phasor diagram and

can be e%pressed using the a-operator.

!B

a-c-b

=

b"

=

c"

=

a"

Fig. 2 -egative sequence components

" " "

" "

a c

a b

V a V

aV V

=

=

)"<+

-ow letJs use equations )""+, )".+, and )"<+

to e%press the original phasor =

a

, =

b

, =

c

in

terms of only the a-phase components

" ! 5

, ,

a a a

V V V

,

i.e., we will eliminate the b-phase

components

" ! 5

, ,

b b b

V V V

and the c-phase components

" ! 5

, ,

c c c

V V V

!C

This results in

" ! 5

a a a a

V V V V + + =

" ! " 5

a a a b

aV V a V V + + =

)1+

" " ! 5

a a a c

V a aV V V + + =

Ao we have written the abc quantities )phase

quantities+ in terms of the 5!" quantities

)sequence quantities+ of the a-phase. We can

write this in matri% form as

"

!

5

"

"

!

!

! ! !

a

a

a

c

b

a

V

V

V

a a

a a

V

V

V

)"B+

3efining

=

"

"

!

!

! ! !

a a

a a A

)"C+

we see that eq. )"B+ can be written as

"

!

5

a

a

a

c

b

a

V

V

V

A

V

V

V

)"D+

We may also obtain the 5!" )sequence+

quantities from the abc )phase+ quantities

c

b

a

a

a

a

V

V

V

A

V

V

V

!

"

!

5

)"2+

!D

where

a a

a a A

"

" !

!

!

! ! !

.

!

)"1+

&quations ""-"1 hold for

Iine-to-line voltages

Iine-to-neutral voltages

Iine currents

@hase currents

!2

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