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refers to sameness of m., s. relation in

which different l. forms have the ?same? m.

synonymysymmetric hy!onymy
"f # is a hy!onym of Y and if Y is a hy!onym
of #, then # and Y are syn.
e.$.all children are %ids&all %ids are children

'n$lish&rich in synonyms () voca*+lary

e.$.*rotherly&fraternal- *+y-!+rchase-world&

Are there real synonyms (words with

e.actly the same m.,?

/ criteria for a*sol+te synonymy0

1. synonyms are a*sol+te s. if and only if all
their m. (senses, are identical
). synonyms are a*sol+te s. if and only if
they are synonymo+s in all conte.ts
/. synonyms are a*sol+te s. if and only if
they are identical in all relevant dimensions
of m.
e.$. radio&wireless old&fashioned & dialectal,
not interchan$ea*le in all conte.ts
e.$. air!ort&airfield&airdrome
e.$. !ne+monia&inflamation of the l+n$s

collocational ran$e&set of conte.ts in which

a certain term may *e +sed
" live in a *i$2lar$e ho+se.
" will tell my *i$2lar$e sister.
This is a *i$2lar$e mista%e.
1. dialectal difference0 fall&a+t+mn
). stylistic difference0 $entleman&man&cha!-
!ass away&die&%ic% the *+c%et&!o! off
/. difference in emotive (eval+ative,m.(often
descri*ed in terms of difference in
3. collocational restriction0 rancid only with
*+tter and *acon
4. loose synonymy&closeness and overla! in
m. (+sed *y the dictionary&ma%er,0
mat+re&ad+lt, ri!e, f+ll
1. s+*stit+tion (some say that a*sol+te synonyms
are interchan$ea*le in all !ossi*le
environments,& *+t some words are
interchan$ea*le only in certain environments
(dee! and !rofo+nd with sym!athy, *+t only
dee! with water,

5ractically im!ossi*le to !rove that two items

are a*sol+te synonyms *y this !rocess&that
wo+ld mean chec%in$ their relations in all
conceiva*le conte.ts.
1. investi$ation of antonyms0 s+!erficial is
contrasted with *oth dee! and !rofo+nd, *+t
shallow only with dee!.
1. conte.t&de!endent synonymy& two items are
synonymo+s in a !artic+lar conte.t, e.$. do$ and
*itch in My6666has 7+st had !+!s- *+y and $et in "8ll
$o to the sho! and66666some *read. 9+t, this is not
an ar$+ment for synonymy, *+t rather hy!onymy
(one term is more s!ecific than the other,. The fact
that information can *e $+essed from the conte.t
doesn8t affect the meanin$ (the *oo% and the red
*oo% co+ld *e conte.t+al synonyms, *+t do not
have the same meanin$,.
). ty!e of synonymy fo+nd *etween *+ll and male
ad+lt *ovine animal. The test of interchan$ea*ility
r+les them o+t as synonyms, as it is not said There
is a male ad+lt *ovine animal in the field. This is
not a nat+ral lin$+istic !henomenon, it is created
*y the le.ico$ra!her for the !+r!oses of definition
and !ara!hrase.

refers to o!!ositeness of m.- antonyms&

words o!!osite in m.

re$+lar and nat+ral feat+re of l. (different

stat+s from that of synonymy,

refers to !aradi$matic o!!osition

(Trier0every +ttered word evo%es its
o!!osite in the mind of the s!ea%er or
listener d+rin$ the artic+lation,

no !recise +se of the term0 hi$h&low- *+y&

sell- male&female- arrive&de!art- left&ri$ht-
front &*ac%

*inary o!!osition &most im!ortant

!rinci!le sha!in$ l. str+ct+re. "ts most
o*vio+s manifestation in is

Antonyms& +niversally, *+t even

they reflect s!ea%ers c+lt+re (left&ri$ht-
north&so+th&east&west distinction,
1. :;A<A9=' A.&$radation incl+des
com!arison- when com!arin$ ) or more
o*7ects in terms of !ossessin$ a certain
>+ality (ad7, we >+estion the !ossession of
a >+ality in de$rees
wide&narrow- old&yo+n$- *i$&small
Sa!ir0 +se of a $raded ad7 always incl+des
$radation (e.!licitly or im!licitly,
e.$. O+r ho+se is *i$ ($er than the normal
com!arative forms of ad7 (in ?er or with
more, are e.!licitly $raded (!receeded
lin$+istically *y sim!ler forms, *+t !receed
them lo$ically,
:radation a$ainst different norms0 wide with
stri!e on a dress or road
!arado.0small ele!hant *i$$er than a *i$

this is a small ele!hant- therefore it is a

small animal @ this is a red *oo%- therefore
it is a red o*7ect

5lato0 co&e.istance of ) o!!osite >+alities in

the same o*7ect (tallness and shortness,
e.$. # is taller than Y and shorter than A

semi&e.!licit $radation (+se of a com!.

constr+ction witho+t mention of the
e.$.O+r ho+se is *i$$er. (standard introd+ced

chain of a. !airs0 *oilin$&hot&warm&


mar%ed and +nmar%ed term &+nmar%ed

+sed to as% a*o+t or descri*e de$ree of
e.$. Cow hi$h is it? "t is / feet hi$h. (no
im!lication it is hi$h,
Cow low is it? (im!lies an o*7ect is low,
D"t is / feet low.
e.$. Cow $ood is it? Es Cow *ad is it?
mem*ers are in com!lementary distri*+tion0
male&female- married&sin$le- alive&dead
to say that sth. is not the one is to say it is the other
Hhen +n$raded a. are +sed as !redicative e.0
1. !redication of one element im!lies the !redication of
the ne$ation of the other
). !redication of the ne$ation of either im!lies the
!redication of the other
# is female im!lies # is not male
# is not female im!lies # is male

Hhen $raded a. are +sed as

!redicative e.0
1. !redication of one element
im!lies the !redication of the
ne$ation of the other
# is hot im!lies # is not cold
# is cold im!lies # is not hot
I # is not hot doesnt im!ly # is coldI

mor!h. +nrelated a.0 $ood&*ad- hi$h&low-

*ea+tif+l&+$ly- *i$&small- old&yo+n$

o+tn+m*ered *y mor!h. related a.0married&

+nmarried- friendly&+nfriendly

most mor!h. +nrelated a. are $raded and

those mor!h. related are +n$raded

married&+nmarried2sin$le- friendly&

no lo$ical necessity for l. to have mor!h.

+nrelated antonymy

they am!lify the distinction *etween two

!oles- Sa!ir0 contrastin$ >+alities are felt to
*e a*sol+te

Total le.icaliBation of !olariBed o!!osites

necessarily incl+des mor!h. +nrelatedness

mor!h. relatedness&*etween
$rammaticalisation and le.icalisation0 $ood&
*ad vs friendly&+nfriendly

'.!licit $radation of +n$raded a.0"s # still

alive then? Eery m+ch so.
/. SYMM'T;"GA==Y ;'E';S"9=' A.&those to
which the relationshi! more and less
cannot *e a!!lied
e.$. *rilliant&st+!id (more *rilliant doesnt
e>+al less st+!id,

<ifferent from +n$rada*le0 if yo+re not

alive, yo+ m+st *e dead- *+t if yo+re not
*rilliant, yo+ dont have to *e st+!id

<ifferent from $rada*le0 more and less

cant *e a!!lied

3. ;'=AT"ONA= O55OS"T'S (GONE';S'S,&a different %ind

of 8o!!osite8 with !airs of words which e.hi*it the reversal
of a relationshi! *etween items.
e.$. *+y2sell, h+s*and2wife "f John sells to Kred, Kred *+ys
from John- if 9ill is Mary8s h+s*and, Mary is 9ill8 s wife.
Eer*s that form !airs in this way0 *+y2sell, lend2*orrow,
rent2let, own2*elon$ to, $ive2receive
No+ns that form !airs in this way0 h+s*and2wife,
fiancL2fiancLe, !arent2child, de*tor2creditor,
A n+m*er of terms referrin$ to s!atial !osition0
a*ove2*elow, in front of2*ehind, north of2so+th of.
"n $rammar, active and !assive e.hi*it relational o!!osition
(if Tom hits Carry, Carry is hit *y Tom,.

Minshi! terms&interestin$ in the disc+ssion

of relational o!!osites& many of them
indicate not only the relationshi!, *+t the
se. of the !erson concerned (father is the
male !arent, da+$hter is a female child,.
This *loc%s reversi*ility (to say that John is
Sam8s father doesn8t entail that Sam is
John8s son. Sam co+ld *e his da+$hter,. So
we have !airs indicatin$ the same
relationshi!, *+t different se.0
father2mother, son2da+$hter, +ncle2a+nt,

Some terms are not strictly related as

relational o!!osites, *+t indicate a
tem!oral relationshi!, e.$. as%2re!ly-
offer2acce!t. ;e!ly and acce!t
8!res+!!ose8 that there has *een an act of
as%in$ or $ivin$- this is a nat+ral res+lt of
the tem!oral relationshi!.

<irectional o!!osition0+!&down- arrive&

de!art- come&$o

) %inds of o!!osition within the set0 north&

'ach is in orto$onal o!!osition with the other
two0 north with east and west- east with so+th
and north and anti!odally one with the other0
north and so+th- east and west

Multiple incompatibles

;elationshi! *etween NS+nday, Monday,

T+esday..Odescri*ed as incom!ati*ility
Trier0 e.cellent, $ood, avera$e, fair, !oor
(st+dent !erf.,&set of incom!ati*le and
+n$rada*le le.emes whose m. are
determined *y their !osition in the set
Military terms0 field marshal, $eneral, cor!oral,

Gyclic sets0seasons, days of the wee%

no e.treme !oints (as with field marshal&

!rivate,- c+lt+rally determined
not antonymic, *+t s+*antonymic sets

tr+e !rototy!ical antonyms0 direct

o!!ositions of the +n$rada*le ty!e

$raded setsenterin$ c+lt+ral s!heres