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CHAPTER TWENTY - BAHATAR IHABA
A FURTHER STEP IN - CHEYKmHH mAI
READING AND WRITING K HTEHHK H HHCBMY
In Chapter Twenty you will learn how to do the following:
1. to use essay lubricants
2. to write a letter
3. to use different forms of address
4. to understand and use abbreviations
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. participles (long and short forms)
2. gerunds
3. fill vowels
ESSAY / SUMMARY LUBRICANTS
You may find the following words and phrases useful when it comes to writing Russian.
anrop cunraer / nonaraer / yrnepxaer, uro
kak yrnepxaer anrop
no mnennm anropa
no-moemy
+ro osnauaer/ snaunr, (uro)
c onon cropont ., c pyron cropont
ro ecrt
nanpnmep
nmenno
pyrnmn / nntmn cnonamn / nnaue ronopx
kopoue ronopx
onako / onako xe
xorx / xorx n
nc-rakn, rem ne menee
rak kak
kak yxe ynomnnanoct (ntme)
raknm opasom
kpome roro / onee roro
rem onee / rem onee, uro
no+romy / cneonarentno / nrak
n cnxsn c +rnm
ncxox ns +roro / ns ntmeckasannoro
ns +roro cneyer, uro
kak cneyer ns ckasannoro
no-nepntx / no-nroptx / n-rpertnx
nakonen
n saknmuenne
moxno cenart ntno, uro
x npnmn (npnmna) k ntnoy, uro
the author believes / thinks / maintains that
as the author argues
in the author`s opinion
in my opinion
this means (that)
on the one hand ., on the other hand
that is to say, i.e.
for example, e.g.
to be precise, namely
in other words
put briefly
however /even so
although / even though
nevertheless
since ( because)
as already mentioned (above)
thus, in this way
moreover / furthermore
all the more so / especially as
therefore / consequently / so, thus
in this connection
on the basis of this / of the afore-mentioned
it follows that
as appears from the above
firstly / secondly / thirdly
finally
in conclusion
the conclusion can be drawn that
I have reached the conclusion that
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Activity One - Hepnoe sa(anne
Reading Read the following text and note how the essay lubricants are used. Then
retell the text, using alternative essay lubricants where possible.
CXBATKA CO BPEMEHEM
Haxonen ecrt nepnte pesyntrart ynnkantntx nccneonannn. Vunte Mocknt n Cankr-
Herepypra naemrcx ocranonnrt npnponym mamnny npemenn, sanymennym n oprannsme monooro
uenoneka ns hnrnt n, 1axnu opasou, nonepnyrt npemx ncnxrt. Kax yae ynounnauoct n neuarn,
xnrent Esnaca Antnnac Iysenxyckac sa nxrt c nnmnnm ner npenparnncx n crapna, 1o ec1t n cnon
27 ntrnxnr ... na 75 ner. B cnnsn c +1nu n peaknnm nomn norok nncem or unrarenen,
ncrpenoxenntx |enomenom. hmn conerymr, kak emy noenrt n +ron ronke co npemenem, (pyrnun
cuonaun, npenaramr pasnnunte naponte cpecrna. Ho+1ouy Antnnac nonpocnn nac nepeart
nm naroapnocrt or ero nmenn. O(naxo nponema cnnmkom cnoxna, urot nomout ontnomy
npnnapkamn. hnronckne yunte npnmun x nmno(y, uro +ro - cnnpom Bepnepa, ro ecrt cnnpom
npexenpemennoro crapennx. Teu ne uenee, nocne nynnkannn o Iysenxyckace n poccnnckon
neuarn, ero cnyuaem sannrepeconannct poccnnckne yunte. Onn nooemann coomnrt nepnte
cneennx o nccneonannxx |enomena Antnnaca n konne nera - nauane ocenn. Xo1n nccneonannx
em ne sakonuent, mnorne cnennanncrt n Poccnn cunramr, uro npnronop - no ontmnm comnennem.
Hanpnuep, Mapnna Konnna npenonaraer, uro y Antnnaca ne nacnecrnennoe saonenanne. Ho e
unennm, karacrpo|nueckoe crapenne xnrenx hnrnt xnnxercx cnecrnnem pyroro neyra n ero
neuennx, uro npnneno k nopaxennm nmmynnon cncremt, a nuenno: napent kora-ro onen
ryepkynesom, n n reuenne mecrn ner ero neunnn ontmnmn osamn pasnnuntx nekapcrn. Ho nc-
1axn yunte yexamr Iysenxyckaca ne repxrt onrnmnsma. Teu ouee, u1o nocnenne pesyntrart
nosnonxmr naexrtcx na nyumee.
(Adapted from hnroncknn kyptep, X38 (291), September 2000)
cxnarka skirmish, fight ontnon ill (person)
ynnkantntn unique npnnapka poultice
nccneonanne investigation cnnpom Bepnepa Verner`s syndrome
yuntn scientist npexenpemenntn premature
naexrtcx (I) (naemct, to hope crapenne ageing
naeemtcx) nynnkannx published piece
ocranannnnart (I) / ocranonnrt to stop cnyuan case
(ocranonnm, ocranonnmt) (sa-)nnrepecoanrtcx (III) to be interested (in)
npnpontn natural (nnrepecymct,
sanymenntn put, released nnrepecyemtcx) ( instr)
hnrna, nnroncknn Lithuania, Lithuanian (no-)oemart (I) to promise
nonopaunnart (I) /nonepnyrt to turn coomart (I) / coomnrt (II) to provide information
(nonepny, nonepnmt) cneennx
ncnxrt back(wards) sakonuen (-a, -o, -t) concluded
xnrent (m) resident npnronop sentence, verdict
npenpamartcx (I) / to turn into, (naxonrtcx) no comnennem (to be) in question
npenparnrtcx (II) n ( acc) transform into npenonarart (I) / to suppose
crapen old man npenonoxnrt (II)
norok nncem a flood of letters nacnecrnenntn hereditary, inherited
ncrpenoxenntn (past participle) alarmed saonenanne decease, illness
|enomen phenomenon xnnxrtcx (I) (imp) ( instr) to be
kak emy noenrt? how can he win? cnecrnne consequence
ronka c(o) ( instr) race against neyr ailment, disease
npenarart (I) / npenoxnrt (II) to suggest neuenne treatment
pasnnuntn various npnnecrn k nopaxennm to lead to the defeat/failure
naponte cpecrna folk remedies napent (m) lad
nepeart (pf) naroapnocrt (f) to express gratitude onert ryepkynsom to be ill with TB
or ero nmenn on his behalf neunrt (II) ( instr) to treat (with)
cnoxntn complicated yexart (I) (imp) to try to convince
nomorart (I) / nomout to help (no-)repxrt (I) naexy to lose hope
(nomory, nomoxemt) ( dat) nosnonxrt (I) / nosnonnrt (II) to allow
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Activity Two - B1opoe sa(anne
Reading Read the following text, which is a summary of an article from the weekly
paper Aprymenrt n |akrt, paying particular attention to the use of essay lubricants.
OTBXATB HAO HAmE
B +1on c1a1te ocya(ae1cn nponema ortxa. An1op cun1ae1, uro nocne ornycka
uenonek ne uyncrnyer ycranocrn npnmepno nonroa. Hsnec1no, uro nx xopomero ortxa
naxna ne rontko ero npoonxnrentnocrt, no n ero kauecrno. Kax y1nepa(ae1 an1op,
nx ortxa nyxno yunrtnart neckontko |akropon. Bo-nepnmx, nospacr, nanpnmep,
nocne 45 ner xenarentno ortxart ne menee nyx neent nopx. Bo-n1opmx, nao
npnnnmart no nnnmanne knnmarnueckne ycnonnx mecra ortxa n anart npemx na
aanrannm k nonomy knnmary n peaanrannm no nosnpamennn. Teu ouee, u1o +ro
ornocnrcx n k erxm, 1ax xax nx mexannsmt aanrannn rontko |opmnpymrcx. B-1pe1tnx,
nnrentnocrt neoxonmoro ortxa onpeenxmr n nnnnnyantnte ocoennocrn
uenoneka. Hanpnuep, no unennm ncnxonoron, nx xonepnkon ocrarouno 7-14 nen,
o(naxo nx ortx onxen trt akrnnntm. H naoopo1, nx neroponnnntx n
ocroxrentntx nmen |nermarnunoro rnna nyxen nentn mecxn. An1op nouarae1, uro
menanxonnky nennoxo axe nonanxrtcx neckontko nen n nocrenn nepe akrnnntm
ortxom, a canrnnnnkn moryr npekpacno oxonrtcx es nnrentnoro ortxa, nm
ocrarouno cyort n nockpecentx.
n +ron crarte ocyxaercx ( nom) this article discusses ornocnrtcx (ornomyct, to relate to
ycranocrt (f) tiredness ornocnmtcx) (imp) k ( dat)
npnmepno roughly |opmnponart(cx) (III) to form
nsnecrno it is well known nnrentnocrt (f) length
npoonxnrentnocrt (f) duration onpeenxrt (I) / onpeennrt (II) to determine
kauecrno quality ocoennocrt (f) peculiarity
yunrtnart (I) (imp) to take into account xonepnk choleric person
xenarentno it is desirable neroponnnntn unhurried
nopx in a row ocroxrentntn reliable
npnnnmart (I) no nnnmanne to take into account (no-)nanxrtcx (I) to loll around
ycnonne condition canrnnnnk sanguine person
(pe)aanrannx (re)adaptation oxonrtcx (II) (imp) es ( gen) to do without
no nosnpamennn after returning
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Activity Three - Tpe1te sa(anne
Reading/Writing Read the text below by N. Tsvetovaya. Then rewrite it using the
essay lubricants already listed.
TOHCTBE - YMHEE (H. Hne1onan)
Vunte ns Kempnxckoro ynnnepcnrera peannnrnponann roncrtx nmen. Onn
okasann, uro re, y koro nanmamrcx nsnnmkn xnpa, ymnee n paorocnoconee xytx
n cpeneynnranntx. +np ornnuno samnmaer ckener n nnyrpennne oprant or
nonpexennn, perynnpyer ntpaorky ropmonon, cnococrnyer ykpennennm nmmynnrera
oprannsma n ynyumaer penpoykrnnnym cncremy xenmnn. V roncrtx nmen
ntpaartnaercx xnsnenno naxntn ropmon nenrnn, koroptn noepxnnaer
neoxonmtn yponent +neprnn n oprannsme. Kora cnnt na ncxoe, +ror ropmon noar
npeynpexammne cnrnant n mosr - n uenonek exnr n sakycounym. Boome xnp -
+ro opran. Ero nao nocnpnnnmart rak xe, kak, nanpnmep, neuent, - saxnnn
npecrannrent koponenckon mennnnckon mkont n honone.
peannnrponart (III) to rehabilitate ntpaartnart(cx) (I) / to (be) produce(d)
okastnart (I) / okasart to prove ntpaorart(cx) (I)
(okaxy, okaxemt) xnsnenno vitally
re, y koro nanmamrcx those who have nenrnn leptin
nsnnmkn xnpa excesses of fat noepxnnart (I) / noepxart to support
paorocnocontn able to work (II) (noepxy, noepxnmt)
xyon thin cnnt na ncxoe strength is waning
cpeneynnranntn of average weight noanart (noam, noamt) / to give
samnmart (I) / samnrnrt to defend noart (noam, noamt)
(samnmy, samnrnmt) npeynpexammnn cnrnan warning sign
ckener skeleton mosr brain
nnyrpennnn internal sakycounax snack bar
nonpexenne damage, harm nocnpnnnmart (I) (imp) to perceive, take
perynnponart (III) (imp) to regulate rak xe, kak just like
ntpaorka production neuent (f) liver
ropmon hormone saxnnxrt (I) / saxnnrt (II) to announce
cnococrnonart (III) ( dat) to contribute (to) (saxnnm, saxnnmt)
ykpennenne strengthening npecrannrent (m) representative
nmmynnrer oprannsma the body`s immunity koponencknn queen`s / king`s, royal
penpoykrnnnax cncrema reproductive system
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PARTICIPLES
Participles are words formed from a verb and used as an adjective which answer the question
xaxon? etc.
There are five kinds of participles:
1. Present active - take the third person plural of the present tense, remove the final -1 and
add -mnn(cn) etc.:
enart enam-r enammnn (|who/which is] doing/making)
yntartcx yntam-rcx yntammnncx (|who is] smiling)
ronopnrt ronopx-r ronopxmnn (|who is] speaking)
2. Past active (imperfective) - take the masculine form of the past tense of the imperfective
aspect, remove the final -u and add -nmnn(cn) etc.:
enart ena-n enanmnn (|who/which was] doing/making)
yntartcx ynta-ncx yntanmnncx (|who was] smiling)
ronopnrt ronopn-n ronopnnmnn (|who] was speaking)
3. Past active (perfective) - take the masculine form of the past tense of the perfective aspect,
remove the final -u and add -nmnn(cn) etc.:
cenart cena-n cenanmnn (|who/which] did/made)
yntnyrtcx yntny-ncx yntnynmnncx (|who] smiled)
kpnknyrt kpnkny-n kpnknynmnn (|who] shouted)
4. Present passive participle - take the first person plural of the present tense and add -mn etc.:
enart enaem enaemtn (|which is] done/made)
nmnrt nmnm nmnmtn (|who/which is] (be)loved
favourite)
nonropnrt nonropnm nonropnmtn (|which is] repeated)
5. (a) Past passive participle long form - take the perfective aspect and follow these rules:
(i) for most verbs ending in -a1t or -n1t, remove the final -1t and add -nnmn
cenart cenanntn (|which was] done/made)
(ii) for most other verbs, take the 1
st
and 2
nd
person singular of the future tense. Replace the
final -y /-m of the 1
st
person singular by -ennmn if the 2
nd
person ending is unstressed
nonyunrt nonyuy nonyunmt nonyuenntn (|who/which was] received)
or replace the final -y /-m of the 1
st
person singular by -nnmn if the 2
nd
person singular
ending is stressed
pemnrt pemy pemnmt pemnntn (|which was] decided)
(iii) for verbs with infinitives in -y1t, -m1t, -e1t and -epe1t, and various monosyllabic verbs
and compound verbs, take the infinitive, remove the final -1t and add -1mn
sakpirt sakpi- sakpirtn (|which was] closed)
(b) Past passive participle short form - take the long form (above) and use the short
adjective endings:
cenan (m), cenana (f), cenano (n), cenant (pl) (done, made)
sakpir (m), sakpira (f), sakpiro (n), sakpirt (pl) (closed)
If the short passive participle is derived from long forms ending in -nnmn and -ennmn,
the final syllable is stressed; e.g. pemnntn:
pemn (m), pemena (f), pemeno (n), pemeni (pl) (decided)
Eor more details, see the Grammar section.
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Activity Four - He1np1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following passage, paying particular attention to the meaning of
the particple forms which are in bold.
Heanno x ncrpernn cnoero craporo pyra, nepnynmerocn ns Poccnn neenm nasa.
On pacckasan mne o noeske, nponsne(men na nero nensrua(nuoe nneuarnenne. On
pacckasan mne, kora tnn noc1poenm Mockna n Cankr-Herepypr, nanomnnn, uro
Cankr-Herepypr tn ocnonan Herpom Hepntm. On samernn, uro cne1nmnecn snst
Kpemnx nn(nm nsaneka, a na ocnemnnmx ynnnax cnerno, kak nm. On onro
pacckastnan o ynn(ennou n Poccnn: o Xpame Xpncra Cnacnrenx, nocc1anonuennou
concem neanno, o Fontmom Tearpe, pacnouoaennou n nenrpe Mocknt, o 3pmnraxe
- mnmen pesnennnn pyccknx napen.
Activity Five - Hn1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Complete the sentences, using the phrases given in the box on the
right.
1. Ha crone nexano nnctmo, .
2. Monoon uenonek, , neanno
nocrynnn n ynnnepcnrer. nepeanaemte no pano
3. pacckasan konneram o nonom nepnynmnncx ns komannponkn
npoekre. nnxenep
4. 3anxrnx, , yyr npononrtcx nanncannoe mnon nuepa
no neuepam. xnnymnn n namem ome
5. Vnnnepcnrer, , cran onnm ns sakptrtn na pemonr
nyumnx ynnnepcnreron mnpa. nocemaemte paorammnmn nm
6. Cryenrt, , n npomnom roy cryenramn
noexann n Cankr-Herepypr na rpn ocnonanntn M.B. homonocontm
mecxna. sannmanmnecx pyccknm xstkom
7. Mt ncera cnymaem nonocrn, .
8. marasnn ne yer paorart na
mecxna.
nponsnonrt (II) / nponsnecrn to produce an ynnennoe the things seen
(nponsney, nponsnemt) impression on noccranannnnart (I) / noccranonnrt to restore
nneuarnenne na ( acc) (s.one) (noccranonnm, noccranonnmt)
nensrnanmtn indelible tnmnn former
nanomnnart (I) / nanomnnrt (II) to remind npononrtcx (II) / nponecrnct to be held
ocnontnart (I) / ocnonart (III) to found (nponercx)
cnernrt(cx) (cneuy, cnernmt) (imp) to shine, gleam nepeanart (nepeam, nepeamt) / to broadcast
ocnemart (I) / ocnernrt to light up nepeart (nepeam, nepeamt)
(ocneuy, ocnernmt)
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Activity Six - mec1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Eill in the gaps in the sentences, choosing the
appropriate participle from the box below. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
nmnmtn, cnerax, orkptnmaxcx, satrtn, nommne, rannymmym,
satnmnn, nncanmnx, xpannmte, noapennoe, nmxmne
1. Ceronx n namem rearpe yer ntcrynart ncemn aprncr Bxuecnan
Tnxonon.
2. Btcranka, n npomnom mecxne, ckopo sakpoercx.
3. ern, n xope, n nmne noeyr ntcrynart no upannnm.
4. Hecnx, nnepnte na konkypce monotx ncnonnnrenen, nmena ycnex.
5. A. H. uexon - onn ns nncarenen, n xanpe koporkoro pacckasa.
6. Ona norepxna kontno, en xennxom.
7. On cmorpen na enymky n yman o mystke nx nonoro anera.
8. Haccaxnp, cnon sonr n rponnenyce, oparnncx n cron naxook. Tam
n nexan nm sonr.
9. ponrenn ncera crapamrcx art erxm nc camoe nyumee.
10. Hnctma A. C. Hymknna, onro ero noromkamn, renept naxoxrcx
n mysee.
Activity Seven - Ce(tuoe sa(anne
Writing Answer the following questions in Russian using either short-form past
participles ( the Instrumental to express by`) or, where appropriate, an active verb (in
the Nominative). The necessary information is given in random order in the box below.
uankoncknn, Pacrpennn, upank Cnnarpa, Anna Hyrauna, Bnapnnerep,
Hrp I, homonocon, Hnrpn Feprman, hen Toncron, |apaont
1. Kem tn nanncan poman Bonna n mnp?
2. Kro nanncan aner heennnoe osepo?
3. Kem tn ocnonan MIV?
4. Kro ocnonan Cankr-Herepypr?
5. Kem tnn nocrpoent nnpamnt?
6. Kro nocrponn 3nmnnn nopen?
7. Kem tna ctrpana rnannax pont n |nntme Tepmnnarop?
8. Kro ctrpan rnanym pont n |nntme Kacananka?
9. Kem tna nnepnte ncnonnena necnx Htm-Hopk, Htm-Hopk?
10. Kro nnepnte ncnonnnn nonynxpnym pycckym necnm Apneknno?
(c-)nert (nom, nomt) to sing xennx fiance
xpannrt (II) (imp) to preserve sonr umbrella
(no-)apnrt (II) to give (a present) opamartcx (I) / oparnrtcx (II) to turn to, go to
ntcrynart (I) / ntcrynnrt to perform (opamyct, oparnmtcx) n ( acc)
(II) (ntcrynnm, ntcrynnmt) cron naxook lost property office
konkypc competition noromok descendant
ncnonnnrent (m) performer |apaon Pharaoh
nmert ycnex to be successful 3nmnnn nopen Winter Palace
xanp genre nrpart (I) / ctrpart (I) to play
kontno ring ncnonnxrt (I) / ncnonnnrt (II) to perform
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Activity Eight - Boctuoe sa(anne
Writing/Listening Eill in the gaps in the text, choosing the correct passive past
participle form from the brackets. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
1. Marasnn c 9 o 18 uacon. Marasnn, n npomnom
roy, nastnaercx Moa (orkptrtn - orkptr).
2. Crapte knnrn, monaxamn, o cnx nop xpanxrcx n monacrtpxx,
nnnorekax n mysexx. Hepnte knnrn tnn monaxamn n cenuac
onn croxr ouent oporo (nepenncannte - nepenncant).
3. Poccnnckne cnoprcment, yuacrnonanmne n Onnmnnncknx nrpax, tnn
na npnm k npesnenry. Cnoprcment, na npnm k
npesnenry, ouent nonnonannct (npnrnamennte - npnrnament).
4. Kaprnna pycckoro xyoxnnka Bnmknna yer na ayknnone. Ha
ntcranke x nnen kaprnny, na ayknnone n npomnom roy
(npoannym - npoana).
5. neckontko ner nasa mnxna ntmna ns mot. 3ra mnxna tna
neckontko ner nasa n ynnnepmare (kynnennax - kynnena).
6. Bcem ouent nonpannncx neuep, okonuannm mkont. 3ror neuep
okonuannm mkont (nocnxmenntn - nocnxmn).
Useful expressions for writing letters
Informal Formal
Forms of address
oporon Hnan! (Dear .)* Vnaxaemtn Anekcanp Hnanonnu!
Mnnax Anna Herponna! (My dearest .) (Dear .)
3pancrnyn, Karx! (Hello, .) Mnoroynaxaemax Mapnx Hnanonna!
3pancrnynre, Hnan Hnanonnu! (Hello, .) (Dear . verv formal)
Hpnner, Cama! (Hi, Sasha)
Concluding remarks
Henym. (Love, .) Hckpenne Bam ... (Yours faithfully, .)
+y ornera. (Looking forward to hearing C ynaxennem ... (Yours sincerely, .)
from you.) Bam ... (Yours, .)
Henym n onnmam. (Hugs and kisses, .) Ocramct npeanntn Bam ... (Yours
Hnmn. (Keep in touch.) respectfully, .)
o cnnannx. (Goodbye.)
Kpenko nenym. (Lots of love, .)
Bcero xopomero. / Bcero oporo. / Bcero
nannyumero. (All the best.)
* The translations suggested are only approximate equivalents.
monax monk (ns-)nonnonartcx (III) (nonnymct, to be worried,
o cnx nop till now nonnyemtcx) anxious
monacrtpt (m) monastery xyoxnnk artist
nepennctnart (I) / nepenncart to re-write ayknnon auction
(nepennmy, nepennmemt) ntnrn (ntny, ntnemt) (pf) ns mot to go out of fashion
yuacrnonart (III) n ( prep) to take part in nocnxmart (I) / nocnxrnrt to devote, dedicate
npnm reception (nocnxmy, nocnxrnmt) ( dat) (to)
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Activity Nine - enn1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following business letter, paying particular attention to the layout
and the way the address is written.
Poccnn
Mocxna
117259 Ynnnepcn1e1cxnn npocnex1, 89
qnpua Ynn1pec1
1eu.: (095) 278-18-14
qaxc: (095) 278-18-39
Poccnx
Cankr-Herepypr
Fyntnap Haxnmona, 8
|npma OPT3KC
Cemnony, H. h.
ren.: (812) 243-18-45
|akc: (812) 243-18-44
22.9.02
Kacarentno: namero sakasa X2701 or 4 okrxpx 2002 r.
Vnaxaemtn rocnonn Cemnon!
C ynaxennem,
C. Tnxomnpon
npekrop orena ctra |npmt
Vnnrpecr
kacarentno ( gen) with reference to ronapt goods
sakas order o|opmnxrt (I) / o|opmnrt to register
ntmeykasanntn foregoing (o|opmnm, o|opmnmt)
ornpannxrt (I) / ornpannrt to send crpaxonon nonnc insurance policy
(ornpannm, ornpannmt) nanpannxrt (I) /nanpannrt to send, direct
ynakontnart (I) / ynakonart (III) to pack (nanpannm, nanpannmt)
(ynakym, ynakyemt) oren department
kapronntn cardboard mt ynepent we are sure
(npo-)nymeponart (III) (nymepym, to number sakastnart (I) / sakasart to order
nymepyemt) (sakaxy, sakaxemt)
conponoxart (I) / connpononrt to accompany orneuart (I) / ornernrt to correspond (to)
(conponoxy, conpononmt) (orneuy, ornernmt) ( dat)
rpys freight, cargo rpeonanne demand
kyptepckax noura courier (post) ctr sales(s)
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Mt pat coomnrt Bam, uro ronapt, sakasannte Bamn no ntmeykasanntm
nomepom, ceronx tnn ornpannent n Cankr-Herepypr camonrom. Tonapt ynakonant
n kapronnte xmnkn, nponymeponannte or 1 o 4. Conponoxammne rpys okymenrt
nocnant Bam kyptepckon nouron. Ha nce ronapt o|opmnen crpaxonon nonnc,
nanpannenntn n Mockoncknn nannonantntn ank.
Mt ynepent, uro sakasannte Bamn ronapt yyr orneuart Bamnm rpeonannxm.
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Activity Ten - ecn1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the following letter written by Sasha to his English friend John. Note
the differences in style between official and private letters.
ysnanart (ysnam, ysnamt) / to find out, knno|ecrnnant (m) film festival
ysnart (I) recognize nonacrt (pf) (nonay, nonamt) to get to, fall
cesnrt (pf) (cesxy, cesnmt) to go (and return) n/na ( acc) into/on
ocranartcx (ocramct, ocramtcx) / to remain npocmorp viewing
ocrartcx (ocranyct, ocranemtcx) ne rontko ... no n not only ... but also
nnmt only ntuncnnrentntn nenrp computer centre
orenka decorating cosanart (cosam, cosamt) / to create
(no-)kpacnrt (kpamy, kpacnmt) to paint cosart (cosam, cosamt)
onorpynnnnk person in the nnrepner(oncknn) internet
same group ynnekart (I) / ynneut (ynneky, to captivate
noxo na anapkax canoeing trip ynneumt)
pystx no ynnnepcnrery university friends noceptsnen (a little) more
epenxnntn wooden seriously
souecrno architecture acnnpanrypa postgraduate
npoonxartcx (I) / npoonxnrtcx (II) to last, continue studies
nopon at times xstkonax npakrnka language practice
(no-)snakomnrt (snakomnm, to acquaint nepeanart (nepeam, to give regards
snakomnmt) c ( instr) with (s.one) nepeamt) / nepeart to (s.one)
npoxonrt (imp) (II) to take place (nepeam, nepeamt) npnner ( dat)
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Mockna
24.10.02
oporon xon!
Heckontko nen nasa x nonyunn rno nnctmo. tn pa ysnart, uro rt xopomo nponn
cnon nernne kannkynt n cesnn no upannnm.
roxe nponn nero ouent nnrepecno. Cnauana x ne neenn nomoran orny crponrt auy.
aua yxe nourn nocrpoena, ocranoct nnmt cenart nnyrpennmm orenky, nokpacnrt
okna n nepn. Crponrt auy nam nomorann pystx moero orna n mon onorpynnnnk Hanen
- x ree o nm yxe nncan. Kora paora tna sakonuena, mt c Hannom ornpannnnct n
noxo na anapkax nmecre c namnmn pystxmn no ynnnepcnrery. Tak uro x nocmorpen
cenep Poccnn, ysnan ouent mnoro o napontx rpannnxx Cenepa, o pycckom epenxnnom
souecrne. Ham noxo npoonxancx ne neenn. H xorx tno nopon rpyno, nce ocrannct
ouent onontnt. Kcrarn, n noxoe x nosnakomnncx c ouent xopomen enymkon, e sonyr
Tartxna, n ona nsyuaer anrnnncknn xstk n nnreparypy. Kora rt npneemt k nam n Mockny,
x oxsarentno nac nosnakomnm. B cepenne anrycra y nac n Mockne npoxonn
mexynapontn knno|ecrnnant, n mne yanoct nonacrt na npocmorp nxrn |nntmon. B
anrycre x ne rontko ortxan, no n paoran n ynnnepcnrerckom ntuncnnrentnom nenrpe:
mt cosanann nnrepneronckne crpannnt nx pasntx |akyntreron namero ynnnepcnrera.
3ra paora ouent menx ynnekna. Hepnoro cenrxpx, kak rt snaemt, nauancx yuentn
ro - mon nocnennn ro n ynnnepcnrere. Mne nao noceptsnen yunrtcx n +rom roy,
urot nocne okonuannx ynnnepcnrera x mor nocrynnrt n acnnpanrypy. Ho+romy x mnoro
sannmamct, cnoonoro npemenn ocrarcx mano. no-npexnemy sannmamct cnoprom.
3ro mo xon.
Tt nncan, uro n +rom roy y rex yer xstkonax npakrnka n Poccnn. Kora rt
conpaemtcx npnexart n Mockny? Mt nce (x n mon pystx) xm rex n rocrn. Mon
ponrenn nepeamr ree npnner.
Hnmn. He satnan.
Tnon Cama.
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Activity Eleven - O(nnna(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Write a letter to your friend telling him or her about your family and friends,
your studies and how you are spending your free time.
Activity Twelve - nena(na1oe sa(anne
Writing Write a formal letter to your professor or teacher about how your studies
are progressing.
Addressing strangers
a) Expressions used to address people in public speech
Iocnoa! (Ladies and gentlemen)
Vnaxaemte rocnoa! (Ladies and gentlemen)
Konnern! (Colleagues)
Vnaxaemte konnern! (Dear colleagues)
pystx! / oporne pystx! (Dear friends)
Ipaxane! (Ladies and gentlemen used mainlv bv officials)
b) Semi-formal expressions used to address non-acquaintances
Monoon uenonek! / enymka! (Sir / Madam except to elderlv people)
Mantunk! / enouka! (Hey |young lad / girl])
Ipaxannn! / Ipaxanka! (Sir / Madam used mainlv bv officials)
c) Semi-formal expressions used to address acquaintances
Iocnonn Herpon! / Iocnoxa Herpona! (Mr Petrov / Mrs Petrova)
Hnan Hnanonnu! / Mapnx Hnanonna! (Ivan Ivanovich / Maria Ivanovna)
d) Informal expressions used to address acquaintances and groups of young people
Mantunkn! / enoukn! (Boys / Girls)
Pexra! (Lads, Children)
Konx! / Mama! (Kolya / Masha)
e) Expressions used to facilitate communication
Ckaxnre, noxanyncra ... (Could you tell me .)
Hpocrnre, nt ne ckaxere ... / nt ne snaere ...) (Excuse me, do you happen to know .)
Hsnnnnre noxanyncra, nt ne ckaxere ... /... nt ne snaere ... (Excuse me, please, do you happen to
know .)
Moxno nac cnpocnrt ... (Can I ask (you) .)
Paspemnre cnpocnrt ... / Hosnontre cnpocnrt... (May I ask (you) .)
Hosnontre ckasart ... (Paspemnre mne ckasart...) (May I say .)
Tt ne ckaxemt ... / ne snaemt ... (Excuse me, do you happen to know . used when addressing a
child)
Activity Thirteen - Tpnna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the following texts below and fill in the gaps with
the appropriate form of address from the box below. Then listen to the tape to check your
answers.
oporne pystx!, Ipaxane!, Ckaxnre, noxanyncra, ..., Iocnoa!,
Mantunk!, Vnaxaemte konnern!, Ipaxannn!, enymka!, Ipaxanka!,
Anpen Herponnu!, Pexra!, Iocnonn Cmnpnon!, Kocrx!
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(Ha v.ue)
A - , re naxorncx Fontmon Tearp.
B - K coxanennm, x nnocrpanen. He mory nam ckasart.
(B mpo..eovce)
A - ! Bt ne ntxonre na cneymmen ocranonke?
B - Btxoxy.
(B aemoovce)
Bo(n1eut: - ! He satnanre onnaunnart npoes.
Kon1poup: - ! Hpexnnre nam nner, noxanyncra!
(Ha coopauuu)
oxua(unx: - ! Mt copannct n +rom sane, urot ocynrt naxnte nonpoct,
kacammnecx nonoro roonoro nnana.
(Heowuoauua ecmpe:a)
Mouo(on ueuonex: - ! Bt menx ne ysnann? Kocrx Horanon, nam tnmnn yuennk.
An(pen He1ponnu: - !? Kak xe, koneuno, ysnan, pa rex nnert!
(B uro.e)
Mama: - ! ananre nonm n knno?
Hropt: - Her, nao ypokn enart.
Cne1a: - ananre nyume sanrpa nonm na nxrt uacon.
(B meampe)
Mouo(on ueuonex: - , nac ne Harama sonyr?
enymxa: - Her, ne Harama.
Mouo(on ueuonex: - Hsnnnnre, x omncx - nt ouent noxoxn na mom snakomym enymky, e sonyr
Harama.
(B npu+uo v oupermopa qup+i)
Cexpe1apt: - ! npekrop xr nac, noxanyncra, nxonre.
Cunpnon: - Cnacno.
(Ha saceoauuu raqeopi e vuueepcumeme)
A - ! Bamemy nnnmannm npecrannena ncceprannx, nocnxmnnax nponeme npnuacrnn
n pycckom xstke. o cnx nop ne tno nponeeno ocrarouno ceptsntx nccneonannn no +ron reme.
(Ha oue powoeuu)
A - ! Paspemnre mne or nmenn ncex copanmnxcx sa +rnm cronom nospannrt namero
opororo Makcnma c nanarnnxrnnernem n noxenart emy orpomnoro cuacrtx n ontmnx ycnexon.
(B vuueep+aee)
aua: - ! Houemy rt nnauemt? Ie rnox mama?!
Mautunx: - mamy norepxn. Ona ckasana mne nooxart sect mnnyrky, no e yxe onro ner!
aua: - He nnaut. Mama cenuac npnr. Cmorpn, +ro ne rnox mama nr?
Mantunk: - On! 3ro mox mama!
onnaunnart (I) / ornnarnrt (II) to pay (back) npononrt (II) / nponecrn to conduct
npoes trip, journey (nponey, nponemt)
konrponp ticket-collector nccneonanne research
npexnnxrt (I) / npexnnrt to show, produce or nmenn ( gen) on behalf (of)
(npexnnm, npexnnmt) nospannxrt (I) / nospannrt to congratulate
oknaunk speaker, lecturer (nospannm, nospannmt) (s.one) on
kacammnncx ( gen) concerning ( acc) c ( instr) (something)
roonon nnan yearly plan nanarnnxrnnerne 25
th
birthday
omnartcx (I) / omnnrtcx to make a mistake (no-)xenart (I) ( dat) ( gen) to wish (s.one)
(omnyct, omnnmtcx) (s.th.)
npecrannxrt (I) / npecrannrt to present, introduce cuacrte happiness
(npecrannm, npecrannmt)
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GERUNDS
Gerunds are indeclinable verbal adverbs which substitute for English forms such as when .`,
while .`, and .`, since .`, by .`, without . ing` etc., in the present tense, and for
(after) having .` the past participle in the past tense.
HOW TO FORM THE GERUND
Present
Take the third person plural of the present tense, remove the final two letters and add -n (or -a
after a, u, m and m):
enart ena-mr enax (|while/when etc.] doing/making)
yntartcx yntamr-cx yntaxct* (|while/when etc.] smiling)
ronopnrt ronop-xr ronopx (|while/when etc.] speaking)
* Gerunds from reflexive verbs take the ending -ct.
Note that some verbs, especially monosyllabic verbs, do not have present gerund forms, including
nrt (to hit), ecrt (to eat), nnrt (to drink) and xorert (to want).
Past
Take the masculine past tense of the perfective aspect, remove the final -u and add -n (or -
nmnct for reflexive verbs):
cenart cena-n cenan (|after] having done/made)
yntnyrtcx yntny-ncx yntnynmnct (|after] having smiled)
ckasart ckasa-n ckasan (|after] having said/told)
Gerunds for most perfective verbs in -1n have final -n; e.g. nponx (|after] having passed),
npnx (having arrived) and npnnecx (|after] having brought).
Activity Fourteen - He1mpna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Complete the sentences in column A using the constructions with
gerunds in column B.
A B
1. , crapanrect sanomnnrt ne rontko
reopnm, no n npnmept. ne opamax nnnmannx na mym
2. Ona cnena y okna, . satn na cnente cnon sonr
3. Onn , , npoonxann nrpart n ront|. ne sameuax nauanmerocx oxx
4. Hentsx ornpannxrtcx n nyremecrnne no noxan pyr pyry pykn
Cnnpn, . ymax o rom, re cenuac moxer
5. On, , npoonxan cnom nporynky no naxonrtcx kopant e myxa
napky. ntyunn nonte cnona
6. , on nauan nepenonrt rekcr. nonropxx rpammarnueckne npannna
7. Hoxnnon uenonek ntmen ns anroyca, . ne nosaornnmnct o rnnon oexe
8. Onn nonpomannct, .
sanomnnart (I) / sanomnnrt (II) to memorize, remember noxnmart (I) / noxart (noxmy, to shake (s.ones)
npnmep example noxmmt) pyky ( dat) hand
noxnnon elderly kopant (m) ship
(no-)saornrtcx (saouyct, to be worried about nonropxrt (I) / nonropnrt (II) to repeat, revise
saornmtcx) o ( prep) rpammarnueckne npannna rules of grammar
cnente seat (no-)npomartcx c ( instr) (I) to say goodbye (to)
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Activity Fifteeen - Hn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing/Listening Choose the appropriate gerund construction to complete the
following sentences. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
1. Vcntman o onesnn Hnkonax, pystx cpasy xe ornpannnnct n
ontnnny ysnart o cocroxnnn ero
Cntma o onesnn Hnkonax, sopontx.
cnx n kpecne.
2. On unran rasery,
nocnen n kpecne.
sannmaxct 2 uaca pyccknm xstkom.
3. Onn nomnn rynxrt,
nosannmanmnct 2 uaca pyccknm xstkom.
4. unrax crartm o rnenn
nononon nokn Kypck, mopxkn pemnnn nomout cemtxm
nornmnx ronapnmen.
Hpounran crartm o rnenn
nononon nokn Kypck,
Activity Sixteen - mec1na(na1oe sa(anne
Writing/Listening Choose the most appropriate complement to the following
gerund constructions. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
1. Vcntman o rom, uro e paora Mama kpacneer or paocrn.
npnsnana nyumen,
Mama nokpacnena or paocrn.
ona paocrno c nnm soponaercx.
2. Vnnen Hnkonax,
ona paocrno c nnm nosoponanact.
x cex nnoxo nouyncrnonan.
3. Hpocnynmnct,
x cex nnoxo uyncrnym.
4. Mantunk nonan no mamnny,
nepeerax uepes ynnny.
Mantunk nonar no mamnny,
cocroxnne state paocrt (f) joy
rnent (f) death, demise paocrno joyously
nononax noka submarine (no-)soponartcx (I) c ( instr) to greet (s.one), say
mopxk sailor hello (to s.one)
nornart (I) / nornnyrt to perish nonaart (I) / nonacrt (nonay, to fall under
(nornny, nornnemt) nonamt) no ( acc)
(no-)kpacnert (kpacnem, to turn red nepeerart (I) / nepeexart to run across
kpacneemt) (nepeery, nepeexnmt) uepes ( acc)
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ABBREVIATIONS
There are several types of abbreviation in Russian:
1) stump-compounds:
Mocconer Mockoncknn coner (Moscow City Council), Iopras Iopockon ras (City Gas),
sanknyom saneymmnn knyom (manager of a club), pankom panonntn komnrer (district
committee), konxos konnekrnnnoe xosxncrno (collective farm), komnn komanymmnn
nnnsnen (division commander), etc.
2) alphabetisms:
a) abbreviations using the names of the initial letters of words; e.g. KHP |ka-n+-+p]
Kommynncrnueckax naprnx Poccnn (Communist Party of Russia), CCCP |+c-+c-+c-+p]
Coms Conercknx Connanncrnuecknx Pecnynnk (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics),
3BM |+-n+-+m] +nekrponno-ntuncnnrentnax mamnna (computer, literally electronic
computing machine), etc.
b) acronyms formed from the initial letters of words; e.g. nys ntcmee yuenoe saneenne
(institute of higher education), MXAT Mockoncknn xyoxecrnenntn akaemnuecknn rearp
(Moscow Arts Theatre), OOH |oon] Oprannsannx Oennenntx Hannn (United Nations),
etc.
3)
syllable-initial combinations:
nenys nearornueckoe ntcmee yuenoe saneenne (college of education), camo
camooopona es opyxnx (unarmed combat), ropono Iopockon oren naponoro
opasonannx (Municipal Department of National Education), coec connantnoe oecneuenne
(social security), etc.
Determining gender and number
i) The gender and declension of stump-compounds and syllable-initial combinations is generally
determined by their ending; e.g. masculine: pankom, coec; feminine: crenrasera (wall
newspaper); neuter: camo (unarmed combat).
ii) The gender of abbreviations and of acronyms using initial letters usually reflects the gender
of the central noun in the phrase; e.g. masculine: HHH |nnn] nayuno-nccneonarentcknn
nnc1n1y1 (scientific research institute), MIV |+m-r+-y] Mockoncknn rocyapcrnenntn
ynnnepcn1e1 (Moscow State University); feminine: T3H rennonax +uex1ponen1paut
(thermal power station), ATC |a-r+-+c] anromarnueckax rene|onnax c1annnn
(automatic telephone exchange); neuter: CHI |+c-+n-r+] Co(pyaec1no nesanncnmtx
rocyapcrn (the Commonwealth of Independent States); plural: KB |x-ka-n+] xepnte
kocmnueckne noopyaennn (nuclear space armaments). The gender of some common
alphabetisms is, however, determined by their final letter (and not by the central noun);
e.g. MH |mn] Mnnncrepcrno nnocrpanntx en (Ministry of Eoreign Affairs),
H3H |n+n] nonax +konomnueckax nonnrnka (New Economic Policy).
Activity Seventeen - Ceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Explain the meaning and derivation of the following abbreviations
and acronyms with the help of a dictionary.
1. naprkom 6. erca 11. ynpanom 16. HTAP-TACC
2. sapnnara 7. cnenkop 12. cnn 17. IVhAI
3. annaasa 8. sanka|epon 13. CBA 18. IAH
4. ryp|npma 9. sanmar 14. CH 19. KHCC
5. cepkacca 10. conxos 15. OBHP 20. FAM

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GRAMMAR
PARTICIPLES
WHAT ARE PARTICIPLES?
Participles are words formed from a verb and used as an adjective which answer the question
xaxon? etc. Participles may either precede the noun or introduce a subordinate clause which
replaces a verbal phrase (containing koroptn).
C1pon1eun, paomamuue |kakne?] na enxrom +raxe, nonyuar npemnm.
- The builders working |which ones?] on the ninth floor will receive a prize.
On snaer (enymxy, paomamuym (kakym?) na npoekrom.
- He knows the girl |which one?] working on the project.
Paomamuux (kaknx?) na npoekrom nnaenepon npnrnacxr na orkptrne ntcrankn.
- The engineers working on the project will be invited to the opening of the exhibition.
As 'adjectives` participles change in terms of:
a) gender: paorammnn nencnonep (working |male] pensioner, a male pensioner who works),
paoramman nencnonepka (a working |female] pensioner), paorammee ycrponcrno (a
working principle)
b) number: paorammnn nencnonep - paorammne nencnonept (working pensioners)
c) case: paorammnn nencnonep ne nepnyncx omon (the working pensioner has not returned
home), x snam paorammero nencnonepa (I know a working pensioner)
d) form (long and short - see Chapter 19): napnconannmn nnerok (a painted flower) - nnerok
tn napnconan (the flower was painted)
As 'verbs` they have the following grammatical features:
a) tense (present and past): nepeno(nmnn (|who is] translating) - nepeno(nnmnn (who was
translating)
b) perfective and imperfective aspects (according to their stem): c1ponnmnn (who was
building / used to build) - noc1ponnmnn (who |has/had] built)
c) active and passive voice: nepeno(nmnn (|who is] translating) - nepeno(numn (|which is]
translated)
TYPES OF PARTICIPLES
There are five types of participles:
1. present active: nepeno(nmnn (|who is] translating)
2. past active (imperfective): nepeno(nnmnn (|who was] translating)
3. past active (perfective): nepene(mnn (|who (has/had)] translated)
4. present passive: nepeno(numn (|which is] translated)
5. (a) past passive long form: nepene(nnmn (|which has/had been] translated)
(b) past passive short form: nepene(n / nene(ena (-o, -m) (translated)
HOW TO FORM PARTICIPLES
1. To form the present active participle, take the third person plural of the present tense
(i.e. the imperfective aspect), remove the final -1 and add -mnn etc.:
enart enam-r enammnn (|who/which is] doing/making)
unrart unram-r unrammnn (|who is] reading)
yntartcx yntam-rcx yntammnncx* (|who is] smiling)
anart am-r ammnn (|who/which is] giving)
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necrn ney-r neymnn (|who/which is] leading)
cneonart cneym-r cneymmnn (|who/which is] following)
ronopnrt ronopx-r ronopxmnn (|who is] speaking)
canrtcx cax-rcx caxmnncx* (|who is] sitting down)
kpnuart kpnua-r kpnuamnn (|who is] shouting)
e.g. x snam cryenra, ronopxmero no-pycckn - I know the student who is speaking Russian
na opoxke, neymen k aue - on the road leading to the dacha
* Participles always have the reflexive ending -cn.
2. To form the past active (imperfective) participle, take the masculine form of the past tense
of the imperfective aspect, remove the final -u and add -nmnn etc.
enart ena-n enanmnn (|who/which was] doing/making)*
unrart unra-n unranmnn (|who was] reading)
yntartcx ynta-ncx yntanmnncx (|who was] smiling)
anart ana-n ananmnn (|who/which was] giving)
cneonart cneona-n cneonanmnn (|who/which was] following)
ronopnrt ronopn-n ronopnnmnn (|who] was speaking)
canrtcx can-ncx cannmnncx (|who was] sitting down)
kpnuart kpnua-n kpnuanmnn (|who was] shouting)
Irregular past active (imperfective) participles
necrn nn nemnn (|who/which was] leading)
nrn mn memnn (|who/which] was going)
e.g. rt snaemt, uro enymka, yntanmaxcx ree n merpo, nsnecrnax akrpnca - you know that
the girl who was smiling at you in the metro is a famous actress
x snam cryenra, ronopnnmero no-pycckn - I know the student who was speaking Russian
* Depending on context, (euanmnn etc. might also be translated as who/which used to do/make` or
who/which did/made` (when there is no emphasis placed on completion).
3. To form the past active (perfective) participle, take the masculine form of the past tense of
the perfective aspect, remove the final -u and add -nmnn etc.
cenart cena-n cenanmnn (|who/which] did/made)*
npounrart npounra-n npounranmnn (|who] read through)
yntnyrtcx yntny-ncx yntnynmnncx (|who] smiled)
art a-n anmnn (|who/which] gave)
nocneonart nocneona-n nocneonanmnn (|which] followed)
ckasart ckasa-n ckasanmnn (|who] said/told)
kpnknyrt kpnkny-n kpnknynmnn (|who] shouted)
Irregular past active (perfective) participles
npnnecrn npnn-n npnnemnn (|who/which] brought)
npnnrn npnmn npnmemnn (|who/which] arrived)
e.g. x snam yunrenx, ckasanmero, uro +ksamena ceronx ner - I know the teacher who said
there was no exam today
on ronopnn mne o neanno nonyunnmem npns cryenre - he was telling me about the
student who recently received a prize
* Depending on context, c(euanmnn etc. might also be translated as who/which has/had done/made`
etc. (when emphasis is placed on completion).
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4. To form the present passive participle, take the first person plural of the present tense (i.e.
the imperfective aspect) of the transitive verb (i.e. a verb which takes a direct object) and add
-mn etc. Note that the present passive is the least common of the five participles, and many
verbs (especially monosyllabic verbs, such as part and snart, and second-conjugation
verbs, such as roronnrt and nnarnrt) do not have this form.
enart enaem enaemtn (|which is] done/made)*
unrart unraem unraemtn (|which is] read)
nastnart nastnaem nastnaemtn (|which is] named)
ynaxart ynaxaem ynaxaemtn (|who/which is] respected Dear
in formal correspondence)
nmnrt nmnm nmnmtn (|who/which is] (be)loved favourite)
nonropnrt nonropnm nonropnmtn (|which is] repeated)
e.g. +ro rak nastnaemtn mnnepan sopontx n yaun - manaxnr - this is the so-called mineral of
health and success - Malachite
* Depending on context, (euaeumn etc. might also be translated as which is being done/made` etc.
5. (a) The past passive participle long form is formed from the perfective aspect of
transitive verbs (i.e. verbs which take a direct object), as follows:
(i) for most verbs ending in -a1t or -n1t, remove the final -1t and add -nnmn
cenart cenanntn** (|which was] done/made)
npounrart npounranntn (|which was] read)
norepxrt norepxnntn (|who/which was] lost)
(ii) for most other verbs, take the 1
st
and 2
nd
person singular of the future tense. Replace the
final -y /-m of the 1
st
person singular by -ennmn if the 2
nd
person ending is unstressed; e.g.
nonyunrt nonyuy nonyunmt nonyuenntn (|who/which was]
received)
kynnrt kynnn kynnmt kynnenntn (|which was] bought)
nipasnrt nipaxy nipasnmt nipaxenntn (|which was] expressed)
or replace the final y /-m of the 1
st
person singular by -nnmn if the 2
nd
person singular
ending is stressed; e.g.
npnnecrn npnnecy npnnecmt npnnecnntn (|who/which] was brought)
pemnrt pemy pemnmt pemnntn (|which was] decided)
(iii) for verbs with infinitives in -y1t, -m1t, -e1t and -epe1t, monosyllabic verbs ending in
-n1t and -e1t, compound verbs ending in -nn1t, and other miscellaneous verbs, take the
infinitive, remove the final -1t and add -1mn; e.g.
sakptrt sakpt- sakptrtn (|which was] closed)
ynrt yn- ynrtn (|who was] killed)
pasnrt pasn- pasnrtn (|which was] broken)
sanxrt sanx- sanxrtn (|who/which was] occupied)
nsxrt nsx- nsxrtn (|who/which was] taken)
nauart naua- nauartn (|which was] begun)
e.g. (preceding the noun)
mt namnn norepxnntn komenk - we found the lost purse
x samernna sakptroe okno - I noticed a closed window
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on nopesancx o pasnroe crekno - he cut himself on the broken glass
(introducing a subordinate clause)
ona unraer knnry, nanncannym monm ctnom*** - she is reading a book written by my son
x yuyct n ynnnepcnrere, ocnonannom n 1922 roy - I go to a university founded in 1922
mt xnnm n ome, nocrpoennom |nnnamn - we live in a house built by the Einns
* In these verbs the stress normally falls on the syllable before the suffix.
** Depending on context, c(uannmn etc. might also be translated as which has/had been done/
made` etc.
***The word by` in passive constructions is expressed by the Instrumental case (without a
preposition).
(b) The past passive participle short form is formed from the perfective aspect of
transitive verbs in the same way as the long form, but has short adjectival endings (cf. roron,
rorona, rorono, roront) and is always used predicatively (i.e. after the verb to be`):
cenan (m), cenana (f), cenano (n), cenant (pl) (done, made)
sakptr (m), sakptra (f), sakptro (n), sakptrt (pl) (closed)
npoan (m), npoana (f), npoano (pl), npoant (pl) (sold)
Note that short passive participles derived from long forms ending in -nnmn and -ennmn
have stress on the final syllable:
pemnntn: pemn (m), pemena (f), pemeno (n), pemeni (pl) (decided)
e.g. nner npoan (the ticket is/has been sold)
nner tn npoan (the ticket was sold)
nner yer npoan (the ticket will be sold)
nnert tnn kynnent monm parom (the tickets were bought by my brother)
sanrpa nnnoreka yer sakptra (the library will be closed tomorrow)
SUMMARY OF PARTICIPLE CHARACTERISTICS
participle Active Passive
verb present past present past
Imperfective transitive
intransitive - -
Perfective transitive - -
intransitive - - -
Activity Eighteen - Boceuna(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Eill in the gaps in the text, putting the verbs in brackets
in an appropriate form. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
1. B komnare cnnr uenonek, (pacckastnart) o nyremecrnnn nokpyr
cnera.
2. Cryenrka, (unrart) crartm, ckopo yer canart +ksament,
(nocnxmart) nonpocam rpammarnkn.
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3. +ypnanncr eceonan c nncarenem, (nanncart) knnry o
Apkrnke. (Hanncart) nm knnra tna nepeneena na mnorne
xstkn mnpa.
4. Em ne (nsyunrt) nponemt npnnnekamr nnnmanne yuntx.
5. Hnkem ne (samernrt) , on tcrpo npomn n cnon kanner.
Activity Nineteen - enn1na(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Change the sentences as appropriate, using past participle forms
for the verbs in bold, as in the model below.
a) 3ect ckopo noc1pon1 nonte oma, mkont n knnorearpt. - Ckopo nonte oma,
mkont n knnorearpt y(y1 noc1poenm sect.
) 3anne ynnnepcnrera noc1ponun n 1949 roy. - 3anne ynnnepcnrera muo
noc1poeno n 1949 roy.
n) Knnorearp yxe nocrponnn, ram nyr nnrepecnte |nntmt. - Knnorearp yxe nocrpoen,
n ram nyr nnrepecnte |nntmt.
1. a) 3kcnepnmenr, nauartn namn n n +rom roy, n cneymmem roy yyr npoonxart
monote yunte.
) Crponrentcrno nonoro sannx ynnnepcnrera npoonxar uepes rpn roa.
n) eno M. B. homonocona npoonxnnn nocne ero cmeprn.
2. a) Crnxornopennx M. Hneraenon nsayr n konne roa.
) Copanne counnennn A. C. Hymknna rontko uro nsann, n knnr em ner n
marasnnax.
n) Poman h. Toncroro Bonna n mnp nsann n nyx romax na roa nasa.
3. a) B raserax coomamr, uro anroycnte mapmpyrt nsmenxr.
) Fytre nnnmarentnt: rpa|nk nnxennx anroycon nsmennnn.
n) Mapmpyr 5-oro rponnenyca nsmennnn em n nauane roa.
Activity Twenty - na(na1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Replace the participles in the following sentences with
subordinate clauses containing koroptn, as in the models below.
enymka, cnxmax nanpornn menx, unrana knnry. - enymka, koropax cnena nanpornn
menx, unrana knnry.
1. 3pnrenn, cnxmne n sane, oxnann nauana |nntma.
2. Haccaxnp, satnmnn cnon nopr|ent n anroyce, onxen nosnonnrt n Fmpo
naxook.
nokpyr cnera around the world copanne counnennn collection of works
npnnnekart (I) / npnnneut (npnnneky, to attract attention coomart (I) / coomnrt (II) to inform
npnnneumt) nnnmanne nsmenxrt (I) / nsmennrt (II) to change
crnxornopenne poem nnnmarentntn careful
nsanart (nsam, nsamt) / to publish rpa|nk nnxennx transport timetable
nsart (nsam, nsamt) mapmpyr route
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3. hmn, sannmammnecx cnoprom, saorxrcx o cnom soponte.
4. Mon pystx, npnexanmne ortxart n Kptm, npononnn nentn ent na nnxxe.
Hocrpoenntn n 1972 roy rearp sakptr na pemonr. - Tearp, koroptn nocrponnn n 1972
roy, sakptr na pemonr.
5. 3atrax n anroyce cymka nexana na cnente.
6. Hpounrannax knnra tna ouent nnrepecnon.
7. Ona ntpocnna pasnrym uamky.
8. nckana n nnnoreke nepenennte na anrnnncknn xstk crnxn A. Hymknna.
Hpnrnamnnax mnon n rearp enymka xana y nxoa. - enymka, koropym x npnrnacnn
n rearp, xana y nxoa.
9. Hsyuennax namn nnreparypa ana nam nosmoxnocrt nanncart pe|epar.
10. 3anncannte cryenramn neknnn nomornn nm nororonnrtcx k +ksamenam.
11. Hoapennax ornom knnra tna ouent nnrepecnon.
Activity Twenty-One - na(na1t nepnoe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Change the following sentences, using () subordinate clauses
containing xo1opmn and (n) past participles, as in the model below.
a) Cryenr nanncan kypconym paory. Kypconax paora tna ouent xopomen.
) Kypconax paora, koropym nanncan cryenr, tna ouent xopomen.
n) Kypconax paora, nanncannax cryenrom, tna ouent xopomen.
1. Hpenoanarent saan cryenry nonpoc. Bonpoc tn ouent rpyntm.
2. K nam n rocrn npnexana aymka. Faymka xnnr n epenne.
3. Enena nocanna n cay nnert. Ona kynnna nnert n nnerounom marasnne.
5. Oxornnkn nonmann menex. Menet tn ouent ontmnm.
6. Mt kynnnn knaprnpy. Knaprnpa tna n nenrpe ropoa.
ntpactnart (I) / ntpocnrt to throw away saanart (saam, saamt) / to ask a question
(ntpomy, ntpocnmt) saart (saam, saamt) nonpoc
pe|epar paper, essay caxart (I) / nocanrt (nocaxy, to plant
sannctnart (I) / sanncart to record nocanmt)
(sannmy, sannmemt) nnerountn marasnn flower shop
kypconax paora project oxornnk hunter
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GERUNDS
Gerunds are verbal adverbs which substitute for English forms such as when .`, while .`,
and .`, since .`, by .`, without . ing` etc., in the present tense, and for (after) having
.` the past participle in the past tense. The present gerund denotes simultaneously occurring
actions, while the past gerund is used to describe one action which precedes another. Unlike
participles, gerunds are indeclinable.
HOW TO FORM THE GERUND
Present
Take the third person plural of the present tense (i.e. the imperfective aspect) remove the final
two letters and add -n (or -a after a, u, m and m):
enart ena-mr enax (|while/when etc.] doing/making)
unrart unra-mr unrax (|while/when etc.] reading)
yntartcx yntamr-cx yntaxct* (|while/when etc.] smiling)
necrn ne-yr nex (|while/when etc.] leading)
cneonart cney-mr cneyx (|while/when etc.] following)
ronopnr ronop-xr ronopx (|while/when etc.] speaking)
canrtcx ca-xrcx caxct* (|while/when etc.] sitting down)
kpnuart kpnu-ar kpnua (|while/when etc.] shouting)
Irregular present gerunds
anart anax (|while/when etc.] giving)
ncranart ncranax (|while/when etc.] getting up)
trt yyun (|while etc.] being)
* Gerunds from reflexive verbs take the ending - ct.
e.g. ronopx c myxem, ona ncera xmypnrcx | noka ona ronopnr ...] - while speaking to her
husband she always frowns
on uacro kypnr rpyky, unrax rasery | kora on unraer ...] - he often smokes a pipe
when reading the newspaper
ne repxx npemenn, ona ntsnana npaua - without wasting time, she called for a doctor
Note that some verbs, especially monosyllabic verbs, do not have present gerund forms, including
nrt (to hit), ecrt (to eat), xart (to wait), nert (to sing), nnrt (to drink), pesart (to cut) and
xorert (to want). Occasionally an alternative form may be used; e.g. ntnnnax (|while/when]
drinking) and oxnax (|while/when] waiting).
Past
Take the masculine past tense of the perfective aspect, remove the final -u and add -n (or -nmnct
for reflexive verbs):
cenart cena-n cenan (|after] having done/made)
npounrart npounra-n npounran (|after] having read through)
yntnyrtcx yntny-ncx yntnynmnct (|after] having smiled)
art a-n an (|after] having given)
nocneonart nocneona-n nocneonan (|after] having followed)
ckasart ckasa-n ckasan (|after] having said/told)
kpnknyrt kpnkny-n kpnknyn (|after] having shouted)
Irregular past gerunds
ntpacrn ntpoc ntpocmn (|after] having grown up)
cnacrn cnac cnacmn (|after] having saved)
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e.g. cenan omamnee saanne, on nr cnart | nocne roro, kak on cenan] - having done his
homework he went to bed
ona noexana n ropo, kpnknyn o cnnannx, Konx | nocne roro, kak ona kpnknyna] -
she set off for town, after shouting 'goodbye, Kolya
Note: some verbs have alternative forms in -n and -n / -a; e.g. samernn / samerx (having noticed)
and ynnen / ynnx (having seen). Gerunds for most perfective verbs in -1n also have final -n; e.g.
nponx (|after] having passed), npnx (having arrived) and npnnex / npnnecx (|after] having
brought).
Activity Twenty-Two - na(na1t n1opoe sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Replace the clauses in the following complex sentences
with constructions using the present gerund, as illustrated in the model below. Listen to the
recording to check your answers.
Kora x rynxn n napke, x ncrpernn npo|eccopa Hnanona. - Iynxx n napke, x ncrpernn
npo|eccopa Hnanona.
1. Kora x nyremecrnonan no Knram, x cenan mnoro nnrepecntx nanmennn.
2. Kora hnnx cnemnna n marasnn sa npoykramn, ona cocrannna n yme cnncok
nyxntx npoykron.
3. Kora A. Hymknn naxonncx n Mnxannonckom, on nanncan cnon nyumne
nponsneennx.
4. Kora on sannmancx rnmnacrnkon, on cnoman nory.
5. Kora ona npocmarpnnana rasert, ona nckana crartn o cnopre.
Activity Twenty-Three - na(na1t 1pe1te sa(anne
Reading/Writing/Listening Replace the clauses in the following complex sentences
with constructions using the past gerund, as illustrated in the model below. Listen to the
recording to check your answers.
Kora x cenana omamnee saanne, x nomna n knno. - Cenan omamnee saanne, x
nomna n knno.
1. Kora ern norynxnn n napke, onn nepnynnct omon.
2. Kora on ysnan o rpyocrn ctna, oren crporo nakasan ero.
3. Kora Makcnm nepnyncx ns ynnnepcnrera, on nooean, nemnoro oroxnyn n cen
sannmartcx.
4. Kora Hax nonyunna noctnky or cecrpt, ona cpasy xe nanncana en nnctmo.
5. Kora ona ntrnxnyna ns okna, ona ynnena, uro k aue npnnnxamrcx
nesnakomte nmn.
nanmenne observation crporo sternly, severely
cocrannxrt (I) / cocrannrt to compile a list nakastnart (I) / nakasart to punish
(cocrannm, cocrannmt) cnncok (nakaxy, nakaxemt)
n yme in ones head ntrnxtnart (I) /ntrnxnyrt to look out of
nponsneenne work (of art) (ntrxny, ntrnxnemt) ns ( gen)
npocmarpnnart (I) / npocmorpert (II) to look through npnnnxartcx (I) / npnnnsnrtcx to approach
rpyocrt (f) rudeness (npnnnxyct, npnnnsnmtcx)
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Activity Twenty-Four - na(na1t ue1np1oe sa(anne
Reading/WritingReplace the gerunds in the following sentences with clauses
containing the conjunctions provided in the square brackets.
1. ymax o ponne, ona ncera nnauer.
|Kora .]
2. Hsyuax nnocrpannte xstkn, mt ysnam kyntrypy pasntx napoon.
|Kora .]
3. Paorax c yrpa o noun na sanoe, on nc xe naxonn npemx nx ctna.
|Xorx .]
4. Hontsyxct cnonapm, rt cmoxemt nepenecrn +ror rekcr na anrnnncknn xstk.
|Ecnn .]
5. +enax ouent xopomo cart +ksament, Bnkrop sannmancx axe n ntxonte nn.
|urot .]
7. Vcntman o onesnn Hnkonax, pystx cpasy xe ornpannnnct n ontnnny ysnart o
cocroxnnn ero sopontx.
|Kora.]
8. Hpounran crartm o rnenn nononon nokn Kypck, mopxkn pemnnn nomout
cemtxm nornmnx mopxkon.
|Hocne roro, kak ...]
9. Vnnen Hnkonax, ona paocrno c nnm nosoponanact.
|Kora .]
10. Bcnomnnn o Harame, Rnx nosnonnna en.
|Kora .]
Activity Twenty-Five - na(na1t nn1oe sa(anne
Reading Read the text below and answer the following questions in English, using
the vocabulary on the following page. Then state in the table provided the part of speech
(e.g. present gerund or present active participle, accusative plural) indicated by the words
which are in bold in the text. The first one is done for you.
Ocennmn uec (H. Coxouon-Mnxn1on)
Ocoenno kpacnn n neuanen pyccknn nec n pannne ocennne nn. Ha sonorom |one
noaeu1enmen nncrnt ntenxmrcx xpkne nxrna pacxpamennmx knnon n ocnn.
Menenno xpyaact n nosyxe, naamr c eps noaeu1enmne nrkne nncrtx. Tnxo.
Benecrnr no noramn onanman cyxax nncrna. Koe-re kpacneer mnxnka nosnero
noocnnonnka.
uro-ro rpycrnoe, npomantnoe cntmnrcx n nnnrcx n ocennem necy. Hmt no rakomy
ocennemy, pacnneuennouy kpackamn necy, mystkantntm no+rnuecknm uyncrnom
nanonnxercx yma. Fatnm nerom nastnann n epenne +ro ocennee kparkoe npemx.
ponna native land, home(-land) (noc-)nontsonartcx (nontsymct, nontsyemtcx) ( instr) to use
nc xe still, all the same cocroxnne state
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1. Which season is the author describing?
2. What five words are used to describe the leaves?
3. What emotion does the author feel during his walk in the forest?
4. What is meant by the phrase Fate nero in the final line?
noxenrenmen Past active participle, Genitive singular
packpamenntx
kpyxact
noxenrenmne
onanmax
pacnneuennomy
FILL VOWELS
Eill vowels are used to facilitate pronunciation in consonant clusters and normally occur
1. in the Nominative singular of masculine nouns with zero ending (e.g. -e- in oren,
amepnkanen, nanen)
2. in feminine / neuter Genitive plurals (e.g. enymkn - enymek, nonkn - nonok,
kyxnn - kyxont)
3. in short-form masculine adjectives (e.g. onen, ononen, ronok)
4. in the past tense (e.g. mn, nc)
The choice of fill vowel (-o- or -e-)
i. after the consonants r, x and x, always add -o- (e.g. kyxont, okon, kykon)
ii. -o- is also added before r, x and x (e.g. mapok, kapronok, npnnapok), but if the preceding
consonant is a, m, u or m), -e- is added instead (e.g. nrpymek, rouek, crpouek, noxek)
iii. elsewhere in the Genitive plural the fill vowel is normally -e-, whether the preceding
consonant is hard or soft (e.g. cemen, koneek, nncem, mren)
Note: when the first of two consonants in a consonant cluster is a hard u, the fill vowel -o- is
inserted in order to keep the u hard; e.g. nonok and mernok.
There are some clusters which do not have a fill vowel; e.g. pnrna - pnrn, oruecrno -
oruecrn, npocta - npoct.
Masculine nouns with stressed final -tn require a fill vowel in the Genitive plural; e.g. myxtx -
myxen, pystx - pysen, ctnontx - ctnonen.
neuantntn sad koe-re here and there
sonoron golden mnxnka cap (of a mushroom)
|on background noocnnonnk orange-cap boletus
(no-)xenrert (xenrem, xenreemt) to turn yellow npomantntn farewell, parting
nncrna foliage pacnneunnart (I) / to adorn, paint in
ntenxrtcx (I) / ntennrtcx (II) to be marked out pacnnernrt (II) bright colours
xpknn bright kpacka paint
nxrno stain nanonnxrtcx (I) / to fill
packpamnnart (I) / packpacnrt to paint nanonnnrtcx (II)
(packpamy, packpacnmt) yma soul, spirit
knn maple kparknn short, brief
ocnna aspen rouka full-stop
(sa-)kpyxnrtcx (II) to spin round crpouka (diminutive) line, stitch
epsa birch noxka (diminutive) leg
menecrert (II) (imp) to rustle merna broom
onaart (I) / onacrt to fall off mernka (diminutive) broom
(onay, onamt) npocta request
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Activity Twenty-Six - na(na1t mec1oe sa(anne
Reading/Writing Complete the sentences using the words in brackets in the
appropriate form.
1. Ckopo cnata, a mt em ne kynnnn opyuantntx (kontna).
2. Mox cecrpa ouent nmnr (komkn).
3. Ho konrpakry mt onxnt nonyunrt ne rtcxun (oukn) nnna.
4. Cnona ns (ckokn) nocrantre n nyxnom naexe.
5. +nt o|nnepon anno ne nnenn cnonx (myxtx).
6. Anpen pemnn, uro ne nonr n knno es (pystx).
7. Oren ne cran cnymart (npoctt) eren.
8. Konokontnx Hnana Bennkoro - ona ns camtx sameuarentntx
(konokontnn) n Poccnn.
9. Hnkora em y rex ne tno raknx kpacnntx (canoxkn).
10. B namem counnennn ne xnaraer sanxrtx n (roukn).
OHA HKBHT KOmEK
opyuantnoe kontno wedding ring Hnan Bennknn Ivan the Great
ouka barrel sameuarentntn remarkable
ckokn brackets ne xnaraer ( gen) there is/are not enough
naex (grammatical) case canoxkn boots
konokontnx bell-tower sanxrax comma
409
5 =L (Russian from Scratch)

n
a

n
a
r
a
x


r
n
a
n
a
410
H. C. TYPIEHEB (1882)
Bo nn comnennn,
no nn rxrocrntx
pasymnn o cytax
moen ponnt, - rt
onn mne noepxka
n onopa, o, nennknn,
moryunn, npannntn
n cnoontn
pyccknn xstk!