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NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT

Civil Engineering
Structural Analysis and Design
AD!ANCED "I#"ER$
%a&es Dun'ar

THERMOCHEMISTRY
Acknowledgements
Learning and Teac(ing Sc)tland grate*ully ac+n),ledge t(is c)ntri'uti)n t) t(e Nati)nal
Quali*icati)ns su--)rt -r)gra&&e *)r Civil Engineering. In -articular/ t(e assistance )* 0ill
Mc1en2ie/ Mi+e Scully and C(arlie S&it( in t(e -re-arati)n )* t(is &aterial is
ac+n),ledged ,it( t(an+s.
Electr)nic versi)n 3443
5 Learning and Teac(ing Sc)tland 3443
T(is -u'licati)n &ay 'e re-r)duced in ,()le )r in -art *)r educati)nal -ur-)ses 'y
educati)nal esta'lis(&ents in Sc)tland -r)vided t(at n) -r)*it accrues at any stage.
ECONOMICS6 MICROECONOMICS 7A"8 III
CONTENTS
Overview 9
Tutor Guide :
Student Guide ;
Study Guide 1 Analysis )* statically deter&inate -in<=)inted
*ra&es 99
Study Guide ! Deter&inati)n )* 'ea& de*lecti)ns 'y standard *)r&ulae
and 'y Macaulay>s &et()d 39
Study Guide " Design )* rein*)rced c)ncrete ele&ents ?9
Study Guide # Design )* structural steel,)r+ ele&ents ;@
Study Guide $ Design )* &as)nry and ti&'er ele&ents AA
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 III
THERMOCHEMISTRY
ECONOMICS6 MICROECONOMICS 7A"8 %
OVERVIEW
T(ese su--)rt &aterials are -r)vided t) assist teac(ersClecturers in delivery )*
t(e Advanced "ig(er Civil Engineering c)urse unit Structural Analysis and
Design. T(ey ,ill als) (el- t) -re-are students *)r assess&ent.
T(e Tut)r #uide )**ers 'rie* advice )n t(e entry reDuire&ents *)r t(e unit/ )n
t(e design d)cu&ents t) 'e issued t) candidates ,it( eac( )* t(e Study
#uides and t(e design -r)cedures t) 'e ad)-ted.
T(e Student #uide -r)vides a 'rie* intr)ducti)n t) t(e unit/ eE-lains t(e
c)ntent )* eac( Study #uide and )**ers advice )n -re-arati)n *)r assess&ent.
Student su--)rt &aterials are -r)vided in t(e *)r& )* *ive Study #uides/ eac(
c)vering )ne )r t,) )utc)&es )* t(e unit.
T(e Nati)nal Assess&ent 0an+ su--)rt &aterial *)r t(is unit c)ntains *ive
assess&ent instru&ents t(at ta+e t(e *)r& )* Fend )* t)-ic> tests. T(ese &ay
'e used t) -r)vide *eed'ac+ )n candidates> -r)gress as ,ell as 'eing used *)r
su&&ative unit assess&ent.
T(e Study #uides in t(is -ac+ -r)vide t(e su--)rt n)tes reDuired *)r t(e
)utc)&es c)vered 'y eac( instru&ent )* assess&ent. FEnd )* Study #uide>
tests are als) -r)vided/ and t(ese are )* a si&ilar standard t) t(e instru&ents
)* assess&ent )* t(e Nati)nal Assess&ent 0an+.
T(e Study #uides are as *)ll),s6
Study Guide 1 An&lysis o' st&tic&lly determin&te (in)*ointed 'r&mes
T(is c)vers all t(e -er*)r&ance criteria )* Outc)&e 9.
Outc)&e 96 Analyse/ 'y &at(e&atical &eans/ statically deter&inate -in<
=)inted *ra&es.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1
O%ER%IE+
Study Guide ! ,etermin&tion o' -e&m de'lections -y st&nd&rd 'ormul&e
&nd M&c&ul&y.s met/od
T(is c)vers all t(e -er*)r&ance criteria )* Outc)&e 3.
Outc)&e 36 Deter&ine t(e de*lecti)ns )* statically deter&inate 'ea&s
using standard *)r&ulae and Macaulay>s &et()d.
It is rec)&&ended t(at Study #uide 9 'e used 'e*)re Study #uide 3/ as t(e
&eaning )* t(e ter& statically determinate is c)nsidered in Study #uide 9.
It is als) rec)&&ended t(at Study #uide 3 'e used 'e*)re Study #uides :/ ?
and @/ since +n),ledge )* de*lecti)n calculati)n is reDuired *)r rein*)rced
c)ncrete/ steel,)r+ and ti&'er design.
Study Guide " ,esign o' rein'orced concrete elements
T(is c)vers all t(e -er*)r&ance criteria )* Outc)&es : and ?.
Outc)&e :6 Design statically deter&inate singly rein*)rced 'ea&s and
sla's in rein*)rced c)ncrete.
Outc)&e ?6 Design s()rt/ 'raced/ aEially l)aded c)lu&ns in rein*)rced
c)ncrete.
Study Guide # ,esign o' structur&l steelwork elements
T(is c)vers all t(e -er*)r&ance criteria )* Outc)&es @ and G.
Outc)&e @6 Design statically deter&inate structural steel 'ea&s.
Outc)&e G6 Design aEially l)aded single<st)rey steel stanc(i)ns.
Study Guide $ ,esign o' m&sonry &nd tim-er elements
T(is c)vers all t(e -er*)r&ance criteria )* Outc)&es ; and H.
Outc)&e ;6 Design vertically l)aded single<lea* and cavity ,alls in
structural &as)nry.
Outc)&e H6 Design *l))ring/ si&-ly su--)rted *l))r =)ists and aEially
l)aded c)lu&ns in structural ti&'er.
! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
TUTOR GUIDE
T(e Study #uides c)ver all t(e -er*)r&ance criteria )* eac( )utc)&e. T(e
FEnd )* Study #uide> tests are eEtensive and )* a standard eDuivalent t) t(at
)* t(e assess&ent instru&ents )* t(e Nati)nal Assess&ent 0an+. "),ever/
centres &ig(t need t) devel)- additi)nal *)r&ative assess&ent &aterial.
Gener&l note
It is eE-ected t(at candidates (ave -revi)usly underta+en t(e c)&-)nent units
)* t(e Civil Engineering "ig(er c)urse and are *ully c)nversant ,it(6
I t(e c)nditi)ns )* static eDuili'riu&
I &at(e&atical integrati)n tec(niDues
I t(e calculati)n )* l)ads )n structural ele&ents
I t(e l)ad -at(s t(r)ug( structural *ra&es
I t(e c)nce-t )* design l)ads/ -artial l)ad *act)rs and &aterial sa*ety *act)rs
I t(e c)nstructi)n &et()ds *)r rein*)rced c)ncrete and &as)nry ele&ents
I t(e *a'ricati)n and erecti)n &et()ds *)r structural steel,)r+
I t(e nature )* ti&'er as a 'uilding &aterial.
T(ese are n)t c)vered t) any de-t( in t(e Study #uides.
I* students are n)t *ully c)nversant ,it( t(e -r)cedure *)r deter&ining design
l)ads/ *r)& c(aracteristic 7un*act)red8 l)ads and -artial sa*ety *act)rs/
teac(ersClecturers ,ill need t) s-end s)&e teac(ing ti&e )n t(is and -r)vide a
nu&'er )* ,)r+ed eEa&-les.
Study Guide 1 An&lysis o' st&tic&lly determin&te (in)*ointed 'r&mes
It is rec)&&ended t(at Study #uide 9 'e used at t(e start )* t(e c)urse as it
-r)vides +n),ledge )* statically deter&inate structures/ ,(ic( is reDuired as
a general c)nce-t *)r all )utc)&es. T(is see&s t) 'e a di**icult c)nce-t *)r
students t) gras- and it is eE-ected t(at individual centres ,ill devel)-
additi)nal *)r&ative assess&ents.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 III
Study Guide ! ,etermin&tion o' -e&m de'lections -y st&nd&rd 'ormul&e
&nd M&c&ul&y.s met/od
Pri)r t) issue )* t(e Study #uide/ integrati)n tec(niDues s()uld 'e revised.
Candidates s()uld als) 'e issued ,it( a data s(eet listing t(e standard case
de*lecti)n *)r&ulae *)r t(e *)ll),ing cases6
I a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( a uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad )ver t(e entire
lengt(
I a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( a c)ncentrated l)ad at &id<s-an
I a cantilever 'ea& ,it( a uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad )ver t(e entire lengt(
I a cantilever 'ea& ,it( a c)ncentrated l)ad at t(e end.
In t(e Study #uide/ F,> is used t) re*er t) a uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad and
FJ> t) re*er t) a c)ncentrated l)ad.
,esign (rocedures 0Study Guides "1$2
T(e n)tes *)r t(ese guides ,ere devel)-ed using PP ;:936 9AAH FEEtracts
*r)& 0ritis( Standards *)r students )* structural design> as t(e design
re*erence. T(e use )* any )t(er -u'licati)n &ay lead t) ans,ers t(at di**er t)
t()se given in t(e eEa&-les. Study #uide 3 s()uld 'e underta+en 'e*)re t(e
design Study #uides/ as t(e standard case de*lecti)n *)r&ulae are ,idely used
in t(ese design guides.
Study Guide " ,esign o' rein'orced concrete elements
Eac( centre s()uld -r)vide candidates ,it( FTa'les )* areas )* rein*)rce&ent>
,(en issuing t(e Study #uide. T(e design &et()ds are 'ased )n 0SH994 Part
96 9AA; and t(e n)tes c)ncentrate )n t(e design eDuati)ns rat(er t(an t(e
design c(arts. At t(e ti&e )* -u'licati)n )* t(e Study #uide t(e design c(arts
in PP ;:93 ,ere eEtracted *r)& 0S H994 Part :6 9AH@. As t(e c(arts ,ere
devel)-ed using a &aterials *act)r *)r steel g
&
)* 9.9@ and n)t 9.4@ as used
in t(e 9AA; versi)n )* t(e c)de/ t(ere is n), an in(erent err)r in t(e c(arts.
Areas )* rein*)rce&ent derived using t(e c(arts &ust t(ere*)re 'e &ulti-lied
'y t(e *act)r 9.4@C9.9@/ as illustrated )n -age @9.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 III
T3TOR G3I,E
Study Guide # ,esign o' structur&l steelwork elements
Eac( centre s()uld -r)vide candidates ,it( t(e *)ll),ing d)cu&ents ,(en
issuing t(e Study #uide6
I t(e Structural Steel secti)n ta'les *)r U0 and UC secti)ns
I t(e sa*e l)ad ta'les *)r UC and U0 su'=ect t) aEial l)ad
I t(e sa*e l)ad ta'les *)r ,e' 'earing and 'uc+ling )* U0 secti)ns.
C)-ies )* t(e &)st u-<t)<date ta'les can 'e )'tained *r)& t(e C)rus #r)u->s
,e' site ,,,.c)rusc)nstructi)n.c)&
Any di**erences in di&ensi)ns )r -r)-erties )* UC )r U0 secti)ns &ay 'e as
a result )* di**erent versi)ns )* t(e structural steel secti)n ta'les 'eing used.
T(e design &et()ds are 'ased )n 0S @A@4 Part 96 9AA4. T(e use )* any )t(er
versi)n )* t(e c)de &ay lead t) variati)ns in ans,ers t) t(e eEa&-les.
Candidates are eE-ected t) (ave -ri)r +n),ledge )* *a'ricati)n and erecti)n
&et()ds *)r si&-ly su--)rted 'ea&s and c)lu&ns and )* t(e de*initi)n )*
lengt( )* a &e&'er.
Study Guide $ ,esign o' m&sonry &nd tim-er elements
T(e design -r)cedures *)r &as)nry and ti&'er are 'ased )n 0S @G3H Part 96
9AA3 and 0S @G3H Part 36 9AAG res-ectively. T(e use )* any )t(er versi)ns )*
t(e c)de &ay lead t) variati)ns in design -r)cedures.
T(e issue )* 'ric+ &anu*acturers> data s(eets &ay en(ance t(e candidate>s
understanding )* t(e design -r)cess *)r &as)nry.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 $
4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
STUDENT GUIDE
Introduction
T(e unit Structural Analysis and Design ,ill a--eal t) y)u i* y)u are
interested in -r)'le& s)lving. It ,ill 'r)aden y)ur s+ills in t(e a--licati)n )*
scienti*ic and tec(n)l)gical -rinci-les t) t(e area )* structural design.
#aining t(is a,ard ,ill ena'le y)u t) c)ntinue devel)-&ent )* t(e
c)&-etences reDuired )* t(e Inc)r-)rated Engineer. It ,ill -r)vide a str)ng
'ase *)r *urt(er study at "ND and Degree level. B)u ,ill ac(ieve a level )*
c)&-etence reDuired )* a -ers)n in a design )**ice ,() (as t(e res-)nsi'ility
*)r t(e design )* 'asic structural ele&ents.
3nit content
T(e unit stresses t(e i&-)rtance )* structural engineering in t(e creative and
sa*e devel)-&ent )* t(e 'uilt envir)n&ent. It is designed t) 'ring t)get(er
t(e study )* structural &ec(anics/ -revi)usly studied and n), *urt(er
devel)-ed/ ,it( t(e -r)cesses )* structural design. It ,ill intr)duce y)u t)
t(e 0ritis( Standard C)des )* Practice used in t(e design )* rein*)rced
c)ncrete/ steel,)r+/ &as)nry and ti&'er structures K all -r)'le&<s)lving
activities.
T(e unit (as eig(t )utc)&es and ,ill 'e assessed 'y *ive Fend )* t)-ic> tests.
T(e teac(ing and learning &aterials (ave 'een -re-ared as *ive Study #uides/
,(ic( -r)vide t(e su--)rt n)tes *)r t(e )utc)&es c)vered 'y eac( instru&ent
)* assess&ent. At t(e end )* eac( Study #uide y)u ,ill *ind an FEnd )* Study
#uide> test t(at c)ntains Duesti)ns t(at are )* a standard si&ilar t) t(at ,(ic(
y)u can eE-ect in t(e assess&ent.
Study Guide 1 An&lysis o' st&tic&lly determin&te (in)*ointed 'r&mes
T(is c)vers Outc)&e 9. It ,ill intr)duce y)u t) t(e analytical &et()ds used
t) deter&ine t(e *)rces in -in<=)inted *ra&es
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 5
Study Guide ! ,etermin&tion o' -e&m de'lections -y st&nd&rd 'ormul&e
&nd M&c&ul&y.s met/od
T(is c)vers Outc)&e 3. It ,ill ena'le y)u t) deter&ine t(e de*lecti)ns )*
'ea&s under standard and n)n<standard l)ading. De*lecti)n *)r&ulae (ave
'een devel)-ed *)r standard l)ading/ ,(ic( &ay 'e used t) deter&ine t(e
&aEi&u& de*lecti)ns )* 'ea&s. I* n)n<standard l)ad c)nditi)ns are a--lied/
Macaulay>s &et()d &ay 'e used.
Study Guide " ,esign o' rein'orced concrete elements
T(is c)vers Outc)&es : and ?. It ,ill intr)duce y)u t) t(e design )*
rein*)rced c)ncrete ele&ents6 'ea&sL sla'sL and c)lu&ns. B)u ,ill learn (),
t) use t(e design -r)cedures )* 0S H994 t) deter&ine t(e area )* tensi)n
rein*)rce&ent in 'ea&s and sla's/ t(e area )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent reDuired in
'ea&s/ t(e area )* l)ngitudinal and lin+ steel in aEially l)aded c)lu&ns and
(), t) -re-are suita'le arrange&ents )* rein*)rce&ent.
Study Guide # ,esign o' structur&l steelwork elements
T(is c)vers Outc)&es @ and G. B)u ,ill learn (), t) design structural
steel,)r+ ele&ents t) 0S @A@4 Part 9. Si&-ly su--)rted *ully restrained
steel 'ea&s/ and aEially l)aded c)lu&ns are c)vered 'y t(e Study #uide. In
additi)n t) learning (), t) use t(e design c)de y)u ,ill learn t) use t(e
structural secti)n ta'les and sa*e l)ad ta'les *)r U0 and UC secti)ns.
Study Guide $ ,esign o' m&sonry &nd tim-er elements
T(is c)vers Outc)&es ; and H. T,) &aterials ,ill 'e c)nsidered in t(is
guide6 ti&'er and &as)nry. T(e design -r)cedures *)r &as)nry ,alls are t)
0S @G3H Part 9 and t()se *)r ti&'er are t) 0S @3GH Part 3. In t(e ti&'er
design secti)n/ *l))ring ele&ents suc( as ')arding/ =)ists/ tri&&er 'ea&s and
aEially l)aded c)lu&ns ,ill 'e studied.
Assessment
T(e assess&ent )* t(e unit ta+es t(e *)r& )* *ive Fend )* t)-ic> tests/ all )*
,(ic( are cl)sed '))+. B)u ,ill n)t 'e all),ed t) use t(e Study #uides.
"),ever/ y)u ,ill (ave access t) standard case de*lecti)n *)r&ulae/ relevant
clauses *r)& t(e design standards and -u'lis(ed ta'les suc( as Structural
Secti)n ta'les )r areas )* rein*)rce&ent ta'les/ as a--lica'le. Use t(e
)--)rtunity during classr))& ti&e t) devel)- y)ur s+ills in t(e use )* 0ritis(
Standards. All t(e in*)r&ati)n is t(ere i* y)u +n), ,(ere t) l))+ *)r itM
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 6
ST3,E7T G3I,E
Part )* t(e classr))& ti&e ,ill 'e all)cated t) assess&ent. "),ever/ y)u ,ill
(ave t) s-end additi)nal ti&e in -re-aring y)ursel* *)r assess&ent. Learn
(), t) use t(e design c)des6 ,(at clauses 7)r -age nu&'ers8 d) y)u (ave t)
l))+ u- *)r 7say8 'ending &)&ents a--lied t) 'ea&sL ,(at ta'les are
a--lica'leL d) t(e values *r)& t(e ta'les (ave t) 'e &)di*ied in s)&e ,ayN
T(e assess&ent ,ill 'e carried )ut under t(e su-ervisi)n )* an invigilat)r
7n)r&ally y)ur teac(erClecturer8/ under strict ti&e c)nstraints. T(ese ,ill 'e
)utlined t) y)u -ri)r t) underta+ing t(e assess&ent. B)u &ust learn t) use
t(e design c)des Duic+ly. Use t(e FEnd )* Study #uide> tests as a guide t)
y)ur -re-aredness *)r *inal assess&ent.
Core skills
T(e assess&ent tas+s )* t(e unit ,ill als) 'e tail)red t) all), y)u t) devel)-
a nu&'er )* c)re s+ills/ including -r)'le& s)lving. C)&-leti)n )* t(e unit
&ay result in aut)&atic certi*icati)n )* certain c)re s+ills c)&-)nents.
Success*ul c)&-leti)n )* t(e Advanced "ig(er C)urse in Civil Engineering
,ill result in aut)&atic certi*icati)n )* )t(er c)&-)nents. B)u s()uld 'e
a,are )* t(e evidence y)u &ust gat(er t) de&)nstrate attain&ent )* c)re
s+ills and y)ur tut)r ,ill guide y)u in t(is area.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 8
19 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
STUDY GUIDE 1
An&lysis o' st&tic&lly determin&te (in)*ointed 'r&mes
Introduction
T(is study guide c)vers Outc)&e 9 )* t(e unit.
Outcome 1
Analyse/ 'y &at(e&atical &eans/ statically deter&inate -in<=)inted
*ra&es.
On c)&-leti)n )* t(e Study #uide y)u s()uld 'e a'le t)6
I distinguis( 'et,een statically determinate and statically indeterminate
*ra&es
I calculate t(e &agnitude and nature )* *)rces in -in<=)ined *ra&es using t(e
&et()d )* =)int res)luti)n
I calculate t(e &agnitude and nature )* *)rces in -in<=)ined *ra&es using t(e
&et()d )* secti)ns.
11 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
+/&t does t/e term :st&tic&lly determin&te (in)*ointed 'r&mes. me&n;
J(at ,ill 'e c)nsidered ,ill 'e t(e analysis )* trusses ,(ere t(e eEternal
l)ads are a--lied at t(e n)de -)ints )nly 7intersecti)n )* t(e individual
ele&ents )* t(e *ra&e8/ suc( t(at n) 'ending e**ects can 'e devel)-ed in t(e
&e&'ers. As )nly aEial c)&-ressive and tensile *)rces are devel)-ed in t(e
*ra&e &e&'ers t(e *ra&e is re*erred t) as F-in<=)inted> K at a -in )nly direct
*)rces can 'e carried and n) 'ending e**ects can 'e devel)-ed.
FStatically deter&inate> K t(e *ra&e can 'e s)lved using t(e t(ree c)nditi)ns
)* eDuili'riu& )nly.
T(e c)nditi)ns are6
Alge'raic su& )* &)&ents )* *)rces &ust eDual 2er) M < 9
Alge'raic su& )* vertical )* *)rces &ust eDual 2er) % < 9
Alge'raic su& )* ()ri2)ntal )* *)rces &ust eDual 2er) H < 9
J(en c)nsidering t(e *ra&e and its reacti)ns t(ere are t(ree c)nditi)ns )*
eDuili'riu& t) s)lve t(e reacti)ns/ t(us t(ere can 'e n) &)re t(an t(ree
un+n),ns.
In t(e *ra&e s(),n6
T(e su--)rt at t(e le*t<(and side is a (inge 7)r -in8 ,(ic( can (ave ')t(
()ri2)ntal and vertical c)&-)nents )* *)rce and t(e su--)rt at t(e rig(t<(and
side is a r)ller ,(ic( can (ave )nly a vertical c)&-)nent )* *)rce. T(ere are
t(ree un+n),ns and t(ere are t(ree c)nditi)ns )* eDuili'riu& ,it( ,(ic( t)
s)lve t(e& K t(e *ra&e reacti)ns are Fstatically deter&inate>.
I* t(e *ra&e is -r)vided ,it( t,) (inges as su--)rts/ as s(),n 'el),/
1! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
t(ere are *)ur un+n),ns and )nly t(ree c)nditi)ns )* eDuili'riu& ,it( ,(ic(
t) s)lve t(e& K t(e *ra&e reacti)ns are Fstatically indeter&inate> and cann)t
'e s)lved 'y using t(e c)nditi)ns )* eDuili'riu& )nly.
In a si&ilar &anner t(e ele&ents )* t(e *ra&e &ust c)n*)r& t) t(e eDuati)n
s(),n 'el), i* t(e *ra&e is statically deter&inate6
n <0!* 1 "2
J(ere n O nu&'er )* &e&'ers
= O nu&'er )* n)des
F)r t(e a')ve *ra&e6
n O A
= O G
3= K : O 3 G K : O A
*ra&e is statically deter&inate
C)nsider t(is *ra&e6
n O 99
= O G
n P 73= K :8 O 3 G K : O A
*ra&e is statically indeter&inate
t) t(e sec)nd degree/ since 99 K A O 3
At t(e start )* eac( eEa&-le ensure t(e *ra&e 7and its reacti)ns8 are statically
deter&inate.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1"
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
Met/od o' *oint resolution
T(e &et()d *)r analysis )* t(e *)rces in *ra&es 'y =)int res)luti)n is 'est
eE-lained 'y a ,)r+ed eEa&-le and t(e a--licati)n )* a *e, si&-le rules.
Deter&ine t(e *)rces in eac( &e&'er *)r t(e *ra&e s(),n 'el),.
Ste( 1 letter e&c/ o' t/e nodes 0ste( illustr&ted on 'r&me2
Ste( ! consider t/e 'r&me &s & w/ole &nd determine t/e m&gnitude &nd
direction o' t/e 'orces &t t/e re&ctions
7a8 Ta+e &)&ents a')ut t(e (inge and deter&ine r)ller reacti)n
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut A/ M O 4/ cl)c+,ise &)&ents -)sitive
793 :8 Q 7?H :8 K !
C
G O 4
!
C
O 7:G Q 9??8CG O :4 +N
7'8 A--ly ! O 4 and " O 4 t) *ind t(e &agnitude and directi)n )* t(e
(inge reacti)ns
! O 4 !
A
Q !C K ?H O 4 u-,ards -)sitive
!
A
O ?H K :4 O 9H +N
" O 4 93 K "
A
O 4 *)rces t) rig(t -)sitive
"
A
O 93 +N
Ste( " select & node wit/ only two unknowns
N)te6 As n) 'ending e**ects are -resent in t(e *ra&e ele&ents/ t(e c)nditi)n
)* eDuili'riu& M O 4 cann)t 'e a--lied. As t(ere are )nly t,) eDuili'riu&
eDuati)ns re&aining in )rder t) s)lve t(e& t(ere can 'e n) &)re t(an t,)
un+n),n *)rces at any n)de.
1# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
Redra,ing *ra&e
Only n)des A and C are suita'le. 0 (as *ive un+n),n *)rces. D/ E and F all
(ave t(ree un+n),n *)rces.
Using )nly ! O 4 and " O 4/ *irstly n)de A t(en n)de C
Node A
! O 4
As t(e reacti)n is 9H +N u-,ards/ a 'alancing *)rce )* 9H +N d),n,ards is
reDuired.
T(is can )nly )ccur in a vertical ele&ent/ t(us *)rce AF is 9H +N
" O 4
As t(e reacti)n is 93 +N t) t(e le*t/ a 'alancing *)rce )* 9H +N t) t(e rig(t is
reDuired.
T(is can )nly )ccur in a ()ri2)ntal ele&ent/ t(us *)rce A0 is 93 +N
Node C
! O 4
As t(e reacti)n is :4 +N u-,ards/ a 'alancing *)rce )* :4 +N d),n,ards is
reDuired.
T(is can )nly )ccur in a vertical ele&ent/ t(us *)rce CD is 9H +N
" O 4
As t(ere is )nly )ne ()ri2)ntal ele&ent at n)de C and n) eEternal ()ri2)ntal
*)rces/ t(e *)rce in t(e single ele&ent &ust 'e 4. F)rce C0 O 4.
Ste( # su(erim(ose t/e known 'orces on t/e 'r&me
Re&e&'er t(e alge'raic su& )* *)rces in an ele&ent &ust 'alance. F)r
eEa&-le i* t(e *)rce at )ne end 7n)de8 )* an ele&ent is 9H +N d),n,ards/ *)r
eDuili'riu& at t(e )t(er end 7n)de8 it &ust 'e 9H +N u-,ards.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1$
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
Redra,ing t(e *ra&e
Ste( $ re(e&t ste(s " &nd # wit/ t/e rem&ining nodes o' t/e 'r&me
T(ere are n), )nly t,) un+n),ns at n)des F and DL n)de E still (as t(ree
un+n),ns.
C)nsidering n)de F t(en n)de D
T(e inclined *)rces F0 and D0 can 'e s-lit )nt) ()ri2)ntal and vertical
c)&-)nents )* *)rce/ eit(er 'y +n),ing t(e rati) )* t(e sides )r 'y +n),ing
t(e values )* t(e angles.
Node F
! O 4
As t(e *)rce *r)& &e&'er AF is 9H +N u-,ards/ a 'alancing *)rce )* 9H +N
d),n,ards is reDuired.
T(is can )nly )ccur in t(e vertical c)&-)nent )* ele&ent F0/ t(us t(e vertical
c)&-)nent )* F0 is 9H +N. "),ever/ F0 is an inclined &e&'er s) t(e actual
directi)n )* t(e *)rce al)ng t(e lengt( )* t(e &e&'er &ust 'e d),n and t) t(e
rig(t. T(e &agnitude is
9HCc)s ?@ O 3@.?@ +N )r 9H3 O 3@.?@ +N
" O 4
At t(is n)de t(ere are t(ree ()ri2)ntal *)rces FE/ t(e ()ri2)ntal
c)&-)nent )* F0 and t(e eEternal 93 +N *)rce.
I* t(e *)rce in F0 is acting d),n and t) t(e rig(t/ t(e ()ri2)ntal
14 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
c)&-)nent is acting t) t(e rig(t. F0( O 3@.?@ sin?@ )r 3@.?@C 3 O 9H +N
FE Q F0( Q 93 O 4 *)rces t) rig(t -)sitive
FE Q9H Q93 O 4
FE O K:4 +N :4 +N acting t) t(e le*t
Node D
As &e&'er D0 is inclined/ it can s-lit int) its ()ri2)ntal and vertical
c)&-)nents
D0v O D0 sin ?@ )r D0C3
D0( O D0 c)s ?@ )r D0C3
C)nsidering t(e n)de/ t(ere is a vertical *)rce )* :4 +N acting u-,ards in
ele&ent DC.
T(is &ust 'e 'alanced 'y a d),n,ards *)rce )* :4 1N. T(is can )nly )ccur
in D0v.
D0v O :4 +N T(e *)rce in D0 &ust t(ere*)re 'e acting d),n
and t) t(e le*t.
D0v O D0 sin ?@ )r D0C3 D0 O ?3.? +N
" O 4
DE is un+n),n/ 'ut &ust 'alance D0( as t(ere are n) )t(er ()ri2)ntal
ele&ents at t(is n)de. D0( is acting t) t(e le*t K DE &ust act t) t(e rig(t.
DE O D0( O ?3.? c)s ?@ )r ?3.?C3 O :4 +N
Re(e&t Ste( # su(erim(ose t/e known 'orces on t/e 'r&me
N), c)nsider n)de E
T(e vertical *)rce EA is t(e )nly un+n),n
T(is &ust 'alance t(e eEternal ?H +N *)rce
EA O ?H +N
Finis(ed *ra&e
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 15
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
Met/od o' sections
T(e &et()d *)r analysis )* t(e *)rces in *ra&es 'y secti)ns is used ,(en )nly
t(e *)rces in s-eci*ic ele&ents are reDuired. T(e t(ree c)nditi)ns )*
eDuili'riu& are availa'le *)r use/ s) t(e secti)n s()uld cut acr)ss n) &)re
t(an t(ree ele&ents in ,(ic( t(e *)rces are un+n),n.
C)nsider t(e *ra&e used in t(e =)int res)luti)n eEa&-le.
T(e *irst ste- 7as 'e*)re8 is t) calculate t(e reacti)ns/ giving t(e result6
T(e secti)n c)nsidered t) cut t(e *ra&e s(),s t(at t(e *)rces in ED/ 0D and
0C are t) 'e *)und.
T(e eEternal eDuili'riu& )* t(e -art )* t(e *ra&e t) t(e le*t<(and side )* t(e
secti)n is c)nsidered. F)r eac( c)nditi)n )* eDuili'riu& eDuati)n used t(ere
can 'e )nly )ne un+n),n. S-litting 0D int) its ()ri2)ntal and vertical
c)&-)nents/ 0D
(
and 0D
v
res-ectively6
" O 4 'ec)&es Ta+ing *)rces acting t) t(e rig(t as -)sitive
93 K 93 Q 0D
(
Q ED Q 0C O 4
t(ree un+n),ns
! O 4 'ec)&es Ta+ing u-,ards *)rces as -)sitive
9H K ?H Q 0D
v
O 4
)nly )ne un+n),n
M O 4 is de-endent )n ,(ere &)&ents are ta+en.
As a general rule i* t(e secti)n cuts acr)ss t(ree
ele&ents/ t,) )* t(e& ,ill intersect at a n)de. Ta+e
&)&ents a')ut t(is n)de leaving )ne un+n),n. N)de
D in t(is eEa&-le6
16 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut D
Cl)c+,ise &)&ents -)sitive
79H G8 Q 793 :8 K 7?H :8 Q70C :8 O 4
94H Q ?H K 9?? Q:.0C O 4
4 Q :0C O 4 0C O 4
! O 4 'ec)&es Ta+ing u-,ards *)rces as -)sitive
9H K ?H Q 0Dv O 4
K:4 Q 0Dv O 4
0Dv O :4 +N t),ards n)de D
F)rce in 0D acts al)ng t(e line )* t(e ele&ent/ t(e directi)n is u- and t) t(e
rig(t.
Magnitude )* *)rce 0D O :4 Cc)s ?@ )r :43 O ?3.? +N
" O 4 Ta+ing *)rces acting t) t(e rig(t as -)sitive
93 K 93 Q 0D( Q ED Q 0C O 4
93 K93 Q ?3.?sin ?@ QED O 4
:4 Q ED O 4
ED O K:4 +N Fr)& D t(e *)rce acts t) t(e le*t.
Su-eri&-)se t(e results )n t(e *ra&e.
Re&e&'er t(e alge'raic su& )* *)rces in an ele&ent &ust eDual 2er).
Ans,ers agree ,it( t()se *)und 'y &et()d )* =)int res)luti)n.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 18
ST3,Y G3I,E 1
Study Guide 1 End Test
T(e *igure 'el), s(),s in )utline a -in<=)inted *ra&e and t(e l)ads a--lied
t) it.
7a8 S(), t(at t(e *ra&e is statically deter&inate.
7'8 Calculate t(e su--)rt reacti)ns.
7c8 Using t(e met/od o' *oint resolution/ deter&ine t(e &agnitude and
nature )* t(e *)rce in eac( ele&ent )* t(e *ra&e. S(), t(e results in an
)utline s+etc( )* t(e *ra&e.
7d8 Using t(e met/od o' sections/ c(ec+ t(e validity )* t(e results *)und
using t(e &et()d )* =)int res)luti)n/ 'y deter&ining t(e *)rces in
ele&ents #F/ CF and CD.
Ans,ers6
R)ller reacti)n6 H3.@ +N
"inge reacti)ns6
()ri2)ntal 93 +N
vertical ;:.@ +N all in directi)ns s(),n in diagra&
!9 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
STUDY GUIDE 2
,etermin&tion o' -e&m de'lections -y st&nd&rd 'ormul&e
&nd -y M&c&ul&y.s met/od
Introduction
T(is study guide c)vers Outc)&e 3 )* t(e unit.
Outcome !
Deter&ine t(e de*lecti)ns )* statically deter&inate 'ea&s using
standard *)r&ulae and Macaulay>s &et()d.
On c)&-leti)n )* t(e Study #uide y)u s()uld 'e a'le t)6
I calculate t(e &aEi&u& de*lecti)ns )* statically deter&inate 'ea&s using
standard *)r&ulae
I calculate critical de*lecti)ns in 'ea&s su'=ect t) n)n<standard l)ading
using Macaulay>s &et()d.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 !1
ST3,Y G3I,E !
M&c&ul&y.s met/od
T(is is a &et()d )* analysis t(at all),s t(e sl)-e and de*lecti)n )* a 'ea& t)
'e deter&ined.
Fr)& t(e eDuati)n )* si&-le 'ending
M E
O
I R
,(ere6 M O 'ending &)&ent at a secti)n
E O &)dulus )* elasticity
I O sec)nd &)&ent )* area )* t(e secti)n
R O radius )* curvature
J(en ')t( E and I are c)nstant *)r a given secti)n/ M and R are t(e )nly
varia'les.
T(e eE-ressi)n *)r M is t(en
EI
M O
R
I* t(e de*lecti)n )* t(e &e&'er is y/ and as de*lecti)n is a *uncti)n )* t(e
radius )* curvature R/ t(en6
3
3
d y I

dE R
7R is t(e sec)nd derivative )* de*lecti)n8
t(en6
3
3
d y
M O EI
dE
,(ere = O distance al)ng t(e lengt( )* t(e 'ea& t) -)siti)n )* 'ending
&)&ent M.
T) )'tain de*lecti)n6
3
3
d y M
O
dE EI
0ending &)&ent eE-ressi)n
dy M
O Q A
dE EI

Sl)-e eE-ressi)n
M
y O Q AE Q 0
EI

De*lecti)n eE-ressi)n
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 !!
ST3,Y G3I,E !
J(ere A and 0 are c)nstants )* integrati)n. T(ey are deter&ined 'y
c)nsidering t(e ')undary c)nditi)ns relating t) t(e 'ea& 7i.e. t(e +n),n
values )* sl)-e and de*lecti)n8.
It is t(ere*)re -)ssi'le t) *ind t(e sl)-e and de*lecti)n at any -)int al)ng a
'ea& 'y -r)viding a general eE-ressi)n *)r 'ending &)&ent at any secti)n in
ter&s )* = and integrating t(e eDuati)n t,ice.
T(e -r)cedure *)r deter&ining t(e 'ending &)&ent eE-ressi)n is as *)ll),s6
9. Assu&e )ne end )* t(e 'ea& t) 'e t(e )rigin 7generally t(e le*t<(and
side8.
I* t(e 'ea& is statically deter&inate *ind t(e value )* t(e reacti)ns.
3. C)nsider a secti)n =1= as *ar *r)& t(e )rigin as -)ssi'le 7'ey)nd t(e
last a--lied l)ad8 and ta+e &)&ents a')ut =1= c)nsidering all l)ads t)
t(e le*t<(and side )* t(e secti)n. All t(e 'ending &)&ent ter&s ,ill 'e
*uncti)ns )* =.
:. Integrate t(e 'ending eE-ressi)n ,it( res-ect t) =.
Integrate eac( l)ading ter& as a ,()le K d)n>t 'rea+ it d),n int) its
c)&-)nents.
?. Deter&ine t(e c)nstants )* integrati)n A and 0 *)r sl)-e and de*lecti)n
using t(e ')undary c)nditi)ns relating t) t(e 'ea&/ *)r eEa&-le6
I De*lecti)ns at su--)rts are assu&ed 2er) unless )t(er,ise stated.
I Sl)-es at 'uilt<in su--)rts are 2er).
I Sl)-e at t(e centre )* a sy&&etrically l)aded 'ea& is 2er)/
de*lecti)n is a &aEi&u&.
I J(en de*lecti)n is a &aEi&u&/ sl)-e is 2er).
I 0ending &)&ents at *ree ends are 2er).
@. Su'stitute values )* = t) deter&ine t(e sl)-e and de*lecti)n at any
secti)n al)ng t(e 'ea&
Note: J(en deter&ining Duantities/ )&it any ter&s inside 'rac+ets t(at are
negative )r 2er).
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 !"
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Example 1: Poit load!
A 'ea& is si&-ly su--)rted as s(),n. F)r t(e illustrated l)ading syste&/
deter&ine6
7a8 t(e sl)-e and de*lecti)n under t(e 344 +N l)ad
7'8 t(e &agnitude and -)siti)n )* t(e &aEi&u& de*lecti)n.
E O 34@ +NC&&
3
I O A44 94
G
&&
?
Find t(e value )* t(e reacti)ns
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut R
a
M O 4/ cl)c+,ise &)&ents are -)sitive
7344 3 8 Q 7:@4 @ 8 K 7R
'
; 8 O 4
R
'
O :4;.9 +N
! O 4/ u-,ards *)rces are -)sitive
R
a
O 344 Q :@4 K :4;.9 O 3?3.A +N
A--ly Macaulay>s &et()d at a secti)n EKE 'ey)nd t(e last a--lied l)ad
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE
Distance t) l)ad *r)& M)&ent O F)rce E distance
secti)n EKE
7&8
R
a
E 3?3.A E
344 +N EK3 344EK3$
:@4 +N EK@ :@4EK@$
!# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
X
ST3,Y G3I,E !
T(e t)tal &)&ent at = &ay 'e ,ritten as6
3
E 3
d y
M O EI O 3?3.AE$ K 344 EK3$ K :@4 EK@$
dE
Integrate ,it( res-ect t) FE>
3
3
d y
EI O 3?3.AE$ K 344 EK3$ K :@4 EK@$
dE
&)&ent 7+N&8
3 3 3
dy E$ EK3$ EK@$
EI O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 Q A
dE 3 3 3
sl)-e eDuati)n
7+N& E & O +N&
3
8
: : :
E$ EK3$ EK@$
EI y O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 Q AE Q 0
G G G
de*lecti)n eDuati)n
7+N&
3
E & O +N&
:
8
N), de*lecti)ns are 2er) at t(e su--)rts t(us6
J(en E O 4/ y O4 and E O ;/ y O 4
Su'stituting in t(e de*lecti)n eDn. *)r E O 4/ y O 4
: : :
4$ 4K3$ 4K@$
EI 4 O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 Q A4 Q 0
G G G
Note: J(en deter&ining Duantities/ )&it any ter& inside a 'rac+et t(at is
negative )r 2er).
T(us6
4 O 748 K 7ign)re8 K 7ign)re8 Q 748 Q 0
T(us c)nstant )* integrati)n 0 O 4
Su'stituting in t(e de*lecti)n eDn. *)r E O ;/ y O 4
: : :
; ;K@ ;K@
EI 4 O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 QA ;$
G G G



4 O 9:HHG K ?GG; K ?G; Q ;A
A O K 93@4
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 !$
ST3,Y G3I,E !
T(us general eDuati)ns *)r sl)-e and de*lecti)n at any -)int al)ng t(e lengt(
)* t(e 'ea& are
3 3 3
dy E$ EK3$ EK@$
EI O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 K 93@4
dE 3 3 3
sl)-e
: : :
E$ EK3$ EK@$
EI y O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 K 93@4E$
G G G
de*lecti)n
T) *ind t(e sl)-e and de*lecti)n at t(e 344 +N l)ad su'stitute *)r EO3
3 3 3
dy 3$ 3K3$ 3K@$
EI O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 K 93@4
dE 3 3 3
O ?HG K 748 K 7ign)re8 K 93@4 +N&
3
dy K;G?
O
dE EI
9 +N&
3
O 94
A
N&&
9 +NC&&
3
O 94
:
NC&&
3
Units are n), c)nsistent
O
A
G
:
;G? 94
A44 94
34@ 94

O K4.44?9 radians
: : :
3$ 3K3$ 3K@$
EI y O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 K 93@43$
G G G
O :3? K 4 K 4 K 3@44 +N&
:
K39;G
y O
EI
O
A
G
:
K39;G 94
A44 94
34@ 94

3 ?
N&&
O &&
NC&& &&
O K99.H && 799.H && d),n,ards8
T) deter&ine t(e -)siti)n )* t(e &aEi&u& de*lecti)n eDuate sl)-e eDuati)n t)
2er).
3 3 3
dy E$ EK3$ EK@$
EI O 3?3.A K 344 K :@4 K 93@4
dE 3 3 3
4 O 939.@E$
3
K 944 E
3
K ?.E Q ?$ K 9;@E
3
K 94.E Q 3@$ K 93@4
4 O K9@:.@E
3
Q 39@4E K G43@ &=
!
> -= >c
!4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
S)lving *)r E/ E O
3
K39@4 739@4 K ? 9@:.: G43@8
3 9@:.@

= < 01--
!
1#&c2?!&
E O 94.: & )r :.HH &.
*)r E O :.HH & de*lecti)n y O K 3;4GCEI O K 9G.; &&
Example 2: Ui"o#ml$ di!t#i%&ted load!
A si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& is L& l)ng and is reDuired t) carry a uni*)r&ly
distri'uted l)ad )* , +NC&. In general ter&s/ deter&ine t(e &aEi&u&
de*lecti)n )* t(e 'ea&6
Find value )* reacti)ns6
As 'ea& is sy&&etrically l)aded/ R
a
O R
'
O , LC3 O ,LC3
A--ly Macaulay>s &et()d at a secti)n EKE 'ey)nd t(e last a--lied l)ad
In t(is eEa&-le c)nsider t(e secti)n EKE i&&ediately t) t(e le*t )* reacti)n R
'
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE
!alue )* l)ad Distance t) centre )* M)&ent O F)rce E distance
l)ad *r)& secti)n EKE 7&8
R
a
,LC3 E ,L.EC3
, +NC& ,.E EC3 ,.E.EC3
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 !5
ST3,Y G3I,E !
T(is &ay 'e ,ritten as6
3 3
E 3
,LE ,E d y
M O K O EI
3 3 dE
Integrate ,it( res-ect t) FE>
3 :
: ?
dy ,LE ,E
EI O K Q A sl)-e eDuati)n
dE ? G
,LE ,E
EI y O K Q AE Q 0 de*lecti)n eDuati)n
93 3?
In )rder t) *ind t(e c)nstants )* integrati)n A and 0 a--ly t(e ')undary
c)nditi)ns.
F)r a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( sy&&etrical l)ading6
De*lecti)n at su--)rts is 2er).
De*lecti)n at &id<s-an is a &aEi&u& and sl)-e is 2er).
A--lying t(e de*lecti)n eDuati)n at le*t<(and su--)rt/,(en E O 4 y O 4

: ?
,L4$ ,4$
EI 4 O K Q A4$ Q 0
93 3?
(ence 0 O 4
A--lying t(e de*lecti)n eDuati)n again at rig(t<(and su--)rt/ ,(en
E O L y O 4
: ?
? :
,L L ,L
EI 4 O K Q AL
93 3?
,L K,L
EI 4 O Q AL A O n)te negative sign
3? 3?
T(us eDuati)ns 'ec)&e6
3 : :
: ? :
dy ,LE ,E :,L
EI O K K sl)-e eDuati)n
dE ? G 3?
,LE ,E ,L E
EI y O K K de*lecti)n eDuati)n
93 3? 3?
!6 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
T) deter&ine &aEi&u& de*lecti)n/ su'stitute in de*lecti)n eDuati)n *)r E O
LC3 as t(e 'ea& is sy&&etrically l)aded.
: ? :
: ? :
? ? ?
? ? ?
?
,L7LC38 ,7LC38 ,L 7LC38
EI y O K K
93 3? 3?
,L.L ,L ,L .L
EI y O K K
93 3? ?H
,L ,L ,L
EI y O K K
AG :H? ?H
?,L ,L H,L
EI y O K K
:H? :H? :H?
K@,L
y O
:H?EI
8 16 / /
Example ': Catile(e#
A cantilever 'ea& is 3& l)ng and is reDuired t) carry a uni*)r&ly distri'uted
l)ad )* 34 +NC& and a -)int l)ad )* G? +N at t(e ti-.

7a8 Using Macaulay>s &et()d/ deter&ine t(e &aEi&u& de*lecti)n )* t(e
'ea& in ter&s )* EI.
7'8 C(ec+ t(e ans,er )'tained in 7a8 'y a--lying t(e standard eDuati)ns *)r
de*lecti)n
Additi)nal in*)r&ati)n
Standard de*lecti)n *)r&ulae *)r cantilevers6
Uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad O ,L
?
CHEI
P)int l)ad at ti- O JL
:
C:EI
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 !8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Find value )* reacti)ns6
Reacti)n &ust 'alance d),n,ards *)rces/ as ! O 4
R
a
O 34 3 Q G? O 94? +N
Ta+ing &)&ents a')ut R
a
/
M O 4/ cl)c+,ise &)&ents are -)sitive
KM
a
Q 734 3 98 Q G? 3 O 4
M
a
O 9GH +N& 7anticl)c+,ise8
A--ly Macaulay>s &et()d/ at a secti)n EKE as *ar al)ng t(e 'ea& as -)ssi'le.
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE
!alue )* l)ad Distance t) centre )* M)&ent O F)rce distance
l)ad *r)& secti)n EKE 7&8
94? E 94?E
34.E EC3 34.E.EC3
C)nsidering als) t(e &)&ent at t(e su--)rt/ t(is &ay 'e ,ritten as6
3 3
E 3
d y 34E
M O EI O K 9GH Q 94?E K
dE 3
Integrate ,it( res-ect t) FE>
3
: ?
dy 94?E 34E
EI O K 9GHE Q K Q A sl)-e eDuati)n
dE 3 G
K9GHE 94?E 34E
EI y O Q K Q AE Q 0 de*lecti)n eDuati)n
3 G 3?
In )rder t) *ind t(e c)nstants )* integrati)n A and 0 a--ly t(e ')undary
c)nditi)ns.
F)r a cantilever 'ea&/ de*lecti)n at t(e su--)rt is 2er)/ and sl)-e is 2er) at a
'uilt<in su--)rt.
"9 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
A--lying t(e de*lecti)n eDuati)n at su--)rt/ ,(en E O 4 y O 4
3 : ?
K9GH4$ 94?4$ 344$
EI 4 O Q K Q A4$ Q 0
3 G 3?
T(ere*)re 0 O 4
A--lying t(e sl)-e eDuati)n at t(e 'uilt<in su--)rt/ ,(en EO 4/
dy
O 4
dE
: ?
3
94?.4$ 34.4$
EI 4 O K9GH.4$ Q K Q A
3 G
T(ere*)re A O 4
EDuati)ns 'ec)&e6
3
: ?
dy 94?E 34E
EI O K9GHE Q K sl)-e eDuati)n
dE 3 G
K9GHE 94?E 34E
EI y O Q K de*lecti)n eDuati)n
3 G 3?
MaEi&u& de*lecti)n )ccurs at t(e ti- )* t(e cantilever/ E O 3 &
3 : ?
K9GH.3 94?.3 34.3
EI y O Q K
3 G 3?
EI y O K::G Q 9:H.G; K 9:.::
EI y O K394.G;
K394.G;
y O
EI
Negative sign indicates t(at de*lecti)n is d),n,ards.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 "1
ST3,Y G3I,E !
7'8 C)&-are ,it( standard eDuati)ns6
Standard de*lecti)n *)r&ulae *)r cantilevers6
Uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad O ,L
?
CHEI
P)int l)ad at ti- O JL
:
C:EI
?
:
34.3 ?4
F)r udl O O
HEI EI
G?.3 9;4.G;
*)r a -)int l)ad O O
:EI EI
394.G;
t)tal de*lecti)n O
EI

Ans,ers are eEactly t(e sa&e.


Note: Standard eDuati)ns assu&e de*lecti)n is d),n,ards and negative sign
is )&itted.
Example ): Simpl$ !&ppo#ted %eam *it+ a o(e#+a,
N)te )n dealing ,it( variati)n )* uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad 'et,een s-ans.
C)nsider a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( an )ver(ang. T(ree c)nditi)ns )*
uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad ,ill 'e eEa&ined and t(e general eE-ressi)n *)r
&)&ent derived.
1. C)nstant udl al)ng t(e lengt( )* t(e 'ea&
C)nsidering a secti)n EKE t) t),ards t(e end )* t(e 'ea&
"! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE
M
E
O R
a
.E K ,.E.EC3 K R
'
.EKa$ O R
a
.E K,.E
3
C3 K R
'
.EKa$
!@ udl )n t(e &ain s-an and a larger udl )n t(e )ver(ang
F)r analysis -ur-)ses t(is is treated as a c)nstant udl )ver t(e entire
'ea& and an additi)nal l)ad )* 72K, +NC&8 )n t(e )ver(ang. As in 798/
&)&ents are ta+en a')ut t(e secti)n EKE.
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE
7sa&e as c)nditi)n 98 7additi)nal ter&8
M
E
O R
a
.E K,.E.EC3 K R
'
.EKa$ K 72K,8.EKa$.EKa$C3
O R
a
.E K,.E
3
C3 K R
'
.EKa$ K 72K,8.EKa$
3
C3
"@ udl )n t(e &ain s-an and a s&aller udl )n t(e )ver(ang
F)r analysis -ur-)ses t(is is treated as a c)nstant udl )ver t(e entire
'ea& less an additi)nal l)ad )* 7,K2 +NC&8 )n t(e )ver(ang. L)ad ,K2
acts u(w&rds and gives a -)sitive &)&ent a')ut secti)n EKE. As in t(e
)t(er cases &)&ents are ta+en a')ut t(e secti)n EKE.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 ""
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE
7sa&e as c)nditi)n 98 7additi)nal ter&8
M
E
O R
a
.E K ,.E.EC3 K R
'
.EKa$ Q 72K,8.EKa$.E<a$C3
O R
a
.E K ,.E
3
C3 K R
'
.EKa$ Q 72K,8.EKa$
3
C3
Example %eam *it+ o(e#+a,
F)r t(e 'ea& l)aded as s(),n 'el),6
7a8 Using Macaulay>s &et()d/ in ter&s )* E and I/ derive t(e eDuati)ns *)r
sl)-e and de*lecti)n al)ng t(e lengt( )* t(e 'ea&.
7'8 Deter&ine t(e de*lecti)n at t(e centre )* t(e &ain s-an and at t(e ti- )*
t(e cantilever.
Additi)nal in*)r&ati)n
0ea& secti)n @:: 394 A3 U0 I O @@::4 c&
?
EO 34@ +NC&&
3
Find value )* reacti)ns6
Ta+ing &)&ents a')ut R
a
/
M O 4/ cl)c+,ise &)&ents -)sitive
7:4 H ?8 K R
'
H Q 794 3 A8 O 4
R
'
O 9?3.@ +N
Reacti)ns &ust 'alance d),n,ards *)rces
! O4/
R
a
Q R
'
O :4 H Q94 3
R
a
O 3G4 K 9?3.@ O 99;.@ +N
"# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut EKE/ c)nsidering a uni*)r& l)ad )* :4+NC& )ver t(e
entire lengt( )* 'ea& and a negative 7u-,ard8 l)ad )* 34+NC& )n t(e
)ver(ang.
!alue )* l)ad Distance t) centre )* M)&ent O F)rce E distance
l)ad *r)& secti)n EKE 7&8
99;.@ +N E 99;.@E
:4 +NC&.E EC3 :4.E.EC3
9?3.@ +N EKH 9?3.@7EKH8
34 +NC&.7EKH8 7EKH8C3 34.7EKH8
3
C3
T(is &ay 'e ,ritten as6
3 3 3
E
3
dy :4E 34EKH$
M O EI O 99;.@E K Q 9?3.@EKH$ Q
dE 3 3
Integrate ,it( res-ect t) FE>
3 : 3 :
: ? : ?
dy 99;.@E :4E 9?3.@EKH$ 34EKH$
EI O K Q Q Q A sl)-e eDuati)n
dE 3 G 3 G
99;.@E :4E 9?3.@EKH$ 34EKH$
EI y O K Q Q Q AE Q 0 de*lecti)n eDuati)n
G 3? G 3?
In )rder t) *ind t(e c)nstants )* integrati)n A and 0 a--ly t(e standard
c)nditi)ns.
F)r a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& de*lecti)n is 2er) at t(e su--)rts.
J(en E O 4 / y O 4 K a--ly t) de*lecti)n eDuati)n
: ? : ?
99;.@.4 :4.4 9?3.@4KH$ 344KH$
EI 4 O K Q Q Q AE Q 0
G 3? G 3?
4 O 748 K 748 Q 7ign)re ter&8 Q 7ign)re ter&8 Q 748 Q 0
0 O 4
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 "$
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Als) ,(en E O H/ y O 4 K a--ly t) de*lecti)n eDuati)n
: ? : ?
99;.@.H :4.H 9?3.@HKH$ 34HKH$
EI 4 O K Q Q Q AE
G 3? G 3?
4 O 9443; K @934 Q 748 Q 748 Q A.H
A O K79443;K@9348CH O KG9:.?
Standard eDuati)ns 'ec)&e6
3 : 3 :
: ? : ?
dy 99;.@E :4E 9?3.@EKH$ 34EKH$
EI O K Q Q K G9:.? sl)-e eDuati)n
dE 3 G 3 G
99;.@E :4E 9?3.@EKH$ 34EKH$
EI y O K Q Q K G9:.?E de*lecti)n eDuati)n
G 3? G 3?
Actu&l de'lections
At centre )* &ain s-an/ E O ?&
: ? : ?
99;.@.? :4.? 9?3.@?KH$ 34?KH$
EI y O K Q Q K G9:.?.?
G 3? G 3?
EI y O 93@:.: K :34 Q 7ign)re8 Q 7ign)re8 K 3?@:.G
In ter&s )* EI/ y O K9@34.:CEI
Actual de*lecti)n/ y O K9@34.: 94
93
C734@ 94
:
@@::4 94
?
8
y O K9:.? && 7d),n,ards de*lecti)n8
De*lecti)n at ti- )* 'ea&/ E O 94&
: ? : ?
99;.@.94 :4.94 9?3.@94KH$ 3494KH$
EI y O K Q Q K G9:.? 94
G 3? G 3?

EI y O 9A@H:.: K 93@44 Q 9A4 Q 9:.: K G9:?
In ter&s )* EI/ y O 99@3.G CEI
Actual de*lecti)n/ y O 99@3.G 94
93
C734@ 94
:
@@::4 94
?
8
y O 94.3 && 7u-,ards de*lecti)n8
"4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Study Guide ! End Test
St&nd&rd lo&d c&se 'ormul&e
9. A series )* ti&'er 'ea&s *)r& -art )* a 'alc)ny )* a 'uilding. T(e
'ea&s are cantilevered )ver a 3.?& lengt( as s(),n in Figure 9. T(e
'ea&s are at 9.3& centres and are reDuired t) su--)rt a uni*)r&ly
distri'uted l)ad )ver t(e entire lengt( and a -)int l)ad at t(e ti-. Using
t(e design *)r&ulae and t(e additi)nal data/ deter&ine t(e de*lecti)n at
t(e ti- )* t(e 'ea&.
Fi,&#e 1
Additi)nal data6
Uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad )n *l))r 'eing carried
'y 'ea&s 3.? +NC&
P)int l)ad at cantilever ti- 9 +N
M)dulus )* elasticity )* ti&'er secti)n 7E8 HH44 NC&&
3
De*lecti)n *)r&ulae6
Due t) udl O,L
?
CHEI
Due t) -)int l)ad at ti- OJL
:
C:EI
3. F)r t(e ?@; 9A9 H3 U0 'ea& l)aded as s(),n 'el),/ use t(e
standard case de*lecti)n *)r&ulae given in t(e design data t) deter&ine
t(e &id<s-an de*lecti)n.
Fi,&#e 2
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 "5
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Design data6
M)dulus )* elasticity 7E8 34@ +NC&&
3
Sec)nd &)&ent )* area :;4@4 c&
?
De*lecti)n *)r&ulae6
Due t) udl O@,L
?
C:H?EI
Due t) -)int l)ad at &id<s-an OJL
:
C?HEI
,eriv&tion o' 'ormul&e
:. Using Macaulay>s &et()d/ -r)ve t(at t(e standard *)r&ula *)r a si&-ly
su--)rted 'ea& carrying a -)int l)ad at &id<s-an is6
OJL
:
C?HEI
M&c&ul&y.s met/od
?. F)r t(e 'ea& l)aded as s(),n 'el),6
7a8 Calculate t(e value )* t(e reacti)ns R
a
and R
'
.
7'8 Derive an eDuati)n *)r t(e 'ending &)&ent at any secti)n al)ng
t(e lengt( )* t(e 'ea& in ter&s )* lengt( FE> *r)& R
a
.
7c8 Derive t(e eDuati)ns *)r sl)-e and de*lecti)n.
7d8 Deter&ine t(e actual de*lecti)n )* t(e 'ea& ,(en E O :&.
Fi,&#e )
E O 94H44 NC&&
3
I O :@; 94
G
&&
?
"6 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E !
Answers
9.
udl
O @.4: &&
-)i nt
O 3.:: &&
t )tal
O ;.:G &&
3.
udl
O @.:: &&
-)i nt
O :.@G &&
t )tal
O H.HA &&
?. Ra OA.H +N R' O ;.: +N
ME O A.HE K 3E
3
C3 Q;.:7EKG8 K97EKG8
3
C3
Sl)-e eDuati)n6 A.HE
3
C3 K 3E
:
CG Q;.:7EKG8
3
C3 K 7EKG8
:
CG K ?4.H
De*lecti)n eDuati)n6 A.HE
:
CG K 3E
?
C3? Q;.:7EKG8
:
CG K 7EKG8
?
C3? K ?4.HE
De*lecti)n6 33&&
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 "8
#9 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
STUDY GUIDE '
,esign o' rein'orced concrete elements
Introduction
T(is study guide c)vers Outc)&es : and ? )* t(e unit.
Outcome "
Design statically deter&inate singly rein*)rced 'ea&s and sla's in
rein*)rced c)ncrete.
Outcome #
Design s()rt/ 'raced/ aEially l)aded c)lu&ns in rein*)rced c)ncrete.
On c)&-leti)n )* t(e study guide y)u s()uld 'e a'le t)6
I Design singly rein*)rced 'ea&s in rein*)rced c)ncrete.
T(is ,ill inv)lve6 deter&ining t(e design l)ads )n 'ea&sL calculating t(e
areas )* rein*)rce&ent t) resist ulti&ate 'ending &)&entsL deter&ining
suita'le arrange&ents )* lin+ rein*)rce&ent t) resist t(e s(ear *)rces in
'ea&sL and assessing t(e suita'ility )* 'ea&s in de*lecti)n.
I Design singly rein*)rced sla's in rein*)rced c)ncrete.
T(is ,ill inv)lve6 deter&ining t(e design l)ads )n sla'sL calculating t(e
areas )* rein*)rce&ent t) resist t(e ulti&ate 'ending &)&entsL deter&ining
suita'le arrange&ents )* sec)ndary 7transverse8 rein*)rce&entL and
assessing t(e suita'ility )* sla's in de*lecti)n.
I Design aEially l)aded rein*)rced c)ncrete c)lu&ns.
T(e design -r)cess is *r)& t(e 0ritis( Standard6
0S H994K96 9AA; Structural use )* c)ncrete
Part 96 C)de )* -ractice *)r design and c)nstructi)n
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 #1
ST3,Y G3I,E "
In t(e design -r)cess t(e *)ll),ing &aterial strengt(s ,ill 'e used
t(r)ug()ut6
C(aracteristic strengt( )* c)ncrete/ *
cu
?4 NC&&
3
C(aracteristic strengt( )* &ain rein*)rce&ent/ *
y
?G4 NC&&
3
C(aracteristic strengt( )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent/ *
yv
3@4 NC&&
3

Unit ,eig(t )* c)ncrete 3? +NC&
:
In additi)n t) t(e study guide y)u ,ill reDuire a c)-y )* Reinforced Concrete
Design-Details of Reinforcing Steel .
Sym-ols &nd terms used in rein'orced concrete design
F)r a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( tensi)n )n t(e ')tt)& sur*ace due t)
'ending.
' K 'readt( )* t(e secti)n
( K )verall de-t( )* t(e secti)n
d K e**ective de-t( )* secti)n 7t(is is t(e de-t( *r)& t(e c)&-ressi)n
sur*ace t) t(e centre )* t(e tensi)n rein*)rce&ent8
A
s
K area )* &ain tensi)n rein*)rce&ent
A
sv
K area )* lin+ 7s(ear8 rein*)rce&ent
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 #!
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Rein'orced concrete design 0S H994K969AA;
Clause re*erence
,esign consider&tions
7otes 'or design &nd det&iling concrete elements
Concrete cover to rein'orcement "@"
C)ver t) t(e steel rein*)rce&ent is necessary t) ensure t(at t(e ')nd )* t(e
steel ,it( t(e c)ncrete is *ully devel)-ed/ s) t(at ')t( t(e steel and t(e
c)ncrete are e**ective in resisting t(e a--lied *)rces. In additi)n t(e n)&inal
c)ver s-eci*ied s()uld 'e suc( t(at t(e c)ncrete -r)tects t(e steel against
c)rr)si)n and *ire. T) t(is e**ect t(e n)&inal c)ver/ t(at is t(e &ini&u&
c)ver t) all t(e rein*)rce&ent/ s()uld at least6
I 'e t(e si2e )* t(e &ain l)ngitudinal rein*)rce&ent
I 'e t(e si2e )* t(e n)&inal &aEi&u& aggregate
I satis*y t(e dura'ility reDuire&ents 7i.e. eE-)sure8.
J(en casting c)ncrete against uneven sur*aces/ suc( as against eart(/ t(e
value s()uld 'e n)t less t(an ;@&&L ,(en cast against a 'linding layer t(e
c)ver s()uld 'e s-eci*ied as n)t less t(an ?4&&.
T(e c)ver t) -r)tect t(e steel *r)& c)rr)si)n is given in Ta'le :.: )*
0S H9946 Part 9 and de-ends )n t(e eE-)sure c)nditi)ns t(at &ay 'e eE-ected
and t(e Duality )* t(e c)ncrete.
De*initi)ns *)r eE-)sure c)nditi)ns are given in Ta'le :.3 and Duality is
de*ined in ter&s )* t(e c)ncrete grade i.e. C30, C35/ etc.
Ta'le :.? gives t(e n)&inal c)ver reDuired t) -r)tect t(e steel *r)& t(e
e**ects )* *ire/ ,it( t(e values 'eing de-endent )n ti&e -eri)ds )* *ire
-r)tecti)n/ e.g. 9 ()ur/ 3 ()urs/ etc.
S(&cing o' rein'orcement
7a8 Minimum distance 'et,een 'ars "@11@1!@1
During t(e c)ncreting )-erati)n t(e aggregate &ust 'e all),ed t) &)ve *reely
'et,een t(e 'ars t) )'tain t(e &aEi&u& c)&-acti)n and ')nd. F)r t(is
reas)n t(e 'ar s-acing s()uld 'e greater t(an t(e n)&inal &aEi&u& si2e )*
t(e aggregate.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 #"
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Mini&u& distance 'et,een 'ars O (
agg
Q @ &&
,(ere (
agg
is t(e n)&inal &aEi&u& aggregate si2e
F)r n)r&al c)ncrete ,)r+ a 34 && aggregate
is s-eci*ied/ t(us &ini&u& distance 'et,een
'ars O (
agg
Q @ && O 34 Q @ O 3@ &&
7'8 MaEi&u& distance 'et,een 'ars in tensi)n 7'ea&s8 "@1!@11@!@"
T(is clause is used t) ensure a li&it )n t(e crac+ ,idt(s )n t(e tensi)n *ace )*
t(e c)ncrete. T(e clear distance 'et,een ad=acent 'ars s()uld 'e n)t greater
t(an t(e value given in ta'le :.3H )* t(e c)de. T(e value )* s-acing indicated
is *)r t(e c)nditi)n 2er) redistri'uti)n )* steel K redistri'uti)n ,ill n)t 'e
c)nsidered in t(is c)urse and &ay 'e c)nsidered as 'eing eDual t) 2er).
EEtract *r)& ta'le :.3H
*
y
S-acing
NC&&
3
&&
3@4 3H4
?G4 9@@
S(&cing o' -&rs 1 sl&-s "@1!@11@!@5
In no case should the clear spacing beteen bars e!ceed the lesser of three
times the effecti"e depth or #50 mm
In addition, unless the crac$ idths are chec$ed by direct calculation, the
folloing rules ill ensure ade%uate control of crac$ing for slabs sub&ect to
normal internal and e!ternal en"ironments'
(a) no further chec$ is re%uired if either'
(*) grade +50 steel is used and the slab depth does not e!ceed +50
mm
(+) grade ,-0 steel is used and the slab depth does not e!ceed +00
mm
(3) the reinforcement percentage (*00 .
s
/bd) is less than 0031
here .
s
2 area of tension reinforcement
b 2 breadth of section
d 2 effecti"e depth
## STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
(b) here none of the conditions (*), (+) or (3) apply, the bar spacing
should be limited to the "alues gi"en in table 30+3 for slabs here the
percentage of reinforcement e!ceeds *1 or the "alues gi"en in table
30+3 di"ided by the reinforcement percentage for lesser amounts04
Example
I* a sla' is :44 && dee- and *r)& design calculati)ns 4.?@R )* (ig( yield
rein*)rce&ent is reDuired/ t(en t(e &aEi&u& distance 'et,een 'ars can 'e
deter&ined as *)ll),s6
Fr)& Ta'le :.3H &aE. s-acing O 9@@ &&
"),ever t(is *igure is 'ased )n 9R )r &)re )* rein*)rce&ent 'eing -r)vided
Fr)& Cl :.93.99.3.; &aEi&u& s-acing O 9@@C4.?@ O :?? &&
Minimum &re& o' rein'orcement "@1!@$
En)ug( rein*)rce&ent s()uld 'e -r)vided t) c)ntr)l t(e crac+ ,idt(s in t(e
tensi)n *ace regardless )* any )t(er design c)nsiderati)ns. Fr)& Ta'le :.3@6
Situati)n De*initi)n )* Mini&u& -ercentage
-ercentage *
y
O 3@4NC&&
3
Tensi)n rein*)rce&ent
7c8 Rectangular secti)ns 944 A
s
CA
c
4.3? 4.9:
7in s)lid sla's t(is &ini&u&
s()uld 'e -r)vided in ')t(
directi)ns8
F)r (ig( yield rein*)rce&ent &ini&u& -er&issi'le area is 4.9:R )* gr)ss
secti)n/
t(ere*)re &ini&u& A
s
O 4.449:'(
Distri'uti)n )r sec)ndary steel is reDuired in sla's. T(is rein*)rce&ent runs at
rig(t angles t) t(e &ain tensi)n rein*)rce&ent and is tied t) it. T(e -ur-)se
)* t(e sec)ndary steel is t) tie t(e sla' t)get(er and t) assist in distri'uting
t(e l)ading t(r)ug( t(e sla'. T(e area )* t(is steel &ust 'e &t le&st eDual t)
t(e &ini&u& area )* steel *)und *r)& Ta'le :.3@
T(e distri'uti)n steel is al,ays -laced inside t(e &ain steel t(us giving t(e
tensi)n rein*)rce&ent t(e greatest e**ective de-t(.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 #$
ST3,Y G3I,E "
M&=imum &re& o' rein'orcement "@1!@4
P(ysically in )rder t) c)&-act t(e c)ncrete -r)-erly and ensure adeDuate
')nd devel)-s 'et,een t(e c)ncrete and t(e steel rein*)rcing 'ars a &aEi&u&
&ust 'e -ut )n t(e a&)unt )* rein*)rce&ent all),ed in ele&ents
0ea&s and sla's Neit(er t(e area )* tensi)n rein*)rce&ent n)r area )*
c)&-ressi)n s()uld eEceed ?R )* t(e gr)ss cr)ss<
secti)nal area )* t(e c)ncrete
C)lu&ns T(e l)ngitudinal rein*)rce&ent s()uld n)t eEceed t(e
*)ll),ing a&)unts/ calculated as -ercentages )* t(e
gr)ss cr)ss<secti)nal area6
7a8 vertically cast c)lu&ns GR
7'8 ()ri2)ntally cast c)lu&ns HR
7c8 la-s in c)lu&ns 94R
E''ective s(&n 'or c&lcul&tions "@#@1@!
F)r a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& it &ay 'e ta+en as t(e s&aller distance6
7a8 centres )* 'earings/ )r
7'8 clear distance 'et,een su--)rts -lus t(e e**ective de-t( d
An eEa&-le is -r)vided in t(e design n)tes.
#4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Rein'orced concrete design AS 6119 B&rt 11885
Brocedure
,esign o' tension rein'orcement
Brocedure 'or determining t/e m&in &re& rein'orcement in & -e&m?sl&-
using eCu&tions o' AS 6119 B&rt 1 1885 Cl&use "@#@#@#
9. Deter&ine t(e value )* 1
1 O MC'd
3
*
cu
,(ere M K a--lied 'ending &)&ent
*
cu
K c(aracteristic strengt( )* c)ncrete/ '
cu
< #9 7?mm
!

' K 'readt( )* secti)n
d K e**ective de-t( )* secti)n
N)tes6
798 *)r a sla' al,ays c)nsider a ty-ical 9 & ,idt( - <1999 mm
738 d K e**ective de-t(
T(is is t(e de-t( *r)& t(e c)&-ressi)n sur*ace t) t(e centre )* t(e tensi)n
rein*)rce&ent. T(e si2e )* t(e rein*)rcing 'ars is n)t +n),n n)r is t(e
si2e )* t(e stirru-s 7'ea& lin+s8 s) an initial esti&ate &ust 'e &ade.
Ae&ms
Ty-ically *)r a 'ea& t(e &ain 'ar si2e is )* t(e )rder )* 3@ &&
and t(e lin+s are generally H/ 94 )r 93 && dia&eter.
E**ective de-t(/ d O )verall de-t( 7(8 K c)ver K lin+ dia&eter K &ain 'ar
diaC3
Assu&ing :4 && c)ver/ a lin+ si2e )* 94 && and &ain 'ars )* 34 &&
d O ( K :4 K 94 K 34C3 O (K@4 &&
Sl&-s
T(e 'ar si2e in a sla' is generally s&aller t(an ,)uld 'e reDuired *)r a 'ea&/
say 9G &&.
Sla's are designed s) t(at lin+s are n)t reDuired and t(e c)ver is generally *)r
&ild eE-)sure c)nditi)ns.
E**ective de-t(/ d O )verall de-t( 7(8 K c)ver K &ain 'ar diaC3
d O ( K 34 K 9GC3 O ( <3H &&
T) calculate 1/ ensure t(at units are in N and &&/ as &)&ent is Du)ted in
+N&.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 #5
ST3,Y G3I,E "
T(e eDuati)n 'ec)&es6
1 O M 94
G
C'd
3
*
cu
3. C(ec+ t(at 1 1 ,(ere 1 O 4.9@G
Only singly rein*)rced secti)ns ,ill 'e c)nsidered/ t(ere*)re y)u must
&lw&ys c(ec+ t(at 1 1 al,ays.
:. Deter&ine t(e lever ar& distance/ 2
lever ar& distance/ 2 O d 74.@ Q74.3@ K 1C4.A88
'ut 2 4.A@ d
?. Calculate t(e area )* rein*)rce&ent
In t(is c)urse al,ays assu&e *
y
O ?G4 NC&&
3
Singly rein*)rced secti)ns )nly.
Area )* rein*)rce&ent/ A
s
O M 94
G
C4.A@ *
y
2 &&
3
@. Calculate &ini&u& and &aEi&u& areas )* rein*)rce&ent and c)&-are
,it( calculated area
Mini&u& area 4.9:R'( "@1!@$@"
MaEi&u& area ?R'( "@1!@4
T(e calculated value &ust lie 'et,een t(ese li&its
I* area is less t(en rein*)rce&ent at least eDual in area t) 4.9:R'( &ust
'e -r)vided
I* area is greater t(an ?R'( t(en secti)n si2e &ust 'e increased

N)&inal &aEi&u& aggregate si2e ,ill al,ays 'e assu&ed t) 'e 34 &&
in t(is c)urse
Example 1: T$pi-al !la% #ei"o#-ed *it+ +i,+.$ield !teel
A si&-ly su--)rted sla' is reDuired t) carry an ulti&ate &)&ent 93@ +N& -er
&etre ,idt(. T(e sla' designated eE-)sure c)nditi)n is &)derate ,it( a
c()sen *ire resistance -eri)d )* t,) ()urs. I* t(e sla' (as an )verall de-t( )*
344 &&/ deter&ine a suita'le arrange&ent )* rein*)rce&ent.
#6 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Sol&tio
Cover
Fr)& Ta'le :.: )* 0S H994/ &ini&u& c)ver t) all steel reDuired *)r *
cu
O ?4
NC&&
3
and eE-)sure c)nditi)n &)derate is :4 &&.
Fr)& Ta'le :.? )* 0S H994/ &ini&u& c)ver needed t) all steel *)r a sla' ,it(
a *ire -eri)d )* t,) ()urs is :@ &&.
Mini&u& n)&inal c)ver t) all steel is :@ &&.
Fr)& Figure :.3 )* 0S H994/ &ini&u& -)ssi'le sla' t(ic+ness c)&-lying
,it( a *ire -eri)d )* t,) ()urs is 93@ &&. T(us t(e t(ic+ness -r)vided
c)&-lies ,it( *ire regulati)ns.
Dind E
I* t(e 'ar dia&eter is assu&ed t) 'e 34 &&
E**ective de-t( )* secti)n d O ( K c)ver K 'ar dia&eterC3
O 344K:@K34 C3
O 9@@ &&
Resistance<&)&ent *act)r 1 O M 94
G
C7'd
3
*
cu
8
O 93@ 94
G
C79444 9@4
3
?48
O 4.9:
1S1 7ie 4.9@G8
Dind F
lever ar& distance 2 O d74.@ Q 74.3@K1C4.A88
O d74.@Q74.3@K4.9:C4.A88
O 4.H3@ d S 4.A@ d
2 O 93H &&
Dind A
s
Area )* tensi)n steel reDuired A
s
O M 94
G
C74.A@ *
y
28
O 93@ 94
G
C74.A@ ?G4 93H8
O 3::@ &&
3
C&
Brovide T!9G 1!$ mm crs 73@94 &&
3
C&8
A((lying det&iling rules "@1!@11@!@5
Since :d S ;@4 &&/ &aEi&u& clear distance 'et,een 'ars *)r tensi)n steel
:dO : 9G4 O ?H4 &&/
&aEi&u& s-acing 7centre t) centre8 )* 'ars O :d Q dia O @44 &&.
Actual s-acing used 93@ &&/ s-acing suita'le
Pr)-)rti)n )* tensi)n steel -r)vided
944A
s
C7'(8 O 944 3@94C79444 3448
O 9.3@ R )* gr)ss secti)n.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 #8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
As

t(is *alls ,it(in C)de li&its )* 4.9:R and ?R/ t(is is satis*act)ry. Re*er t)
Ta'le :.3@ and clause :.93.G.
As t(e sla' t(ic+ness )* 344 && d)es n)t eEceed 344 &&/ n) c(ec+ )n t(e
'ar s-acing is reDuired ,it( (ig(<yield steel. See Cl.:.93.99.3.;7a8738.
,istri-ution steel
T(e distri'uti)n )r sec)ndary steel runs at rig(t angles t) t(e &ain tensi)n
rein*)rce&ent and is tied t) it. T(e -ur-)se )* t(e sec)ndary steel is t) tie
t(e sla' t)get(er and t) assist in distri'uting t(e l)ading t(r)ug( t(e sla'.
T(e area )* t(is steel &ust 'e at least eDual t) t(e &ini&u& area )* steel
*)und *r)& Ta'le :.3@/ i.e.
4.9:R'(
T(e distri'uti)n steel is al,ays -laced inside t(e &ain steel t(us giving t(e
tensi)n rein*)rce&ent t(e greater e**ective de-t(.

Mini&u& distri'uti)n steel reDuired
Mini&u& steel area 7Ta'le :.3@8 A
s
O 4.9:R'(
O 4.449: 9444 344
O 3G4 &&
3
C& ,idt(
3sing t/e design c/&rts
T(e -ercentage area )* steel/ 199A
s
?-d/ &ay 'e *)und using t(e ,esign
C/&rts o' AS 61191"@
T(is -ercentage value is de-endent )n6
9. T(e c)ncrete grade s(),n as a curve )n eac( c(art.
3. T(e value )* t(e 'ending stress/ M?-d
!
/ )n t(e vertical aEis )* t(e c(art.
T(e c)urse ,ill use )nly ,esign C/&rt ! *r)& 0S H994K:. T(is deals ,it(
singly rein*)rced 'ea&s and sla's using (ig( yield 7*
y
O ?G4 NC&&
3
8
rein*)rcing steel.
Fr)& t(e -revi)us eEa&-le
M O 93@ +N&/ 'O9444 &&/ dO9@@ &&/ (ence6
MC'd
3
O 93@ 94
G
C9444 9@@
3

O @.3 NC&&
3
$9 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Re'er to ,esign C/&rt !
7a8 Find t(is value )n t(e vertical aEis
7'8 Pr)=ect ()ri2)ntally t) t(e line *
cu
O ?4 NC&&
3
7c8 Pr)=ect vertically and read value *r)& t(e ()ri2)ntal aEis
7d8 Read value )* 944A
s
C'd/ 9.@H
7e8 As t(is c(art ,as intended *)r a di**erent versi)n )* t(e c)de/ a
&ulti-licati)n *act)r 'ased )n di**ering &aterial -artial sa*ety *act)rs/
g
&
/ &ust 'e intr)duced.
Fact)r O 9.4@C9.9@
7*8 A&ended value )* 944A
s
C'd O 9.@H 9.4@C9.9@ O 9.??
"ence A
s
O 9.??'dC944 O9.?? 9444 9@@C944 O 3::3 &&
3
C&
0y calculati)n A
s
O 3::@ &&
3
C&
T(e re&ainder )* t(e design -r)cedure is carried )ut as 'e*)re.
Example 26 T$pi-al !i,l$ #ei"o#-ed %eam *it+ +i,+.$ield !teel
A si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& is reDuired t) carry an ulti&ate &)&ent ::@ +N&.
T(e 'ea& designated eE-)sure c)nditi)n is severe ,it( a c()sen *ire
resistance -eri)d )* t,) ()urs. I* t(e 'ea& (as an )verall de-t( )* @@4 &&
and 'readt( )* :44 &&/ deter&ine a suita'le arrange&ent )* l)ngitudinal
rein*)rce&ent.
Sol&tio
Cover
Fr)& Ta'le :.: )* 0S H994/ &ini&u& c)ver t) all steel *)r *
cu
O ?4

NC&&
3
an
eE-)sure c)nditi)n severe is ?4 &&.
Fr)& Ta'le :.? )* 0S H994/ &ini&u& c)ver needed t) all steel *)r si&-ly<
su--)rted 'ea& ,it( a *ire -eri)d )* t,) ()urs is ?4 &&.
T(us &ini&u& -er&issi'le c)ver t) all steel is ?4 &&.
T(e 'readt( )* secti)n is :44 && *r)& Figure :.3 )* 0S H994/ &ini&u&
-)ssi'le 'ea& ,idt( c)&-lying ,it( a *ire -eri)d )* t,) ()urs is
344 &&. 0readt( -r)vided c)&-lies ,it( *ire regulati)ns.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 $1
ST3,Y G3I,E "
T(e e**ective de-t( )* secti)n/ d O )verall de-t( K c)ver K lin+ K &ain 'ar
diaC3
assu&e a &ain 'ar and lin+ si2e say 3@ && and 93 &&
d O @@4 K ?4 K 93 K 3@C35 ?H@.@ && ?H@ &&7say8
Hongitudin&l rein'orcement
A--lied<&)&ent *act)r 1 O M 94
G
C7'd
3
*
cu
8
O ::@ 94
G
C7:44 ?H@
3
?48
O 4.99A S 4.9@G
Since a--lied<&)&ent *act)r 1 S 1 'ea& is suita'le *)r design
lever ar& distance 2 O d74.@Q 74.3@K1C4.A88
O d74.@Q4.3@K4.99AC4.A88 O d74.H?8 4.A@d
O 4.H? ?H@ O ?4; &&/
Area )* tensi)n steel needed A
s
O MC4.A@ *
y
2
A
s
O ::@ 94
G
C4.A@ ?G4 ?4;
O 9HH: &&
3
Pr)vide as tensi)n steel ?T3@ && 'ars 7A
s
O 9AG: &&
3
8
An alternative arrange&ent &ay 'e t) -r)vide 3T:3 and 9T34
79G4H Q :9? O 9A33 &&
3
8
Percentage )* tensi)n steel -r)vided O 944A
s
C7'(8
O 944 9AG:C7:44 @@48
O 9.9H R )* gr)ss secti)n
As t(is is ,it(in C)de li&its )* 4.9:R and ?R/ t(is is satis*act)ry.
,esign o' s/e&r rein'orcement
Brocedure 'or determining s/e&r rein'orcement 'or -e&ms &nd sl&-s
A@ S/e&r resist&nce o' solid sl&-s "@$@$
9. Calculate s(ear stress at t(e -)int )* (ig(est s(ear *)rce
T(e design s(ear stress/ v
c
/ at any secti)n s()uld n)t eEceed t(e s(ear stress
at calculated at any secti)n using eDuati)n 39
!
v O
'd
- <1999 mm
T(e *)r& and area )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent are *)und using t(e
rec)&&endati)n Ta'le :.9G
$! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
EEtract *r)& Ta'le :.9G
%&lue o' v Dorm o' s/e&r
rein'orcement to -e
(rovided
Are& o' s/e&r
rein'orcement to -e
(rovided
v S v
c
N)ne N)ne
v
c
S v S 7v
c
Q 4.?8
Mini&u& lin+s *)r t(e
,()le lengt( )* t(e 'ea&
A
sv
4.?'
v
s
v
C4.A@*
yv
7v
c
Q 4.?8 S v S @ NC&&
3

Designed lin+s
A
sv
7vKv
c
8'
v
s
v
C4.A@*
yv
In n) case s()uld v eEceed 4.H*
cu
)r @ NC&&
3
As *
cu
is ta+en as ?4 NC&&
3
t(en 4.H*
cu
O 4.H?4 O @.4G NC&&
3

t(us
v S @ NC&&
3
In sla's t(e general c)nditi)n is t(at n) s(ear rein*)rce&ent is -r)vided.
Al,ays ensure t(at6
v I v
c
3. Deter&ine c)ncrete s(ear stress v
c
Using Ta'le :.H *ind 944A
s
C'
v
d '
v
O ' O 9444 &&
In -revi)us sla' eEa&-le T34T 93@ && crs 73@94 &&
3
C&8 ,as -r)vided
Percentage area )* rein*)rce&ent 944AsC'
v
d O 944 3@94C79444 9@48
O 9.G; R
d O 9@4 &&
Fr)& Ta'le :.H *)r d O9@4 and 944A
s
C'
v
d O 9.G;
S(ear resistance O 4.A@ NC&&
3
"),ever t(e n)te at t(e *))t )* Ta'le :.H &ust 'e a--lied
F)r c(aracteristic c)ncrete strengt(s greater t(an 3@ NC&&
3
/ t(e values in t(is
ta'le &ay 'e &ulti-lied 'y 7*
cu
C3@8
9C:
. T(e value )* *
cu
s()uld n)t 'e ta+en as
greater t(an ?4.
F)r 7*
cu
C3@8
9C:
,(en *
cu
5 ?4 NC&&
3
7?4C3@8
9C:
O 9.9;
S(ear resistance v
c
O 9.9; Ta'le :.H value
In t(is eEa&-le/ v
c
O 9.9; 4.A@ O 9.99 NC&&
3
.
T(e reDuire&ent is t(at n) s(ear rein*)rce&ent is used in sla's.
C(ec+ v S v
c
@
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 $"
ST3,Y G3I,E "
A@ S/e&r resist&nce o' -e&ms "@#@$
9. Calculate s(ear stress :.?.@.3
T(e design s(ear stress/ v
c
/ at any secti)n is deter&ined and c)&-ared ,it(
t(e s(ear stress calculated at any secti)n using eDuati)n :. T(e di**erence
'et,een t(e values indicates t(e a&)unt )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent reDuired.
v
!
v O
' d
-
v
< - < -re&dt/ o' section
In n) case s()uld c eEceed 4.H*
cu
)r @ NC&&
3
As *
cu
is ta+en as ?4 NC&&
3
t(en 4.H*
cu
O 4.H?4 O @.4G NC&&
3

t(us
v S @ NC&&
3
T(e *)r& and area )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent are *)und using t(e
rec)&&endati)n Ta'le :.;
EEtract *r)& Ta'le :.;6
%&lue o' v Dorm o' s/e&r
rein'orcement to -e
(rovided
Are& o' s/e&r
rein'orcement to -e
(rovided
Less t(an 4.@v
c
N)ne N)ne
4.@v
c
S v S 7v
c
Q 4.?8
Mini&u& lin+s *)r t(e
,()le lengt( )* t(e 'ea&
A
sv
4.?'
v
s
v
C4.A@*
yv
7v
c
Q 4.?8 S v S @ NC&&
3

Designed lin+s
A
sv
7vKv
c
8'
v
s
v
C4.A@*
yv
3. Deter&ine c)ncrete s(ear stress v
c
As *)r sla's t(e -ercentage area )* rein*)rce&ent 944A
s
C'
v
d and t(e e**ective
de-t( )* t(e 'ea& are used t) deter&ine v
c
.
"),ever care s()uld 'e ta+en ,(en calculati)n 944A
s
C'
v
d K see
Clause :.?.@.?6
6he term .s is that area of longitudinal tension reinforcement hich
continues for a distance at least e%ual to d beyond the section being
considered0 .t supports the full area of tension reinforcement at the section
may be applied in the table pro"ided the re%uirements for curtailment and
anchorage are met (see 30*+07)04
$# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
F)r si&-ly su--)rted 'ea&s carrying a uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad K &aEi&u&
&)&ent )ccurs at &id<s-an K (ence t(is is ,(ere t(e &aEi&u& a&)unt )*
tensi)n rein*)rce&ent is needed. At t(e su--)rts t(e 'ending &)&ent is 2er)/
and in t(e)ry n) rein*)rce&ent needs t) 'e -r)vided. "),ever in -ractice/ in
acc)rdance ,it( clause :.93.H and Figure :.3?/ at least 501 )* t(e
rein*)rce&ent &ust c)ntinue )ver t) t(e su--)rts.
Fr)& 'ea& eEa&-le/ -r)vide as tensi)n steel )r
?T3@ 'ars 7A
s
O9AG: &&
3
8
)r
3T:3 U 9T34 79G4H Q :9? O 9A33 &&
3
8
At t(e su--)rt t(is ,)uld 'e 3T3@ 7i.e. at least @4R )* rein*)rce&ent8 )r t(e
3T:3>s.
T(us at t(e su--)rt/ ,(ere s(ear is (ig(est/ A
s
is 'ased )n 3T3@ )r 3T:3>s/
n)t t(e *ull area. C)nversely at &id<s-an A
s
is 'ased )n t(e *ull area.
F)r t(e -revi)us 'ea& eEa&-le A
s
73T3@8 O AH9 &&
3
' O :44 &&
d O?H4 &&
944A
s
C'
v
d O 944 AH9C7:44 ?H48 O 4.GHR
Fr)& ta'le :.H *)r 944A
s
C'
v
d O 4.GH and d ?44 && v
c
O 4.@? NC&&
3

Design c)ncrete s(ear stress v
c
O 7*
cu
C3@8
9C:
4.G: O 4.;? NC&&
3
At &id<s-an K ?T3@
944A
s
C'
v
dO944 9AG:C7:44 ?H48O 9.:GR d O ?H4 &&
Fr)& ta'le :.H v
c
O 4.GA NC&&3
Design c)ncrete s(ear stress v
c
O 9.9; 4.GA O 4.H9 NC&&
3
T(is -r)cedure tends t) result in a variati)n )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent al)ng t(e
lengt( )* t(e 'ea&.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 $$
ST3,Y G3I,E "
:. Deter&ining t(e si2e and s-acing )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent
S(ear rein*)rce&ent in t(e *)r& )* lin+s )r stirru-s are al,ays -r)vided in
'ea&s. T(e *)r& and area are deter&ined *r)& Ta'le :.;
*
yv
Ostrengt( )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent K in t(is c)urse )nly &ild steel lin+s are
c)nsidered
*
yv
O 3@4 NC&&
3
A
sv
O t)tal cr)ss<secti)n )* lin+s at neutral aEis.
T(e lin+s are designed t) g) r)und t(e )utside )* t(e &ain rein*)rce&ent
Area A
sv
re*ers t) 7in its si&-lest *)r&8 t,) legs )* rein*)rce&ent
s
v
O s-acing )* lin+s al)ng t(e &e&'er
T) 'egin ,it( A
sv
and s
v
are un+n),ns as t(ey re*er t) t(e lin+s. #enerally a
si2e )* 'ar is c()sen *)r t(e s(ear rein*)rce&ent and t(e s-acing varied al)ng
t(e lengt( )* t(e 'ea&.
Ty-ically H/ 94/ 93 )r 9G&& dia&eter 'ars are used as lin+s. I* a 'ar si2e is
c()sen t(en t(is leaves t(e s-acing s
v
as t(e )nly un+n),n
T(e eDuati)ns &ay 'e ,ritten as6
yv sv
v
v
yv sv
v
c v
9@8$ ' A
s < minimum link s(&cing
9@# -
9@8$ ' A
s < close s(&ce links
0v 1 v 2 -
Clause :.?.@.@ states t(at/ regardless )* t(e a')ve calculati)n/ t(e s-acing )*
lin+s s()uld n)t eEceed 4.;@d.
$4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
,esign 'or de'lection
Brocedure 'or determining de'lection limits 'or -e&ms &nd sl&-s
T(e actual s-anCde-t( rati) is c)&-ared ,it( t(e a--r)-riate rati) )'tained
*r)& Ta'le :.A/ ,(ic( is &)di*ied 'y t(e value/ )'tained *r)& Ta'le :.94
9. Calculate t(e actual s-anCde-t( rati)6
E**ective s-an
E**ective de-t(
3. Find t(e 'asic lCd rati) *r)& Ta'le :.A.
Su((ort conditions Rect&ngul&r sections
Cantilever ;
Si&-ly su--)rted 34
C)ntinu)us 3G
T(us *)r a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& )r sla' -&sic l?d < !9
:. Deter&ine t(e &)di*icati)n *act)r *)r tensi)n rein*)rce&ent *r)& Ta'le
:.94
See als) Clause 30,0-05
T(e value 1 ,as -revi)usly calculated using 1 O M 94
G
C'd
3
*
cu
Ta'le :.94 reDuires MC'd
3
t) 'e calculated
T(is &ay 'e d)ne directly )r 'y rearranging t(e a')ve eDuati)n s)6
MC'd
3
O1 *
cu
T(e value )* service stress '
s
is calculated using
*
s
< 3*
y
A
s reD
C: A
s -r)v
K EDn H
J(ere t(e Area )* rein*)rce&ent -r)vided is a--r)Ei&ately t(e sa&e as
t(at reDuired/ t(en6
*
s
O 3C: *
y
O :4; NC&&
3
T(us t(e &)di*icati)n *act)r &ay 'e deter&ined *r)& Ta'le :.94.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 $5
ST3,Y G3I,E "
?. Deter&ine -er&issi'le de*lecti)n rati) and c)&-are ,it( actual value
Per&issi'le s-anCde-t( rati) O Ta'le :.A value Ta'le :.94 value
T(is is n), c)&-ared ,it( t(e actual s-anCde-t( rati)
0ea& )r sla' c)&-lies ,it( c)de ,(en actual S -er&issi'le.
Dull -e&m design e=&m(le AS 6119 B&rt 11885
A series )* si&-ly su--)rted 'ea&s carry an i&-)sed l)ad )* @ +NC&
3
/ in
additi)n t) t(e dead l)ading calculated *r)& t(e cr)ss<secti)n s(),n 'el),
and t(e a--licati)n )* *inis(es.
Using t(e additi)nal data/ design a suita'le arrange&ent )* rein*)rce&ent *)r
t(e 'ea& and c(ec+ t(e 'ea&>s suita'ility in de*lecti)n.
Additi)nal design data6
Unit ,eig(t )* c)ncrete 3? +NC&
:
Finis(es t) c)ncrete 9 +NC&
3
0ea& centres : &
EE-)sure c)nditi)ns &ild
Fire -eri)d 9 ()ur
C(aracteristic strengt( )* c)ncrete *
cu
O ?4 NC&&
3
C(aracteristic strengt( )* &ain 'ars *
y
O ?G4 NC&&
3
0ar is de*)r&ed r)und 7Ty-e 38
C(aracteristic strengt( )* lin+s *
yv
O 3@4 NC&&
3
$6 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Sol&tio
Overall de-t( )* c)ncrete secti)n ( O ?44 &&
0readt( )* c)ncrete secti)n ' O 3;@ &&
C)ver6 'ar dia&eter
Ta'le :.: value O 34 &&
Ta'le :.? value O 34 &&
Als) Figure :.3. Mini&u& 'ea& ,idt( O 344 && in 9<()ur *ire
I* a 3@ && dia&eter 'ar is assu&ed *)r t(e design/ c)ver O 3@ &&
Lin+ si2e is n)t +n),n/ assu&e 94 && lin+ dia&eter
E**ective de-t( )* c)ncrete secti)n d O ( K c)ver K lin+ K (al* &ain 'ar
O ?44 K 3@ K 94 K 3@C3 O :@4 && 7say8
S(&n
0ea& e**ective s-an lesser )*6
7a8 centre t) centre )* su--)rts @444 K :44C3 K :44C3 O ?;44 &&
7'8 clear s-an Q d @444 K 3 :44 Q :@4 O ?;@4 &&
E''ective s(&nJ H <#@5 m
C(aracteristic dead l)ad/ g
+

sla' ,eig(t 3? 4.3 : 9?.? +NC&
'ea& sel* ,eig(t 3? 4.3;@ 4.? 3.G? +NC&
*inis(es 9 : : +NC&
g
+
34 +NC&
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad/ D
+

: @ D
+
9@ +NC&
Design l)ad O 9.? g
+
Q 9.G D
+
O 9.? 34 Q 9.G 9@
O @3 +NC&
MaEi&u& &)&ent M O 79.? g
+
Q 9.G D
+
8 L
3
CH O @3 ?.;
3
CH
O 9?:. G +N&
MaEi&u& s(ear *)rce ! O 79.? g
+
Q 9.G D
+
8 LC3 O @3 ?.;C3 O 933.3 +N
M&in rein'orcement at -)siti)n )* &aEi&u& &)&ent
Li&iting *act)r 1 O 4.9@G
C)&-ute 1 O M 94
G
C7'd
3
*
cu
8
O 9?:.G 94
G
C73;@ :@4
3
?48
O 4.94G
As 1 S1/.
lever ar& 2 O d74.@ Q 74.3@ K 1C4.A88
O :@@74.@Q 74.3@ K 4.94GC4.A88
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 $8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
O :43 && S 4.A@ d 74.A@d O ::; &&8
49 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Area )* tensi)n rein*)rce&ent A
s
O M 94
G
C74.A@*
y
28
O 9?:.G 94
G
C74.A@ ?G4 :438
O 94HH &&
3

Percentage area )* rein*)rce&ent 944A
s
C'd O 944 94HHC73;@ :@@8
O 9.99R
As t(is is ,it(in t(e c)de li&its )* 4.:R and ?R t(is is satis*act)ry
Selected rein*)rce&ent ?T34 7A
s
O 93@G &&
3
8
,et&iling
Clear distance 'et,een 'ars ' K 7n) )* 'ars dia8 K 37c)ver Q lin+ dia.8$C7N)
)* 'ars K 98
O 3;@ K 7? 348 K 3734 Q 94$C7? K 98
O ?@ &&
Per&issi'le clear distance &ini&u& 3@ && 7clause :.93.998
&aEi&u& 9@@ && 7ta'le :.3H8
S/e&r rein'orcement &t 0or ne&r2 su((ort
0readt( )* secti)n *)r s(ear '
v
O ' O 3;@ &&
Design s(ear stress v O ! 94
:
C 7'
v
d8
O 933.3 9444C73;@ :@@8
O 9.3@ NC&&
3
Area )* rein*)rcing 'ars in acc)rdance ,it( Clause :.?.@.?. 7i.e. @4R8
At t(e su--)rt t(e l)ngitudinal 'ars e**ective *)r s(ear are 3T34
Area )* 'ars *)r s(ear A
s -r)v
O G3H &&
3

Percentage -r)vided 944A
s -r)v
C7'
v
d8
O 944 G3HC73;@ :@@8
O 4.G?R
Fr)& Ta'le :.H *)r 944A
s -r)v
C7'
v
d8 O 4.G?R and d O :@@ &&
v
c
O 4.@; NC&&
3
C(aracteristic c)ncrete strengt( greater t(an 3@ NC&&
3
t(ere*)re increase v
c

acc)rding t) *))tn)te in Ta'le :.H.
Increased s(ear strengt( v
c
O v
c


7*
cu
C3@8
9C:
O 4.G; NC&&
3
Pr)vide lin+s t) ta+e s(ear *)rce in acc)rdance ,it( Ta'le :.;
7v
c
Q 4.?8 O 74.G; Q 4.?8 O 4.A; NC&&
3
v P 7v
c
Q 4.?8 9.3@ P 4.A; $
Pr)vide cl)se s-aced lin+s near t(e su--)rts
Assume t(e use )* R94 lin+s A
sv
O 9@; &&
3

S-acing )* lin+s at ends &e&'er s
v
O A
sv
4.A@*
yv
C7'
v
7vKv
c
88
O 9@; 4.A@ 3@4C73;@79.3@ K 4.G;88
O 3:: &&
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 41
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Pr)vide R94 lin+s at 33@ && centres near t(e su--)rts
At 7)r near &id<s-an8 K &ini&u& lin+s )nly reDuired
S-acing )* lin+s s
v
O A
sv
4.A@*
yv
C7'
v
74.?8$
O 9@; 4.A@ 3@4C73;@ 4.?8 O ::H &&
'ut li&ited t) 4.;@ d O 4.;@ :@@ O 3GG &&
Pr)vide R94 lin+s at 3@4 && centres near t(e centre )* t(e 'ea&
V O 3.:@ 4.?C 9.3@ O 4.;@ &
Pr)vide &ini&u& lin+s in &iddle 9.@ & 73 4.;@ &8 )* 'ea&/ R94>s at 3@4
&& centres
Pr)vide cl)se s-aced lin+s at t(e ends )* t(e 'ea&/ R94 at 33@&& centres
De"le-tio -#ite#ia: F&ll -al-&latio
Actual lCd ?;44C:@@ O 9:.3
0asic lCd 7Ta'le :.A8 34
Service stress *
s
O 3*
y
A
s reD
C7:A
s -r)v
8
O 3 ?G4 94HHC7: 93@G8
O 3G4 NC&&
3

MC'd
3
O 9?:.G 94
G
C73;@ :@@
3
8 O ?.9 NC&&
3

Or alternatively MC'd
3
O 1 *
cu
O 4.9 ?4 O ? NC&&
3
Fr)& Ta'le :.94 *)r *
s
O3G4 NC&&
3
/ and MC'd
3
O ?.9
M)di*icati)n *act)r *)r tensi)n steel O 4.A3
Per&issi'le si&-ly<su--)rted lCd O34 4.A3 O 9H.?
As actual S -er&issi'le 'ea& is servicea'le in de*lecti)n 79:.3 S 9H.?8
De"le-tio -#ite#ia: A%#id,ed (e#!io o" -al-&latio
Actual lCd ?;44C:@@ O 9:.3
0asic lCd 7 Ta'le :.A8 34
Service stress *
s
:4; NC&&
3
MC'd
3
O 1 *
cu
O 4.9 ?4 O ? NC&&
3
4! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Fr)& Ta'le :.94
M)di*icati)n *act)r *)r tensi)n steel O 4.H?
Per&issi'le si&-ly<su--)rted lCd O34 4.H? O 9G.H
As actual S -er&issi'le 'ea& is servicea'le in de*lecti)n
0y ta+ing *
s
O :4; NC&&
3
7*
s
O3C: *
y
8 a c)nservative value is *)und K al,ays
erring )n t(e sa*e side.
Sim(ly su((orted -e&ms 0or sl&-s2 wit/ &n over/&ng
0S H994K9 states in :.3.9.3.36
It ill normally be sufficient to consider the folloing arrangements of
"ertical load'
(a) .ll spans loaded ith the ma!imum design ultimate load
(*0,8
$
9 *0-:
$
)
(b) .lternate spans loaded ith the ma!imum design ultimate load (*0,8
$
9
*0-:
$
) and all other spans loaded ith the minimum design ultimate
load (*00 8
$
)04
In t(e design t) c)nsider a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( an )ver(ang t(en
t(ree -)ssi'le l)ading arrange&ents &ust 'e c)nsidered6
9. &aEi&u& l)ad )n &ain s-an and )ver(ang
3. &aEi&u& l)ad )n &ain s-an/ &ini&u& l)ad )n t(e )ver(ang
:. &ini&u& l)ad )n &ain s-an/ &aEi&u& l)ad )n t(e )ver(ang
T(e reDuire&ents *)r rein*)rced c)ncrete design is t) deter&ine t(e s(ear
*)rce and 'ending &)&ents in t(e &e&'er and design rein*)rce&ent
acc)rdingly. T(us t(ree s(ear diagra&s t) 'e dra,n t)get(er ,it( t(eir
signi*icant values. T(ese are su-eri&-)sed )n )ne an)t(er and t(e s(ear *)rce
envel)-e created. Si&ilar *)r t(e 'ending &)&ents a 'ending &)&ent
envel)-e &ust 'e devel)-ed.
T,) &aEi&u& values )* 'ending &)&ent ,ill 'e *)und6
I A sagging &)&ent al)ng t(e lengt( )* t(e &ain s-an 7,(ic( &eans t(e
&ain rein*)rce&ent ,ill 'e -)siti)ned near t(e ')tt)& sur*ace8
I A ()gging 'ending &)&ent )ver t(e )ver(ang su--)rt 7t(e rein*)rce&ent
,ill 'e -)siti)ned near t(e t)- sur*ace8.
T(erea*ter t(e design -r)cedure in t(e n)tes *)r eit(er a 'ea& )r a sla' can 'e
used.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 4"
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Example
F)r t(e 'ea& s(),n 'el), and using t(e l)ading given in t(e design data/
deter&ine t(e &aEi&u& sagging and ()gging 'ending &)&ent.
Design data6
C(aracteristic dead l)ad inclusive )* sel*<,eig(t 3?+NC&
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad 9H+NC&
Sol&tio
MaEi&u& l)ad O9.?#
+
Q 9.GQ
+
O 9.? 3? Q 9.G 9H O G3.? +NC&
Mini&u& l)ad O 9.4#
+
O3? +NC&
/axim&m load o all !pa!
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut A
G3.? 94 94C3 O 0 H 0 O :A4 +N
A O G3.? 94 K :A4 O 3:? +N
Dra,ing s(ear *)rce diagra&
MaEi&u& sagging &)&ent O 4.@ 3:? :.;@ O ?:H.;@+N&
MaEi&u& ()gging &)&ent O 4.@ 93?.H 3 O 93?.H +N&
4# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
/axim&m load o mai !pa0 miim&m load o t+e o(e#+a,
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut A
G3.? H HC3 Q 3? 3 AO 0 H 0 O :4:.G +N
A O G3.? H Q 3? 3 K :4:.G O 3?:.G +N
Dra,ing s(ear *)rce diagra&
MaEi&u& sagging &)&ent O 4.@ 3?:.G :.A O ?;@+N&
MaEi&u& ()gging &)&ent O 4.@ ?H 3 O ?H +N&
/iim&m load o mai !pa0 maxim&m load o t+e o(e#+a,
Ta+e &)&ents a')ut A
3? H HC3 Q G3.? 3 AO 0 H 0 O 3:G.? +N
A O 3? H Q G3.? 3 K 3:G.? O H4.? +N
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 4$
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Dra,ing s(ear *)rce diagra&
MaEi&u& sagging &)&ent O 4.@ H4.? :.:@ O 9:?.G;+N&
MaEi&u& ()gging &)&ent O 4.@ 93?.H 3 O 93?.H +N&
Design values are6 Sagging 'ending &)&ent ?;@ +N&
")gging 'ending &)&ent 93?.H +N&
Use design -r)cedures t) deter&ine &ain and s(ear rein*)rce&ent values.
A=i&lly lo&ded column design AS 6119 B&rt 11885
Calculati)ns *)r rein*)rce&ent are in acc)rdance ,it( 0S H9946Part 96 9AA;
Cl&use "@6@#
T(e *irst ste- in t(e design )* a c)lu&n is t) deter&ine ,(et(er t(e -r)-)sed
arrange&ent )* c)lu&n di&ensi)ns and (eig(t ,ill &a+e it short )r slender.
I* t(e c)lu&n is slender in additi)n t) t(e aEial l)ad it ,ill als) 'e designed
*)r &)&ents due t) de*lecti)n/ t(us *)r aEial design t(e c)lu&n &ust 'e
short.
Example o" de!i, i"o#matio
Design ulti&ate aEial l)ad )n c)lu&n N O 3?44 +N
"eig(t )* c)lu&n FFL t) FFL LO ?.@ &
De-t( )* t(e cr)ss secti)n ( O :@4 &&
Jidt( )* c)lu&n ' O :@4 &&
C(aracteristic strengt( )* c)ncrete *
cu
O ?4 NC&&
3

C(aracteristic strengt( )* rein*)rce&ent *
y
O ?G4 NC&&
3

Fl))ring arrange&ent su--)rted 'y c)lu&n c)ntinu)us 'ea& and sla' *l))r
c)nstructi)n ,it( 'ea&s G44 && dee- 'y :@4 && ,ide in ')t( directi)ns.
All s-ans eDual.
T(e c)lu&n is c)nnected at t(e ')tt)& t) a 'ase designed t) carry a &)&ent
44 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
E''ective /eig/t o' column Cl&use "@6@1@4
T(e e**ective (eig(t is *)und using eDuati)n :4 l
e
< l
o
T(e value )* is *)und using Ta'le :.9A *)r 'raced c)lu&ns and Ta'le :.34
*)r un'raced c)lu&ns ,(ere is a *uncti)n )* t(e end restraint c)nditi)ns )*
t(e c)lu&n.
T(e de*initi)ns *)r 'raced and un'raced c)lu&ns are given in clause :.H.9.@.
F. column may be considered braced in a gi"en plane if lateral stability to
the structure as a hole is pro"ided by alls or bracing or buttressing design
to resist all lateral forces in that plane0 It should otherise be considered as
unbraced04
T(e c)lu&n &ay als) 'e de*ined as s()rt )r slender as de*ined in clause
:.H.9.:.
. column may be considered as short hen both the ratios l
e!
/h and l
ey
/b are
less than *5 (braced) and *0 (unbraced)0 It should otherise be considered
as being slender04
F)r t(is secti)n )* t(e c)urse t(e c)lu&ns ,ill 'e restricted t) s/ort -r&ced
syste&s.
T) use Ta'le :.9A t(e end restraint c)nditi)ns &ust 'e +n),n
End c)nditi)n at ')tt)&
End c)nditi)n at t)- 9 3 :
9 4.;@ 4.H4 4.A4
3 4.H4 4.H@ 4.A@
: 4.A4 4.A@ 9.44
T(e end c)nditi)ns are de*ined in clause :.H.9.G.3.
Coditio 1
T(e end )* t(e c)lu&n is c)nnected &)n)lit(ically t) 'ea&s )n eit(er side
,(ic( are at least as dee- as t(e )verall di&ensi)n )* t(e c)lu&n in t(e -lane
c)nsidered.
T(e c)lu&n in t(e eEa&-le su--)rts 'ea&s G44 && dee-.
I* t(e c)lu&n is t(e l),est lengt( )* a structure and is c)nnected t) a
su'stantial 'ase t(en c)nditi)n 9 &ay als) a--ly at t(e 'ase.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 45
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Coditio 2
T(e end )* t(e c)lu&n is c)nnected &)n)lit(ically t) 'ea&s )r sla's )n eit(er
side ,(ic( are s(all),er t(an t(e c)lu&n/ e.g. t(e c)lu&n in t(e eEa&-le is
c)nnected t) a *l))r ,(ic( is :44 && dee-
Coditio '
T(e c)lu&n is c)nnected t) s(all), &e&'ers t(at ,ill -r)vide s)&e n)&inal
restraint/ e.g. a s(all), *l))r
In t(e eEa&-le c)nsider t(e c)lu&n t) 'e c)nnected at t(e t)- t) 'ea&s G44
&& dee- and t) a su'stantial 'ase at t(e ')tt)&6
F)r t)- restraint K c)nditi)n 9
')tt)& restraint K c)nditi)n 9
Fr)& Ta'le :.9A < 9@5$
T(e clear (eig(t l
)
K t(is is de*ined as t(e cle&r /eig/t 'et,een end
restraints.
F)r t(is eEa&-le t(e (eig(t )* t(e c)lu&n is given as ?.@ &/ ,it( G44 &&
dee- 'ea&s *ra&ing in at t(e t)-. T(en t(e clear (eig(t
l
)
O ?.@ K 4.G O :.A &
E**ective (eig(t le O l
)
O4.;@ :.A O 3.A3@ &
Note: T(e c)lu&n can (ave t,) di**erent e**ective (eig(ts/ )ne 'ased )n t(e
EKE aEis t(e )t(er )n t(e yKy *)r si&-licity in t(is c)urse l
eE
O l
ey
O l
e

Slenderness o' column "@6@1@"
In )rder *)r t(e c)lu&n t) 'e de*ined as s()rt 'raced/ ')t( t(e rati)s l
eE
C( and
l
ey
C' &ust 'e less t(an 9@.
As ' is de*ined as t(e s&aller di&ensi)n/ )nly )ne c(ec+ needs t) 'e a--lied.
l
ey
C' S 9@
Slenderness )* c)lu&n 3A3@C:@4 O H.:@
Slenderness )* c)lu&n ,it(in all),a'le *)r a s()rt c)lu&n.
46 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
A=i&l lo&d consider&tions "@6@#
T,) eDuati)ns are used6
EDuati)n :H K ,(ere a c)lu&n cann)t 'e su'=ect t) signi*icant &)&ents due
t) t(e nature )* t(e l)ading.
7 < 9@# '
cu
A
c
> 9@5 A
sc
'
y
EDuati)n :A K ,(ere a c)lu&n is carrying an a--r)Ei&ately eDual
arrange&ent )* 'ea&s t(e s-ans )* ,(ic( d) n)t vary 'y &)re t(an 9@R and
t(e 'ea&s are designed t) carry uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ads.
7 < 9@"$ '
cu
A
c
> 9@5 A
sc
'
y
In ')t( eDuati)ns it is generally t(e area )* rein*)rce&ent A
sc
t(at is reDuired/
t(us t(e eDuati)ns &ust 'e rearranged ,it( A
sc
as t(e su'=ect.
Note:
Area )* c)ncrete A
c
O Cr)ss<secti)nal area less area )* rein*)rce&ent
O 7' (8 K A
sc
C)nsider t(e eEa&-le *)r ,(ic( design data is given.
Assu&ing t(e s()rt 'raced c)lu&n is carrying an a--r)Ei&ately eDual
arrange&ent )* 'ea&s/ t(e s-ans )* ,(ic( d) n)t vary 'y &)re t(an 9@R/ and
t(e 'ea&s are designed t) carry uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ads.
Use EDuati)n :A
/ai %a#!
N O 4.:@*
cu
7'.( K A
sc
8 Q 4.; A
sc
*
y
:
cu
sc
y cu
:
3
N W 94 K 4.:@ * ' (
Area )* rein*)rce&ent A O
4.; * K 4.:@ *
3?44 W 94 K 4.:@ W ?4 W :@4 W :@4
O
4.; W ?G4 K 4.:@ W ?4
O 333? &&
N)te6 At least *)ur 'ars &ust 'e -r)vided/ i.e. )ne in eac( c)rner.
An even nu&'er )* 'ars &ust 'e -r)vided.
Fr)& t(e Areas )* Rein*)rcing Steel C(art/ select
GT3@ 7A
sc
O 3A?? &&
3
8 )r ?T:3 7A
sc
O :39@ &&
3
8
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 48
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Mini&u& area )* rein*)rce&ent K Ta'le :.3@
#eneral rule 944A
sc
CA
cc
O 4.?
Mini&u& Area A
sc
O 4.? '(C944 O 4.? :@4 :@4 C 944
A
sc
O ?A4 &&
3
MaEi&u& area )* rein*)rce&ent Cl.:.93.G.3
!ertical cast c)lu&ns GR )* gr)ss area
A
sc
O GC944 '( O GC944 :@4 :@4
A
sc
O ;:@4 &&
3
Area )* steel c()sen is suita'le.
Hinks Cl&use "@1!@5@1
;hen part or all of the main reinforcement is re%uired to resist compression,
lin$s or ties at least one-%uarter the si<e of the largest compression bar or -
mm, hiche"er is greater, should be pro"ided at a ma!imum spacing of *+
times the si<e of the smallest compression bar04
Assu&ing t(at GT3@>s are used
Mini&u& dia&eter )* lin+s Quarter t(e dia&eter )* largest 'ar
O 3@C? O G.3@ &&
Ma+e dia&eter )* lin+s RH
Mild steel 'ars are used as t(e lin+s are )nly reDuired *)r c)ntain&ent
-ur-)ses and n)t reDuired t) carry l)ad.
MaEi&u& s-acing )* lin+s 93 ti&es dia&eter )* s&allest &ain 'ar
3 3@ O :44 &&
Brovide R6 links G "99 mm centres
59 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Study Guide " End Test
F)r all Duesti)ns6
C(aracteristic strengt( )* c)ncrete/ *
cu
?4 NC&&
3
C(aracteristic strengt( )* &ain rein*)rce&ent/ *
y
?G4 NC&&
3
C(aracteristic strengt( )* s(ear rein*)rce&ent/ *
yv
3@4 NC&&
3

Unit ,eig(t )* c)ncrete 3? +NC&
:
Sl&- design
A si&-ly su--)rted sla' s-ans 'et,een t,) 'ric+ ,alls as s(),n. F)r t(e
given design in*)r&ati)n deter&ine6
7a8 t(e &aEi&u& 'ending &)&ent and s(ear *)rce in t(e sla' -er &etre
,idt(
7'8 design a suita'le arrange&ent )* &ain and sec)ndary rein*)rce&ent

7c8 c(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e sla' t) resist t(e s(ear *)rces
7d8 c(ec+ t(e sla' *)r crac+ c)ntr)l and de*ecti)n reDuire&ents
Design information'
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad ?.@ +NC&
3
C(aracteristic dead l)ad due t) *inis(es 9.@ +NC&
3
EE-)sure c)nditi)ns &ild
Fire resistance 9 ()ur
Ae&m design
A series )* 'ea&s at ?& centres su--)rt -re<cast c)ncrete *l))ring units. F)r
analysis -ur-)ses t(e 'ea&s &ay 'e assu&ed t) (ave t(e arrange&ent )* a
si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& ,it( an )ver(ang as s(),n 'el),6
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 51
ST3,Y G3I,E "
F)r )ne 'ea&
7a8 Deter&ine6
7i8 T(e &aEi&u& sagging 'ending &)&ent
7ii8 T(e &aEi&u& ()gging 'ending &)&ent
7iii8 T(e &aEi&u& s(ear *)rce at su--)rt A
7'8 Design a suita'le arrange&ent )* &ain rein*)rce&ent at t(e critical
secti)ns
7c8 Design suita'le s(ear rein*)rce&ent at su--)rt A
7d8 C(ec+ t(e cantilevered -)rti)n )* t(e 'ea& *)r de*lecti)n
Design information'
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad @ +NC&
3
C(aracteristic dead l)ad due t) *inis(es 3 +NC&
3
C(aracteristic dead l)ad )* *l))ring units :.H +NC&
3
EE-)sure c)nditi)ns &)derate
Fire resistance 3 ()urs
0ea& cr)ss<secti)n :44 && G@4 &&
Column design
T(e diagra& 'el), illustrates t(e lay)ut 'raced &ulti<st)rey in<situ
rein*)rced c)ncrete 'uilding.
Using t(e design data/ *)r t(e central c)lu&n FV>6
7a8 Evaluate t(e design aEial l)ad
7'8 I* t(e (eig(t )* t(e c)lu&ns 'et,een *l))r levels is ?.H& and t(e 'ea&s
*ra&ing int) t(e c)lu&ns are G44&& dee-/ s(), t(at t(e c)lu&n is
s()rt.
7c8 Deter&ine a suita'le arrange&ent )* &ain and lin+ rein*)rce&ent.
5! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Design data'
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad )n *l))r @ +NC&
3
C(aracteristic dead l)ad due t) *inis(es 3 +NC&
3
AEial l)ads )n c)lu&n FV> *)r u--er *l))rs
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad 9344+N
C(aracteristic dead l)ad H34+N
EE-)sure c)nditi)ns &)derate
Fire resistance : ()urs
C)lu&n cr)ss<secti)n :@4&& :@4 &&
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 5"
ST3,Y G3I,E "
A!*e#!
Sl&- ,esign
Ans,ers ,(ere a--r)-riate K -er &etre ,idt( )* sla'6
Design l)ading 9G.HG +NC& M O ?G.@@ +N& ! O :A.G +N
1 O 4.4:9
A
S
O @;@ &&
3
C&
v O4.3 NC&&
3
vcO 4.?; NC&&
3
Actual s-anCde-t( rati) O 3?.9 -er&issi'le s-anCde-t( rati) O 3?.?
Ae&m design
Results *r)& analysis )* all t(ree l)ad cases6
Reacti)n
A7+N8
Reacti)n 0
7+N8
&)&ent
MaEi&u&
sagging
&)&ent 7+N&8
MaEi&u&
()gging
&)&ent 7+N&8
L)ad case 9 3::.3 @4@.3 :;A.H 3;H.:
L)ad case 3 3@@.? :G3.3 ?@A 94A
L)ad case : ;4.3 :?9.: HH.? 3;H.:
MaEi&u& sagging &)&ent O ?@A +N&
MaEi&u& ()gging &)&ent O 3;H.: +N&
MaEi&u& s(ear at A O 3@@.? +N
7'8 Sagging rein*)rce&ent ")gging rein*)rce&ent
1 O 4.94H 1 O 4.4GG
2 O 4.HG d 2 O 4.A3 d
A
s
O 34@: &&
3
A
s
O 99G? &&
3
7c8 v O4.@H NC&&
3
vcO 4.G9 NC&&
3
R93>s T 344 && centres )r eDuivalent
7d8 Actual s-anCde-t( rati) O ?.; Per&issi'le s-anCde-t( rati)
O G.3
5# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E "
Column design
Dead l)ad *r)& *l))r O :;:.? +N
I&-)sed l)ad *r)& *l))r O 3?4 +N Design l)ad/ N O :GAH +N
A
sc
O G?:H &&
3
Main rein*)rce&ent HT:3 7G?:4 &&
3
8
Lin+s RH>s T:@4 && centres/ )r alternatives
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 5$
ST3,Y G3I,E #
STUDY GUIDE )
,esign o' structur&l steelwork elements
Introduction
T(is study guide c)vers Outc)&es @ and G )* t(e unit.
Outcome $
Design statically deter&inate structural steel 'ea&s.
Outcome 4
Design aEially l)aded/ single<st)rey steel stanc(i)ns.
On c)&-leti)n )* t(e study guide y)u s()uld 'e a'le t)6
I Use structural secti)n ta'les t) *ind t(e -r)-erties )* universal 'ea&s and
universal c)lu&ns.
I Design structural steel 'ea&s ,it( *ull lateral restraint.
T(is ,ill inv)lve deter&ining t(e suita'ility )* 'ea&s *)r 'ending
&)&ent/ s(ear *)rce/ de*lecti)n/ and ,e' 'uc+ling and 'earing at t(e
su--)rts.
I Design aEially l)aded steel c)lu&ns.
T(e design -r)cess is *r)& t(e 0ritis( Standard6 0S @A@4K969AA4 Structural
use of steelor$ in building, Part 96 Code of practice for design in simple and
continuous construction0
In t(e design -r)cess #rade ?: steel ,ill 'e used t(r)ug()ut.
In additi)n t) t(e study guide y)u ,ill reDuire a c)-y )* eac( )* t(e *)ll),ing
d)cu&ents6
=ni"ersal beams 2 dimensions and properties
=ni"ersal columns 2 dimensions and properties
Safe load tables 2 bearing/buc$ling/shear "alues
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 55
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Structur&l steel struts su-*ect to &=i&l lo&d AS $8$9111889
Com(ression mem-ers cl&use #@5
C)&-ressi)n &e&'ers are classed as eit(er6
798 >lastic
Compact in eac( case t(e secti)n can resist t(e *ull l)ad
Semi-compact 7sDuas( l)ad8
It is )nly necessary *)r strut design t(at t(e secti)n 'e classi*ied as n)t
slender.
T(is is n)t related t) t(e Euler t(e)ry de*initi)n )* Fslender> 'ut relates t) t(e
a'ility )* t(e cr)ss<secti)n )* t(e &e&'er t) carry t(e l)ad ,it()ut dist)rti)n
)* t(e secti)n.
738 Slender t(e secti)n *ails at a l)ad less t(an t(e sDuas( l)ad
due t) l)cal 'uc+ling )* t(e secti)n

T(e a&)unt )* l)ad t(at t(e &e&'ers can carry is de-endent )n t(e
slenderness/ / )* t(e gr)ss secti)n/ design strengt(/ -
y
/ and t(e secti)n
classi*icati)n.
F)r -lastic/ c)&-act and se&i<c)&-act secti)ns6
T(e c)&-ressive resistance B
c
< A
g
(
c

l)ad O area stress $
T(e design strengt/ is *)und using T&-le 4 )* 0S @A@4. In t(is c)urse )nly
#rade ?: steel ,ill 'e c)nsidered6
,esign gr&de T/ickness less t/&n or
eCu&l to 0mm2
,esign strengt/
(
y
07?mm
!
2
?: 9G
?4
G:
H4
944
3;@
3G@
3@@
3?@
3:@
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 56
ST3,Y G3I,E #
T(us *)r a ?@; 9@3 ;? U0 in #rade ?: steel6
,e' t(ic+ness t O A.A &&
*lange t(ic+ness TO 9;.4 &&
Design strengt( -
y
O 3G@ NC&&
3
Note: T(e design strengt( de-ends )n t(e greater &aterial t(ic+ness.
F)r slender secti)ns -
y
is &)di*ied 'y a stress reducti)n *act)r as given in
Ta'le H 7n)t a--lica'le t) UC secti)ns8.
T(e cl&ssi'ic&tion o' t/e section is *)und using T&-le 5 )* 0S@A@4 and is a
&easure )* t(e ease ,it( ,(ic( t(e cr)ss<secti)n can dist)rt 7)r 'uc+le8 under
l)ad. T(is can )ccur in )ne )* t,) ,ays6
798 T(e )utstand )* t(e *lange 'CT K rati)
738 T(e ,e' dCt K rati)
!alues )* 'CT and dCt are )'tained *r)& t(e secti)n ta'les and c)&-ared ,it(
t(e Ta'le ; li&its.
EEtract *r)& Ta'le ;
Ty(e o' element Ty(e o'
section
012 Bl&stic 0!2
Com(&ct
0"2 Semi)
com(&ct
Outstand ele&ent
)* a c)&-ressi)n
*lange
R)lled secti)n 'CT H.@ 'CT A.@ 'CT 9@
Je'/ ,(ere ,()le
secti)n is su'=ect
t) c)&-ressi)n
R)lled secti)n dCt :A dCt :A dCt :A
K t(is is a *act)r ,(ic( de-ends )n t(e &aterial grade O 73;@C-
y
8
9C3
F)r a 34: 34: @3 UC secti)n in #rade ?: steel
Flange t(ic+ness T O 93.@ &&
Design strengt( -
y
O 3;@ NC&&
3
O 73;@C-
y
8
9C3
O 73;@C3;@8
9C3
O 9.4
Fr)& t(e secti)n ta'les/ t(e rati)s *)r l)cal 'uc+ling are6 'CT O H.9;
dCt O 34.:
'CT O H.9H S H.@ Flanges are -lastic
dCt O 34.9 S :A Je' is n)t slender Secti)n is n)t slender
F)r aEially l)aded c)lu&ns all t(at is reDuired *r)& t(e classi*icati)n )* t(e
secti)n is t(at it is n)t slender.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 58
ST3,Y G3I,E #
T(e slenderness is a &easure )* t(e ease ,it( ,(ic( t(e strut ,ill 'uc+le
)ver its lengt( and is *)und using6
Slenderness
E
L E**ective lengt(
O O
Radius )* gyrati)n r

E**ective lengt( is de*ined as t(e lengt( 'et,een -)ints )* e**ective restraint


)* a &e&'er &ulti-lied 'y a *act)r t) ta+e acc)unt )* t(e end c)nditi)ns and
l)ading
L
E
O 1L
,(ere L O actual lengt(
1 O e**ective lengt( rati)
1 is deter&ined *r)& t(e c)nditi)ns )* end restraint.
In t(is c)urse H
E
< 1@9H or 9@6$ H
T(e value y)u s()uld use ,ill 'e given in eac( Duesti)n.
Note: Universal c)lu&n secti)ns (ave two &a=)r aEes EKE and yKy/ t(us t(ere
are t,) values )* slenderness6
Ey
EE
E y
L
L
O and O
r r

0)t( values (ave t) 'e calculated in )rder t) deter&ine t(e c)&-ressive
strengt( (
c@
T) decide ,(ic( )* t(e T&-les !50&2 1 0d2 are t) 'e used in deter&ining (
c

re*erence &ust *irst 'e &ade t) T&-le !$.
F)r UC secti)ns/ eEtracting *r)& Ta'le 3@ gives6
Ty(e o' section T/ickness =1= &=is y1y &=is
R)lled "<secti)n u- t) ?4 &&
)ver ?4 &&
3;7'8
3;7c8
3;7c8
3;7d8
An "<secti)n is )ne *)r ,(ic( t(e )verall de-t( )* t(e secti)n divided 'y t(e
)verall 'readt( 7DC08 is less t(an 9.3. An I<secti)n is )ne *)r ,(ic( DC0 P
9.3.
69 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
All UC secti)ns are "<secti)ns/ and nearly all )* t(e U0 secti)ns are
I<secti)ns.
T(us *)r a 34: 34: @3 UC secti)n in #rade ?: steel6
Flange t(ic+ness T O 93.@ && Design strengt( -
y
O3;@ NC&&
3
L))+ u- Ta'le 3;7'8 *)r t(e EKE aEis
and Ta'le 3;7c8 *)r t(e yKy aEis
T(e critical value )* c)&-ressive strengt( is t(e lesser )* t(e t,) values *r)&
t(e ta'les.
T(e com(ressive resist&nce is calculated using6
P
c
O A
g
-
c
A
g
O gr)ss secti)nal area 7*r)& Secti)n Ta'les8.
Struts
T(e -r)cess *)r design )r c(ec+ing t(e adeDuacy )* a c)lu&n is as *)ll),s6
798 Fr)& t(e Secti)n Ta'les/ t(e &aterial 7*lange8 t(ic+ness is *)und.
738 T(e design strengt( is ta+en *r)& Ta'le G eit(er 3;@ )r 3G@ NC&&
3
$.
7:8 T(e e**ective lengt(/ L
E
/ is *)und using t(e a--r)-riate end restraint
c)nditi)ns. L
E
O 9.4 L )r 4.H@ L
7?8 T(e slenderness/ / is calculated *)r ')t( t(e EKE and yKy aEes.
Ey
EE
E y
L
L
O and O
r r

T(e radius )* gyrati)n/ r/ is *)und using t(e Secti)n Ta'les.
7@8 T(e strut curve ta'les *)r ')t( aEes are selected *r)& Ta'le 3@.
7G8 T(e c)&-ressive strengt(/ -
c
/ is read *r)& t(e a--r)-riate -art )* Ta'les
3; 7a8K7d8.
T(e critical value )* c)&-ressive strengt( is selected/ i.e. t(e l),er )*
t(e t,) values.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 61
ST3,Y G3I,E #
7;8 T(e c)&-ressive resistance P
c
is calculated. P
c
O A
g
-
c.
T(e area )* t(e secti)n A
g
is *)und *r)& t(e Secti)n Ta'les.
F)r sa*e ec)n)&ic design/ t(e c)&-ressive resistance P
c
s()uld =ust eEceed
t(e design l)ad F
c
/

i.e. B
c
D
c
@
Ter&s used in t(e c)de6
F K t(e *act)red design l)ad
P K resistance )r ca-acity 7&aEi&u& l)ad ,(ic( can 'e a--lied t) t(e
secti)n8
- K strengt( )* t(e secti)n 7-er&issi'le stress8
su'scri-ts6
c K c)&-ressi)n
t K tensi)n
' K 'earing
Example
C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* a 34: 34: @3 UC secti)n t) carry t(e a--lied
aEial l)ads given/ i* t(e actual lengt( 'et,een restraints is ?.3 &. It can 'e
assu&ed t(at t(e e**ective lengt( )* t(e c)lu&n L
E
O 4.H@L *)r ')t( aEes.
T(e a--lied aEial l)ads are6
Dead ?@4 +N
I&-)sed :@4 +N
Sol&tio
Design l)ad/ F
c
O 9.? Dead Q 9.G I&-)sed
O 9.? ?@4 Q 9.G :@4
O G:4 Q @G4
O 99A4 +N.
798 Fr)& Secti)n Ta'les
*lange t(ic+ness/ T 93.@ &&
rati)s *)r l)cal 'uc+ling Flange 'CT H.9;
Je' dCt 34.:
radius )* gyrati)n r
E
H.A4 c&
radius )* gyrati)n r
y
@.9G c&
area )* secti)n A
g
GG.: c&
3
6! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
738 Fr)& Ta'le G as T S 9G && $ -
y
O 3;@ NC&&
3
Secti)n classi*icati)n O 9
'CT O H.9; S H.@ Plastic
dCt O 34.: S :A N)t slender
t(us secti)n is n)t slender.
7:8 Fr)& Ta'le 3? L
E
O 4.H@L
O 4.H@ ?.3& O :.@; & *)r ')t( aEes
7?8
Ey
EE
E y
E y
L
L
O and O
r r

O :.@; 944CH.A O :.@; 944C@.9G
O ?4.9 O GA
Slenderness is a rati). T(e (eig(t )* t(e stanc(i)n ,as given in &etres/
and *r)& t(e secti)n ta'les t(e radius )* gyrati)n is in c&. T(e units
&ust cancel )ut.
In t(is eEa&-le t(e calculati)n is carried )ut using c& units.
7@8 Fr)& Ta'le 3@
F)r 'uc+ling a')ut EKE aEis/ use strut curve Ta'le 3;7'8
F)r 'uc+ling a')ut yKy aEis/ use strut curve Ta'le 3;7c8
,it( -
y
O 3;@ NC&&
3
7G8 Slenderness EKE aEis -
cE
O 3@4 NC&&
3
Slenderness yKy aEis -
cy
O 9H: NC&&
3
7;8 P
c
O A
g
-
c
O 7GG.: 9448 9H:
O 939:444 N O 939: +N
N)te6 0e care*ul ,it( t(e units. T(e area is given/ in t(e di&ensi)ns and
-r)-erties ta'le/ in c&
3
units/ and -
cy
is in NC&&
3
.
c&
3
944 O &&
3

&&
3
NC&&
3
O N
divide 'y 9444 t) deter&ine l)ad in +N
939: +N P 99A4 +N
t(ere*)re P
c
P F
c
and secti)n is suita'le.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 6"
ST3,Y G3I,E #
C)&-are t(e value )* P
c
,it( t(e value given in t(e Sa*e L)ad Ta'les.
6# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
St&nc/ions restr&ined &t &n intermedi&te (osition
Alt()ug( t(ey are n)t as e**icient as UC secti)ns/ Universal 0ea& secti)ns
are *reDuently used t) carry aEial l)ads. T(e y<y aEis )* a U0 secti)n is
c)nsidera'ly ,ea+er t(an a c)&-ara'le UC secti)n/ and t) i&-r)ve its l)ad<
carrying ca-acity inter&ediate side rails &ay 'e inserted t) restrain t(e yKy
aEis. T(is -rinci-le can als) 'e a--lied t) any )t(er *)r& )* c)lu&n secti)n.
F)r t(e arrange&ent s(),n/ t(e c)lu&n can 'uc+le a')ut t(e EKE aEis )ver
t(e lengt( L
E
/ ,(ereas *)r t(e yKy aEis t(e c)lu&n can 'uc+le )ver eit(er L
y9

)r L
y3
)r L
y:
/ ,(ic(ever (as t(e greatest e**ective lengt(.
!alues )* -
cE
and -
cy
are t(en calculated and t(e critical value used t) *ind t(e
c)&-ressive resistance P
c
.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 6$
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Example 1 Sta-+io *it+ ite#mediate #e!t#ait!
T(e diagra& 'el), s(),s t(e elevati)n )* a c)lu&n t(at is t) 'e -r)vided
,it( inter&ediate ties -r)viding restraint a')ut t(e yKy aEis )nly. T(e
c)lu&n is t) carry aEial un*act)red l)ads )* @H4+N dead and ;G4+N i&-)sed.
T(e -r)-)sed secti)n *)r t(e c)lu&n is @:: 394 949 U0. C(ec+ t(e
suita'ility )* t(e -r)-)sed secti)n/ using t(e s&'e lo&d t&-les 'or 3A
sections/ L
E
O 9.4L
Design l)ad O 9.? dead Q 9.G i&-)sed O 9.? @H4 Q 9.G ;G4 O 343H+N
E**ective lengt( yKy aEis L
EB
O :.G&
E**ective lengt( EKE aEis L
EV
O G.H&
Fr)& t(e sa*e l)ad ta'les6
L
EB
F)r L
EB
O :.@& P
CB
O 34G4 +N
F)r L
EB
O ?.4& P
CB
O 9H@4 +N
F)r L
EB
O :.G& P
CB
O 34G4 K9C@ 734G4K9H@48 O 349H+N
L
EV
F)r L
EV
O G.@& P
CV
O 3;G4 +N
F)r L
EV
O ;.4& P
CV
O 3;@4 +N
F)r L
EV
O G.H& P
CV
O 3;G4 K:C@ 94 O 3;@? +N
C)&-ressive resistance )* stanc(i)n/ P
C
O349H +N
64 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
,esign o' mem-ers su-*ect to -ending AS $8$9111889
T(e rules *)r t(e design )* &e&'ers in 'ending are given in sections #@! &nd
#@" )* 0S @A@46 Part 9. T(e design )* suc( ele&ents is -ri&arily c)ncerned
,it( 'ending strengt(/ 'ut since 'ending &)&ent is su'=ect t) variati)n al)ng
t(e lengt( )* t(e &e&'er and is acc)&-anied 'y s(ear acti)n/ t(e
c)&'inati)n )* 'ending and s(ear &ust 'e ta+en int) acc)unt. In additi)n/ t(e
degree )* restraint a--lied t) t(e 'ea& ends and al)ng its lengt( greatly
in*luence t(e 'ending ca-acity. I* t(e 'ea& is *ully restrained al)ng its
c)&-ressi)n *lange as de*ined in clause ?.3.3/ t(ere is n) need t) &a+e any
all),ance *)r lateral t)rsi)nal 'uc+ling.
All 'ea&s &ust (ave an adeDuate resistance t) 'ending and s(ear/ and 'ea&s
t(at are n)t *ully restrained laterally &ust 'e c(ec+ed *)r a reduced 'ending
ca-acity due t) lateral t)rsi)nal insta'ility/ in acc)rdance ,it( secti)n ?.:.
Dully restr&ined -e&ms
A -ractical situati)n ,(ere t(e 'ea& &ay 'e c)nsidered as (aving its
c)&-ressi)n *lange *ully restrained is ,(ere it is reDuired t) carry a c)ncrete
*l))r 7eit(er in-situ )r *)r&ed *r)& -re<cast c)ncrete units8 )n t(e t)- *lange.
A ')nd can *)r& at t(e steelCc)ncrete inter*ace ,(ic( ,ill resist any side,ays
&)ve&ent )* t(e 'ea& c)&-ressi)n *lange.
.t critical sections the combination of ma!imum moment and coe!istent
shear, and the combination of ma!imum shear and coe!istent moment should
be chec$ed04
T(e 'ea&s c)nsidered in t(is c)urse ,ill all 'e si&-ly su--)rted 'ut ,ill
carry a variety )* l)ading. In t(is ty-e )* eEa&-le t(e &aEi&u& s(ear *)rce
,ill )ccur at t(e reacti)ns/ ,(ere &)&ent is eDual t) 2er). C)nversely t(e
&aEi&u& &)&ent ,ill )ccur at )r near t(e centre )* t(e 'ea& ,(ere s(ear is
2er) )r (as a l), value. F)r design -ur-)ses t(e &aEi&u& s(ear ,ill 'e
c)nsidered t)get(er ,it( t(e &aEi&u& &)&ent and t(e s(ear ,ill &eet t(e
criteria *)r l), s(ear l)ad given in clause ?.3.@.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 65
ST3,Y G3I,E #
S/e&r c&(&city Cl&use #@!@"
T(e a--lied s(ear *)rce al)ng t(e s-an/ F
v
/ s()uld n),(ere eEceed t(e s(ear
ca-acity/ P
v
i.e. F
v
S P
v

,(ere P
v
O 4.G-
y
A
v
Fr)& Clause ?.3.:7a8
*)r r)lled I/ " and c(annel secti)ns/ l)aded -arallel t) ,e'
A
v
O tD
J(ere t O t(ic+ness )* 'ea& ,e'
D O )verall de-t( )* 'ea&
T(ese values are *)und *r)& Secti)n Ta'les
-
y
O design strengt( *)und *r)& Ta'le G and 'ased )n t(e 'ea&
*lange t(ic+ness.
Moment c&(&city wit/ low s/e&r lo&d Cl&use #@!@$
T(e &)&ent ca-acity M
c
)* any secti)n ,ill de-end )n its secti)n
classi*icati)n *r)& Ta'le ;.
J(en F
v
S 4.G P
v
t(e in*luence )* c)<eEistent s(ear )n t(e &)&ent ca-acity
&ay 'e ign)red and t(e *)ll),ing ca-acities a--lied. All 'ea&s )n t(is c)urse
,ill 'e su'=ect t) t(e l), s(ear l)ad c)nditi)n
Classi*icati)n )* t(e secti)n
EEtract *r)& Ta'le ;
Ty(e o' element Ty(e o' section Cl&ss o' section
798 Plastic 738 C)&-act 7:8 Se&i<
c)&-act
Outstand ele&ent
)* c)&-ressi)n
*lange
R)lled secti)ns 'CT H.@ dCt ;A 'CT 9@
Je'/ ,it( neutral
aEis at &id<de-t(
R)lled secti)ns dCt ;Ae dCt AH dCt 934
66 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
?or plastic or compact sections
M
c
5 -
y
S
E
)r 9.3 -
y
X
E
,(ic(ever is t(e lesser.
S
E
O -lastic &)dulus )* 'ea& a')ut &a=)r aEis
X
E
O elastic &)dulus )* 'ea& a')ut &a=)r aEis
T(ese values are *)und *r)& Secti)n Ta'les.
T(e secti)n reac(es its *ull -lastic &)&ent )* resistance.
?or semi-compact sections
M
c
O -
y
X
E
Only t(e eEtre&e *i'res )* t(e secti)n reac( t(e design strengt(.
?or slender sections
M
c
O -
y


X
E
T(e ca-acity )* t(e secti)n is *urt(er reduced 'y l)cal 'uc+ling
-
y
O -
y
stress reducti)n *act)r )* Ta'le H 7n)t generally a--lica'le t) U0
secti)ns8.
,e'lection
T(e 'ea& &ust 'e c(ec+ed *)r t(e servicea'ility li&it state )* de*lecti)n/
suc( t(at t(e actual de*lecti)n due t) un'&ctored im(osed lo&d only is less
t(an t(e de*lecti)n li&its given in Ta'le @/ i.e.
actual de*lecti)n S s-anC:G4 )r s-anC344
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 68
ST3,Y G3I,E #
+e- -uckling &nd -e&ring
Auckling #@$@!@1
At -)ints )* c)ncentrated l)ad suc( as t(e c)nditi)n s(),n 'el),/ ,(ere t(e
'ea& is su--)rted/ it is -)ssi'le t(at t(e 'ea& ,e' can 'uc+le. T(e
reDuire&ents )* clause ?.@.3.9 &ust 'e &et.
T(e 'uc+ling resistance B
w
< 0-
1
> n
1
2 t (
c
Ty-ical values )* 'earing lengt( are6
*)r a 'ea& resting )n 'ric+ su--)rts '
9
O944 &&
*)r a 'ea& resting )n seating cleats '
9
O 39 &&
n
9
O l)ad dis-ersal lengt( K *)r su--)rts t(is is eDual t) (al* t(e de-t(
)* t(e 'ea&
t O 'ea& ,e' t(ic+ness
-
c
O c)&-ressive strengt( )* t(e ,e' K *)und using Ta'le 3;7c8 )* t(e
c)de *)r a slenderness/ O 3.@dCt
89 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Ae&ring
It is als) -)ssi'le t(at t(e =uncti)n 'et,een t(e 'ea& *lange and ,e' &ay 'e
su'=ect t) a 'earing *ailure.
T(e l)cal ca-acity )* t(e inter*ace 'et,een t(e ,e' and t(e 'ea& is given 'y6
B
cri (
< 0-
1
> n
!
2 t (
yw

,(ere n
3
O t(e lengt( )'tained 'y dis-ersi)n t(r)ug( t(e *lange t) t(e
*lange<t)<,e' c)nnecti)n at a sl)-e )* 963.@ t) t(e -lane )* t(e
*lange.
n
!
< !@$0 T > r 2 T O t(ic+ness )* 'ea& *lange
r O r))t radius )* 'ea&
-
y,
O design strengt( )* t(e ,e' *)und using Ta'le G and ,e'
t(ic+ness
Example 1 "&ll$ #e!t#aied !teel %eam
A si&-ly su--)rted 'ea& s-ans )ver a G& lengt( and is reDuired t) carry t(e
un*act)red l)ading s(),n in t(e diagra& 'el),.
C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* a G94 33A 99: universal 'ea& *)r6
7a8 'ending
7'8 s(ear
7c8 'earing )ver a ;@ && ,ide su--)rt
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 81
D E A D 2 4 k N / m
I M P O S E D 3 0 k N / m
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Sol&tio
Section (ro(erties
Secti)n si2e G94 33A 99: Universal 0ea&
De-t( )* steel secti)n D O G4;.G &&
Jidt( )* steel secti)n 0 O 33H.3 &&
T(ic+ness )* *lange T O 9;.: &&
T(ic+ness )* ,e' t O 99.9 &&
R))t radius r O 93.; &&
Inertia a')ut &a=)r aEis I
E
O H;:34 c&
?

Plastic &)dulus a')ut &a=)r aEis S
E
O :3H9 c&
:

Elastic &)dulus X O 3H;? c&
:
Area )* secti)n A O 9?? c&
3

Strengt/ o' steel Cl&use "@1@1
F)r &aterial t(ic+ness )* 9;.: &&/ *r)& Ta'le G
Design strengt( 7#rade ?:8 -
y
O 3G@ NC&&
3

B)ung>s &)dulus E O 34@ +NC&&
3

D&ctored lo&ding
Distri'uted l)ad , O 9.? dead Q 9.G i&-)sed
O 9.? 3? Q 9.G :4
O H9.G +NC&
P)int l)ad J O 9.? 93? Q 9.G H?
O :4H +N
Reacti)ns ,LC3 Q JC3
H9.G GC3 Q :4HC3
O :AH.H +N
T(is is als) t(e &aEi&u& s(ear
MaEi&u& &)&ent ,L
3
CH Q JLC?
H9.G G
3
CH Q :4H GC? O H3A.3 +N&
Section cl&ssi'ic&tion
Rati)s *)r l)cal 'uc+ling 'CT O G.G4 S H.@e
dCt O ?A.: S ;Ae
T(ere*)re secti)n is (l&stic
S/e&r #@!@"
S(ear area A
v
O tD O 99.9 G4;.G O G;??.?
&&
3

S(ear ca-acity P
v
O 4.G -
y
A
v
O 4.G 3G@ G;??.?C94
:

O 94;3.? +N
Design s(ear *)rce F
v
O :AH.H +N
Since F
v
S 4.G P
v
l), s(ear l)ad c)nditi)n a--lies Cl&use #@!@$
8! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Note: t(is is t(e ,)rst arrange&ent )* s(ear *)rce.
T(e 'ea& s()uld 'e c(ec+ed *)r t,) c)nditi)ns6
798 &aEi&u& s(ear *)rce and c)eEistent &)&ent
738 &aEi&u& &)&ent and c)eEistent s(ear *)rce
I* t(e l), s(ear l)ad c)nditi)n a--lies at t(e reacti)ns/ ,(ere t(e s(ear *)rce
is t(e (ig(est/ it a--lies al)ng t(e lengt( )* t(e 'ea&. T(us t(e 'ea& needs
)nly t) 'e c(ec+ed *)r &aEi&u& &)&ent.
Moment c&(&city #@!@$
M)&ent ca-acity *)r -lastic secti)n M
c
O -
y
S
E
-
y
X
M
c
O -
y
S
E

O 3G@ :3H9C94
:
O HGA.@ +N&
)r M
c
O 9.3-
y
X
O9.3 3G@ 3H;?C94
:

O A9? +N&
Critical value is t(e lesser )* t(e t,)
Since M S M
c
7H3A.3 +N& S HGA.@ +N&8 a--lied &)&ent is ,it(in &)&ent
ca-acity.
,e'lection
.pply imposed loads only
Uni*)r& l)ad :4 +NC&
MaEi&u& de*lecti)n *)r a uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad
O @,L
?
C:H?EI
O @ :4 G444
?
C:H? 34@ 94
:

H;:34 94
?
O 3.H: &&
MaEi&u& de*lecti)n *)r a -)int l)ad at &id<s-an
I&-)sed -)int l)ad J O H? +N
O JL
:
C?HEI
O H? 94
:
G444
:
C?H 34@ 94
:

H;:34 94
?
O 3.99 &&
T)tal de*lecti)n O 3.H: Q 3.99 O ?.A? &&
Fr)& Ta'le @ t(e li&iting de*ecti)n *)r a 'ea& carrying 'rittle *inis(es
s-anC:G4 OG444C:G4 O 9G.; &&
Since actual de*lecti)n S li&iting de*lecti)n 7?.A? && S 9G.; &&8/ t(e 'ea&
is servicea'le in de*lecti)n.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 8"
ST3,Y G3I,E #
+e- -e&ring &nd -uckling

Ae&ring on t/e we- #@$@"
L)cal ca-acity )* ,e' P
crit
O 7'
9
Qn
3
8t.-
y,
,(ere6
Sti** 'earing lengt( '
9
O ;@ &&
S-read t) *illet n
3
O 3.@ 7rQT8
O 3.@ 793.;Q9;.:8 O ;@ &&
F)r 'ea& ,e' t(ic+ness )* 99.9 &&
Design strengt( )* ,e' -
y,
O 3;@ NC&&
3
L)cal ca-acity )* ,e' P
c
O 7'
9
Qn
3
8t.-
y,
O 7;@Q;@899.9 3;@C94
:
O ?@H +N
F)rce a--lied t(r)ug( *lange F
v
O :AH.H +N
Since value )* reacti)n is less t(an t(e ca-acity )* t(e ,e'/ n) 'earing
sti**ener is reDuired.
Auckling o' t/e we- #@$@!
0uc+ling ca-acity )* ,e' P
,
O 7'
9
Q n
9
8t.-
c
,(ere6
Sti** 'earing lengt( '
9
O ;@ &&
S-read t) centre )* secti)n n
9
O DC3 O G4;.GC3 O :4:.H &&
-
c
is t(e c)&-ressive strengt( 'ased )n -
y
*)r t(e ,e' 7t O 99.9 && *r)&
Ta'le G6 3;@ NC&&
3
8
and slenderness rati) O 3.@ dCt
d is t(e de-t( 'et,een t(e *illets )'tained *r)& t(e Secti)n Ta'les.
Alternatively dCt is t(e rati) *)r l)cal 'uc+ling )'tained ,(en c(ec+ing t(e
'ea& classi*icati)n 7dCt O ?A.:8.
O 3.@ @?;.GC99.9 O93:.:
)r O 3.@ ?A.: O 93:.:
Fr)& Ta'le 3;7c8
C)&-ressive strengt( -
c
O A? NC&&
3
0uc+ling ca-acity )* ,e' P
,
O 7'
9
Q n
9
8t.-
c

O 7;@Q :4:.H899.9 A?C94
:
O :A@.3 +N
Since t(e reacti)n *)rce is greater t(an t(e ca-acity 7:AH.H +N P :A@.3 +N8 a
l)ad carrying sti**ener ,ill 'e reDuired t) -revent t(e ,e' *r)& 'uc+ling.
6his is not a failure condition and ill not change the suitability of the beam
to carry the loads0 @oe"er stiffeners ill ha"e to be designed to help
distribute the end reaction from the beam eb to the support0
8# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Example 2 1 U!e o" t+e momet -apa-it$ ta%le ad 2%ea#i, ad %&-3li,
(al&e! "o# &!ti""eed *e%!4 ta%le!5
A series )* 'ea&s at :& centres are reDuired t) carry -re<cast c)ncrete
*l))ring units. T(e 'ea&s are si&-ly su--)rted )ver a s-an )* ;&.
Using t(e design data6
7a8 Select a suita'le U0 secti)n.
7'8 C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e c()sen 'ea& in s(ear and de*lecti)n.
7c8 C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e secti)n/ using t(e a--r)-riate sa*e l)ad
ta'le/ *)r ,e' 'earing and 'uc+ling/ given t(at t(e sti** 'earing lengt(
at t(e su--)rts is ?4&&.
Design data6
Dead l)ad due t) -re<cast c)ncrete units 3.@ +NC&
3
Dead l)ad all),ance *)r *inis(es and sel* ,eig(t 9.@ +NC&
3
I&-)sed l)ad G +NC&
3
Sol&tio
Design l)ad O 9.? dead Q 9.G i&-)sed
79.? 3.@ Q 9.@$8 Q 9.G G8 : O ?@.G +NC&
MaEi&u& &)&ent/ M O ,L
3
CH O ?@.G ;
3
CH OO 3;A.: +N&
MaEi&u& s(ear/ F
v
O,LC3 O ?@.G ;C3 O 9@A.G +N
7a8 Fr)& t(e &)&ent ca-acity ta'le select a U0 secti)n ,it( a &)&ent
ca-acity )* at least 3;A.: +N&.
?4G 9;H @? U0 7 M
c
O 3HA +N&8

N) )t(er c(ec+s (ave t) 'e d)ne K d)n>t classi*y t(e secti)nL d)n>t
a--ly clause ?.3.@/ t(e sa*e l)ad ta'le (as already carried )ut t(e
necessary c(ec+s.
7'8 0e*)re s(ear can 'e c(ec+ed using Cl. ?.3.:/ t(e design strengt(/ -
y
/
&ust 'e *)und.
F)r &aterial t(ic+ness )* 94.A &&/ *r)& Ta'le G
Design strengt( 7#rade ?:8 -
y
O 3;@ NC&&
3
S(ear area A
v
O tD O ;.; ?43.G O :944 &&
3
S(ear ca-acity P
v
O 4.G -
y
A
v
O 4.G 3;@ :944C94
:
O @99.@ +N
Design s(ear *)rce F
v
O9@A.G +N
T(e 'ea& is suita'le in s(ear
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 8$
ST3,Y G3I,E #
,e'lection
.pply unfactored imposed loads only
Uni*)r& l)ad G : O 9H +NC&
MaEi&u& de*lecti)n *)r a uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad
O @,L
?
C:H?EI
O @ 9H ;444
?
C:H? 34@ 94
:

9H;34 94
?
O 9?.; &&
Fr)& Ta'le @/ t(e li&iting de*ecti)n *)r a 'ea& carrying 'rittle *inis(es
LC:G4
;444C:G4 O 9A.? &&
Since actual de*lecti)n S li&iting de*lecti)n 79?.; && S 9A.? &&8.
0ea& is servicea'le in de*lecti)n
Using t(e sa*e l)ad ta'les K'earing and 'uc+ling values *)r unsti**ened ,e's
At t(e ')tt)& )* t(e ta'le F'uc+ling and 'earing values *)r unsti**ened ,e's>
t(e *)ll),ing *)r&ula is given6
,e' ca-acity O C
9
Q'
9
C
3
Qt
-
C
:
T(e t(ird ter& )nly a--lies i* additi)nal -lates (ave 'een ,elded t) t(e
*lange )* t(e 'ea&/ t(us *)r a universal 'ea& )nly
,e' ca-acity O C
9
Q'
9
C
3
Ae&ring
F)r t(e ?4G 9;H @? U0 end 'earing
C
9
O 999
C
3
O 3.4A
Sti** 'earing lengt(/ '
9
O ?4 &&
Je' 'earing ca-acity O 999 Q ?4 3.4A
O 999 Q H:.G O 9A?.G +N P 9@A.G +N
0ea& ,e' d)es n)t reDuire a 'earing sti**ener
Auckling
F)r end 'uc+ling C
9
O 9@3
C
3
O 4.;@:
84 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Je' 'uc+ling ca-acity O 9@3 Q ?4 4.;@:
O 9@3 Q :4.9 O 9H3.9 +N P 9@A.G +N
0ea& ,e' d)es n)t reDuire a 'uc+ling sti**ener
T(e end c)lu&n )* t(e ta'le als) gives t(e s(ear ca-acity )* t(e secti)n *)und
using
S(ear ca-acity P
v
O 4.G -y A
v
Fr)& ta'le P
v
O @4@ +N
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 85
ST3,Y G3I,E #
3nivers&l -e&ms su-*ect to -ending moment c&(&city 'or gr&de #" steel
,esign&tion ,esign&tion
Seri&l
SiFe
mm
M&ss?
metre
kg
Moment
C&(&city
k7m
Seri&l
SiFe
mm
M&ss?
metre
kg
Moment
C&(&city
k7m
A9? E ?9A
A9? E :4@
H:H E 3A3
;G3 E 3G;
GHG E 3@?
G94 E :4@
G94 E 33A
@:: E 394
?@; E 9A9
?@; E 9@3
:HH
:?:
3HA
3@:
33?
349
33G
9A?
9;G
9A;
9;:
9?;
9;4
9@3
9?4
93@
3:H
9;A
9?A
9?4
93@
99:
949
933
94A
949
A3
H3
AH
HA
H3
;?
G;
H3
;?
G;
G4
@3
?GA4
?994
::?4
3HA4
3@34
3334
3?:4
34:4
9H44
9A44
9G?4
9:;4
9?A4
9:34
9394
94G4
9AH4
9?G4
9394
9944
A;@
H;3
;A3
H?H
;?;
GA?
G@3
@GG
@A9
@::
@4:
?@G
?4?
?;;
?3A
:AG
:@3
:44
?4G E 9;H
?4G E 9?4
:@G E 9;9
:@G E 93;
:4@ E 9G@
:4@ E 93;
:4@ E 943
3@? E 9?G
3@? E 943
34: E 9::
34: E 943
9;H E 943
9@3 E HA
93; E ;G
;?
G;
G4
@?
?G
:A
G;
@;
@9
?@
:A
::
@?
?G
?4
?H
?3
:;
::
3H
3@
?:
:;
:9
3H
3@
33
:4
3@
3:
9A
9G
9:
?93
:;9
:3;
3HA
3??
9AH
:::
3;H
3?G
39:
9H4
9?H
3:3
9AA
9;3
9A?
9GH
9?H
9:3
993
A3
9@G
9::
94A
A;
H?
;3
HG
;9
G:
?;
:?
3:
86 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Study Guide # End Test
Figure 9 s(),s t(e -art lay)ut )* &ulti<st)rey steel,)r+ structure ,it( -re<
cast c)ncrete *l))r units. T(e c)nstructi)n is suc( t(at all 'ea&s &ay 'e
assu&ed t) (ave *ull lateral restraint t) t(eir c)&-ressi)n *langes and all
c)nnecti)ns can 'e assu&ed t) 'e si&-le.
Using t(e design in*)r&ati)n -r)vided/ c)&-lete t(e *)ll),ing tas+s6
Ae&ms
Ty(e A
7a8 Deter&ine t(e design uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad )n a ty-ical internal
'ea&.
7'8 Deter&ine t(e &aEi&u& 'ending &)&ent and s(ear *)rce )n 'ea& ty-e
A.
7c8 Using t(e a--r)-riate clauses )* 0S H994K9/ c(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* a
?4G 9;H ;? U0 secti)n *)r6
7i8 'ending
7ii8 s(ear
7ii8 de*lecti)n
Ty(e A
7a8 Deter&ine t(e design c)ncentrated l)ad )n a ty-ical internal 'ea&.
7'8 Deter&ine t(e &aEi&u& 'ending &)&ent and s(ear *)rce )n 'ea& ty-e
0.
7c8 Using t(e &)&ent ca-acity ta'le *)r Universal 0ea&s select a suita'le
U0 secti)n.
7d8 C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e selected 'ea& *)r s(ear and de*lecti)n.
7e8 I* t(e end reacti)ns )* 'ea& 0 'ear )n t) a sti** 'earing lengt( )* @4&&
at t(e stanc(i)ns/ c(ec+ t(e 'ea& *)r ,e' 'earing and ,e' 'uc+ling.
St&nc/ion :K.
7a8 Deter&ine t(e design aEial l)ad )n t(e c)lu&n due t) t(e *l))ring.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 88
ST3,Y G3I,E #
7'8 In additi)n t) t(e *l))r l)ading t(e stanc(i)n is reDuired t) carry a
design aEial l)ad )* :9G4+N *r)& u--er *l))rs. Using t(e a--r)-riate
clauses )* 0S H994K9/ c(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* a :4@ :4@ 9@H UC
secti)n i* t(e lengt( 'et,een restraints is ?& and t(e e**ective lengt( L
E
O4.H@L.
7c8 I* t(e UC ,ere t) 'e re-laced 'y a U0 secti)n/ *r)& t(e sa*e l)ad ta'les
select a suita'le secti)n i* side rails ,ere used t) restrain t(e yKy aEis at
&id<(eig(t. L
E
O9.4L *)r ')t( aEes.
De!i, i"o#matio
C(aracteristic dead l)ad due t) *l))r units 3.H +NC&
3
C(aracteristic dead l)ad due t) sel* ,eig(ts
and *inis(es 3.3 +NC&
3
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad @ +NC&
3
De*lecti)n *)r&ulae6
Uni*)r&ly distri'uted l)ad O@,L
?
C:H?EI
C)ncentrated l)ad at t(ird -)ints O3:JL
:
CGH?EI
Fi,&#e 1
199 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E #
Answers
Ty(e A -e&m
7a8 Design l)ad ?A.H +NC&
7'8 MaEi&u& &)&ent M O :AH.? +N&
MaEi&u& s(ear *)rce F
v
O 9AA.3 +N
7c 8 M
c
O ?93 +N&/ P
v
O G?; +N De*lecti)n O 9;.9 S s-anC:G4
Ty(e A -e&m
7a8 C)ncentrated l)ad :AH.? +N
7'8 MaEi&u& &)&ent M O 99A@ +N&
7c8 Secti)n G94 :4@ 9?A U0 )r GHG 3@? 9?4 U0 *)r ')t(
M
c
O 9394 +N&
7d8 F)r G94 :4@ 9?A UC Pv O 99?A +N
de*lecti)n O 9?.? S s-anC:G4
7e8 Je' 'earing ca-acity ?@G +N
Je' 'uc+ling ca-acity ?:9 +N
Column
AEial design l)ad ?3@@ +N
P
c
O ?@3G +N
U0 secti)n6 GHG 3@? 9;4 )r alternative P
cy
O ?;44 +N/ P
cE
O @4?4 +N
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 191
ST3,Y G3I,E $
STUDY GUIDE 6
,esign o' m&sonry &nd tim-er elements
Introduction
T(is study guide c)vers Outc)&es ; and H )* t(e unit.
Outcome 5
Design vertically l)aded single<lea* and cavity ,alls in structural
&as)nry.
Outcome 6
Design *l))ring/ si&-ly su--)rted *l))r =)ists and aEially l)aded
c)lu&ns in structural ti&'er.
On c)&-leti)n )* t(e study guide y)u s()uld 'e a'le t)6
I Design single<lea* and cavity ,alls *)r&ed *r)& 'ric+s andC)r 'l)c+s.
I Design ti&'er *l))r ')ards/ *l))r =)ists and tri&&er 'ea&s.
T(is ,ill inv)lve deter&ining t(e suita'ility )* 'ea&s *)r 'ending
&)&ent/ s(ear *)rce/ de*lecti)n and 'earing at t(e su--)rts.
I Design aEially l)aded ti&'er c)lu&ns.
T(e design -r)cesses are *r)& t(e *)ll),ing 0ritis( Standards6
Arickwork &nd -lockwork
AS 5-+32*'*77+ Code of practice for masonry
>art *' Structural use of unreinforced masonry
Tim-er
AS 5+-32+'*77- Structural use of timber
>art +' Code of practice for permissible stress design, materials and
or$manship
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 19"
ST3,Y G3I,E $
,esign o' m&sonry to AS $4!611 188!
M&teri&ls
Mas)nry is t(e na&e given t) t(e c)nstructi)n c)nsisting )* 'ric+,)r+ 7)r
'l)c+,)r+8 and &)rtar. T(e *inal strengt( )* t(e structural ele&ents *)r&ed
is de-endent )n6
I T(e strengt( )* t(e 'ric+ 7)'tained *r)& t(e &anu*acturer>s data s(eets8
I T(e strengt( )* t(e &)rtar 7de-endent )n &)rtar c)nstituents and
-r)-)rti)ns8
0ric+s &ay 'e divided int) t(e categ)ries6
I Clay K ,(ic( &ay 'e *urt(er su'divided int) c)&&)n/ *acing and
engineering
I Calciu& silicate
I C)ncrete 'ric+s
Standard 'ric+ *)r&at is 39@ && l)ng 943.@ && ,ide G@ && (ig(
0l)c+s &ay 'e de*ined as6
I Clay 'l)c+s
I Dense c)ncrete 'l)c+s
I Aerated 7)r lig(t,eig(t8 c)ncrete 'l)c+s
Si2es can vary *r)& 944 t) 344 && ,ide/ u- t) :44 && (ig( and ??4 &&
l)ng.
M)rtar varieties are6
I Ce&ent6 li&e6 sand
I Mas)nry ce&ent and sand
I Ce&ent6 sand ,it( -lasticiser
M)rtars are as s-eci*ied 'y t(eir &iE -r)-)rti)ns as a rati) )* ce&ent t) li&e
t) sand/ e.g. 9636H 7ce&ent6 li&e6 sand8. Ce&ent sand &)rtars (ave strengt(
'ut acc)&&)date &)ve&ent -))rly. Intr)ducing varying a&)unts )* li&e
all),s t(e &)rtar t) acc)&&)date settle&ent/ te&-erature and &)isture
c(anges t) ,(ic( t(e *inal structure &ay 'e su'=ect/ 'ut (as t(e disadvantage
)* reducing t(e *inal strengt( )* t(e &)rtar. Ta'le 9 )* 0S @G3H designates
*)ur ranges )* &)rtars assigned 7i8/ 7ii8/ 7iii8 and 7iv8.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 19#
ST3,Y G3I,E $
7i8 indicates a &)rtar ,it( (ig( strengt( 'ut -))r at acc)&&)dating
&)ve&ent.
7iv8 indicates a &)rtar g))d at acc)&&)dating &)ve&ent 'ut (aving l),
strengt(.
Ta'le 9 *urt(er s-eci*ies t(e c)nditi)ns )* use 'et,een t(e t(ree &ain &)rtar
ty-es6
Ce&ent6 li&e6 sand &)rtars (ave g))d ')nding -r)-erties and (ence (ig(
resistance t) rain -enetrati)n 'ut l), resistance t) *r)st attac+. C)nversely
ce&ent6 sand ,it( -lasticiser &)rtars (ave a (ig( resistance t) *r)st attac+
'ut d) n)t ')nd ,ell ,it( t(e 'ric+s )r 'l)c+s and &ay 'e su'=ect t) rain
-enetrati)n. Mas)nry &)rtars atte&-t t) -r)vide a &ediu& 'et,een t(e )t(er
t,) &)rtar ty-es 'y (aving 'etter ')nding -r)-erties t(an ce&ents ,it(
-lasticisers and an increased resistance t) *r)st attac+ )ver ce&ent6 li&e6 sand
&)rtars.
,esign consider&tions AS $4!611
Ho&ds
In deter&ining t(e l)ads )n ele&ents )* t(e structure t(e *)ll),ing
c(aracteristic l)ads and t(eir c)&'inati)ns are c)nsidered in t(is c)urse.
,e&d
T(e c(aracteristic dead l)ad 7#
+
8 is t(e ,eig(t )* t(e structure c)&-lete ,it(
*inis(es/ *iEtures and -artiti)ns.
Im(osed
T(e c(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad 7Q
+
8 is calculated in acc)rdance ,it( 0S
G:AA6 Part 9/ 'ased )n t(e activityC)ccu-ancy *)r ,(ic( t(e *l))r area ,ill 'e
used/ )r in acc)rdance ,it( 0S G:AA6 Part : *)r r))* l)ads.
C)&'inati)ns )* t(e a')ve l)ads *)r& t(e 'asis )* t(e design l)ads used in
t(e analysis )* t(e structural ele&ents. Clause 33 )* t(e c)de )utlines/ *)r
c)&'inati)ns )* l)ad/ t(e design l)ads ta+en as t(e su& )* t(e -r)ducts )* t(e
c)&-)nent l)ads &ulti-lied 'y t(e a--r)-riate -artial sa*ety *act)r.
F)r eEa&-le/ t(e c)&'inati)n )* dead and i&-)sed l)ad used *)r t(e design
l)ad is ta+en as t(e &)st severe c)nditi)n )*6
Design dead l)ad O 4.A #
+
)r 9.? #
+
Design i&-)sed l)ad O 9.G Q
+
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 19$
ST3,Y G3I,E $
C/&r&cteristic strengt/ o' m&sonry Cl&use !"
T(e c(aracteristic strengt( *
+
)* any &as)nry ,all )r c)lu&n &ust ta+e int)
c)nsiderati)n t(e *)ll),ing *act)rs6
9. M)rtar ty-e and -r)-)rti)ns K T&-le 1@
3. T(e 'ric+ ty-e and strengt( K T&-le ! 0&2 to 0d2 de-endent )n t(e 'ric+
)r 'l)c+ unit used and rati) )* 'l)c+ di&ensi)ns K see clause !"@1@
:. T(e ()ri2)ntal cr)ss<secti)nal area.
I* t(e -lan area is less t(an 4.3 &
3
t(e c(aracteristic c)&-ressive
strengt( *
+
is &ulti-lied 'y t(e *act)r6
74.;4 Q 9.@A8 !"@1@1
A O ()ri2)ntal cr)ss<secti)nal area 7&
3
8.
?. T(e t(ic+ness )* t(e ,all
F)r eEa&-le !"@1@! states t(at t(e t(ic+ness )* t(e ,all 7single lea*8 is
eDual t) t(e ,idt( )* a standard 'ric+ *)r&at. T(e value )* *
+
)'tained
*r)& ta'le 37a8 &ay 'e &ulti-lied 'y 9.9@
Example
7&e!tio
A 'ric+ ,all is t) 'e c)nstructed )* standard 'ric+s (aving a c)&-ressive
strengt( )* @4 NC&&
3
as s-eci*ied in t(e &anu*acturer>s literature. T(e &)rtar
is reDuired t) (ave (ig( strengt( and a g))d resistance t) *r)st during
c)nstructi)n. T(e ,all t(ic+ness is n)t )* standard 'ric+ t(ic+ness. Select a
suita'le &)rtar and (ence deter&ine t(e c(aracteristic strengt( )* t(e
&as)nry *
+
.
Sol&tio
Using Ta'le 9
#))d resistance t) *r)st and (ig( strengt( is reDuired. T(ere*)re use a
ce&ent6 sand &)rtar ,it( -lasticiser K (ig(est strengt( designati)n 7ii8.
T(ere*)re use &)rtar designati)n 7ii8.
Using Ta'le 37a8 &as)nry c)nstructed *r)& standard 'ric+ *)r&at
F)r &)rtar designati)n 7ii8 and 'ric+ c)&-ressive strengt( @4 NC&&
3

*
+
O 93.3 NC&&
3
194 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
It is a narr), 'ric+ ,all s) clause 3:.9.3 d)es a--ly.
T(us t(e c(aracteristic strengt( )* t(e &as)nry *
+
O93.3 9.9@ O
9? NC&&
3
.
B&rti&l s&'ety '&ctor 'or m&teri&l strengt/ !5
Clause 3; )* 0S @G3H<9 all),s t(e -artial sa*ety *act)r g
&
t) 'e a--lied t)
design -r)cedures.
!alues )* g
&
can 'e *)und using T&-le # and are de-endent )n6
I Categ)ry )* &anu*acturing c)ntr)l )* structural units.
I Categ)ry )* c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l.
In ')t( cases c)ntr)l &ay 'e eE-ressed as normal )r special.
In &anu*acturing c)ntr)l/ normal is ta+en as t(e standard assu&ed t) 'e
su--lied i* n)t s-eci*ically stated )t(er,ise. Special indicates t(at t(e
&anu*acturer (as (ig( Duality c)ntr)l li&its suc( t(at t(e 'ric+s )r 'l)c+s
-r)vided c)nsistently &eet a (ig( standard.
In c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l normal is assu&ed t) 'e t(at )'tained )n site ,it()ut
any rig)r)us su-ervisi)n and testing reDuire&ents. Special indicates t(at
su-ervisi)n and c)ntr)l )n site are t) a (ig( level )* Duality c)ntr)l.
It is t(ere*)re -)ssi'le t) s-eci*y *r)& t(e &anu*acture )* t(e 'ric+ )r 'l)c+s
s-ecial c)ntr)l/ 'ut )n site )nly (ave n)r&al c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l. In t(is case
*r)& Ta'le ? t(is ,)uld give a value
&
)* :.9.
,et&iled design consider&tion Section 'our AS $4!6)1
As ,it( t(e )t(er &aterials used in t(e design )* structural ele&ents/ ,(en
dealing ,it( c)&-ressive &e&'ers 7c)lu&ns and ,alls in t(e case )*
&as)nry8 slenderness is a +ey *act)r.
T(e slenderness rati) is calculated using6
e**ective (eig(t )r lengt(
slenderness rati) O
e**ective t(ic+ness
F)r n)r&al c)nstructi)n t(is s()uld n)t eEceed 3;.
T(e e**ective (eig(t )r lengt( is *)und using clause !6@" ,(ic( lists *)r ,alls/
c)lu&ns and -iers t(e e**ective (eig(t as a *uncti)n )* t(e cle&r distance
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 195
ST3,Y G3I,E $
'et,een lateral su--)rts and t(e resistance t) lateral &)ve&ent. T(is is
si&ilar t) t(e &et()ds given in t(e structural steel,)r+ and rein*)rced
c)ncrete c)des 7*)r eEa&-le L
E
O 9.4L in steel and l
e
O l
)
in c)ncrete
design8.
F)r &as)nry design t(e eE-lanati)n )* t(e ter&s lateral su--)rt and en(anced
resistance are given in clause !6@!.
H&ter&l su((orts
T(e lateral su--)rt can 'e 'ased )n t(e ()ri2)ntal )r vertical di&ensi)n/
de-ending )n ,(et(er t(e su--)rt is -r)vided )n a ()ri2)ntal )r vertical line.
EEa&-les )* t(e ty-e )* su--)rt given are listed 'el),.
F)r t(is c)urse )nly dead and i&-)sed l)ad )n ,alls ,ill 'e c)nsidered/ t(us
)nly t(e e**ective (eig(t )* t(e structure need 'e calculated/ as ,alls reDuired
t) carry ,ind l)ading are c)nsidered t) s-an vertically.
HoriFont&l l&ter&l su((orts
Sim(le resist&nce
F)r ()uses n)t eEceeding t(ree st)reys/ ,it( ti&'er *l))rs and =)ists s-aced
n)t &)re t(an 9.3 & a-art/ and c)nnected 'y suita'le =)ist (angers.
196 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
En/&nced resist&nce
7a8 Fl))rs )r r))*s )* any *)r& )* c)nstructi)n s-anning *r)& ')t( sides at
t(e sa&e level/ i.e. interi)r l)ad 'earing ,alls
7'8 In<situ c)ncrete *l))rs ,(ic( 'ear )n t) at least (al* t(e t(ic+ness )* t(e
,all )r inner lea* )* a cavity ,all/ 'ut n)t less t(an A4 &&
7c8 In t(e case )* ()uses )* n)t &)re t(an t(ree st)reys/ a ti&'er *l))r
s-anning )nt) a ,all *r)& )ne side and (as a 'earing n)t less t(an A4
&&
si&ilar arrange&ent t) a')ve.
E''ective /eig/t !6@"
E**ective /eig/t )* a ,all ,it(6
798 Si&-le resistance is ta+en as t(e clear distance 'et,een su--)rts.
738 En(anced resistance is ta+en as 4.;@ ti&es t(e clear distance 'et,een
su--)rts.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 198
ST3,Y G3I,E $
E''ective t/ickness !6@#
T(e e**ective t(ic+ness )* a ,all is illustrated in Digure " )* t(e c)de ,it(
re*erence t) T&-le $ and is eE-lained in *urt(er detail in clauses !6@#@1 and
!6@#@!
Example
A l)ad 'earing internal single lea* ,all (aving a clear (eig(t )* :.? & is t) 'e
*)r&ed using standard *)r&at 'ric+s. It &ay 'e assu&ed t(at t(e *l))rs are
*)r&ed using ti&'er =)ints at ?@4&& centres. Deter&ine t(e slenderness )*
t(e ,all.
Sol&tio
T(e *l))r ,ill -r)vide en(anced resistance t) t(e ,all.
E**ective (eig(t 4.;@ clear (eig(t O 4.;@ :?44 O 3@@4 &&
E**ective t(ic+ness Ta'le :
E**ective t(ic+ness O ,idt( )* single lea* ,all O 943.@ &&
E**ective (eig(t 3@@4
Slenderness rati) O O O 3?.A S 3; O1
E**ective t(ic+ness 943.@
Eccentricity o' lo&ding
T(e design )* t(e ,all &ust ta+e int) acc)unt any eccentricity )* l)ading t(at
&ay )ccur. Clause "1 gives guidance )n t(e a--licati)n )* dead and i&-)sed
l)ads in ,alls.
F)r e=tern&l w&lls ,it( t(e *l))r 'earing directly )nt) t(e ,all/ t(e l)ad is
assu&ed t) act at
9
C
:
t(e 'earing de-t( *r)& t(e l)aded *ace.
F)r interior w&lls ,it( c)ntinu)us *l))ring eac( side )* t(e *l))r/ t(e l)ad
&ay 'e ta+en as 'earing )n t)
9
C
3
t(e ,idt( )* t(e ,all and eac( -)rti)n is
assu&ed t) act at
9
C
:
t(e 'earing de-t( *r)& t(e l)aded *ace.
F)r *oist /&ngers t(e l)ad is assu&ed t) act at t(e *ace )* t(e ,all.
L)ads *r)& u--er st)reys are assu&ed t) act aEially )n t(e ,all in all cases.
T(e resultant eccentricity/ e
E
/ is calculated 'y eDuating &)&ents due t) t(e
a--lied l)ading ,it( t(e &)&ent due t) t(e t)tal l)ad )n t(e ,all/ and is
eE-ressed in ter&s )* t(e ,all t(ic+ness t.
119 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
,esign (rocedure 'or lo&ding "!
T(e actual l)ad )n t(e ,all is c)&-ared ,it( t(e design vertical resistance )*
t(e ,all. Clause "!@!@1 gives t(e *)r&ula *)r calculating t(e design vertical
resistance )* a ,all -er unit lengt( and t(e de*initi)ns )* t(e ter&s.
.t.*
+

&
K ca-acity reducti)n *act)r all),ing *)r t(e e**ects )* slenderness and
eccentricity/ and is )'tained *r)& ta'le ;
t K t(ic+ness )* t(e ,all
*
+
K c(aracteristic strengt( )* t(e &as)nry

&
K -artial sa*ety *act)r *)r t(e &aterial
Example
Single le&' w&ll
A single lea* internal 'ric+ ,all )* a traditi)nally 'uilt ()use is su'=ect t) t(e
l)ading given in t(e design data. It &ay 'e assu&ed t(at t(e *l))r c)nsists )*
ti&'er =)ists at ?@4&& centres s-anning acr)ss t(e ,all.
C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e ,all in c)&-ressi)n.
Design data
AEial design l)ad *r)& u--er *l))r ?H +NC&
C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ading )n *l))rs 9.@ +NC&
3

C(aracteristic dead l)ad inclusive )* sel*<,eig(t )* *l))rs 4.G +NC&
3
S-an )* *l))r )n le*t (and side )* ,all : &
S-an )* *l))r )n rig(t (and side )* ,all ? &
Clear (eig(t )* ,all 3.; &
C)&-ressive strengt( )* standard 'ric+ units 94 NC&&
3

M)rtar designati)n 7iv8
Categ)ry )* &anu*acturing c)ntr)l )* structural units n)r&al
Categ)ry )* c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l n)r&al
Sol&tio
C&lcul&te design lo&ds
U--er *l))rs ?H +NC&
Design l)ad )n *l))r O 9.? 4.G Q 9.G 9.@
O :.3? +NC&
3
L)ad *r)& l.(.s *l))r O :.3? :C3 R
9
O ?.A +NC&
L)ad *r)& r.(.s *l))r O :.3? ?C3 R
3
O G.@ +NC&
R
T
O @A.? +NC&
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 111
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Dind eccentricity &t to( w&ll
T(e eccentricity *r)& t(e ti&'er *l))rs is assu&ed t) 'e a--lied at tC:
A--lying R
T
.e
E
O SR.tC:
@A.? e
E
O G.@ tC: K ?.A tC:
O 4.44At
Slenderness !6
Ti&'er *l))r s-anning acr)ss t(e ,all ,)uld 'e assu&ed t) give en(anced
resistance 7see 3H.3.3.37a88.
E**ective (eig(t O 4.;@ clear (eig(t O 4.;@ 3.; O 343@ &&
Fr)& Figure : e**ective t(ic+ness )* c)lu&ns and ,alls e**ective t(ic+ness/ t
O 943.@ &&
e**ective (eig(t 343@
Slenderness rati) O O O 9A.H S 3; suita'le
e**ective t(ic+ness 943.@
Design vertical resistance )* a ,all -er unit lengt( "!@!
K *r)& Ta'le ; *)r slenderness O9A.H and e
E
O 4.44A t
As e
E
S 4.4@ t/ eccentricity is ta+en as 4.4@ t
Slenderness
9H 4.;;
34 4.;4
Inter-)lating *)r 9A.H 4.;4G
Material sa*ety *act)r *r)& Ta'le ? *)r n)r&al c)nditi)ns )* &anu*acture and
c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l
&
is "@$@
*
+
K c(aracteristic strengt( )* &as)nry !"
T(e c)&-ressive strengt( *r)& t(e &anu*acturer>s data 94 NC&&
3
and &)rtar
designati)n is 7iv8 *r)& Ta'le 3.
*
+
O :.@ NC&&
3
11! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
T(is can 'e &ulti-lied 'y 9.9@/ as it is a single lea* 'ric+ ,all t(at is eDual in
,idt( t) t(e ,idt( )* a standard *)r&at 'ric+ 7see cl.3:.9.38
*
+
O :.@ 9.9@ O ?.4 NC&&
3
Resistance )* ,all .t.*
+

&
4.;4G 943.@ ?.4
O H3.;NC&& O H3.;+NC&
:.@

As t(is value eEceeds t(e t)tal design l)ad )n ,all 7@A.? +NC&8/ ,all is
suita'le.
C&vity w&lls under com(ression
T(e design -r)cess is t(e sa&e as t(at *)r t(e single lea* ,all 'ut additi)nal
-)ints listed 'el), s()uld 'e c)nsidered6
I Fl))r l)adings are n)r&ally )nly carried )n t(e inner lea*.
I T(e ta'ulated values )* 'ric+ and 'l)c+ arrange&ents are acce-ta'le6
Outer le&' Inner le&'
-rick -rick
-rick -lock
-lock -lock
I T(e t,) leaves )* &as)nry are c)nnected 'y ties in acc)rdance ,it( clause
!8@1 and T&-le 4 )* 0S @G3H.
I As t(e ,alls are c)nnected 'y ties/ t(e e**ective (eig(t )* t(e )uter lea* is
ta+en as 'eing t(e sa&e as t(at )* t(e inner lea*.
I T(e rules )* Digure " are used t) )'tain t(e e**ective t(ic+ness6
t(e greatest )* 3C:7t
9
Q t
3
8
)r t
9
)r t
3
I In design/ eac( lea* is c)nsidered se-arately
T(e slenderness rati) calculati)ns are 'ased )n ')t( leaves.
T(e strengt( calculati)ns are 'ased )n a single lea*.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 11"
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Example
C&vity w&ll
T(e eEternal ,all )* a traditi)nally 'uilt l),<rise structure is s(),n 'el),.
Using t(e design data/ c(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e -rescri'ed c)ncrete 'l)c+s
and select a suita'le c)&-ressive strengt( )* 'ric+.
Design data'
C)&-ressive strengt( )* units6
Inner lea* K 'l)c+ 9@4 && t(ic+ 33@ &&
(ig( ??4 && l)ng @ NC&&
3
C(aracteristic l)ads *r)& u--er *l))r )n inner lea*6
Dead ?4 +NC&
I&-)sed 9H +NC&
I&-)sed l)ading )n *l))rs : +NC&
3
Dead l)ad inclusive )* sel* ,eig(t )* *l))rs :.@ +NC&
3
S-an )* -re<cast c)ncrete units *)r&ing *l))r ?.G &
7units 'ear in inner lea* )nly8
Clear (eig(t )* ,all :.9@ &
M)rtar designati)n 7iii8
Categ)ry )* &anu*acturing c)ntr)l )* structural units n)r&al
Categ)ry )* c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l n)r&al
Sol&tio
C&lcul&te design lo&ds
Outer lea* K aEial 9.? 9: Q 9.G G 3;.H +NC&
Inner lea*
AEial 9.? ?4 Q 9.G 9H H?.H +NC&
Fl))r 79.? :.@ Q 9.G :8 ?.GC3 R
9
O 33.: +NC&
T)tal l)ad R
T
O 94;.9 +NC&
11# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Dind eccentricity &t to( w&ll
T(e eccentricity *r)& t(e *l))r &ay 'e ta+en as
t
C
:
A--lying R
T
e
E
O R
9
tC:
94;.9 e
E
O 33.: tC:
E
33.:t
e O O 4.4;t
94;.9 :
Slenderness !6
Pre<cast *l))r 'earing )n t) t(e ,all ,)uld 'e assu&ed t) give en(anced
resistance/ see 3H.3.3.37a8.
E**ective (eig(t O 4.;@ clear (eig(t O 4.;@ :.9@ & O 3:G3.@ &&
Fr)& *igure : e**ective t(ic+ness greater )*6
7a8 3C: 7t
9
Q t
3
8 O 3C:7943.@ Q 9@48 O 9GH.:: &&
7'8 t
9
943.@ &&
7c8 t
3
9@4 &&
E**ective t(ic+ness O9GH.:: &&
e**ective (eig(t 3:G3.@
Slenderness rati) O O O 9? S 3; suita'le
e**ective t(ic+ness 9GH.::
C&lcul&tions 'or inner le&'
Design vertical resistance )* a ,all -er unit lengt( "!@!
' *r)& Ta'le ; *)r slenderness rati) O9? and e
E
O 4.4;t
Eccentricity 4.4@ t 4.9 t
Slenderness )* 9? 4.HA 4.H:
Inter-)lating *)r 4.4;t 4.HA K 4.43C4.4@ 4.4G O 4.HGG
Material sa*ety *act)r *r)& Ta'le ? *)r n)r&al c)nditi)ns )* &anu*acture and
c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l
&
O :.@
*
+
K c(aracteristic strengt( )* &as)nry !"
T(e c)&-ressive strengt( *r)& t(e &anu*acturer>s data @ NC&&
3
and &)rtar
designati)n is 7iii8.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 11$
ST3,Y G3I,E $
J(ic( Ta'le 3 is t) 'e usedN
As s)lid c)ncrete 'l)c+s are used ,it( a (eig(t t) least ()ri2)ntal di&ensi)n
rati) O 33@C9@4 O 9.@
Clause 3:.9.G states t(at t(e value )* *
+
s()uld 'e )'tained 'y inter-)lati)n
'et,een t(e values given in ta'les 3 7'8 and 37d8
Ta'le 37'8 *
+
O 3.@ NC&&
3
Ta'le 37d8 *
+
O @.4 NC&&
3
*
+
O :.;@ NC&&
3
Resistance )* ,all .t.*
+

&
4.HGG 9@4 :.;@
O 9:A.3NC&& O 9:A.3+NC&
:.@

As t(is value eEceeds t(e t)tal design l)ad )n ,all 794;.9 +NC&8/ ,all is
suita'le.
,esign o' m&sonry w&lls wit/ (iers !6@1
A -ier is a t(ic+ened secti)n *)r&ing an integral -art )* t(e &as)nry
c)nstructi)n. Piers are -laced at regular intervals al)ng t(e ,all and (ave t(e
advantage )* reducing t(e slenderness rati) )* t(e ,all and (ence increasing
its l)ad carrying ca-acity. Piers &ay 'e intr)duced int) single lea* )r cavity
,alls.
Plan vie, )* cavity ,all ,it( -iers at c)nstant centres
T(e design -r)cedure is t(e sa&e as t(at *)r a single lea* )r cavity ,all/ ,it(
an additi)nal c)nsiderati)n given in Ta'le @ ,(en deter&ining t(e e**ective
t(ic+ness )* t(e ,all.
Example
T(e diagra& 'el), s(),s t(e )utline )* a cavity ,all ,it( -iers at :&
centres. T(e ,all is t) 'e *)r&ed *r)& 'l)c+,)r+ 944 && t(ic+ *)r ')t(
114 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
leaves ,it( t(e -iers 'eing an additi)nal 944 && t(ic+ and :44 && ,ide. T(e
cavity 'et,een t(e inner and )uter leaves &ay 'e assu&ed t) 'e @4 &&.
C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e inner lea* t) carry t(e l)ads given in t(e design
data. It &ay 'e assu&ed t(at t(e *l))r units 'ear )ver t(e entire ,idt( )* t(e
inner lea*. T(e (eig(t )* t(e ,all &ay 'e c)nsidered as 'eing ?.3&.
Design data'
Structural units6 c)ncrete 'l)c+
944 && t(ic+ 344 && (ig( :44 && l)ng ; NC&&
3
L)ads *r)& u--er *l))r6
Inner lea* K dead :4 +NC&
i&-)sed 34 +NC&
I&-)sed l)ading )n *l))r @ +NC&
3
Dead l)ad inclusive )* sel* ,eig(t )* *l))rs ? +NC&
3
S-an )* -re<cast c)ncrete units *)r&ing *l))r :.@ &
M)rtar designati)n 7ii8
Categ)ry )* &anu*acturing c)ntr)l )* structural units n)r&al
Categ)ry )* c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l n)r&al
Sol&tio
N)te6 *)r si&-licity t(e )uter lea* calculati)ns (ave 'een )&itted K t(ey
,)uld 'e carried )ut using t(e -r)cedure ad)-ted in t(e -revi)us eEa&-le.
C&lcul&te design lo&ds
Inner lea*
AEial 9.? :4 Q 9.G 34 ;? +NC&
Fl))r 79.? ? Q 9.G @8 :.@C3 R
9
O 3:.H +NC&
T)tal l)ad R
T
O A;.H +NC&
Dind eccentricity &t to( w&ll
T(e eccentricity *r)& t(e *l))r &ay 'e ta+en as tC:
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 115
ST3,Y G3I,E $
A--lying R
T
.e
E
O SR.tC:
A;.H e
E
O 3:.H tC:
E
3:.Ht
e O O 4.4Ht
AA.H :
Slenderness !6
Pre<cast *l))r 'earing )n t) t(e ,all ,)uld 'e assu&ed t) give en(anced
resistance/ see 3H.3.3.37a8.
E**ective (eig(t O 4.;@ clear (eig(t O 4.;@ ?.3 & O :9@4 &&
C)e**icient 1 *r)& Ta'le @
Rati) -ier s-acing t)
-ier ,idt( O :444C:44
O 94
Rati) t
-
Ct
3
O 344C944 O 3
!alue )* 1 *r)& Ta'le @ 1O9.3 7t(is value &ay reDuire t)
'e inter-)lated in s)&e
eEa&-les8
Fr)& Figure : e**ective t(ic+ness greater )*6
7a8 3C: 7t
9
Q 1t
3
8 O 3C:7944 Q 9.3 9448 O 9?G.; &&
7'8 t
9
944 &&
7c8 1t
3
O 9.3 944 934 &&
E**ective t(ic+ness O9?G.; &&
e**ective (eig(t :9@4
Slenderness rati) O O O 39.@ S 3; suita'le
e**ective t(ic+ness 9?G.;
,esign vertic&l resist&nce o' & w&ll (er unit lengt/ "!@!
*r)& Ta'le ; *)r slenderness rati) O 39.@ and e
E
O 4.4H t
Eccentricity 4.4@ t 4.9 t
Slenderness )* 34 4.;4 4.G?
Slenderness )* 33 4.G3 4.@G
Inter-)lating *)r 4.4Ht O 4.G4
116 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Material sa*ety *act)r *r)& Ta'le ? *)r n)r&al c)nditi)ns )* &anu*acture and
c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l
&
O :.@
'
k
1 c/&r&cteristic strengt/ o' m&sonry !"
T(e c)&-ressive strengt( *r)& t(e &anu*acturer>s data ; NC&&
3
and &)rtar
designati)n is 7ii8.
J(ic( Ta'le 3 is t) 'e usedN
As s)lid c)ncrete 'l)c+s are used ,it( a (eig(t t) least ()ri2)ntal di&ensi)n
rati) O 344C944 O 3
Use Ta'le 37d8 *)r unit strengt( ; NC&&
3
and &)rtar designati)n 7ii8
*
+
O G.? NC&&
3
Resistance )* ,all .t.*
+

&
4.G4 944 G.?
O 94A.;NC&& O 94A.;+NC&
:.@

As t(is value eEceeds t(e t)tal design l)ad )n ,all 7A;.H +NC&8/ ,all is
suita'le.
Structur&l design o' tim-er to AS $!461!1884
T(e structural design )* ti&'er ele&ents is 'ased )n -er&issi'le stresses and
de*lecti)ns derived *r)& elastic t(e)ry.
Dle=ur&l mem-ers K &e&'ers su'=ect t) 'ending
Me&'ers su'=ect t) 'ending 7i.e. 'ea&s8 are assu&ed t) 'e(ave in acc)rdance
,it( elastic 'ending t(e)ry -r)vided t(at t(e -er&issi'le &aterial stresses are
n)t eEceeded. T(e 'ending eE-ressi)n can 'e a--lied t) ti&'er design6
MCI O*Cy OECR
At any -)int acr)ss a secti)n )* a 'ea& ,(ic( is l)cated a distance y *r)& t(e
neutral aEis )* a secti)n/ a stress ' ,ill 'e devel)-ed as a c)nseDuence )*
a--lying a 'ending &)&ent M t) t(e secti)n. T(e &agnitude )* t(e stress
devel)-ed ,ill vary ,it( t(e sec)nd &)&ent )* area )* t(e secti)n I.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 118
ST3,Y G3I,E $
In t(e ti&'er design c)de/ is t(e designati)n *)r stress/ (ence t(e a')ve
eDuati)n &ay 'e ,ritten as6
B/I 5/y
In ti&'er design generally rectangular secti)ns are used/ t(ere*)re t(e
&aEi&u& c)&-ressive and tensile 'ending stress ,ill )ccur at t(e eEtre&e
*i'res. T(us y is eDual t) (al* t(e de-t( )* t(e secti)n.
As ')t( I and y are ge)&etric -r)-erties )* t(e secti)n it is c)nvenient t)
c)&'ine t(e t,) ter&s in a single -r)-erty ,(ic( is re*erred t) as t(e elastic
&)dulus and den)ted 'y t(e sy&')l L.
X O ICy
Furt(er/ as rectangular secti)ns are 'eing c)nsidered/ i* ' is t(e ,idt( )* t(e
secti)n and / t(e de-t( t(en I and y &ay 'e eE-ressed as6
I O '(
:
C93 and y O(C3
"ence elastic &)dulus/ L O 7'(
:
C938C7(C38 O -/
!
?4
C)nsidering/ *r)& t(e 'ending eE-ressi)n/ MCI O Cy and c)&'ining ,it( t(e
de*initi)n )* elastic &)dulus t(en6
M < L
T(is can 'e rearranged t) deter&ine t(e &aEi&u& 'ending stress in t(e 'ea&
and t(en c)&-ared ,it( t(e -er&issi'le stress t(at t(e 'ea& &ay carry.
Ot/er design reCuirements
T(e )t(er c(ec+s reDuired t) ti&'er 'ea&s are s(ear/ 'earing/ de*lecti)n and
t(e &aEi&u& de-t( t) 'readt( rati).
As t(e 'ea&s are si&-ly su--)rted/ and generally carry uni*)r&ly distri'uted
l)ads/ s(ear ,ill 'e a &aEi&u& at t(e su--)rts.
MaEi&u& s(ear stress O
: L)ad
K
3 Cr)ss<secti)nal area

T(e end 'earing area is de-endent )n t(e c)ntact area ,it( t(e 'ea& su--)rt.
1!9 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
MaEi&u& 'earing stress O
L)ad L)ad
O
C)ntact area ,idt( )* 'ea& 'earing lengt(
0)t( )* t(ese values can t(en 'e c)&-ared ,it( t(e -er&issi'le values
)'tained *r)& t(e design c)de.
,e'lection/ as ,it( )t(er structural &aterials/ is a servicea'ility reDuire&ent.
MaEi&u& de*lecti)ns are deter&ined using t(e standard de*lecti)n *)r&ulae
and c)&-ared ,it( t(e de*lecti)n li&its given in t(e design c)de.
Tim-er &s & structur&l m&teri&l
Unli+e )t(er c)nstructi)n &aterials/ ti&'er cann)t 'e &iEed t) a -re<
deter&ined *)r&ula. T(e cut ,))d (as t) 'e ins-ected and graded 'y visual )r
&ec(anical &eans. T(e design c)de all),s *)r a nu&'er )* strengt( classes
'ased )n t(e ins-ecti)n )* t(e ti&'er/ )r alternatively/ i* t(e s-ecies )* ti&'er
is +n),n it &ay 'e classi*ied as given in T&-le 6 )* t(e c)de acc)rding t) its
standard na&e.
A--r)-riate grade stresses are assigned t) t(e graded ti&'er. F)r *leEure t(e
a--r)-riate grade stresses are6
I 0ending -arallel t) t(e grain
I C)&-ressi)n -er-endicular t) t(e grain
I S(ear -arallel t) t(e grain
Acc)unt &ust als) 'e ta+en )* t(e l)ading and eE-)sure c)nditi)ns t(at t(e
ti&'er ,ill 'e su'=ect t). T(e design c)de lists al&)st t(irty *act)rs t(at can
'e a--lied t) t(e grade stresses. Only a *e, ,ill 'e )* c)ncern in t(is c)urse.
Modi'ic&tion '&ctors
Moisture content )* ti&'er related t) service class.
It is di**icult t) arti*icially dry s)lid ti&'er &)re t(an 944 && t(ic+/ unless it
is s-ecially dried. 0S @3GH rec)gnises t(ree services classes t(at are related
t) t(e c)nditi)ns )* end use. Service classes 9 and 3 generally reDuire t(e
ti&'er t) 'e arti*icially dried and t(e di&ensi)ns and -r)-erties )* t(e dried
ti&'er can 'e ta+en as t(e grade values. Service class : ti&'er is used ,(en
t(e *inis(ed structure is *ully eE-)sed )r i* t(e ti&'er is &)re t(an 944 &&
t(ic+. In t(is case t(e grade values &ust 'e &)di*ied 'y a *act)r E
!
*)und in
Ta'le 9: ,(ic( all),s *)r t(e di**ering l)ad carrying &ec(anis&s )* ,et and
dry ti&'er.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1!1
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Service
cl&ss
E=&m(les o' end use o'
tim-er
Aver&ge
moisture
content
Moisture content in
e&c/ (iece &t time
e&c/ (iece &t time
: EEternal U *ully eE-)sed P 34 R
3 C)vered and un(eated 9H R 3? R
3 C)vered and (eated 9@ R 34 R
9 Internal use and
c)ntinu)usly (eated
9HR
93R
3?R
34R
Service classes 9 and 3 use un&)di*ied stresses and &)duli. i.e. 1
3
O9
Service class : ti&'er uses &)di*ied stresses and &)duli. i.e. 1
3
S9
,ur&tion o' lo&ding E
"
T(e grade stresses 'ased )n t(e strengt( classes )* t(e ti&'er a--ly t) l)ng<
ter& l)ading )n t(e structural ele&ent. T&-le 1# gives a &)di*icati)n *act)r
*)r vari)us l)ad durati)ns and list values )* 1
:
varying *r)& 9.4 t) 9.;@. 1
:

is a--lied t) t(e grade stresses )nly and d)es n)t a--ly t) t(e &)dulus )*
elasticity.
Ho&d)s/&ring systems E
6
A l)ad<s(aring syste& &ay 'e c)nsidered as 'eing/ *)r eEa&-le/ a series )*
*)ur )r &)re *l))r =)ists c)nnected 'y *l))ring in suc( a ,ay t(at act t)get(er
K a standard ti&'er *l))r. Pr)vided t(at t(e =)ists are n) *art(er a-art t(an
G94 && centres t(en t(e grade stresses s()uld 'e &)di*ied 'y t(e
&)di*icati)n *act)r 1
H
O9.9.
F)r all )t(er syste&s 1
H
&ay 'e ta+en as 'eing eDual t) 9.4.
F)r l)ad<s(aring syste&s t(e me&n &)dulus )* elasticity s()uld 'e used t)
calculate any de*lecti)ns eEce-t in circu&stances ,(ere dyna&ic l)ads &ay
)ccur/ e.g. gy&nasia/ ,(ere t(e &ini&u& value s()uld 'e used.
,e(t/ '&ctor E
5
T(e grade stresses 'ased )n t(e strengt( classes )* t(e ti&'er a--ly t)
&aterials (aving a de-t( 7(8 )* :44 &&. A &)di*icati)n *act)r 1
;
is a--lied
t) t(e grade -ending stress )* 'ea&s (aving a de-t( )t(er t(an :44 &&.
F)r s)lid ti&'er 'ea&s6
De-t( )* 'ea& 7(8 &&
1
;
value
;3 && )r less 9.9;
;3 P ( S :44 7:44C(8
4. 99
( P :44
3
3
4.H97( Q A3:448
7( Q @G3448
1!! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
7otc/ing o' -e&ms E
$
Digure !
N)tc(ing t(e end )* a 'ea& *)r c)nstructi)n -ur-)ses causes stress
c)ncentrati)ns t(at &ust 'e all),ed *)r in t(e s(ear calculati)n. T(e s(ear
stress s()uld 'e calculated 'y using t(e e**ective de-t( 7(
e
8 s(),n in Figure
3. T(e grade s(ear stress s()uld 'e &ulti-lied 'y a &)di*icati)n *act)r 1
@
t)
)'tain t(e -er&issi'le stress.
F)r 'ea&s n)tc(ed )n t(e underside 1
@
O (
e
C(
N)te6 0ea&s ,it( n)tc(es )n t(e t)- edge are n)t c)nsidered in t(is unit.
,e'lection
T(e de*lecti)n is acce-ta'le i* t(e de*lecti)n )* t(e *ully l)aded 'ea& d)es
n)t eEceed 4.44: ti&es t(e s-an )* t(e &e&'er )r 9?&& ,(ic(ever is t(e
lesser.
Tim-er 'le=ur&l mem-ers design e=&m(les
Ao&rding
C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* 34&& t)ngued and gr))ved *l))r ')arding s-anning
'et,een @4&& 3@4&& ti&'er =)ists at G44&& centres. T(e ')ards are )*
strengt( class C9?.
N)te t(at ')arding is n)r&ally -r)vided in lengt(s u- t) :& l)ng. Eac(
')ard s-ans )ver a nu&'er )* =)ists and *)r analysis -ur-)ses &ay 'e treated
as a c)ntinu)us 'ea&.
T(e &aEi&u& &)&ent )ccurs at an internal su--)rt and &ay 'e *)und using
M O ,L
3
C94. T(e &aEi&u& s(ear *)rce 7reacti)n8 )ccurs at t(e )utside
su--)rt and &ay 'e ta+en as !O 4.?,L.
Additi)nal data6
Dead l)ad inclusive )* sel*<,eig(t )* ')ards 4.9@ +NC&
3
I&-)sed l)ad 9.@ +NC&
3
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1!"
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Sol&tio
C)nsider a ,idt( )* ')arding 7'8 O 9& 'O9444 &&
7Actual ,idt( )* *l))r is i&&aterial i* ,idt( )* )ne &etre is assu&ed8
Lengt( 'et,een su--)rts L O G44&& O 4.G&
L)ad )n ')arding , Odead Q i&-)sed O 4.9@ Q 9.@ O 9.G@ +NC&
3
C)nsidering a ty-ical 9& ,idt( )* ')ard 'O9.G@ 9 O 9.G@ +NC&
Aending
MaEi&u& &)&ent M O ,L
3
C94 O 9.G@ 4.G
3
C94 O 4.4G +N&
Elastic &)dulus )* ')ard X O '(
3
CG O 9444 34
3
CG O GGGG; &&
:
Actual 'ending stress/ s O MCX O 4.4G 94
G
CGGGG; O 4.A NC&&
3
Bermissi-le stress <
gr&de -ending stress (&r&llel to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"
E
5
E
6
#rade stress *r)& Ta'le ; K C9? O ?.9 NC&&
3
1
3
K ,et stresses &)di*icati)n *act)r K &aterial 34 &&
t(ic+ K service class 9 E
!
< 1
1
:
K durati)n )* l)ading K )n *l))r t(is &ay 'e ta+en
as l)ng ter& E
"
< 1
1
;
K de-t( *act)r K less t(an ;3 && E
5
< 1@15
1
H
K l)ad<s(aring K ')ards are l)ad<s(aring E
6
< 1@1
Per&issi'le stress O ?.9 9.4 9.4 9.9; 9.9
O @.3H NC&&
3
P 4.A NC&&
3
')ards suita'le in 'ending
S/e&r
MaEi&u& s(ear *)rce ! O 4.?,L O 4.? 9.G@ 4.G O 4.? +N
MaEi&u& s(ear stress
:
3
:! : 4.? 94
v O O O 4.4: NC&&
3'( 3 9444 34


1!# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Bermissi-le stress <
gr&de s/e&r stress (&r&llel to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"
E
6
#rade stress *r)& Ta'le ; K C9? O 4.G NC&&
3
T(e &)di*icati)n *act)rs used *)r 'ending are still a--lica'le K eEce-t 1
;
t(at
is a--lied t) 'ending )nly.
Per&issi'le stress O 4.G 9.4 9.4 9.9
O 4.GG NC&&
3
P 4.4: NC&&
3
')ards suita'le in s(ear
,e'lection
C)nsidering t(e 'ea& as c)ntinu)us/ O ,L
?
C:H?EI
E
&ean
*r)& Ta'le ; K C9? 7)ne ')ard cann)t act )n its ),n8 E O GH44 NC&&
3
I O'(
:
C93 O 9444 34
:
C93 O GGGGG; &&
?
O ,L
?
C:H?EI O 9.G@ G44
?
C7:H? GH44 GGGGG;8 O 4.9: &&
Per&issi'le de*lecti)n 7clause 3.94.;8 O 4.44: s-an O 4.44: G44 O 9.H &&
Actual de*lecti)n less t(an -er&issi'le K 'ea& is suita'le.
Dloor *oists
T(e *l))r =)ists *)r t(e ')arding eEa&-le a')ve als) reDuire t) 'e c(ec+ed. It
&ay 'e assu&ed t(at t(e =)ists are si&-ly su--)rted )ver a s-an )* :.G & and
'ear )n t) 'l)c+,)r+ su--)rts 944 && ,ide. T(e revised dead l)ad t)
include *)r t(e sel*<,eig(t )* t(e 'ea& &ay 'e ta+en as 4.:? +NC&
3
. T(e
=)ists are strengt( class C9G.
Sol&tio
Centres )* =)ists G44&& O 4.G&
L)adC=)ist , O 7dead Q i&-)sed8 centres
O 74.:? Q 9.@8 4.G O 9.9 +NC&
Aending
F)r a si&-ly su--)rted 'ea&
MaEi&u& &)&ent M O ,L
3
CH O 9.9 :.G
3
CH O 9.;H +N&
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1!$
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Elastic &)dulus )* ')ard X O '(
3
CG O @4 3@4
3
CG O @34H:: &&
:
Actual 'ending stress/ O MCX O 9.;H 94
G
C@34H:: O :.?3 NC&&
3
Bermissi-le stress < gr&de -ending stress (&r&llel to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"

E
5
E
6
#rade stress *r)& Ta'le ; K C9G O @.: NC&&
3
1
3
K ,et stresses &)di*icati)n *act)r K &aterial 34 &&
t(ic+ K service class 9 E
!
<1
1
:
K durati)n )* l)ading K )n d)&estic *l))r t(is &ay 'e
ta+en as l)ng ter& E
"
<1
1
;
K de-t( *act)r 7clause 3.94.@8
1
;
O 7:44C(8
4. 99
O :44C3@48
4. 9
O 9.43 E
5
<1@9!
1
H
K l)ad<s(aring K ')ards are l)ad<s(aring E
6
<1@1
T(e assu&-ti)n is t(at t(e *l))r ')ards are )* su**icient lengt( t) distri'ute
t(e l)ad )ver at least *)ur =)ists.
Per&issi'le 'ending stress O @.: 9.4 9.4 9.43 9.9
O @.A@ NC&&
3
S :.?3 NC&&
3
0ea& satis*act)ry in 'ending.
S/e&r
MaEi&u& s(ear *)rce ! O ,LC3 O 9.9 :.GC3 O 9.AH +N
MaEi&u& s(ear stress
:
3
:! : 9.AH 94
v O O O 4.3? NC&&
3'( 3 @4 3@4


Bermissi-le stress < gr&de s/e&r stress (&r&llel to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"
E
6
#rade stress *r)& Ta'le ; K C9G O 4.G; NC&&
3
T(e &)di*icati)n *act)rs used *)r 'ending are still a--lica'le
71
;
is )nly a--lica'le t) 'ending8
Per&issi'le stress O 4.G; 9.4 9.4 9.9
O 4.;? NC&&
3
P 4.3? NC&&
3
=)ist suita'le in s(ear
1!4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Ae&ring
!alue )* reacti)n O ,LC3 O 9.9 :.GC3 O 9.AH +N
%)ist 'ears )n t) a 944&& ,ide su--)rt and ,idt( )* =)ist is @4&&
Actual 'earing stress O
:
3
Reacti)n 9.AH 94
O O 4.:A NC&&
0earing lengt( ,idt( 944 @4


Bermissi-le stress < com(ression (er(endicul&r to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"

E
6
#rade stress *r)& Ta'le ; K c)&-ressi)n -er-endicular t) t(e grain K 3.3
NC&&
3
T,) values )* c)&-ressi)n -er-endicular t) t(e grain are given in Ta'le ;.
J(ic( value s()uld 'e usedN Re*erence s()uld 'e &ade t) N)te 9 )* t(e
ta'le.
T(e &)di*icati)n *act)rs used *)r s(ear are still a--lica'le
Per&issi'le stress O 3.3 9.4 9.4 9.9
O 3.?3 NC&&
3
P 4.:A NC&&
3
'earing lengt( is suita'le
,e'lection
As t(e 'ea& is si&-ly su--)rted/ O @,L
?
C:H?EI
E
&ean
*r)& Ta'le ; K C9? 7)ne ')ard cann)t act )n its ),n8 E O HH44 NC&&
3
I O'(
:
C93 O @4 3@4
:
C93 O G@.9 94
G
&&
?
O @,L
?
C:H?EI O @ 9.9 :G44
?
C7:H? HH44 G@.9 94
G
8 O ?.3 &&
Per&issi'le de*lecti)n 7clause 3.94.;8 O 4.44: s-an Y 9? && O 4.44:
:G44 O 94.H &&
Actual de*lecti)n less t(an -er&issi'le K 'ea& suita'le.
7otc/es
I* t(e 'ea& is n)tc(ed at t(e su--)rt/ t(en t(e s(ear cr)ss<secti)nal area is
reduced and t(e &)di*icati)n *act)r 1
@
a--lies 7see clause 3.94.?8.
C)nsider t(e a')ve 'ea& ,it( a ;@&& n)tc( )n t(e underside.
Di&ensi)n (
e
O ( K ;@ O 3@4 K;@ O 9;@ &&
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1!5
ST3,Y G3I,E $
MaEi&u& s(ear stress
:
3
:! : 9.AH 94
v O O O 4.:? NC&&
3'( 3 @4 9;?


1@ O (eC( O 9;@C3@4 O 4.;
Bermissi-le stress < gr&de s/e&r stress (&r&llel to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"
E
6
E
$
Per&issi'le stress O 4.G; 9.4 9.4 9.9 4.;
O 4.@3 NC&&
3
P 4.:? NC&&
3
%)ist is still suita'le in s(ear.
Tim-er com(ression mem-ers
As ,it( all structural &aterials/ t(e design )* c)&-ressi)n &e&'ers is
de-endent )n t(e slenderness rati).
J(ere t(e slenderness rati)/ O L
e
Ci
L
e
O e**ective lengt( is *)und using T&-le 16J ,(ic( lists *)r c)nditi)ns )*
end restraint/ t(e rati) )* L
e
CL/ ,(ere L is t(e actual lengt(.
!alues given *)r L
e
are 4.;L/ 4.H@L/ 9.4L/ 9.@L and 3 L.
i is t(e radius )* gyrati)n )* t(e secti)n. As )nly s)lid rectangular secti)ns
,ill 'e dealt ,it(/ t(ere are t,) -)ssi'le aEes )* 'uc+ling/ EKE and t(e yKy.
"ence t(ere are t,) values )* slenderness rati)6

E
O L
eE
Ci
E

y
O L
ey
Ci
y
T(e radius )* gyrati)n i
E
O I
E
CA i
y
O I
y
CA
J(ere I 7*)r a rectangular secti)n8 O '(
:
C93 I
E
O'(
:
C93 and I
y
O('
:
C93
1!6 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Area A O '(
c)nsidering EKE aEis c)nsidering yKy aEis
T(e critical slenderness rati) is t(e larger )* t(e t,)
In n) case s()uld t(e slenderness rati) eEceed 9H4 7see clause !@11@#8
T(e -er&issi'le stress is 'ased )n t(e c)&&ents )* clause !@11@$ ,(ic( gives
t,) design -r)cedures6
9. C)&-ressi)n &e&'ers ,it( slenderness rati)s less t(an @ 7s()rt
c)lu&ns8
3. C)&-ressi)n &e&'ers ,it( slenderness rati)s greater t(an @ 7slender
c)lu&ns8
In ')t( cases t(e -er&issi'le stress is ta+en as t(e grade c)&-ressi)n stress
-arallel t) t(e grain &ulti-lied 'y t(e &)di*icati)n *act)rs *)r &)isture
c)ntent/ durati)n )* l)ading and l)ad s(aring.
Bermissi-le stress < gr&de stress (&r&llel to t/e gr&in E
!
E
"
E
6
In additi)n *)r &e&'ers ,it( a slenderness greater t(an @/ t(e a')ve *)r&ula
is &ulti-lied 'y 1
93
given in Ta'le 9A.
Fact)r 1
93
varies ,it( slenderness rati) as calculated a')ve and ,it(
EC
c
/
,(ere E O &ini&u& &)dulus )* elasticity )* t(e &aterial/ and

c
/ O c)&-ressi)n -arallel t) t(e grain.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1!8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Example
Single column
A ti&'er c)lu&n 344&& 344&& is reDuired t) carry a l)ad )* 394 +N. T(e
l)ad (as 'een trans*erred t) t(e c)lu&n 'y ti&'er =)ists suc( t(at t(e end
restraint c)nditi)ns t)- and ')tt)& &ay 'e ta+en as restrained in -)siti)n 'ut
n)t in directi)n. T(e (eig(t )* c)lu&n is 3.H & and t(e ti&'er &ay 'e ta+en
as strengt( class C3;. T(e l)ad &ay 'e c)nsidered as s()rt ter&.
Sol&tio
As ti&'er is greater t(an 944&& t(ic+ it ,)uld 'e di**icult t) dry t(e secti)n/
s) use ,et stresses. !alues *)und in Ta'le ; are &)di*ied 'y *act)r 1
3
*)und
in Ta'le 9:
Fr)& Ta'le ;

c
/ O c)&-ressi)n -arallel t) t(e grain O H.3 NC&&
3
1
3
O 4.G
E
&i n
O H344 NC&&
3
1
3
O 4.H
L
e
O9.4L O 3H44 &&
I O '(
:
C93 O 344 344
:
C93 O 9.::: 94
H
&&
?
A O '( O 344 Z 344 O ?4444 &&
3
iO ICA O @;.; &&
l O L
e
Ci O 3H44C@;.; O ?H.@ 7*)r ')t( aEes8 S 9H4 suita'le
Rati) EC
c
/ O 7H344 4.H8C7H.3 4.G8 O 9:::.: [&)di*ied 'y *act)r 1
3
\
Fr)& Ta'le 9A6
?4 @4
9:44 4.H4A 4.;@;
9?44 4.H99 4.;G4
M)di*icati)n *act)r 1
93
*)r O ?H.@ and EC
c
/ O9:::.: 1
93
O 4.;G;
Alternatively *)r Ta'le 9A an eDuivalent slenderness L
e
C' &ay 'e used *)r
rectangular secti)ns/ in t(is eEa&-le 3H44C344 O 9?
Fr)& Ta'le 9A6
99.G 9?.@
9:44 4.H4A 4.;@;
9?44 4.H99 4.;G4
as 'e*)re.
1"9 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
1
:
*)r s()rt ter& l)ading O 9.@
1
H
*)r n)n l)ad<s(aring &e&'er O 9.4
Per&issi'le stress O grade stress -arallel t) t(e grain 1
3
1
:
1
H
1
93
O H.3 4.G 9.@ 9 4.;G;
O @.GG NC&&
3
Actual c)&-ressive stress O L)adCArea O 394 94
:
C?4444 O @.3@ NC&&
3
As t(is is less t(an @.GG NC&&
3
t(e c)lu&n is suita'le.
Example
Column 'orming (&rt o' & (&rtition w&ll
A ti&'er c)lu&n )* ;3&& 9GH&& cr)ss<secti)n su--)rts a &ediu& ter&
aEial l)ad )* 3? +N. T(e c)lu&n *)r&s -art )* a -artiti)n ,all t(at is :.A &
(ig( and t(e c)lu&ns are arranged suc( t(at t(ere is n) l)ad s(aring. T(e
c)lu&n is restrained in -)siti)n )nly t)- and ')tt)& and is -r)vided ,it(
restraining side rails at t(e t(ird -)ints a')ut t(e ,ea+er aEis. C(ec+ t(e
suita'ility )* strengt( class C33 t) carry t(e l)ad.
Sol&tio
As t(ere are t,) di**ering e**ective lengt(s and (ence t,) di**erent
slenderness rati)s/ t(e critical aEis &ust 'e identi*ied
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1"1
ST3,Y G3I,E $
L
e
O :.A& L
e
O9.:&
I O '(
:
C93
:
;3 9GH
IE O
93

:
9GH ;3
Iy O
93

3H.?@ 94
G
&&
?
@.3: 94
G
&&
?
iO ICA 3H.?@ 94
G
C79GH ;38 @.3: 94
G
C79GH ;38
?H.@ && 34.H &&
l O L
e
CI
:A44
O H4.?
?H.@
9:44
O G3.@
34.H
Critical aEis *)r 'uc+ling is t(e EKE aEis
Secti)n is less t(an 944&& t(ic+ s) service class 9 )r 3 a--lies 71
3
O 9.48
Fr)& Ta'le ;

c
/ O c)&-ressi)n -arallel t) t(e grain O ;.@ NC&&
3
E
&i n
O G@44 NC&&
3
Rati) EC
c
/ O G@44C;.@ O HG;
Fr)& Ta'le 9A *)r t(e rati) value )* HG; and l O H4.? 1
93
O 4.@9
1
:
*)r &ediu& ter& l)ading O 9.3@
1
H
*)r n)n<l)ad s(aring &e&'er O 9.4
Per&issi'le stress O grade stress -arallel t) t(e grain 1
3
1
:
1
H
1
93
O ;.@ 9.4 9.3@ 9 4.@9
O ?.;H NC&&
3
Actual c)&-ressive stress O L)adCArea O 3? 94
:
C7;3 9GH8
O 9.AH NC&&
3

As t(is is less t(an ?.;H NC&&
3
t(e c)lu&n is suita'le.
1"! STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Study Guide $ End Test
Tim-er design
In )rder t) gain &)re s-ace *)r selling g))ds a retailer (as decided t) (ave a
&e22anine *l))r erected in "ig( Street -re&ises. T(e retailer (as reDuested
t(at t(e c)nstructi)n s()uld 'e ti&'er/ 'e le*t eE-)sed/ and 'e a *eature )* t(e
-re&ises.
Figure 9 s(),s t(e -r)-)sed &e22anine -lan and -art secti)n. A tri&&er
'ea& ,ill su--)rt t(e *l))r =)ists internally/ and eEternally t(e =)ists ,ill 'e
su--)rted 'y t(e eEisting 'ric+ ,alls.
All ti&'er &e&'ers are s(),n as dressed si2es.
Dloor *oists
7a8 I* t(e *l))r =)ists are at G44&& centres/ deter&ine t(e design l)ading )n
a ty-ical &e&'er.
7'8 C(ec+ t(e suita'ility in 'ending and s(ear )* an H;&& 39G&&
secti)n.
Trimmer -e&m
7a8 Treating t(e l)ading *r)& =)ists t) 'e uni*)r&ly distri'uted/ deter&ine
t(e &aEi&u& 'ending &)&ent and s(ear *)rce in t(e tri&&er 'ea&.
7'8 #iven t(at t(e *l))r =)ists -r)vide *ull lateral restraint t) t(e tri&&er/
c(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* a 939&& :39&& secti)n in 'ending and
de*lecti)n.
7c8 I* t(e 'ea& 'ears )n t) 944&& ,ide 'ric+ at t(e eEternal su--)rts
c(ec+ its suita'ility in 'earing.
7d8 In )rder t) reduce t(e )verall de-t( )* t(e *l))r c)nstructi)n a ;4&&
n)tc( is t) 'e cut )ut )* t(e tri&&er 'ea& as s(),n in t(e -art secti)n.
C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e 'ea& in s(ear at t(e c)lu&n su--)rt
Column
7a8 Deter&ine t(e design l)ading )n t(e c)lu&n.
7'8 C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(e 939&& 939&& secti)n i* t(e e**ective
lengt( )* t(e c)lu&n can 'e ta+en as :&.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1""
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Design data
Durati)n )* l)ading l)ng ter&
Ti&'er grade C3;
Dead l)ading including sel*<,eig(t )* ti&'er 9.@ +NC&
3
I&-)sed l)ading ? +NC&
3
Fi,&#e 1
1"# STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
M&sonry design
Figure 3 s(),s t(e lay)ut )* a derelict city centre 'uilding/ t(e eEisting
eEternal ,alls )* ,(ic( are inca-a'le )* resisting any additi)nal l)ads. B)ur
client (as recently -urc(ased t(e 'uilding ,it( a vie, t) ren)vating it. T(e
l)cal aut()rity (as insisted t(at t(e eEisting *acade &ust re&ain in -lace i*
-)ssi'le. A*ter a structural survey (ad 'een carried )ut )n t(e 'uilding it ,as
disc)vered t(at )ne ,all ,as in suc( a 'ad state )* re-air t(at it &ust 'e
de&)lis(ed.
In c)nsultati)n ,it( t(e client and (is arc(itect it (as 'een decided t(at an
inner carcass )* 'ric+ ,)r+ )r 'l)c+ ,)r+ ,ill 'e used t) trans&it t(e l)ads
*r)& t(e structure t) t(e *)undati)ns and a ne, cavity ,all ,)uld re-lace t(e
,all t(at (as t) 'e de&)lis(ed. T(e ne, &as)nry ,ill 'e tied t) t(e eEisting
*acade t) -r)vide it ,it( a degree )* sta'ility 'ut t(ere ,ill 'e n) l)ad
interacti)n 'et,een t(e eEisting and ne, ,)r+.
T(e client (as a su--ly )* 'ric+s t(at (e ,is(es t) use )n t(e c)ntract.
"),ever t(e arc(itect *eels t(at 9@4&& 'l)c+s *)r t(e cavity ,all and
344&& 'l)c+s *)r t(e inner carcass ,all ,)uld 'e a 'etter arrange&ent.
T,) designs are t(us reDuired *)r t(e ne, &as)nry ad=acent t) t(e *acade and
*)r t(e ,all re-lacing t(e de&)lis(ed side.
C)nsidering t(e ,alls t(at are t) 'e designed t) (ave a clear (eig(t )* :.G&
and t(at t(e *l))rs *ra&ing int) t(e ,alls -r)vide en(anced resistance and
using relevant design in*)r&ati)n given6
7ew m&sonry &d*&cent to t/e '&c&de 0single skin m&sonry design2
Arick
7a8 Deter&ine t(e design aEial l)ad -er &etre )n a single s+in 'ric+ ,all
,it( -iers every :&.
7'8 C(ec+ t(e suita'ility )* t(is arrange&ent t) carry t(e design l)ad.
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1"$
ST3,Y G3I,E $
Alock
7c8 Deter&ine t(e design aEial l)ad -er &etre )n a 344 && 'l)c+ ,all.
7d8 C())se a suita'le c)&-ressive strengt( )* 'l)c+ and a suita'le &)rtar
designati)n t) carry t(e design l)ad.
Re(l&cement w&ll 0c&vity m&sonry construction2
Arick
7a8 Deter&ine t(e design aEial l)ad -er &etre )n a cavity 'ric+ ,all ,it(
-iers every 9.@&.
7'8 C(ec+ t(is arrange&ent )* t(e 'ric+ ,all t) carry t(e design l)ad.
Alock
7c8 Deter&ine t(e design aEial l)ad -er &etre )n t(e 9@4 && 'l)c+ cavity
,all
7d8 C())se a suita'le c)&-ressive strengt( )* 'l)c+ and a suita'le &)rtar
designati)n t) carry t(e design l)ad. T(e cavity ,idt( 'et,een t(e
s+ins &ay 'e ta+en as G4 &&.
Design data6
C(aracteristic dead due t) *l))ring 3.G+NC&
3

C(aracteristic i&-)sed l)ad :+NC&
3
C(aracteristic l)ads *r)& u--er *l))rs6
Single s+in ,alls
F)r 'ric+ ,all dead ?4+NC&
i&-)sed @4+NC&
F)r 'l)c+ ,all dead ??+NC&
i&-)sed @4+NC&
Cavity ,all
0ric+
Inner lea* dead H4+NC&
i&-)sed GG+NC&
1"4 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8
ST3,Y G3I,E $
0l)c+
Inner lea* dead H?+NC&
i&-)sed GG+NC&
Manu*acturing c)ntr)l and c)nstructi)n c)ntr)l can 'e assu&ed t) 'e n)r&al
t(r)ug()ut
0ric+s su--lied 'y client K standard *)r&at K c)&-ressive strengt( )* unit
@4 NC&&
3
M)rtar designati)n 7iii8
Pr)-)sed 'l)c+s K s)lid c)ncrete ??4&& l)ng 39@&& (ig( 9@4 )r 344
t(ic+.
Fi,&#e 2
STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8 1"5
ST3,Y G3I,E $
A!*e#!
Tim-er
?loor &oists
Design l)ading :.: +NC&
MaE. &)&ent G.G +N&
MaE. s(ear *)rce G.G +N
Per&issi'le 'ending stress 99.? NC&&
3
actual 'ending stress A.;G NC&&
3
Per&issi'le s(ear stress 9.39NC&&
3
actual s(ear stress 4.@: NC&&
3
6rimmer beam
Design l)ading 99 +NC&
MaE. &)&ent 9;.H +N&
MaE. s(ear *)rce 9A.H +N
Per&issi'le 'ending stress A.A NC&&
3
actual 'ending stress H.G NC&&
3
Per&issi'le s(ear stress 4.A:NC&&
3
actual s(ear stress 4.A NC&&
3
Per&issi'le 'earing stress 3.;@NC&&
3
actual 'earing stress 9.G: NC&&
3
Column
Design l)ad :A.G +N
Per&issi'le c)&-ressive stress
?.9: NC&&
3
actual c)&-ressive stress 3.; NC&&
3
M&sonry
Fl))r l)ading 3;.:; +NC&
Single leaf bric$
T)tal l)ad 9G:.:? +NC& &ini&u& eccentricity
Slenderness 3:.A
Resistance 9G?.@ +NC&
Single leaf bloc$
T)tal l)ad 9GA +NC& &ini&u& eccentricity
Slenderness 9:.@
Mini&u& *
+
O G.?3 NC&&
3
C)&-ressive strengt( )* unit :@ NC&&
3
Ca"ity all bric$
Inner lea*
T)tal l)ad 3?@ +NC& &ini&u& eccentricity
Slenderness 9;
Resistance 3?@.3 +NC&
Ca"ity all bloc$
Inner lea*
T)tal l)ad 3@4.@ +NC& &ini&u& eccentricity
Slenderness 9:.@
Mini&u& *
+
O :.3: NC&&
3
C)&-ressive strengt( )* unit 94 NC&&
3
1"6 STRUCTURAL ANALBSIS AND DESI#N 7A"8