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European Journal of Scientific Research

ISSN 1450-216X Vol.34 No.4 (2009), pp.591-603

© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009

http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

Jamshed Khan Khattak Assistant Professor F.G. College Of Commerce, H-8/4 Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail: jktk64@yahoo.com Tel: ++92-51- 4445183

Muhammad Aslam Khan Associate Professor HITEC University Taxila E-mail: aslamnuml@yahoo.com Tel: ++92-03005555084

Abstract

The purpose of this research study was to examine the consequences that television advertising has upon the general attitude of college students towards television advertising in Pakistan. The data was collected from the randomly selected 538 college students including both genders. The respondents in five major cities like Peshawar, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Quetta and Karachi. were asked to answer a self administered questionnaire. The descriptive, correlation and regression analysis tools were made use of to analysis the data. The results revealed that the television advertising in Pakistan has a significant but negative ethical and social consequence however a positive economic one. The results indicated that there is significant positive general attitude of students towards the television advertising in Pakistan. The respondents also demanded more regulations to control the television advertising in Pakistan. The study also predicted a positive relationship between the consequences and general attitude of the students towards the television advertising. The study recommends that marketers and the regulatory bodies have the responsibility to pay proper attention to the rising ethical, social and regulatory concerns of the students’ about the television advertising. Moreover the study provides a useful bench mark for the future research studies.

Keywords: Attitude, Ethical, Economic, Social, Regulatory, Student

1. Introduction

Advertising is a communication tool used by the marketers to persuading the potential buyers to

purchase certain product or service. It plays a pivotal role in achieving the financial and commercial objectives of the companies concerned. The role of advertising is also vital in the cutthroat competitive environment and the mushroom branding in the present century. The challenges of the age demand a bit more of the marketers towards informing, educating and facilitating the customer as to how to have

a timely access to certain product or a service in a novel and innovative way. The marketers are therefore devising ways to make advertising more effective.

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

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Despite the fact that advertising is an effective tool for the business along with its being an important element of the modern age and a fast growing industry, the public image of advertising is still a matter of great concern. (O’Donohoe,1995). Advertising is criticized for its presenting misleading information, promoting adverse values, fake claims, subliminal seduction messages and persuading people to buy things they no longer need

(Katona, 1964; Pollay, 1986; Pollay and Mittal,1993). Again, this industry is blamed of spreading unsustainable consumption patterns around the world over and encouraging excessive consumption. All the foregoing aspects are apt to hinder its effectiveness as well as efficiency as a marketing tool (Beales et al., 1981; Calfee and Ringold, 1987; Pollay and Mittal, 1993; Wright, 1986). Therefore, it is critical of the advertising concerns to follow the public opinion advertising for its for reaching impact on the economy, cultural values and on the business itself. (Wills and Ryans; 1982). The students represent a sizeable segment of the society. They have dominating role in opinion making. That is why; exclusive studies on the students’ attitude towards advertising are being carried out in different parts of the world today. To exploring the college students’ attitudes towards advertising is important for several reasons. They are a large and ever growing segment of the populace. They have considerable amount

of money at their disposal. They are the outstanding asset for the product and service sellers as they are

the trendsetters and early adopters. They can influence the purchasing decisions of their peers and

parents, establish brand loyalties that continue long after the college days, and ensure a higher standard

of living after their graduation (Morton, 2001; Russell, 1996; Wolburg and Pokrywczynski, 2000).

2. Literature Review

2.1. Ethical Consequence

Penny M. Simpson, Gene Brown, Robert E. Widing II (1998 ) proposed that the unethical perceptions

of the advertisement shown significantly and negatively affected all advertising response variables like

Ad credibility, Attitude toward advertising, attitude toward the advertiser, pleasure and Ethical judgment. Sandage & Leckenby (1980); Rettie, Robinson & Jenner (2001) and Zhang (2000) suggested that using meddling tactics in advertising while competing for consumers attention can be frustrating to the audiences and can lead to affinity of generally negative public attitude towards advertising. Chung-Chuan Yang (2000) has found that negative effects of advertising on students’ attitude towards advertising. They found taht students in Taiwanese college consider advertising as wasteful of national resources, encourages people to waste, and persuades them to buy things they should not buy. The students also agree that advertising is misleading and deceptive Reid & Soley (1983) found that in spite of doubtful effectiveness, sex appeals in advertising is still thought-out a useful method to draw attention of consumer to an ad.

2.2. Economic impact

Nicholas J. Ashill, Ugur Yavas (2004) suggest that advertising attitudes consist of social and economic dimensions. Their findings suggest that advertisers in Turkey and New Zealand should create advertisements that are believable. The positive relationship between believability and overall attitudes towards advertising also suggests that advertisers should be sensitive to tactics that generate consumer skepticism Chung-Chuan Yang (2000) has found Taiwanese college students agreed that advertising helps

a nation’s economy; advertising promotes competition and benefits consumers and raising their standards of living. Chung-Chuan Yang (2000) identifies that students consider advertising as an important source of fashion information and helps them keep up with the products and services available in the market place.

Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan

Beard (2003) replicated Larkin’s study and found that college students recognize advertising as performing an important economic role.

593

2.3. Social Consequence

Ramaprasad and Thurwanger (1998) studied Malaysian university students and found that they had average to negative interactions with and beliefs about advertising. These students also rated the social impacts of advertising more negatively than its economic impacts. Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, Shabana Kirmani, Hafiz Faiz-Ul-Hassan (2008) conducted a survey on children attitude towards T.V advertisement in Pakistan and found that a greater percentage of respondent children disagree to the claim that TV add tells the truth Similarly their results show that children feel the annoying qualities of advertisements and are agree that most TV advertisement are poor in taste and annoying. Dan Petrovici, Svetla Marinova, Marin Marinov, Nick Lee (2007) find out the perceived socio- economic effects of advertising, and consumer beliefs and attitudes toward advertising in Bulgaria and Romania. According to them there is a common belief (more than 80 per cent) that advertising promotes undesirable values and messages. Beard (2003) found that college students of today strongly believe that advertising persuade people to buy things which they do not need. According to the Harvard Law Review Association (1967) since Aristotle most of the intellectuals had dislike the materialism aspect of the marketplace. The critics consider advertising being a source of vulgarity and focused on sensual values.

2.4. Advertising Regulations

Harvard Law Review (1967) reveals that as the complexity of marketing communication techniques amplified, the deficiency of existing general and statutory law to deal with the evils of false and deceptive advertising became more important. In the advent of marketing arena it is desirable of that new regulation being considered to have complete and useful control over the advertising. It is further stated in the public interest the regulation be open to public assessment and condemnation

2.5. Attitude towards Advertising

Daniel Katz (1960) defines attitude as an individual tendency to assess some body, thing or feature around him in a approving or disapproving manner. It is considered that one way to express an attitude is the verbal opinion. According to Bauer &Greyser, (1968) attitude toward advertising is affected by audience behavior toward advertising If the decision-maker’s behavior is positive towards advertising, he/she will be inclined toward advertising (Pollay and Mittal, 1993). The advertising dimension that was researched extensively was attitude towards advertising (Ramaprasad and Thurwanger 1998). A search of the literature revealed a huge gap in the measurement of consequences and impact of television advertising, and students’ general attitudes toward television advertising in Pakistan. To the best of researcher’s knowledge, no study on students’ general attitude towards television advertising has been carried out in the Pakistani context. The fact that college students in Pakistan represent a large segment of the market, has a good deal of “purchasing power” and influence, they deserve serious attention by marketing researchers.

3. Problem Statement

This study aims at investigating the consequences and impact that television advertising has upon the general attitude of college students Pakistan.

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

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4. Research Question

This study aimed at investigating the consequences and impact of television advertising upon the college students’ general attitude. Keeping in view the ever growing need for understanding the students for their being an important segment of the customers purchasing the products and services the following research questions were posed:- Is the television advertising creating any ethical, economic, social and regulatory concerns among the college students in Pakistan? Do the consequences of the television advertising predict the general attitude of the college students in Pakistan?

5. Research Objectives

The following are the objectives of this research study, namely:

1)

To examine the consequences of the television advertising upon the college students.

2)

To examine the students’ attitude towards the television advertising in general.

3)

To determine the impact of different consequences of the television advertising upon the college students’ general attitude towards television advertising.

4)

(4)

6. Significance of Study

5. The study provides adequate guideline, for the regulator, the advertisers and media alike to reformulate their strategies in the light of the prevailing trend with the view to making the television advertising more effective.

6. The study will provide a benchmark for future studies with regard to the college students’ attitude towards advertising

7. Hypothesis

Keeping in view the purpose of the study the following hypotheses were developed:

H

H

H

1

2

:

:

3 :

The television advertising has the ethical consequences for the college students in Pakistan. H 1a : The television advertising is considered to be deceptive by the college students. H 1b : The college students feel that the television advertising has been greatly exaggerated. H 1c : They perceive the television advertising as the pornographic one. The television advertising has the economic consequences for the college students in Pakistan. H 2a : They consider the television advertising a source of economic growth. H 2b : They feel the television advertising to be a major factor aiming at improving the standard of living. H 2c : They perceive that the television advertising ensures quality products. H 2d : They believe that the television advertising promotes competition and help curtail the prices of product and services. The television advertising has social consequences for the college students. H 3a : The college students feel that the television advertising encourages the people to buy things which they don’t need. H 3b : They feel that the excessive television advertising is confusing the people H 3c : They argue that the television advertising degrades the people value system by promoting the materialistic way of life.

595

H 3d : They criticize the television advertising for its being a promoter of undesirable values among the youth. H 4 : The college students demand the new comprehensive advertising regulations H 4a : They demand ban on advertising of products which are harmful for society. H 4b : College students recommend regulations to control deception and puffery in television advertising. H 4 c: College students recommend regulations to control proliferation in television advertising. H 5 : The college students have generally positive attitude towards the television advertising. H 5a : They believe that the television advertising is generally good. H 5b : They believe that the television advertising is generally helpful. H 5c : They consider the television advertising to be generally believable. H 6 : Ethical consequences of the television advertising are positively correlated to the general attitude of students. H 7 : Economic effects of the television advertising are positively correlated to the general attitude of students. H 8 : Social consequences of the television advertising are positively correlated to the general attitude of students. H 9 : Feelings about the television advertising governing regulations are positively correlated to the general attitude of students

Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan

8. The Research Methodology

8.1. Sample

With the view to investigating the attitude of students (both male and female) towards the television advertising, the targeted populace was confined to the college students. For the purpose a countrywide survey was conducted in the colleges of the six metropolitans (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad). A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed out of which 508 questionnaires were retrieved. The response rate was 85%.

8.2. Measurement of the Variables

Bauer and Greyser (1968) adapted Larkin’s (1977)’s items to study the attitudes toward advertising. Subsequently, numerous other studies (Anderson et al., 1978; Andrews, 1989; Greyser and Reece, 1971; Haller, 1974; Schutz and Casey, 1981; Triff et al., 1987) employed the same scale. The researcher has designed measures to assess the following four attitudinal using Larkin’s scale:

(a)

Ethical consequences (Deception, Puffery, Sexual Appeals)

(b)

Economic consequences (Economic growth, Standard of living, Quality products, Decreasing Prices)

(c)

Social consequences (Needless products, Clutter, Materialisms, Undesirable values)

(d)

Advertising regulations (Harmful Products, Regulations, Proliferation)

The questionnaire selected the General Attitude scale from Pollay and Mittal (1993) to measure the general attitude (Good, Helpful, Believable) of students towards advertising. The five point Likert Scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree were devised to measure response.It also sought the demographic information like gender, age and class of the respondents

8.3. Analysis Tools

The descriptive statistics were made use of for analyzing the consequences of the television advertising and the governing regulations. The t-test was resorted to determine the significance of the descriptive statistics with the reference value of 3. To determine the relationship among the various elements of the television advertising consequences and general attitude of the students towards this industry the

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

596

Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used. Linear regression model was used while determining the influence of the television advertising consequences upon the attitude of the students towards the television advertising. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance.

8.4. Respondents Profile

Table 1:

Demographics Comparison of Respondents

Demographic

 

Metropolitan City

   

Total

Peshawar

Islamabad

Rawalpindi

 

Quetta

 

Karachi

Gender Male

34

(38.2%)

53

(58.2%)

45

(46.4%)

39

(28.9%)

38

(39.6%)

209

(41.1%)

Female

55

(61.8%)

38

(41.8%)

52

(53.6%)

96

(71.1%)

58

(60.4%)

299

(58.9%)

Total

 

89

 

91

 

97

 

135

 

96

 

508

Age 16 years

3

(3.4%)

4

(4.4%)

2

(2.1%)

4

(3.0%)

0

(.0%)

13

(2.6%)

17 years

15

(16.9%)

10

(11.0%)

6

(6.2%)

5

(3.7%)

1

(1.0%)

37

(7.3%)

18 years

31

(34.8%)

20

(22.0%)

30

(30.9%)

16

(11.9%)

4

(4.2%)

101

(19.9%)

19 years

40

(44.9%)

57

(62.6%)

59

(60.8%)

110

(81.5%)

91

(94.8%)

357

(70.3%)

89

91

97

135

96

508

The respondent comprised of 41.1% male and 58.9% female college students in the selected metropolitan cities. The respondents surveyed in the age of 16 years were 2.6%, 17 years of age 7.3%, 18 years of age 19.9% and that of 19 years of age 70.3%.

8.5. Reliability of Scale

Guilford (1973) earmarks that for a well conducted test, the range of the item inter-correlations must be 0.10 to 0.60. Relying upon the Guilford (1973) guidelines, the reliability analysis was carried out. The inter-item correlation analysis along with Cronbach’s alpha is listed in Table 2. The intercorelation among the items show that out of 136 inter correlations, 90 significant one and the value of Cronbach’s alpha reliability amounted to 0.654.All the forgoing findings suggested that the Larkin’s (1977) scale for attitude towards advertising and Pollay and Mittal (1993) scale for general attitude towards advertising could be undoubtedly applied in the case of the college students in Pakistan for measuring their attitude towards the consequences of the television adverting as well as the impact of consequences upon their general attitude towards it.

597

Table 2:

Items inter-correlation and Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient

Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1

1

                             

2

.175**

1

3

.080

.095*

1

4

.108*

.064

.045

1

5

.136**

.069

.068

.208**

1

6

.023

.042

-.011

.201**

.296**

1

7

.042

-.129**

-.178**

.105*

.008

.153**

1

8

.132**

.130**

.081

.027

.100*

.064

.044

1

9

.110*

.101*

.111*

-.017

.066

.023

-.071

.163**

1

10

.119**

.143**

.154**

.082

.133**

-.017

-.076

.204**

.107*

1

11

.123**

.117**

.124**

.000

.083

-.078

-.052

.163**

.220**

.238**

1

12

.102*

.132**

.151**

.050

.150**

-.012

-.027

.159**

.154**

.207**

.259**

1

13

.102*

.159**

.119**

.112*

.148**

.065

-.107*

.106*

.050

.171**

.159**

.272**

1

14

.152**

.131**

.168**

.199**

.236**

.104*

-.039

.169**

.140**

.204**

.163**

.190**

.218**

1

15

.174**

.049

.009

.215**

.279**

.246**

.164**

.144**

.004

.093*

.007

.154**

.065

.173**

1

16

.145**

-.055

-.014

.247**

.194**

.277**

.222**

.019

-.007

-.008

.040

-.024

-.052

.161**

.407**

1

17

.090*

.113*

.072

.155**

.175**

.164**

.057

-.014

.024

.041

.114**

.120**

.072

.118**

.146**

.201**

No of Cases: 508 No. of Items: 17 Cronbach’s Reliability Alpha: 0.654

 

1. Deception 2. Puffery 3. Sexual Appeals 4. Economic growth 5. Standard of living 6. Quality products 7. Decreasing Prices 8. Needless products 9. Clutter 10. Materialisms 11.Undesirable values 12. Harmful Products 13. Regulations 14. Proliferation 15. Good 16. Helpful 17. Believable

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

598

8.6. Validity

Chung-Chuan Yang (2000) used the same instrument in his study about “Taiwanese students’ attitudes towards and beliefs about advertising” and recommended that outcome obtain from their study supports that the scales are valid for application in other countries of Asia.

8.7. Descriptive analysis

To find out the consequences and impact of television advertising on college students attitude mean and standard deviation of each factor was calculated. The results in table-3 show that all the consequences, impact, opinion about the governing regulations of television advertising and students’ general attitude towards it is the significant one.

Table 3:

Descriptive analysis (The Results summary of H 1 to H 5 )

 

N

Mean

Std.

Test Value = 3 95% Confidence Interval

Deviation

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Deception

508

2.73

 

1.080

-5.547

507

.000

Puffery

508

1.98

1.057

-21.779

507

.000

Sexual Appeals

508

2.61

1.308

-6.718

507

.000

Ethical Consequence

508

2.4409

.73649

-17.109

507

.000

Economic growth Standard of living Quality products Decreasing Prices

 

508

3.68

 

1.071

14.257

507

.000

508

3.44

1.155

8.486

507

.000

508

3.94

1.000

21.161

507

.000

508

3.28

1.270

4.892

507

.000

Economic Consequence

508

3.5817

.68098

19.253

507

.000

Needless products

508

2.58

 

1.166

-8.140

507

.000

Clutter

508

2.21

1.080

-16.388

507

.000

Materialisms

508

2.30

1.091

-14.398

507

.000

Undesirable values

508

1.96

1.063

-22.032

507

.000

Social Consequence

508

2.2643

.68437

-24.230

507

.000

Harmful Products

508

1.81

 

1.097

-24.462

507

.000

Regulations

508

2.17

1.075

-17.373

507

.000

Proliferation

508

2.79

1.206

-3.974

507

.000

Feelings about Regulatory

508

2.2559

.78343

-21.407

507

.000

Good

508

3.66

 

.854

17.456

507

.000

Helpful

508

3.70

.889

17.771

507

.000

Believable

508

2.78

1.048

-4.700

507

.000

General Attitude

508

3.3812

.65581

13.102

507

.000

Note: (Reverse Scale)

Note:

 

a)

Respondents’ Negative Feelings:

 

c)

Respondents’ Negative Feelings:

 

Ethical Consequences :

Mean value below 3 Mean value below 3 Mean value below 3

 

Economic effect :

General Attitude:

Mean value below 3 Mean value below 3

Social Consequence :

Regulatory issues:

 

b)

Respondents’ Positive Feelings:

 

d)

Respondents’ Positive Feelings:

 

Ethical Consequences:

Mean value above 3 Mean value above 3 Mean value above 3

 

Economic effect :

General Attitude :

Mean value below 3 Mean value below 3

 

Social Consequence:

Regulatory issues:

 

8.7.1. The Ethical Consequence In the domain of ethical consequences the results in table-3 show that the respondents agreed that most of the television advertising is false /misleading, exaggerated informations and contain sexual appeals. Overall the result indicates that the students have dominating negative attitude towards the ethical consequences of the television advertising.

599

Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan

8.7.2.

The Economic Consequence

The figures in table-3 also reveal that the college students consider the television advertising to be helping national economy to grow, raise the standard of living of the public, guarantee the quality products and promote competition, leading to curtail the prices of product and services. The result unveils that the students with the positive attitude towards the television advertising with regard to the economic consequences

8.7.3. The Social Consequence

In the realm of the social consequences, the college students admitted the television advertising by convincing people to buy the products which they do not really need and confusing them as well as by promoting materialism have adverse effects on society, The result in table-3 show that college student acknowledging the television advertising to be a source of promoting obscene values among the youth. The findings suggest that the attitude of students towards the television advertising social consequence is the negative one.

8.7.4. Feelings about Advertising Regulations

The mean score of the respondents in table-3 recommends a bar against the television advertising of the products which are of harmful nature for the society and the students have asked for more regulation for the control and proliferation of the television advertising. The overall result suggests that the students are not satisfied with current regulations by the government to control and monitor the television advertising effectively

8.7.5. The General Attitude towards Television Advertising

According to results in table-3 the general attitude, the respondents are convinced that the television

advertising is good and helpful. However they disagree on the point that television advertising is believable. The result suggests that the students’ general attitude is positive towards the television advertising in general.

8.8. Correlation Analysis of Variables

Table 4:

Correlation Matrix of Variables

 

General Attitude

Ethical

Economic

Social

Regulatory

General Attitude

1

       

Ethical

.140**

1

Economic

.452**

.043

1

Social

.087

.301

**

.052

1

Regulatory

.184**

.306 **

.169 **

.374 **

1

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The result of the correlation coefficients in table-4 show a significant correlation among all the independent variables and the general attitude of the students towards the television advertising However the correlation between the social consequences and the general attitude of students towards the television advertising is insignificant. The results in table-4 indicate that there exists a positive correlation between the ethical consequences and the general attitude of students towards the television advertising. The results also reveal that more the ethical television advertising, more positive the attitude of students towards the advertising. Hence it supports the H 1 The correlation coefficient between the economic consequences of television advertising and the general attitude of students towards the television advertising, as indicated in table-4, is quite significant. We can draw the inference that the more positive is the economic consequence of the

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

600

television advertising the more positive is the attitude of the students towards advertising. We accept

H 2 .

The only insignificant value of the correlation coefficient in table-4 is between the social consequences of the television advertising and the general attitude of students towards the television advertising. As a result we can infer that a social consequence of the television advertising and the general attitude of the students towards television have no significant correlation and, therefore, we reject H 3 . The result in table-4 shows a significant correlation between the feelings about the television advertising regulations and the general attitude of students towards television advertising. We can infer that more the government regulations to control the television advertising the more positive the general attitude of the students towards advertising. Hence accept H 4 .

8.9. Regression Analysis

Table 5:

Model Summary

Model

 

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.474 a

.225

.219

.57962

a. Predictors: (Constant), Regulatory, Economic, Ethical, Social

Table 6:

ANOVA

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

 

Regression

49.068

4

12.267

36.513

.000 a

1

Residual

168.989

503

.336

Total

218.057

507

a. Predictors: (Constant), Regulatory, Economic, Ethical, Social

b. Dependent Variable: General Attitude

The results in table-5 and 6 indicate that the independent variables significantly explain 22.5% of the variation in the general attitude of the college students towards the television advertising. The results in table.7 show that the ethical consequences and the economic impact significantly predict the general attitude of the students towards the television advertising. However the social consequences and feelings about the advertising regulation do not significantly predict the general attitude of the students towards the television advertising.

Table 7:

Coefficients

 

Model

 

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

   

B

Std. Error

Beta

t

Sig.

1

(Constant)

1.512

.169

8.924

.000

Ethical

.085

.038

.096

2.268

.024

Economic

.419

.038

.435

10.911

.000

Social

.006

.041

.006

.140

.888

Regulatory

.066

.037

.079

1.792

.074

a. Dependent Variable: General Attitude

The following regression equation expresses the relationship among the ethical consequence, the economic impact and the general attitude of the students towards the television advertising in Pakistan. GA = 1.512 + 0.435(EC) + 0.096(ETC) GA: General Attitude of the college students towards the television advertising

601

Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan

EC: Economic consequence of the television advertising ETC: Ethical consequence of the television advertising

9. Conclusion and Recommendations

This research study is an endeavor to secure adequate evidence on the consequences of the television advertising and their relationship to the general attitude of the college students it. The results of the research clearly reveal that most of the respondents feel that the ongoing television advertising is unethical because of its deceiving, exaggerating nature for and putting more emphasis on the sex appeals. At the same time majority of the respondents consider the television advertising to be an important tool for the economic growth, improvement of standard of living, guaranteeing the quality products and an effective means to curtail prices. The results of the study show very significant negative feelings of the respondent about the social consequences of the current television advertising. The television advertising is considered to be the sole source which convinces the people to buy the products that they no more need, confuse the people by creating clutter effect, promotes materialism and inculcate obscene values in the youth populace of Pakistan. The results of the study also depict that the college students demand lexical changes by the regulatory authorities with the view to controlling the television advertising. The results show an overall, positive, general attitude of the college students towards the television advertising. Also, the results of the study highlight the technique as to how to assess and evaluate the ethical, economic and social consequences of the television advertising on the part of the marketers and the regulatory authorities before they launch any campaign. The growing ethical, social and regulatory concern of the college students as indicated in the results of the study invites attention of the marketers and the regulatory authorities like to avoid any disruption in the positive, general attitude towards the television advertising.

10. Limitations

The limitations have been associated with this research study identified. One limitation of the study relates to the college students and it limits the generalization of the results. The respondents themselves are also a source of limitation because of their being non-serious and other personal factors associated to the students might influence the responses. The focus of the study however was limited to the television advertising, the consequences and the attitude towards the print advertising may differ, however. Despite these limitations, the results of this study have highlighted some important consequences of the television advertising and bring to light the need for the future research. The study also have contributed important information about the consequences of the television advertising and the general attitude towards it as it have not been explored by the scholars in Pakistan, so for.

General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan

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