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CHAPTER ONE

BASIC FORMULAS

Pressure gradient, psi/ft, using mud weight, ppg

psi/ft = mud weight, ppg x 0.052

Example: 12.0 ppg fluid

psi/ft = 12.0ppg x 0.052 psi/ft = 0.624

Pressure gradient, psi/ft, using mud weight, lb/ft 3

psi/ft = mud weight, lb/ft 3 x 0.006944

Example: 100 lb/ft 3 fluid

psi/ft =

psi/ft = 0.6944

1001b/ft 3 x 0.006944

OR

psi/ft = mud weight, lb/ft 3 -s- 144

Example: 100 lb/ft 3 fluid

psi/ft =

psi/ft = 0.6944

1001b/ft 3 + 144

Pressure gradient, psi/ft, using mud weight, specific gravity (SG)

psi/ft = mud weight, SG x 0.433

Example: 1.0 SG fluid

psi/ft = 1.0SG x 0.433 psi/ft = 0.433

Metric calculations

Pressure gradient, bar/m = drilling fluid density kg/1 x 0.0981

Pressure gradient, bar/1 Om = drilling fluid density kg/1 x 0.981

S.I. units calculations

Pressure gradient, kPa/m = drilling fluid density, kg/m 3 -5-102

Convert pressure gradient, psi/ft, to mud weight, ppg

ppg = pressure gradient, psi/ft + 0.052

Example: 0.4992 psi/ft

ppg = 0.4992psi/ft -s- 0.052 ppg = 9.6

Convert pressure gradient, psi/ft, to mud weight, lb/ft 3

lb/ft 3 = pressure gradient, psi/ft + 0.006944

Example: 0.6944psi/ft

lb/ft 3 = 0.6944psi/ft + 0.006944 lb/ft 3 = 100

Convert pressure gradient, psi/ft, to mud weight, SG

SG = pressure gradient, psi/ft -s- 0.433

Example: 0.433 psi/ft

SG = 0.433psi/ft + 0.433 SG = 1.0

Metric calculations

Drilling fluid density, kgA = pressure gradient, bar/m -s- 0.0981 Drilling fluid density, kg/1 = pressure gradient, bar/lOm •*- 0.981

S.I. units calculations

Drilling fluid density, kg/m 3 = pressure gradient, kPa/m x 102

Hydrostatic Pressure (HP)

Hydrostatic pressure using ppg and feet as the units of measure

HP = mud weight, ppg x 0.052 x true vertical depth (TVD), ft

Example: mud weight

= 13.5ppg

true vertical depth = 12,000 ft

HP = 13.5ppg x 0.052 x 12,000ft HP = 8424psi

Hydrostatic pressure, psi, using pressure gradient, psi/ft

HP = psi/ft x true vertical depth, ft

= 0.624 psi/ft

true vertical depth = 8500ft

HP = 0.624psi/ft x 8500ft HP = 5304psi

Hydrostatic pressure, psi, using mud weight, Ib/ft 3

HP = mud weight, lb/ft 3 x 0.006944 x TVD, ft

Example: mud weight

=

90 lb/ft 3

true vertical depth = 7500 ft

HP = HP = 4687psi

901b/ft 3 x 0.006944 x 7500ft

Hydrostatic pressure, psi, using meters as unit of depth

HP = mud weight, ppg x 0.052 x TVD, m x 3.281

Example: mud weight

=

12.2 ppg

true vertical depth = 3700 meters

HP = 12.2ppg x 0.052 x 3700 x 3.281 HP = 7701psi

Metric calculations

 Hydrostatic _ drilling fluid w nno0 1 ^ true vertical pressure, bar density, kg/I depth, m

S.I. units calculations

Hydrostatic pressure, kPa "

_ drilling fluid density, kg/m 3 m

X

tru e

vertica l

depth '

m

Converting Pressure into Mud Weight

Convert pressure, psi, into mud weight, ppg, using feet as the unit of measure

Mud weight, ppg = pressure, psi -s- 0.052 -s- TVD, ft

Example: pressure

= 2600 psi

true vertical depth = 5000 ft

5000ft

Mud, ppg = 2600psi - 0.052 -

Mud

= lO.Oppg

Convert pressure, psi, into mud weight, ppg, using meters as the unit of measure

Mud weight, ppg = pressure, psi -s- 0.052 + TVD, m -s- 3.281

Example: pressure

= 3583 psi

true vertical depth = 2000 meters

 Mud wt, ppg = 3583psi - 0.052 -*• 2000 m - 3.281 Mud wt = 10.5 ppg

Metric calculations

 Equivalent drilling _ pressure, ^ ^ ^ 1 ' fluid density, kg/1 bar ^ true vertical depth, m S.I. units calculations Equivalent drilling _ pressure, ™ ^ tru e vertical fluid density, kg/m 3 ~ kPa ' depth, m

Specific Gravity (SG)

Specific gravity using mud weight, ppg

SG = mud weight, ppg H- 8.33

Example: 15.0ppg fluid

SG = 15.0ppg H- 8.33 SG = 1.8

Specific gravity using pressure gradient, psi/ft

SG = pressure gradient, psi/ft •*• 0.433

Example: pressure gradient = 0.624 psi/ft

SG = 0.624psi/ft + 0.433 SG = 1.44

Specific gravity using mud weight, Ib/ft 3

SG = mud weight, lb/ft 3 + 62.4

Example: mud weight = 120 lb/ft 3

SG = 1201b/ft 3 H- 62.4

Convert specific gravity to mud weight, ppg

Mud weight, ppg = specific gravity x 8.33

Example: specific gravity = 1.80

Mud wt, ppg = 1.80 x 8.33

Mud wt

= 15.0ppg

Convert specific gravity to pressure gradient, psi/ft

psi/ft = specific gravity x 0.433

Example: specific gravity = 1.44

psi/ft = 1.44 x 0.433 psi/ft = 0.624

Convert specific gravity to mud weight, lb/ft 3

lb/ft 3 = specific gravity x 62.4

Example: specific gravity = 1.92

lb/ft 3

lb/ft 3 = 120

x 62.4

= 1.92

Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD), ppg

ECD, ppg =

(annular "\

pressure

f

Uoss, psij

+

0.052 + TVD, ft +

,

*

.

-

>.

f mud

weigh

M

Vm use, ppg J

v

FF&

y

Example: annular pressure loss = 200 psi

true vertical depth mud weight

=

= 9.6ppg

10,000 ft

ECD, ppg = 200psi + 0.052 + 10,000ft + 9.6ppg

ECD

= lO.Oppg

Metric calculation

Equivalent drilling = annular pressure + fluid density, kg/1 loss, bar

+

S.I. units calculations

Equivalent circulating density, kg/1

=

annular pressure loss, kPa x 102 TVD ^

+

m

+

mu d

.

mu d denSlty '

,

^

Maximum Allowable Mud Weight from Leak-off Test Data

_ Heak-off P P g " ^pressure, psij

^ _ n n <-~ _ leasing shoe^i ^

* "

' 1,TVD, ft

f mud weight,^

J

J + Lppg

Example: leak-off test pressure = 1140psi

casing shoe TVD mud weight

4000 ft

=

= lO.Oppg

ppg = 1140psi -s- 0.052 + 4000ft + lO.Oppg ppg = 15.48

Pump Output (PO)

Triplex Pump

Formula 1

PO, bbl/stk = 0.000243 x {!i ^diameter, m.J

f

ner

.

x (f 0 ^

)

vlength, m.J .

Example: Determine the pump output, bbl/stk, at 100% efficiency for a 7-in. by 12-in. triplex pump:

PO @ 100% = 0.000243 x 7 2

PO @ 100% = 0.142884 bbl/stk

x 12

Adjust the pump output for 95% efficiency:

Decimal equivalent = 95 - 100 = 0.95

PO@95% = 0.142884bbl/stk x 0.95 PO@95% = 0.13574bbl/stk

Formula 2

PO, gpm =

[3(D 2 x 0.7854) S] 0.00411 x SPM

 where D = liner diameter, in. S = stroke length, in. SPM = strokes per minute

Example: Determine the pump output, gpm, for a 7-in. by 12-in. triplex pump at 80 strokes per minute:

PO, gpm = [3(7 2 x 0.7854) 12] 0.00411 x 80 PO, gpm = 1385.4456 x 0.00411 x 80

PO

= 455.5 gpm

Duplex Pump

Formula 1

0.000324 x {!! ner t

.

f

^diameter, m.J

-0.000162 x f r ° d

t

.

f

Vdiameter, m.J

x (f°\t

.

) =

vlength, m.J

x f f 0 ^

.

) =

[length, m.J

pump output @ 100% eff =

bbl/stk

bbl/stk

bbl/stk

Example: Determine the output, bbl/stk, of a 5-1/2 in. by 14-in. duplex pump at 100% efficiency. Rod diameter = 2.0in.:

0.000324 x 5.5 2 x 14 = 0.137214bbl/stk -0.000162 x 2.0 2 x 14 = 0.009072bbl/stk

Pump output ® 100% eff = 0.128142 bbl/stk

Adjust pump output for 85% efficiency:

PO@85% = 0.128142bbl/stk x 0.85 PO@85% = 0.10892 bbl/stk

Formula 2

PO, bbl/stk = 0.000162 x S [2(D) 2 -

d 2 ]

where S = stroke length, in.

 D = liner diameter, in. d = rod diameter, in.

Example: Determine the output, bbl/stk, of a 5-1/2-in. by 14-in. duplex pump @ 100% efficiency. Rod diameter = 2.0in.:

PO @ 100% = 0.000162 x

PO @ 100% = 0.000162 x 14 x 56.5 PO @ 100% = 0.128142bbl/stk

14 x [2 (5.5) 2 -

2 2 ]

Adjust pump output for 85% efficiency:

PO@85% = 0.128142bbl/stk x 0.85 PO@85% = 0.10892 bbl/stk

Metric calculation

Pump output, liter/min = pump output, liter/stk x pump speed, spm

S.I. units calculation

Pump output, mVmin = pump output, liter/stk x pump speed, spm

Annular Velocity (AV)

Annular velocity (AV), ft/min

Formula 1

AV = pump output, bbl/min •*• annular capacity, bbl/ft

Example: pump output = 12.6bbl/min annular capacity = 0.1261 bbl/ft

AV = AV = 99.92ft/min

12.6bbl/min -s- 0.1261 bbl/ft

Formula 2

where Q

= circulation rate, gpm

Dh = inside diameter of casing or hole size, in. Dp = outside diameter of pipe, tubing or collars, in.

Example: pump output hole size pipe OD

AV = lOOft/min

Formula 3

= 530 gpm = 12-l/4in. = 4-l/2in.

Example: pump output = 12.6bbl/min

size

pipe OD

hole

AV = 99.92 ft/min

=

= 4-l/2in.

12-1/4 in.

Annular velocity (AV), ft/sec

Example: pump output = 12.6bbl/min

hole size

OD

pipe

AV = 1.6656 ft/sec

Metric calculations

= 12-l/4in. = 4-1/2 in.

Annular velocity, m/min = pump output , liter/min •*• annular volume, IAn

Annular velocity, m/sec = pump output, liter/min -s- 60 -s- annular volume, 1/m

S.I. units calculations

Annular velocity, m/min = pump output, m 3 /min -*• annular volume, m 3 /m

Pump output, gpm, required for a desired annular velocity, ft/min

Pump output, gpm =

where AV = desired annular velocity, ft/min Dh = inside diameter of casing or hole size, in. Dp = outside diameter of pipe, tubing or collars, in.

Example: desired annular velocity = 120 ft/min

 hole size = 12-1/4 in. pipe OD = 4-1/2 in.

PO = 635.8gpm

Strokes per minute (SPM) required for a given annular velocity

_ annular velocity, ft/min x annular capacity, bbl/ft pump output, bbl/stk

Example: annular velocity = 120 ft/min annular capacity = 0.1261 bbl/ft

 Dh = 12-1/4 in. Dp =4-1/2 in. pump output = 0.136 bbl/stk

_ 120ft/min x 0.1261bbl/ft

SPM = 111.3

0.136bbl/stk

Capacity Formulas

Annular capacity between casing or hole and drill pipe, tubing, or casing

 Dh 2 - Dp 2 a) Annular capacity, bbl/ft = — Example: Hole size (Dh) = 12-l/4in.

Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 5.0in.

12

Annular capacity, bbl/ft = —

:

25 2 -

'-— 5 O 2

1029.4

b) Annular capacity, ft/bbl = -—^—"—2\

Example: Hole size (Dh)

= 12-l/4in.

Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 5.0in.

Annular capacity, ft/bbl =

1029 4 _' 5 0 2\

^ 2

Annular capacity

= 8.23ft/bbl

c) Annular capacity, gal/ft =

Example: Hole size (Dh)

24.51

= 12-1/4 in.

Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 5.0in.

d)

Annular capacity, gal/ft

A

i

uft

=

12 - 2 5 2

- 5 -° 2

Z*r.J 1

Annular capacity

=5.1 gal/ft

24 51

^

2

p

Annular capacity, ft/gal =

Example: Hole size (Dh)

= 12-1/4 in.

Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 5.0in.

Annular capacity, ft/gal =

^ 2 '_ 5 Q2 X

Annular capacity

= 0.19598 ft/gal

e) Annular capacity, ft 3 /linft

Example: Hole size (Dh)

=

Dh 2

-

Dp 2

183.35

= 12-1/4 in.

Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 5.0 in.

Annular capacity, ft 3 /linft

Annular capacity

= —'• 12 25

2

'•— 5 O 2

= 0.682097ft 3 /linft

f) Annular capacity, linft/ft 3 = -—-— :

^-

Example: Hole size (Dh)

=

12-1/4 in.

Drill pipe OD (Dp) = 5.0in.

Annular capacity, linft/ft 3 =

'_

Q

Annular capacity

= 1.466 linft/ft 3

Annular capacity between casing and multiple strings of tubing

a) Annular capacity between casing and multiple strings of tubing, bbl/ft:

Dh 2

-

Annular capacity, bbl/ft =

[(T 1 ) 2 + (T 2 ) 2 I

-

Example: Using two strings of tubing of same size:

Dh =

T

T

casing—7.0 in.—29 lb/ft

= tubing No. 1—2-3/8 in.

= tubing

No.

2—2-3/8 in.

1

2

ID

OD = 2.375 in. OD = 2.375 in.

= 6.184 in.

lir

Annular capacity, . bbl/ft „ =

6.184 2 - (2.375 2 + 2.375 2 )

-

Annular capacity, bbl/ft =

A

T

••

uuiift

38.24-11.2 8

Annular capacity

= 0.02619 bbl/ft

b) Annular capacity between casing and multiple strings of tubing, ft/bbl:

Annular capacity, ft/bbl =

Dh 2

1029.4 ^

=

- [(T 1 ) 2 + (T 2 ) 2 ]

Example: Using two strings of tubing of same size:

 Dh = casing—7.0 in.—29 lb/ft ID = 6.184 in. T 1 = tubing No. 1—2-3/8 in. OD = 2.375in. T 2 = tubing No. 2—2-3/8 in. OD = 2.375 in.

Annular capacity, ft/bbl = ^

_

1029 4

^ 375 2

+

^ 37fi)

Annular capacity, ft/bbl =

F

y

1029 4

:

38.24-11.28

Annular capacity

= 38.1816ft/bbl

c) Annular

gal/ft:

capacity

between

casing

and

multiple

Dh 2

-

Annular capacity, gal/ft =

[(T 1 ) 2

+ (T 2 ) 2 I

-

strings

of

tubing,

Example: Using two tubing strings of different size:

Dh = casing—7.0 in.—29 lb/ft

T

T

1

2

= tubing No. 1—2-3/8 in. = tubing No. 2—3-1/2in.

= OD = 2.375 in. OD = 3.5in.

ID

6.184 in.

 A 1 U I/ft 6 ' 184 2 " I 2 ' 375 ' + 3 - 5 ') Annular capacity, gal/ft = - - A i •• ,/* 38.24-17.89 Annular capacity, gal/ft = 24.51

Annular capacity = 0.8302733gal/ft

d) Annular

ft/gal:

capacity

between

casing

and multiple

Annular capacity, ft/gal =

Dh 2

-

=—'—

[(T 1 ) 2

rr

+ (T 2 ) 2 ]

strings

of

tubing,

Example: Using two tubing strings of different sizes:

 Dh = casing—7.0 in.—29 lb/ft ID = 6.184 in. T 1 = tubing No. 1—2-3/8 in. OD = 2.375in. T 2 = tubing No. 2—3-1/2in. OD = 3.5in.

Annular capacity, ft/gal = ^

2

_ ^

5

2

 Annular capacity, ft/gal Annular capacity

=

3 8

2 4

'_ 1 ?

8 9

= 1.2044226 ft/gal

+

3

^

e) Annular capacity between casing and multiple strings of tubing, ft 3 /linft:

Annular capacity, fr/linft

Dh 2

=

-

[(T 1 ) 2

+ (T 2 ) 2 I

-

183.35

Example: Using three strings of tubing:

Dh =

T

T

T

casing—9-5/8 in.—471b/ft = tubing No. 1—3-1/2in.

=

= tubing No. 3—3-1/2in.

1

2

3

tubing

No . 2—3-1/2in.

ID

OD = 3.5in.

O D

OD = 3.5in.

= 3.5 in.

=

8.681 in.

A

,

.

Annular capacity

=

8.681 2 -

(3.5 2 + 3.5 2

+ 3.5 2 ) -

183.35

Annular capacity, ft 3 /linft =

'•

Annular capacity

= 0.2105795 ft 3 /linft

f) Annular capacity between casing and multiple strings of tubing, linft/ft 3 :

Annular capacity, linft/ft 3 =

Dh 2

-

'-

[(T 1 ) 2

+ (T 2 ) 2 ]

Example: Using three strings tubing of same size:

Dh = casing—9-5/8 in.—471b/ft

T 1

T

T

= tubing No. 1—3-1/2in.

= tubing No. 2—3-1/2in. = tubing No. 3—3-1/2in.

2

3

= OD = 3.5in. OD = 3.5in. OD = 3.5in.

ID

8.681 in.

Annular capacity

=

8 . 681 2

_ (3." " 3.52 +

3.52)

Annular capacity, linft/ft 3

Annular capacity

=

7 5

35 9

1

3 6

7 5

= 4.7487993 linft/ft 3

Capacity of tubulars and open hole: drill pipe, drill collars, tubing, casing, hole, and any cylindrical object

a) Capacity, bbl/ft =

1 ^j

Example: Determine the capacity, bbl/ft, of a 12-1/4 in. hole:

Capacity, bbl/ft =

F

y

^^~

1029.4

Capacity

= 0.1457766 bbl/ft

b) Capacity, ft/bbl =

19®A

Example:

Determine the capacity, ft/bbl, 1029 ~ 4

r

Capacity, ft/bbl =

Capacity

= 6.8598ft/bbl

c) Capacity, gal/ft =

^

Example:

Determine the capacity, gal/ft, 8 5

2

-^j -

Capacity, gal/ft =

Capacity

= 2.9477764 gal/ft

d) Capacity, ft/gal =

~-

^

of 12-1/4 in. hole:

of 8-1/2 in. hole:

Example: Determine the capacity, ft/gal, of 8-1/2 in. hole:

e)

Capacity, ft/gal =

'

8.5

Capacity

= 0.3392 ft/gal

Capacity, ftVlinft =

ID 2

-^ ^

Example:

Determine the capacity, ftVlinft, for a 6.0 in. hole:

Capacity, ft 3 /linft =

^

^

Capacity

=0.1963 ft 3 /linft

f) Capacity, linft/ft 3 =

183 |—^- 35

 Example: Determine the capacity, linft/ft 3 , for a 6.0 in. hole: Capacity, linft/ft 3 = ^f ^ Capacity = 5.09305 linft/ft 3

Amount of cuttings drilled per foot of hole drilled

a) BARRELS of cuttings drilled per foot of hole drilled:

Barrels =

(1 - % porosity)

Example: Determine the number of barrels of cuttings drilled for one foot of 12-l/4in.-hole drilled with 20% (0.20) porosity:

Barrels =!^ (1 -°- 20)

Barrels = 0.1457766 x 0.80

Barrels = 0.1166213

b) CUBIC FEET of cuttings drilled per foot of hole drilled:

 Dh 2 Cubic feet = x 0.7854 (1 - % porosity) 144

Example: Determine the cubic feet of cuttings drilled for one foot of 12-1/4 in. hole with 20% (0.20) porosity:

Cubic feet

Cubic

feet

= )2^L

144

x 0.7854(1 - 0.20)

150 ° 6 2 6

=

144

x 0.7854 x 0.80

c) Total solids generated:

W c g -350ChXL(I-P)SG

where

W cg =

solids generated, pounds

 Ch = capacity of hole, bbl/ft L = footage drilled, ft SG = specific gravity of cuttings P = porosity, %

Example: Determine the total pounds of

solids generated in drilling

Specific gravity of

100ft of a 12-l/4in. hole (0.1458bbl/ft). cuttings = 2.40gm/cc. Porosity = 20%.

W cg

= 350 x 0.1458 x

100(1 -

W cg = 9797.26 pounds

0.20) x 2.4

Control Drilling

Maximum drilling rate (MDR), ft/hr, when drilling large diameter holes (14-3/4 in. and larger)

MDR

ft/hr =

rn fmudwt _ mud wt^j (circulation^

{rate, gpm J

lout, ppg

in, ppg J Dh 2

Example: Determine the MDR, ft/hr, necessary to keep the mud weight coming out at 9.7 ppg at the flow line:

Data: Mud weight in

= 9.0ppg

Circulation rate = 530 gpm

Hole size

= 17-1/2 in.

MDR , ft/hr =

67 C 9 - 7 - 9 - 0 ) 530

17.5 2 ™™> ft/u 67x0.7x53 0 MDR, ft/hr =

MDR

306.25

= 81.16ft/hr

Buoyancy Factor (BF)

Buoyancy factor using mud weight, ppg

B F

=

65.5 - mud weight, ppg

65.5

Example: Determine the buoyancy factor for a 15.0ppg fluid:

BF = 65 - 5 -

15

65.5

BF = 0.77099

Buoyancy factor using mud weight, Ib/ft 3

_ „

B F

489 - mud weight, lb/ft 3

489

=

Example: Determine the buoyancy factor for

OI7

489 -

120

BF = 0.7546

a 120 lb/ft 3 fluid:

Hydrostatic Pressure (HP) Decrease When Pulling Pipe out of the Hole

When pulling DRY pipe

Step 1

Barrels

.

displaced

numbe r

i = of stands x length per x displacement

A

x

°,

jf

,,,,,,

average

pipe

,.

 ^ pulled stand, ft bbl/ft Step 2 HP, psi = barrels displaced x 0 052 x decrease /casing pipe "\ ' capacity, - displacement, [bbl/ft bbl/ft J

mu d

weight, ppg

Example: Determine the hydrostatic pressure decrease when pulling DRY pipe out of the hole:

Number of stands pulled = 5

 Average length per stand = 92 ft Pipe displacement = 0.0075 bbl/ft Casing capacity = 0.0773 bbl/ft Mud weight = 11.5ppg

Stepl

Barrels

displaced

Barrels

displaced

Step 2

HP,psi

decrease

HP,psi

F

A

decrease

1

P

decrease

5 stand s

^ 3

4

5

x

92ft/st d

x

0.0075 bbl/ft

=

=

3.45 barrels ^.0773 - 0.0075^ X °- 052 X 1L5pp g

Ubl/ft

bbl/ft J

3.45 barrels

0.0698

x 0.052 x 11.5ppg

= 29.56psi

When pulling WET pipe

Step 1

R

.

barrels

aispiacea

number

o f stand g pulle d

x

average

lengt h pe r

^

^

ft

x

fpipe disp., bbl/ft^

+ ^ pip e ca p ? bb]/f t

j

 Step 2 _ barrels displaced ' P " ^casing A fpipe disp., bbl/ft^ capacity, - + (,bbl/ft J l^pipe cap., bbl/ft J

ons ?

mud

weight,ppg

Example: Determine

the

hydrostatic

pressure

WET pipe out of the hole:

Number of stands pulled = 5

Average length per stand = 92 ft

decrease when

pulling

 Pipe displacement = 0.0075 bbl/ft Pipe capacity =0.01776bbl/ft Casing capacity = 0.0773 bbl/ft Mud weight = 11.5ppg

Stepl

 Barrels 5 stand s x 92ft / s t d x f0.0075 bbl/ft ^i + dls P laced [o.O1776bbl/ftJ Barrels = H^ 6196 displaced Step 2 HP, psi 11.6196 barrels Ibbl/ft J [ 0 .01776bbl/ftJ HP, psi 1L6196 , ^ = x 0.052 x 11.5ppg decrease 0.05204 TTp ^ 1 = 133.52psi

decrease

Loss of Overbalance Due to Falling Mud Level

Feet of pipe pulled DRY to lost overbalance

_ overbalance, psi (casing cap. - pipe disp., bbl/ft) mud wt., ppg x 0.052 x pipe disp., bbl/ft Example: Determine the FEET of DRY pipe that must be pulled to lose the overbalance using the following data:

Amount of overbalance = 150psi

 Casing capacity = 0.0773 bbl/ft Pipe displacement = 0.0075 bbl/ft Mud weight =11.5 ppg

Feet of pipe pulled WET to lose overbalance

_ overbalance, psi x (casing cap. - pipe cap. - pipe disp.) mud wt., ppg x 0.052 x (pipe cap. + pipe disp., bbl/ft)

Example: Determine the feet of WET pipe that must be pulled to lose the overbalance using the following data:

 Amount of overbalance = 150 psi Casing capacity = 0.0773 bbl/ft Pipe capacity =0.01776 bbl/ft Pipe displacement = 0.0075 bbl/ft Mud weight =11.5 ppg

Metric calculations

j

. ^ F

meter tripping

dry pipe, bar/m

_

Pressure drop per

A

.

=

drilling fluid , ^

x

density, r— kg/1 -

^

,

n

metal displacement, ^ ^

1/m :

r~r—;

n nQQ1

x 0.0981

^

m

g

CapaClty '

-

t a l

dls P lacement '

Pressure „ . drop , . per meter tripping ,

dry pipe, bar/m

F

,

F

,

Pressure drop per meter tripping

=

= drilling , fluid ^ metal displacement,
v
n nQQ1
,
x
^
x 0.098I
u
density, bar/m
1/m
T—T. —:
:
casing capacity,
metal displacement,
^
-
y m
f
meta l disp. , 1/m
A
drilling fhaid x
density, kg/1
+
I 0098 1
I j
^
I
c
k
F
^
-
.
J -
u

^ .

f

T

wet pipe, bar/m

annular capacity, 1/m J '

v

/^metal disp., 1/m

I

I

v

y

^

m j

^

n

drilling

.,

fluid

1

^f

—r-^

{i

£

Pressure drop per meter tripping =

. wet pipe, bar/m Level drop for

POOH drill collars ~

density, bar/m

,

annular capacity, ^ _ length of drill collars, m x metal disp., 1/m

J9

casing capacity, 1/m

.

u

,

S.I. units calculations

Pressure drop per meter tripping =

i

, j^

dry pipe, kPa/m

.

,

Pressure drop per meter tripping = wet pipe, kPa/m

:

drilling fluid metal disp., density, kg/m* X mVm

&

—^f

^

J

-

metal —-rr. disp.,

m 3 /m

a

-A

casing capacity,

m 3 /m A -Ii•

drilling density, kg/m 3 ;

x 102

/"metal disp., m 3 /m

fluid

*_

 I pip e capacity ? m 3 / m ^

:

an f ular

ca P acit y '

x 102

nr/m

"\

Level drop for POOH _ length of drill collars, m x metal disp., m 3 /m

drill collars, m

casing capacity, m 3 /m

Formation Temperature (FT)

N }

o

_

fambient

^

aCe

O A Vtemperature, 0 Fy

,

+

,.

/temperature

x

|

^increase 0 F per ft of depth x TVD, ftJ

v

v

v

y

Example: If the temperature increase in a specific area is 0.012°F/ft of depth and the ambient surface temperature is 70 0 F, determine the estimated formation temperature at a TVD of 15,000ft:

FT, 0 F = 70 0 F + (0.012°F/ft x 15,000ft)

FT, 0 F FT

= 70 0 F + 180 0 F = 250 0 F (estimated formation temperature)

Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP)

HHP = i^ r

1714

where HHP = hydraulic horsepower

 P = circulating pressure, psi Q = circulating rate, gpm Example: circulating pressure = 2950 psi circulating rate = 520 gpm HHP = 295 ° X 52 ° 1714 HHP = 1 ^ 534 ' 000

1714

HHP = 894.98

Drill Pipe/Drill Collar Calculations

Capacities, bbl/ft, displacement, bbl/ft, and weight, lb/ft, can be calculated from the following formulas:

Capacity, bbl/ft =

T^

1

UUI/ft

OD >

in

* 2

~

ID >

Displacement, bbl/ft =

F

1029.4

m

'

2

1 ^-

Weight, lb/ft = displacement, bbl/ft x 27471b/bbl

Example: Determine the capacity, bbl/ft, displacement, bbl/ft, and weight, lb/ft, for the following:

Drill collar OD = 8.0in.

Drill collar ID

Convert 13/16 to decimal equivalent:

= 2-13/16in.

13 + 16 = 0.8125

a) Capacity, bbl/ft =

2 8125 2 ^

^ 2 9

Capacity = 0.007684 bbl/ft

8

O 2 -

b) Displacement, bbl/ft = —

2 8125 2

:

T^.

1

mi r

56.08984 4

Displacement, bbl/ft =

y

1029.4

Displacement = 0.0544879 bbl/ft

c) Weight, lb/ft = 0.0544879bbl/ftx27471b/bbl Weight = 149.6781b/ft

Rule of thumb formulas

Weight, lb/ft, for REGULAR DRILL COLLARS can be approximated using the following formula:

Weight, lb/ft = (OD, in. 2 - ID, in. 2 ) 2.66

Example: Regular drill collars

 Drill collar OD = 8.0in. Drill collar ID = 2-13/16in.

Decimal equivalent = 2.8125 in.

Weight, lb/ft - (8.0 2 - 2.8125 2 ) 2.66 Weight, lb/ft = 56.089844 x 2.66 Weight = 149.19898 lb/ft

Weight, lb/ft, for SPIRAL DRILL COLLARS can be approximated using the following formula:

Example: Spiral drill collars

Drill collar OD

= Decimal equivalent = 2.8125 in.

Weight, lb/ft = (8.0 2 - 2.8125 2 ) 2.56 Weight, lb/ft = 56.089844 x 2.56 Weight = 143.59 lb/ft

Drill collar ID

= 8.0in.

2-13/16 in.

Pump Pressure/Pump Stroke Relationship (Also Called the Roughneck's Formula)

Basic formula

New circulating = V ™^ i{

pressure, psi

pre ssure, psi

x (^ new pump rate, spm V

^

ol d

P u m P

rate '

s P m

'

Example: Determine the new circulating pressure, psi using the follow- ing data:

Present circulating pressure =

Old pump rate New pump rate

1800 psi

=

60spm

= 30spm

New circulating = 180 0 pressure, psi

Newcirculating = 18 0 pressure, psi

New circulating = pressure

j pOspmf

p

V60spmJ

sixQ2 5

.

Determination of exact factor in above equation

The above formula is an approximation because the factor 2 is a rounded- off number. To determine the exact factor, obtain two pressure readings at different pump rates and use the following formula:

_

log (pressure 1 -*- pressure 2)

log (pump rate 1 •*• pump rate 2)

Example: Pressure

1 = 2500 psi @ 315 gpm

450 psi @ 120 gpm

Pressure 2 =

Facto r

=

log (2500psi + 450psi) log (315gpm + 120gpm)

Factor = to « ^ 5555556 >

log (2.625)

Factor = 1.7768

Example: Same example as above but with correct factor:

New circulating _ IOQQ • pOspmV' 7768 "

pressure, psi

pS1 V60spmJ

New circulating = 18OOp si x 0.2918299 pressure, psi

New circulating _ ^ c pressure

Metric calculation

 (new SPM^j new pump pressure with _ current ~ new pump strokes, bar pressure, S.I. units calculation bar ^ o ld SPM J new pump pressure with _ current ~ strokes, kPa new pump pressure, kPa (new ^ o ld SPM J SPM^j

Cost per Foot

Example: Determine the drilling cost (C x ), dollars per foot, using the following data:

 Bit cost (B) = \$2500 Rig cost (CR) = \$900/hour Rotating time (T) = 65 hours Round trip time (T) = 6 hours

(for depth—10,000 ft) Footage per bit (F) = 1300 ft

T

_

"

2500 + 900(65 + 6)

1300

66,400

1300

T

=

~ C T = \$51.08 per foot

Temperature Conversion Formulas

Convert temperature, °Fahrenheit (F) to °Centigrade or Celsius (C)

0 C = ^ C 0 - F -

-^- 32) 5

OR 0 C = 0 F -

32 x 0.5556

Example: Convert 95 0 F to

0 C:

0 C

=

(9 5

~ 32) 5

OR 0 C = 95 -

0 C = 35

0 C = 35

32 x 0.5556

Convert temperature, °Centigrade or Celsius (C) to °Fahrenheit

0 F

=

( ° C X

9 ^

+ 32 OR 0 F = 0 C x

Example: Convert 24 0 C to

o F

(24>^9) +

=

3 2

Q R

o F

=

0 F

2 4

x

1.8 + 32

L 8

+

32

0 F = 75.2

0 F = 75.2

Convert temperature, °Centigrade, Celsius (C) to °Kelvin (K)

0 K

= 0 C H- 273.16

Example: Convert 35 0 C to 0 K:

0 K

0 K = 308.16

= 35 + 273.16

Convert temperature, °Fahrenheit (F) to °Rankine (R)

0 R = 0 F + 459.69

Example: Convert 260 0 F to 0 R:

0 R = 260 + 459.69 0 R = 719.69

Rule of thumb formulas for temperature conversion

a) Convert 0 F to 0 C

 0 C = 0 F - 30 •* 2 Example: Convert 95 0 F to 0 C: 0 C = 95 - 0 C = 32.5 30 + 2 b) Convert 0 C to 0 F 0 F = 0 C + 0 C + 30 Example: Convert 24 0 C to 0 F:

0 F = 24 + 24 + 30 0 F = 78