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The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War
Origins of the Conflict
Origins of the Conflict
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Archaeological evidence shows that the people of Vietnam have existed since the times of mesopotamia

Vietnamese history is one of invasion and foreign domination

From 111 BC to 938 AD, Vietnam was invaded and dominated by China

In 1784 the French invaded and made Vietnam a French colony

to 938 AD, Vietnam was invaded and dominated by China • In 1784 the French invaded
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The French exploited Vietnam by establishing rubber plantations

They put down uprisings during the 1930’s and stripped the Vietnamese of the freedom of speech

Ho Chi Minh became the leader of Vietnam’s independence movement

The French condemned him to death and Minh fled the country

became the leader of Vietnam’s independence movement • The French condemned him to death and Minh
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Minh traveled to England and to the US

While in England he realized the British were good, but colonials were abusive

In the US he was inspired by President Wilson’s speeches on self determination and freedom

He moved to France where he learned of communism

He felt communism had the power to unify his people and expel the French

to France where he learned of communism • He felt communism had the power to unify
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

He moved to China and saw how Chiang Kai Shek had begun a purge of communists

Minh recruited many of them to his cause of Vietnam liberation

He called them the Vietminh

In 1941, the Japanese seized control of Vietnam, striking at French holdings

• He called them the Vietminh • In 1941, the Japanese seized control of Vietnam, striking
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Ho Chi Minh arrived that year with his communists to fight against the Japanese

The US supported their cause

With Japan defeated, Minh sought Vietnam’s independence

He worked with the US seeking to draft a constitution

In 1945, Ho Chi Minh stood amidst a crowd in Hanoi and declared Vietnam independent

seeking to draft a constitution • In 1945, Ho Chi Minh stood amidst a crowd in
Source Reading
Source Reading
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US told Ho Chi Minh to hold off on independence

As part of the Potsdam talks, Vietnam was to be divided and France was to be given back its colony

War torn France sought to revitalize its economy by taking over Vietnam

The US switched sides and supported the French

Nearly $2.6 billion US dollars went to support the French

• The US switched sides and supported the French • Nearly $2.6 billion US dollars went
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Ho Chi Minh vowed his people would never stop fighting the French for their freedom

Enamored with Marxism and betrayed by the US, Ho Chi Minh fully embraced communism

The Vietminh held control in the North while the French seized the South

A brutal type of jungle warfare ensued

The Vietminh held control in the North while the French seized the South • A brutal
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

During the 1950’s, the US became embroiled in Korea

They felt the French were fighting for them by preventing the spread of communism

In 1953, Eisenhower negotiated peace in Korea

In 1954, Eisenhower announced his domino theory

If one more nation in Asia fell victim to communism, all of Asia would fall

Eisenhower announced his domino theory • If one more nation in Asia fell victim to communism,
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Despite US support, the French could not re-take northern Vietnam

In 1954, the French began a massive push to take the North

They parachuted nearly 10,000 French soldiers into Dien Bien Phu

The Vietminh surrounded the outpost and bombarded it with artillery for 50 days

Trapped and without aid, the French surrendered

surrounded the outpost and bombarded it with artillery for 50 days • Trapped and without aid,
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US, France, China, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, Laos and Cambodia all met to negotiate peace

The Geneva Accords temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel

Ho Chi Minh, and his communists were given the North and its capital Hanoi

Anti-communists were given the South with its capital Saigon

communists were given the North and its capital Hanoi • Anti-communists were given the South with
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US continued to support the South following the French retreat

In 1956, following the Geneva Accords, the nation was to elect its own government

Ho Chi Minh had become a great hero to many throughout the nation

He gave land to the poor, did away with foreign business, and sought independence

to many throughout the nation • He gave land to the poor, did away with foreign
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Many in the South feared the upcoming election

There were more in favor of Ho Chi Minh than the southern president Ngo Dihn Diem

The US and South Vietnam sought to cancel the elections

The US promised military support to the South if Diem kept an honest and non-corrupt government

the elections • The US promised military support to the South if Diem kept an honest
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Diem did not give land to peasants

Being Catholic, he also suppressed Buddhism across South Vietnam

In 1957, a pro-communist movement emerged in the South

They were known as the Vietcong

They sought to overthrow Diem’s regime and unify the nation with the North

• They were known as the Vietcong • They sought to overthrow Diem’s regime and unify
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Ho Chi Minh saw an opportunity

He supported the Vietcong by giving them money and weapons

Arms were smuggled to VC leaders via a secret road called the Ho Chi Minh trail

The South grew incredibly unstable

The US had to decide to sink or swim with Diem

the Ho Chi Minh trail • The South grew incredibly unstable • The US had to
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Kennedy sought to renegotiate peace through Diem

16,000 American soldiers were sent to South Vietnam to restore order

Diem failed to cooperate

He continued to mistreat the poor by relocating them to protected areas

He attacked Buddhist monks and destroyed their temples

to mistreat the poor by relocating them to protected areas • He attacked Buddhist monks and
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Several Buddhist monks gained world attention through acts of self immolation

Horrified, the US urged Diem to stop persecuting Buddhists

Diem refused, the US determined to remove him from power

In November of 1963, Diem was captured by US soldiers and executed

Kennedy was against the operation, he was assassinated a few weeks later

was captured by US soldiers and executed • Kennedy was against the operation, he was assassinated

Daily Re-cap

1) List 3 nations that invaded Vietnam

2) What did Ho Chi Minh admire about the west as he traveled the world?

3) Why did the US stop supporting Minh?

4) List 2 sinister acts the US did to Vietnam

5) Why did the US have Diem assassinated?

Re-cap

Re-cap

1) List the nations that invaded Vietnam

Re-cap

1) List the nations that invaded Vietnam

2) What were Ho Chi Minh’s followers called who fought against the French?

Re-cap

1) List the nations that invaded Vietnam

2) What were Ho Chi Minh’s followers called who fought against the French?

3) What happened to the French at Dien Bien Phu?

Re-cap

1) List the nations that invaded Vietnam

2) What were Ho Chi Minh’s followers called who fought against the French?

3) What happened to the French at Dien Bien Phu?

4) What was the plan regarding Vietnam following French defeat. How did the US betray those plans?

Re-cap

1) List the nations that invaded Vietnam

2) What were Ho Chi Minh’s followers called who fought against the French?

3) What happened to the French at Dien Bien Phu?

4) What was the plan regarding Vietnam following French defeat. How did the US betray those plans?

5) What was Diem doing that led to his assassination?

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War
War in the Jungle
War in the Jungle
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Just before his assassination, Kennedy had announced his intent to pull out of Vietnam

President Lyndon Johnson took an opposite stance

New leaders were propped up by the US, when they failed to obey, they too were assassinated

Johnson did not want to appear weak in front of a world stage

when they failed to obey, they too were assassinated • Johnson did not want to appear
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Johnson felt if the US pulled out of Vietnam it would encourage communists everywhere to rise up

In August of 1964, a North Vietnamese patrol boat fired on the US Destroyer Maddox

The US ship was patrolling off the coast of North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin

Two days later, a second wave of attacks occurred against US ships

Some aboard the US ships later reported never seeing Vietnamese ships

wave of attacks occurred against US ships • Some aboard the US ships later reported never
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

President Johnson used this attack to escalate the conflict in Vietnam

He asked congress for the power to do whatever necessary to repel attacks against the US

Congress approved with only two people voting in opposition

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was drafted, it gave Johnson broad military power in Vietnam

In the next year, 50,000 American troops were sent to South Vietnam

it gave Johnson broad military power in Vietnam • In the next year, 50,000 American troops
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US entered the War thinking their superior technology would win out

They were unprepared to fight in the Jungles of South East Asia

The US and Vietcong differed greatly in military strategy

The US fought in a way that was reminiscent of Chess

The Vietcong fought using Sun Tzu’s Art of War

• The US fought in a way that was reminiscent of Chess • The Vietcong fought
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

To the Vietcong, it was better to hide, harass, and wear down the enemy

They utilized a strategy similar to the Chinese game of Go

They knew the War would drag on, that the US had better technology

They would fight “Hit and Run”

They would surround, surprise, and wear down the US

better technology • They would fight “Hit and Run” • They would surround, surprise, and wear
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

US Generals continued to search for a large scale engagement

They felt US technology would have the upper hand

The Vietcong denied them any chance for a large scale battle

American soldiers were told to move through the jungle and find the Vietcong

US soldiers did not know what the Vietcong looked like

were told to move through the jungle and find the Vietcong • US soldiers did not
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

They would come across a village who would praise the soldiers

They would give gifts and shout, “America #1”

That night, the same people would surround and attack American soldiers

This proved to be an incredibly difficult way for American’s to fight

They were surrounded not only by enemies but also the dangers of the jungle

way for American’s to fight • They were surrounded not only by enemies but also the
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The Vietcong employed a variety of booby traps in the jungle

Early traps were primitive in nature

They used punji pits and stakes

Traps used to kill wild animals

American Soldiers never knew what they were walking into

pits and stakes • Traps used to kill wild animals • American Soldiers never knew what
Whip Trap Arrow Trap

Whip Trap

Whip Trap Arrow Trap

Arrow Trap

Tiger Trap Mace Trap

Tiger Trap

Tiger Trap Mace Trap

Mace Trap

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Making matters worse, the Vietcong had dug underground tunnels

They began these tunnels during the war with the French

The tunnels were incredibly hard to find

At times, Americans would walk over entire armies

The Vietcong would then emerge, surround and harass US forces then disappear

would walk over entire armies • The Vietcong would then emerge, surround and harass US forces
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War
War in the Jungle
War in the Jungle
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

American soldiers soon became incredibly frustrated

Generals would tell the soldiers where the enemy was, in most cases they were traps

Soldiers lost confidence in leadership

Many generals sought to become heroes where the soldiers only wanted to survive

The top US General was Westmoreland

Many generals sought to become heroes where the soldiers only wanted to survive • The top
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

General Westmoreland wanted to wear down the enemies moral

He felt the American’s would prevail through a war of attrition

The Vietcong were fighting for their freedom

History had taught them to resist at all costs for as long as it took

Ho Chi Minh declared, “You can kill 10 for every one of us, but we will still win”

costs for as long as it took • Ho Chi Minh declared, “You can kill 10
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US changed its approach to the conflict

Soldiers feared the jungle

The US developed a leaf killing toxic chemical on the jungle to kill foliage

This would allow the soldiers to travel and see the enemy

The chemical was called Agent Orange because it arrived in orange barrels

the soldiers to travel and see the enemy • The chemical was called Agent Orange because
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Agent Orange had a terrible side effect

It got into the water supply and caused birth defects and brain damage

It harmed the Vietcong, the Vietnamese and American soldiers

American soldiers soon had had enough with traitorous villagers

They began to employ Search-and- Destroy tactics

American soldiers soon had had enough with traitorous villagers • They began to employ Search-and- Destroy
Birth Defects From Agent Orange

Birth Defects From Agent Orange

Birth Defects From Agent Orange
Birth Defects From Agent Orange

Birth Defects From Agent Orange

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Search and Destroy was similar to what General Sherman did in the American Civil War

Destroy everything in your path

Villages were searched, houses were torched, animals and livestock were slaughtered

In addition, the US began major bombing campaigns across Vietnam

They sought to destroy the Ho Chi Minh Trail, Hanoi, and any enemy hideouts

major bombing campaigns across Vietnam • They sought to destroy the Ho Chi Minh Trail, Hanoi,
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The most notorious bomb was napalm

This was a gel that burned hotter than the surface of the sun

Napalm was dropped on villages suspect of aiding the enemy

If American’s were not out of its way, they too were burned up

Many innocent Vietnamese villagers were killed or horribly wounded

were not out of its way, they too were burned up • Many innocent Vietnamese villagers
Napalm Burns

Napalm Burns

Napalm Burns
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The War became a battle for hearts and minds

But the Americans were losing

Many Vietnamese, having villages burned and children killed by napalm and Agent Orange switched sides

Americans in the US were horrified at how US soldiers were behaving

Public opinion began to swing against the War

Americans in the US were horrified at how US soldiers were behaving • Public opinion began
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The Vietcong adapted to the new American tactics

Un-exploded bombs were rigged and used against American soldiers

Weapons depots were ransacked

The Vietcong came up with Ingenious ways to use grenades

Moral amongst American soldiers plummeted

Some even killed their superior officers

ways to use grenades • Moral amongst American soldiers plummeted • Some even killed their superior
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Despite the hardships, most Americans still supported the War

Westmorland told soldiers to keep track of the numbers killed

These numbers were aired on the television to show Americans were winning

However, the credibility gap began to grow

Americans started to feel they were being lied to

The government promised the War was almost over, yet it continued to get worse

to feel they were being lied to • The government promised the War was almost over,
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War
A Nation Divided
A Nation Divided
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

As the conflict in Vietnam intensified, the government instituted the draft

When men turned 18, they had to register with their local draft board

During time of war, men from the age of 18 to 26 could be drafted into military service

Thousands of men refused to participate in the war

These men could dodge the draft by getting a medical deferment

Thousands of men refused to participate in the war • These men could dodge the draft
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Others would join the National Guard or Coast Guard to avoid Vietnam

Cassius Clay, controversially, became a Muslim and cited it was against his religion to go to war

Some received college deferments, which could postpone military service

Those who were white and wealthy could avoid conflict where the lower class were stuck

80% of the soldiers in Vietnam were from minority groups and lower classes

where the lower class were stuck • 80% of the soldiers in Vietnam were from minority
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Some Americans dodged the draft by fleeing to Canada

African Americans represented 10% of the US army but accounted for 20% of the deaths

Many African Americans experienced severe racial issues during the War

Females were not allowed to serve in the War as soldiers

Many joined the Red Cross and became army nurses

While many sought ways out, 1000’s joined bravely to serve their nation

the Red Cross and became army nurses • While many sought ways out, 1000’s joined bravely
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Politically, a new group of anti-war activists emerged during the Vietnam conflict

They were known as the New Left

The Old Left existed in the 1930’s and sought communism

The New Left demanded changes in American government

This movement tended to centralize around universities and college students

demanded changes in American government • This movement tended to centralize around universities and college students
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

SDS, Students for a Democratic Society formed in Michigan

They felt that the US was lead by big government and large corporations

They wanted the nation to be lead by the people

FMF, Free Speech Movement, was also born out of university students in Berkley, California

They sought much of the same, limitation of big business controlling the US government

in Berkley, California • They sought much of the same, limitation of big business controlling the
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

As the Vietnam War grew more violent and claimed more American lives, these groups began to protest the war

In 1965, SDS organized a march on Washington

Johnson responded by changing university requirements for draft deferment

Students could not just be in college, they had to be in good academic standing

Campuses around the nation erupted in protest

not just be in college, they had to be in good academic standing • Campuses around
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The reasons for discontent with the Vietnam War varied

Some protested that the War was a Civil War and the US had no part

Others protested the US becoming a police state

Still others thought War was simply morally unjust

The protests soon spilled over into the music industry furthering the discontent

War was simply morally unjust • The protests soon spilled over into the music industry furthering
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

In 1967, protest turned into resistance

500,000 protesters gathered in New York’s central park to burn their draft tickets

The US government arrested more than 200,000 draft dodgers

10,000 fled to Canada

When protesters marched on the Pentagon, they were dispersed by military force

1,500 protesters were injured in the skirmish

marched on the Pentagon, they were dispersed by military force • 1,500 protesters were injured in
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

By 1967, America was strongly divided over the War

Those strongly opposed to the War were called Doves

Those in favor of continuing the conflict were known as Hawks

Despite the protests, most Americans were still committed to the War

Undeterred, Johnson continued escalating the War in Vietnam

most Americans were still committed to the War • Undeterred, Johnson continued escalating the War in
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

One of the worst protest incidents took place at Kent State University

There, students banded together and burned the ROTC building

In response, the mayor called out the national guard

The guard opened fire on a crowd of students who were throwing rocks

The gunfire wounded 9 people and killed

4

Ten days later, Jackson State had a similar incident

rocks • The gunfire wounded 9 people and killed 4 • Ten days later, Jackson State
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Jackson State was an all black university

There too, guardsman opened fire on a raucous crowd of protesters

12 students were shot and two killed

Many American’s supported the National Guards actions

The War in Vietnam was tearing the nation apart

• Many American’s supported the National Guards actions • The War in Vietnam was tearing the
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War
Major Battles
Major Battles
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

By 1965, most battles had been fought in the dense jungle

US soldiers were growing frustrated, looking for a large fight

Search and Destroy missions were launched

Operation Rolling Thunder began

The Operation targeted major bases in North Vietnam

Many pilots were shot down and became prisoners

began • The Operation targeted major bases in North Vietnam • Many pilots were shot down
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Captured pilots were placed in the Hanoi Hilton [Hotel]

While there, many POW’s were tortured

Torture methods were used to get US pilots to criticize the US government

They would televise POW’s praising North Vietnam and air it over television

In 1973, 591 US soldiers were released back to the US

1,350 still remain unaccounted for

it over television • In 1973, 591 US soldiers were released back to the US •
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

One of the great challenges the US faced were SAM’s

A solution was hatched to use US pilots to deploy SAM’s

These pilots flew F-150 Thunder Chiefs

There were called the, “Wild Weasels”

Their bravery allowed US bombing raids of North Vietnam to continue

There were called the, “Wild Weasels” • Their bravery allowed US bombing raids of North Vietnam
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

In August of 1965, the US scored its greatest victory of the War

At Chu Lai, US forces killed 700 VC while only losing 45

It lead many to believe the War was turning in US favor

1966 saw many small scale battles

The year claimed 6,000 American lives to the VC’s 61,000

in US favor • 1966 saw many small scale battles • The year claimed 6,000 American
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

In 1967, US forces advanced north in attempt to capture the Iron Triangle

Americans saw little resistance and captured several large VC ammo dumps

In May, the US shot down 26 VC pilots and gained the upper hand in the skies

All but one Mig base in the north had been heavily damaged by US bombing

The general feeling following 1967 was positive

one Mig base in the north had been heavily damaged by US bombing • The general
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

In Autumn of 1967, the US received intelligence that the North was conducting a troop build up

In January, the US sought to counter this build up by massing troops in the North at Khe Sanh

US forces at Khe Sanh came under heavy attack from VC forces

They surrounded US forces and conducted 5 months of continual artillery attacks

under heavy attack from VC forces • They surrounded US forces and conducted 5 months of

Timeline

Diem is Assassinated

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Draft Lottery is Instituted

Kennedy is Assassinated

French are defeated at Dien Bien Phu

Timeline

1) French are defeated at Dien Bien Phu

2) Diem is Assassinated

3) Kennedy is Assassinated

4) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

5) Draft Lottery is Instituted

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

January 30th was the Vietnamese equivalent of New Years Eve

Throughout the day, 1000’s of villagers streamed into S. Vietnam cities to celebrate

A week long truce was proclaimed for the week of Tet

At the same time, many funerals were held for those killed in the War

Many of the buildup soldiers came south and snuck into major southern cities

were held for those killed in the War • Many of the buildup soldiers came south
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

VC disguised themselves as partygoers for Tet

Coffins smuggled ammunition and guns into the South

That night, the surprise attack began

Over 100 cities and towns across Vietnam erupted into battle

The VC briefly took over the US embassy in Saigon

Attacks continued for a month before US forces drove the VC out

The VC briefly took over the US embassy in Saigon • Attacks continued for a month
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

During the chaos of Tet, Saigon chief of police Nguyen Ngoc Loan shocked America

The Tet offensive played out live across televisions in the US

It did not portray America well

With NBC cameras filming the fighting, Loan led a VC officer, handcuffed, into the streets

He drew his pistol and executed him on live TV

the fighting, Loan led a VC officer, handcuffed, into the streets • He drew his pistol
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Many American’s felt they were being lied to

Tet made it appear as though the US was losing the conflict

Loan’s execution showed the chaotic state of Saigon

General Westmoreland proclaimed Tet to be a massive US victory

During the month long attack, the VC lost 32,000 soldiers to the US 3,000

Journalism however had painted a very different picture

long attack, the VC lost 32,000 soldiers to the US 3,000 • Journalism however had painted
Question: Media
Question: Media
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Another incident spread dissent about the Vietnam War

In March of 1968, US forces erupted in a brutal scene of violence

Soldiers moved on the small town of My Lai, thought to be harboring 250 VC

Rather than find VC, they found women, children and old men

US Lieutenant William L. Calley Jr. ordered his company to round up the villagers

found women, children and old men • US Lieutenant William L. Calley Jr. ordered his company
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

After gathering around 400 people, they were ordered to kneel on the ground

US soldiers were told to leave none alive

Soldiers massacred over 400 women, children, and old men

A helicopter crew stopped the massacre before it became worse

They landed their helicopter between the people and US soldiers

Chopper commander, Lawrence Colburn ordered his gunner to fire on US soldiers if they did not stop

and US soldiers • Chopper commander, Lawrence Colburn ordered his gunner to fire on US soldiers
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

At first, the incident was covered up

When it came to light, the trial was made public

Calley was sentenced to life in prison

Nixon reduced it to 20 years

The three men who stopped the massacre were awarded the Soldiers Medal

The My Lai massacre weighed heavily on the conscience of America

the massacre were awarded the Soldiers Medal • The My Lai massacre weighed heavily on the
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Before Tet, 28% of American’s called themselves Doves

Following Tet, 40% became Doves

Walter Cronkite proclaimed the War was moving towards a stalemate

President Johnson was scrutinized

60% of Americans disfavored Johnson’s presidency

Robert McNamara, Secretary of State resigned following the debacle

of Americans disfavored Johnson’s presidency • Robert McNamara, Secretary of State resigned following the debacle
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Robert Kennedy gained ground campaigning that he would end the War

Political camps were deeply divided for the upcoming election

President Johnson told American’s the US would seek negotiations to end the War

Then Johnson shocked America by declaring he would not run for a second term

This paved the way for Richard Nixon

Then Johnson shocked America by declaring he would not run for a second term • This

Re-cap

Re-cap

1) Operation Rolling Thunder/Wild Weasels

Re-cap

1) Operation Rolling Thunder/Wild Weasels

2) Tet Offensive

Re-cap

1) Operation Rolling Thunder/Wild Weasels

2) Tet Offensive

3) My Lai Massacre

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War
Major Battles
Major Battles
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

In May of 1968, Peace talks in Paris began

They failed to produce a resolution to the fighting in Vietnam

When Nixon became president, he started a new policy called, “Vietnamization”

This involved removing American soldiers and replacing them with S. Vietnam soldiers

The US trained the S. Vietnamese to take over the conflict and gradually began to pull out

S. Vietnam soldiers • The US trained the S. Vietnamese to take over the conflict and
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US would still provide support to the south and even continued bombing raids

One of the great problems with the War in Vietnam was the neighboring nations of Cambodia and Laos

The Ho Chi Mihn Trail passed to the west and could not be attacked

Nixon promised to end this problem

When troops crossed into Cambodia, it set the stage for a Civil war

Nixon’s actions brought a new wave of protests

troops crossed into Cambodia, it set the stage for a Civil war • Nixon’s actions brought
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Protests in America intensified

A faction of SDS turned violent

They armed themselves with clubs, pipes, rocks and chains at attacked police in Chicago

They called themselves the Weatherman, after a Bob Dylan line

The violence in American cities caused many to petition for an end to the War

Weatherman, after a Bob Dylan line • The violence in American cities caused many to petition
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Nixon felt the protests were the acts of radicals

He still felt he had the majority of America’s interests

He called upon the “Silent Majority” to help stop the protests

Nixon experienced the same amount of success in peace negotiations as Johnson did

In 1972, National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger announced, “Peace is at Hand”

Days later, another massive attack occurred against South Vietnam

Henry Kissinger announced, “Peace is at Hand” • Days later, another massive attack occurred against South

President Nixon promised to end the War in Vietnam. Yet he authorized the heaviest bombing raids of the War, and he expanded the War into Cambodia. Were these actions consistent with his promise? Why or Why not?

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

Nixon intensified US bombing against Northern capitals

In January, Nixon finally reached a peace agreement with North Vietnam

1) The US would withdraw all forces in 60 days

2) All prisoners of war would be released

3) All parties would end attacks on Cambodia and Laos

4) The 17th parallel would divide the nation until it could be reunited

would end attacks on Cambodia and Laos • 4) The 17th parallel would divide the nation
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The US pulled out its troops by 1973 and left South Vietnam to itself

Fighting continued for two more years

In 1975, a major North Vietnam campaign pushed south

The South Vietnamese could not contain it

As forces marched into Saigon, the US rushed planes and helicopters to rescue the last democratic people of the south

6,000 people were airlifted to safety

On April 30th, 1975, Saigon fell

last democratic people of the south • 6,000 people were airlifted to safety • On April
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

One reason the US involved itself in Vietnam was to stop the spread of communism

Laos and Cambodia fell to communism, but no further

Worst of the two was Cambodia

The Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot killed 1.5 million people thought to support the west

Many who escaped came to the US for safety

under Pol Pot killed 1.5 million people thought to support the west • Many who escaped
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The Vietnam war cost 58,000 American lives and an additional 300,000 wounded

2,500 Americans have been declared MIA or POW

Returning veterans were treated poorly by Americans

Most gave their lives fighting for their country and freedom

All across the US they were hated, despised, and ridiculed

A recent study found that 152,000 Vietnam vets have committed suicide

US they were hated, despised, and ridiculed • A recent study found that 152,000 Vietnam vets

Why do you think Vietnam Veterans came home to a different reception than the veterans of WWII?

How have American treated modern day soldiers returning from war?

How avoid the mistakes of the past?

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War divided Americans more than any conflict in the nations history

Issues were so difficult that it took years for the government to create a monument

In 1979, a group of veterans started to raise a fund to create a memorial

Congress supported the idea and it was agreed to be built near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C.

How could the monument honor those who gave their lives and avoid the critical political issues surrounding the war?

How could the monument honor those who gave their lives and avoid the critical political issues
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War

They decided to hold a contest for the monument

The winner was a 21 year old college student names Maya Ling Lin

She proposed a black granite wall with the names of those who lost their lives

She chose black granite for its reflective qualities, and a below ground placement

The names are not alphabetical but in the order the victims died

The memorial has been highly praised by all sides for helping heal the wounds of the War

the order the victims died • The memorial has been highly praised by all sides for

Since the Vietnam War, the US policy has been caution in World Affairs. How do you think the nation would respond to another foreign war that had the makings of Vietnam?