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Student ScoreCard

 Quantitative Ability & Data Interpretation Score:42 Percentile:100 Verbal Ability & Logical Reasoning Score:40 Percentile:99 Overall: Overall Score:82 Percentile:100

Question: 1

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 8 2) 9 3) 10 4) 11

Explanation:

Question: 2

Answer the questions independently of each other.

1)

2)

3)

4)

Explanation:

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Question: 3

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 500 2) 499 3) 498 4) 497

Explanation:

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Question: 4 Answer the questions independently of each other. A and B are at points P and Q respectively and C is at point R on road joining P and Q such that the ratio of distance of C from A to that from B is 2 : 3. At time t = 0, A and B start moving towards each other and C starts moving simultaneously. If C moves towards B, then all three meet simultaneously. If C moves towards A, then C reaches the position originally occupied by A at the same instant when A meets B. If C did not move, then what will be the ratio of time taken by A and B to meet C?

 1) 1 : 2 2) 3 : 8 3) 4 : 9 4) 1 : 6

Explanation:

Question: 5

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 2a6 2) 3a6 3) 3a5 4) 2a5

Explanation:

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Question: 6

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 200 2) 600 3) 300 4) 198

Explanation:

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Question: 7

Answer the questions independently of each other.

An alloy Z is formed using an alloy X and metals A and B. The ratio of X, A and B in Z is 1 : 2 : 4. X is an alloy that contains the metals A

and B in the ratio 3 : 2. In what ratio must alloy Z and metal B be mixed to form another alloy that contains metals A and B in the ratio 1 :

2?

 1) 31 : 5 2) 9 : 1 3) 33 : 7 4) 35 : 4

Explanation:

Question: 8

Answer the questions independently of each other.

A square ABCD has a side of 2 units. Another square PQRS of area 3 square units is inscribed inside the square ABCD such that P lies

on AB. Find the length of AP, given that AP

PB.

1)

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2)

3)

4)

Explanation:

Question: 9

Answer the questions independently of each other.

1)

2)

7

3)

4)

Explanation:

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Question: 10

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

In a store, t-shirts are available in four different sizes – S (Small), M (Medium), L (Large) and XL (Extra Large). The number of t-shirts of

each size is the same. The t-shirts are of one or the other of six colours – Blue, Black, Green, Red, Yellow and Brown. The following pie-

charts provide the percentage distribution (colour wise) of t-shirts of each of the given four sizes.

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Which of the following can be the number of black t-shirts in the store?

 1) 2100 2) 1910 3) 1810 4) 1710

Explanation:

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Question: 11

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

If number of XL (Extra Large) blue t-shirts is same as the number of green t-shirts, then the number of L (Large) yellow t-shirts as a

percentage of XL (Extra Large) red t-shirts is at least

 1) 30% 2) 35% 3) 40% 4) 45%

Explanation:

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Question: 12

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

If the sum of brown and green t-shirts in the store is 117, then the minimum number of red t-shirts is?

 1) 12 2) 13 3) 14 4) 15

Explanation:

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Question: 13

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 4 2) 3 3) 5 4) 0

Explanation:

Question: 14 Answer the questions independently of each other. In a room, there are some boxes – small and large. Each large box contains the same number of gold coins. This holds true for each small box as well. Each small box contains two fewer gold coins than each large box. There are a total of 165 gold coins in the room. If the

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number of small boxes is twice that of large boxes, then which of the following cannot be true?

1)

2)

There are a total of 99 boxes in the room

There are a total of 45 boxes in the room

The number of gold coins in the large boxes is 99

The number of gold coins in the small boxes is 75

3)

4)

Explanation:

Let there be 2x small and x large boxes.

Let there be n gold coins in each small box. Therefore, there are n + 2 gold coins in each large box

Therefore, there are 2nx + nx + 2x gold coins in the box

Or, x(3n +2) = 165 = 33 × 5 = 3 × 55 = 11 × 15

3n + 2 = 5 or 11

 n = 1 or 3 x = 33 or 15

Case 1: n = 1, x = 33 and 2x = 66

Total number of boxes = 3x = 99

Number of gold coins in the large boxes = x(n + 2) = 99

Therefore, options (1) and (3) can be true

Case 2: n = 3, x = 15 and 2x = 30

Total number of boxes = 3x = 45

Therefore, option (2) can be true

Hence, [4].

Question: 15

Answer the questions independently of each other.

A man buys mangoes, chikoos and lemons from a fruit vendor. A mango costs Rs. 5, a chikoo costs Re. 1 and a lemon costs 5 paise. He

buys a total of 100 fruits in 100 rupees. In how many distinct ways can he make this purchase, if he buys at least one fruit of each type ?

 1) 0 2) 1 3) 2 4) More than 2

Explanation:

Question: 16 Answer the questions independently of each other.

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 1) 2) 3) 4)

Explanation:

Question: 17

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 0 2) 1 3) 2 4) more than 2

Explanation:

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Question: 18 Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 2) 3) 4) None of the above

Explanation:

Question: 19

Answer the questions independently of each other.

Rohan, a shopkeeper, went to a wholesale market to purchase apples. Apples were being sold at a wholesale price of Rs 40 per kg. He

negotiated and purchased 50 kg of apples at 40% discount. Rohan marked up the price at which he purchased the apples by 50% and

used a balance that measured 1 kg for every 800 gm of apples sold. When he had x kg of apples left unsold, he noticed that he had

 recovered 50% of the amount he paid to purchase the whole lot of apples. Find x. 1) 2) 3)

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4)

None of these

Explanation:

Question: 20

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 Given that f(x) = secx – tanx. If f(x) = k, then what is the value of cosec x? 1) 2) 3) 4)

Explanation:

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Question: 21 Answer the questions independently of each other. In a room, there are 5 couples. In how many ways two men and two women can be selected such that exactly one couple is selected?

 1) 80 2) 60 3) 120 4) 100

Explanation:

Question: 22

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

In a football league six different teams– A, B, C, D, E and F participated.Each team played every other team exactly once. The table given

below provides partial information about the goals conceded by different teams against each of the other teams. In any match, the team

that conceded more goals lost whereas if the goals conceded by both the teams were same, then the match ended in a draw.

Instructions for reading the table: For a match between C and E, the goals conceded by C would be the entry in Row C and Column E

whereas the goals conceded by E would be the entry in Row E and Column C.

The following bar graph provides information about the number of matches won by four of the six teams.

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How many matches did E win?

 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) cannot be determined

Explanation:

Question: 23

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

If a = d + 4, then how many goals were scored against C in all the matches combined?

 1) 10 2) 7 3) 6 4) 9

Explanation:

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Question: 24

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

In how many matches only one team scored?

 1) 7 2) 8 3) 9 4) 6

Explanation:

Question: 25

Answer the questions independently of each other.

 1) 6 2) 9 3) 18 4) 27

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Explanation:

Question: 26

Answer the questions independently of each other.

1)

2)

3)

4)

Explanation:

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Question: 27

Answer the questions independently of each other.

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 1) 2) 3) 4)

Explanation:

Question: 28

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

The following table and line chart provide information about the number of births and number of deaths in a city from 2006 to 2013.

Take percentage points only in multiples of 5

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Assume that no other changes have taken place in the population of the city in the given years.

If the population of the city in 2012 decreased by 18% as compared to that in 2005, then what was the percentage increase in the

population of the city in 2008 as compared to that in 2005?

 1) 14% 2) 12% 3) 6% 4) cannot be determined

Explanation:

Question: 29

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

If the number of males and females was same in 2005, then what was the difference between the number of females and males in 2013?

 1) 14800 2) 14900 3) 15800 4) 15900

Explanation:

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Question: 30 Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow. In how many of the given years, the number of males decreased as compared to the previous year?

1)

6

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 2) 5 3) 4 4) 3

Explanation:

Question: 31

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The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences, from among the given choices, to construct a coherent paragraph. A.Even more so in non-industrialized cultures than in modern Western societies, music is and was part of the fabric of everyday life. B.Some of the oldest physical artefacts found in human and proto-human excavation sites are musical instruments: bone flutes and animal skins stretched over tree stumps to make drums. C.Music is unusual among all human activities for both its antiquity and its ubiquity.

D.Whenever humans come together for any reason, music is there: weddings, funerals, graduation from college, men marching off to war, stadium sporting events, a night on the town, prayer, a romantic dinner, mothers rocking their infants to sleep, and college students

studying with music as a background.

E.No known human culture now or anytime in the recorded past lacked music.

 1) EBCAD 2) CDABE 3) ECBDA 4) CEBDA

Explanation:

Statement C is clearly the opening sentence, as it states the topic of the paragraph, i.e. how venerable and all-pervasive music is. E is a

supporting argument for it. B expands on the first point made in the first sentence, i.e. the antiquity of music, and follows from the second

half of E. D and A expand on the second point, i.e. the ubiquity of music. So the correct order is CEBDA. Hence, [4].

Question: 32

The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter.

Choose the most logical order of sentences, from among the given choices, to construct a coherent paragraph.

A. And writing, among other uses, is only one form of conveying human speech.

B. Nevertheless, modern society, it appears, has exalted this distinctive form of communication.

C. Even abstract notions can be transcribed graphically through this ‘solidifying symbolic system’.

D. Perhaps this is partly because, as a representation of external realities, communication through graphic art seems more objective,

more substantial, than linguistic communication.

E. Communication of human thought, in general, can be achieved in many different ways, speech being only one of them.

 1) EBCDA 2) EABDC 3) ECBDA 4) EACDB

Explanation:

Based on the options, E has to be the opening sentence. A links to E: in E, speech is said to be only one form of communication, and in A,

writing is said to be only one form of conveying speech. 'This' in B could refer to either speech or writing; since the EA link precludes B

from following immediately after E, B must follow immediately after A instead. D offers an explanation for the puzzle in B, and C continues

this explanation. Therefore, the correct sequence is EABDC. Hence, [2].

Question: 33

The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter.

Choose the most logical order of sentences, from among the given choices, to construct a coherent paragraph.

A.Only much later, in order to distinguish painting, sculpture and architecture from what we would now call crafts, did we conceive of the notion of Fine Arts. B.While certain modern aesthetic theories recognize only the beauty of art, thus underestimating the beauty of nature, in other historical periods the reverse was the case. C.Yet histories of beauty tend to be documented solely through works of art, because over the centuries it was artists, poets and novelists

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who told us about the things that they considered beautiful, and they were the ones who left us examples. D.The close relationship forged in the modern age between beauty and art is not as obvious as we think. E.Beauty was considered a quality that could be possessed by natural things (such as moonlight, a fine fruit, a beautiful colour), while art was a term applied even-handedly to the work of painters, sculptors, boat builders, carpenters and barbers alike.

 1) BEADC 2) BDECA 3) DCBEA 4) DBEAC

Explanation:

D makes a better opening sentence than B, as it is more general. B follows from D, explaining why the relationship between beauty and

art is not obvious (note that though C may seem to fit after D, as in [3], it breaks the link between D and B). E, which describes the

'reverse' case mentioned in B, follows immediately after it. A continues this line of thought. C is the conclusion that explains why histories

of beauty focus only on art. Therefore the correct sequence is DBEAC. Hence, [4].

Question: 34

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

Eight persons - P, Q, R, S, T, U, V and W work in the same organization. Each of the eight persons is working on one or more than one of

the four projects - Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta. No person is working on all the projects.

Further it is known that:

I. Only one male is working on Alpha and only two females are working on Gamma.

II.The number of persons working on exactly three projects is two more than those working on exactly two projects. The number of

persons who are working on exactly one project is two, and both of them are males.

III.Q, T and V are managers. There is no project on which two or more than two managers are working.

IV.R is working only on the projects on which V is working.

V.P is working on all the projects on which Q is not working.

VI.There are only two projects on which W and S are working together.

VII. The number of persons working on Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta is in an arithmetic progression (in that order).The number of

persons working on Delta is more than those working on any other project.

VIII. T works on Gamma

Who among the given persons is not working on Beta?

 1) U 2) P 3) R 4) V

Explanation:

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Question: 35 Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow. Who among the given persons is working on exactly two projects?

1)

Q

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 2) P 3) W 4) R

Explanation:

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Question: 36 Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow. For how many of the given persons, their gender can be exactly determined?

1)

Four

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 2) Five 3) Six 4) Seven

Explanation:

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Question: 37 In the following question, there are sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence(s) or part(s) of sentence(s) that is/are correct in terms of grammar and usage (including spelling, punctuation and logical consistency). Then, choose the most appropriate option.

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A.It was not so long ago that we got around by using maps that folded. B.Occasionally, if we wanted a truly global picture of our place in the world, C.we would have pulled shoulder-dislocating atlases from shelves. D.The world was bigger back then. Experience and cheaper travel have rendered it small, E.but nothing has shrinked the world more than digital mapping.

 1) A, B & D 2) A, B & C 3) B, D & E 4) C, D & E

Explanation:

There is a tense error in statement C: the correct form should be 'would pull' not 'would have pulled' (if B had been in the past perfect

instead of the simple past, 'would have pulled' would have been correct). Statement E is also incorrect: the past participle of 'shrink' is

'shrunk' not 'shrinked'. The other three statements are correct. Hence, [1].

Question: 38

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

The world consists of things, which obey rules. If you keep asking ‘why’ questions about what happens in the universe, you ultimately

reach the answer ‘because of the state of the universe and the laws of nature’.

This isn’t an obvious way for people to think. Looking at the universe through our anthropocentric eyes, we can’t help but view things in

terms of causes, purposes and natural ways of being. In ancient Greece, Plato and Aristotle saw the world teleologically: they believed

that rain falls because water wants to be lower than air, animals (and slaves) are naturally subservient to human citizens, etc.

But from the start, there were sceptics. Democritus and Lucretius were early naturalists who urged us to think in terms of matter obeying

rules rather than chasing final causes and serving underlying purposes. But it wasn’t until our understanding of physics was advanced by

thinkers such as Avicenna, Galileo and Newton that it became reasonable to conceive of the universe evolving under its own power, free

of guidance and support from anything beyond itself.

Theologians sometimes invoke ‘sustaining the world’ as a function of God. But the world doesn’t need to be sustained, it can simply be.

Pierre-Simon Laplace articulated the very specific kind of rule that the world obeys: If we specify the complete state of the universe (or any

isolated part of it) at some particular instant, the laws of physics tell us what its state will be at the very next moment. Applying those laws

again, we can figure out what it will be a moment later. And so on, until (in principle, obviously) we can build up a complete history of the

universe. This is not a universe that is advancing toward a goal; it is one that is caught in the iron grip of an unbreakable pattern.

This view of the processes at the heart of the physical world has important consequences for how we come to terms with the social world.

Human beings like to insist that there are reasons why things happen. The death of a child, the crash of an airplane, or a random shooting

must be explained in terms of the workings of a hidden plan.

Nature teaches us otherwise. Things happen because the laws of nature say they will – because they are the consequences of the state

of the universe and the path of its evolution. Life on Earth doesn’t arise in fulfilment of a grand scheme but as a by-product of the increase

of entropy in an environment very far from equilibrium. Our impressive brains don’t develop because life is guided toward greater levels of

complexity and intelligence but from the mechanical interactions between genes, organisms and their surroundings.

None of which is to say that life is devoid of purpose and meaning. Only that these are things we create, not things we discover out there

in the fundamental architecture of the world. The world keeps happening, in accordance with its rules; it’s up to us to make sense of it and

give it value.

What is the author's purpose in writing this passage?

 1) To communicate that the teleological and theological views of the universe are wrong 2) To explain how the universe works, and how we should see ourselves in relation to it 3) To prove that the universe obeys certain rules, which human beings should obey as well 4) To tell the history of how thinkers through the ages have viewed the workings of the universe

Explanation:

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Option [1] is only partially correct: the author does say that the teleological and theological views of the universe are wrong, but he also goes on to demonstrate the right way to view the workings of the universe, which is not mentioned in [1]. The second half of [3] is a misinterpretation of the passage: it is not that human beings should obey the same rules as the universe, but rather that they do obey them. [4] is the method the author uses in the passage, not his purpose in writing it; also, it is used only in the first few paragraphs. Only [2] correctly summarizes the author’s purpose: he wants to explain how the universe works – i.e. that it obeys certain rules – and how this knowledge should help us see ourselves in relation to the universe – i.e. as lacking extrinsic purpose, but creating our own meanings. Hence, [2].

Question: 39

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Which of the following statements would the author agree with?

1)

Scepticism was nearly unknown among the ancient Greeks.

Human beings should be able to feel that the universe is not indifferent to their joys and sorrows.

2)

3)

With a certain amount of effort, the theological and scientific worldviews can be reconciled.

Even if we knew the complete state of the universe and all the laws governing it, it would not be practically feasible to know

4)

its entire history.

Explanation:

The author mentions two ancient Greek sceptics, Democritus and Lucretius, so [1] is at best an exaggeration. [2] is against the grain of the

author’s argument in the passage – he recommends that people should create their own meaning and not look for it in the universe.

Based on how the author depicts theological and scientific worldviews in this passage as fundamentally opposed to each other (see

especially paragraph 4), it is unlikely that [3] is true. But [4] can be inferred from his aside ‘in principle, obviously’ in combination with the

rest of paragraph 4 – i.e. he believes that it is possible to know the entire history of the universe in such a manner, but only in theory, not

in practice.

Hence, [4].

Question: 40

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Which of the following best describes the author's tone?

 1) Laudatory 2) Sceptical 3) Didactic 4) Detached

Explanation:

The author's tone is 'didactic', i.e. he is trying to teach us how to view the workings of the universe and how to find meaning in life. He talks

about 'sceptical' people, but he himself is not sceptical in this passage. He praises some people and their views, and criticizes others and

their views. So he is neither 'laudatory' (i.e. admiring) nor 'detached' (i.e. uninvolved or indifferent). Hence, [3].

Question: 41

Three out of four sentences in the options, when correctly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Which of the following sentences does

not fit into the context?

1] Two songs can have the same tempo but feel very different.

2] Songs with fast tempos tend to be regarded as happy, and songs with slow tempos as sad.

3] Although this is an oversimplification about the complex effect of music, it holds true in a remarkable range of circumstances and across many cultures. 4] The tempo of music is a major factor in conveying emotion.

1)

1

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 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4

Explanation:

It is easy enough to recognize that sentences [4] and [2] are connected: [4] makes a general statement about the link between the tempo of music and emotion, and [2] states which tempos correspond to which emotion. So either [1] or [3] must be the incorrect sentence. [3]

can follow from [2]: the 'oversimplification' mentioned in it refers to the categorization of songs into happy and sad based on their tempo.

On the other hand, [1] does not fit with the other sentences, as it is about the opposite situation, i.e. songs with the same tempo rather

than different tempos. Hence, [1].

Question: 42

Three out of four sentences in the options, when correctly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Which of the following sentences does

not fit into the context?

1] The eastern one – the limestone shores of Dalmatia and Albania – is a four-hundred-mile stretch as the crow flies, but so deeply

crenellated with sheltering coves, indents, offshore islands, reefs and shoals that it comprises two thousand miles of intricate coast.

2] Geology has made the two coasts of the Adriatic Sea quite distinct.

3] At its most northern point is the enormous curved bay of the Gulf of Venice, where the water is a curious blue-green colour due to

alluvial deposits from the River Po.

4] The western, Italian shore is a curved, low-lying beach, which provides poor harbours but ideal landing spots for would-be invaders.

 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4

Explanation:

Sentence [2] is needed for giving the paragraph requisite context: the shores mentioned in the other sentences are those of the Adriatic

Sea. Both [1] and [4] describe the two coasts of the Adriatic Sea from the geological point of view, so they can both follow [2], in either

order. But [3] does not quite fit into the sequence: it talks about the northern point, not coast, of the Adriatic Sea, and talks about the

colour of the water not its geology. Hence, [3].

Question: 43

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

P, Q, R, S, T, U, V and W are eight persons – three Pakistanis, three Chinese, and two Indians (not necessarily in that order) seated in a

line such that no two Chinese are together, exactly two Pakistanis are together and one Chinese is the only one seated between the two

Indians. Persons at the extremes are Chinese. Out of the eight persons four are males. No two males are together.

Let R, a Pakistani, be the only person seated between P and Q while W and U be separated only by a Chinese. If T and S are of same

nationality, then which of the following is necessarily true?

 1) P is a Pakistani 2) Q is a Pakistani 3) V is a Pakistani 4) U is a Pakistani

Explanation:

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Question: 44

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

Let P and V be two Indian males separated by R. If U and W are at the extremes, then which of the following cannot be true?

 1) U is a Chinese male 2) W is a Chinese female 3) Q is a Pakistani male 4) T is a Chinese female

Explanation:

Question: 45

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

Let S and T be seated together and of the same nationality and Q be of the same nationality as T. If P is adjacent to S and U is adjacent

to T, then which of the following can be true?

 1) R and V are Indians 2) V and P are Indians 3) P and U are Chinese 4) V and W are Indians

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Explanation:

Question: 46

In the following questions, a word has been used in sentences in four different ways. Choose the option corresponding to the sentence in

which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

 PITCH 1) Shall we pitch our tent near this stream? 2) The darkness was pitch, so he couldn't see a thing. 3) They made their way slowly and carefully down the pitch of the hill. 4) She worked at a feverish pitch, trying to finish all the cooking before the guests arrived. Explanation:

To 'pitch one's tent' means 'to set up a tent or raise it'. The 'pitch' of a hill is its slope. In [4], 'pitch' refers to a degree of intensity. So [1], [3]

and [4] are correct. But [2] is wrong: the idiomatic phrase is 'pitch dark'; here 'pitch' cannot be separated from 'dark'. Hence, [2].

Question: 47

In the following questions, a word has been used in sentences in four different ways. Choose the option corresponding to the sentence in

which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

WASHED

 1) We washed down the meal with some coffee. 2) A wave of nostalgia washed over me as I saw my childhood home again after years. 3) It's lovely to stand out on the lawn early in the morning when it is freshly washed with dew. 4) She disgustedly told her spendthrift brother that she had washed her hands off him.

Explanation:

To 'wash down' means 'to drink something after eating food'. To 'wash over' means 'to affect (a person) suddenly and profoundly'. To 'be

washed with' means 'to be moistened with, i.e. wet'. So options [1], [2] and [3] all used 'washed' correctly. But [4] has an incorrect usage:

the correct phrase is 'wash one's hands of' not 'off' someone, meaning 'to refuse to support them anymore'. Hence, [4].

Question: 48

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question. We should appreciate natural language and the messy qualities that give it so much flexibility and power, and that make it so much more than a simple communication device. Its ambiguity and lack of precision allow it to serve as an instrument of thought formulation, of experimentation and discovery. We don’t have to know exactly what we mean before we speak; we can figure it out as we go along. Or

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not. We can talk just to talk, to be social, to feel connected, to participate. At the same time natural language still works as an instrument of thought transmission, one that can be made extremely precise and reliable when we need it to be, or left loose and sloppy when we can’t spare the time or effort. When it is important that misunderstandings be avoided, we have access to something that artificial language inventors have typically disregarded or even disdained: ‘mere’ conventional agreement, a shared culture in which definitions have been established by habit. It is convention that allows us to approach a high level of precision in academic and scientific papers or legal documents. Of course, to benefit from the precision, you must be ‘in on’ the conventional agreements on which those modes of communication depend. That’s why when specialists want to communicate with a general or lay audience – those who don’t know the conventions – they have to rely on techniques

such as slowing down, answering questions, explaining terms, illustrating with examples. Convention is a faster, more efficient instrument

of meaning transmission, as long as you take the trouble to learn the conventions.

When inventors of artificial languages try to bypass convention – to make a language that is ‘self-explanatory’ or ‘universal’ – they either

make a less efficient communication tool, or take away too much flexibility by over-determining meaning. When they try to take away

culture, the place where linguistic conventions are made, they have to substitute something else – like thousands of grammar rules.

There are types of communication, such as the ‘language’ of music, that may allow us to access some kind of universal meaning or

emotion, but give us no way to say, ‘I left my purse in the car.’ There are unambiguous systems, such as computer programming

languages, that allow us to instruct a machine to perform a certain task, but we must be so explicit about meanings we can normally trust

to inference or common sense that it can take hours or days of programming work to achieve even the simplest results. Natural languages

may be less universal than music and less precise than programming languages, but they are far more versatile, and useful in our

everyday lives, than either.

Ambiguity, or fuzziness of meaning, is not a flaw of natural language but a feature that gives it flexibility and that, for whatever reason,

suits our minds and the way we think. Likewise, the fact that languages depend on arbitrary convention or cultural habit is not a flaw but a

feature that allows us to rein in the fuzziness by establishing agreed-upon meanings at different levels of precision. Language needs its

‘flaws’ in order to do the enormous range of things we use it for.

Choose a suitable title for this passage.

1)

2)

Natural vs. Artificial Language

Conventions in Natural Language

The Requisite Flaws of Natural Language

Ambiguity and Convention: Flaws or Features?

3)

4)

Explanation:

Option [1] makes it seem as if the passage is a step-by-step comparison of natural and artificial language, whereas the passage mentions

only the features of the former. So [1] is incorrect. [4] fails to mention that the passage is about language, so it cannot be the right answer.

[2] mentions only one of the main points of the passage – i.e. conventions in language – but not the other – i.e. ambiguity – so it too can

be ruled out. Only in [3] does the main point of the passage come across, i.e. that the so-called ‘flaws’ in language (like conventions and

ambiguity) are actually its features, and are necessary for it to work effectively. Hence, [3].

Question: 49

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

According to the passage, the inventors of artificial languages would agree with which of the following statements?

 1) Culture is vital as a basis for language. 2) It is important for language not to be universally understood. 3) Conventional agreement is useful as it allows a high degree of precision in language. 4) None of the above

Explanation:

According to the passage, the inventors of artificial languages reject conventional agreement and culture as being necessary for language – see paragraphs 2 and 3. Therefore, they would not agree with either [1] or [3]. From the limited information in the passage, it cannot be inferred whether or not they would agree with [2]. Hence, [4].

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Question: 50 The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question. Choose the combinations that correctly match the type of language with one of its features. i] The language of music – universal ii] Artificial language – thousands of grammar rules iii] Computer programming languages – based on common sense

 1) [i] and [ii] 2) [i] and [iii] 3) [ii] and [iii] 4) [i], [ii] and [iii]

Explanation:

According to paragraph 4, the language of music 'may allow us to access some kind of universal meaning or emotion', so [i] is correct. In

paragraph 3, artificial languages are said to rely on 'thousands of grammar rules', so [ii] is also correct. But [iii] is incorrect: according to

paragraph 4, computer programming languages force us to be 'explicit about meanings we can normally trust to inference or common

sense', so they are not 'based on common sense'. Hence, [1].

Question: 51

Each question has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the sentence that

completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.

In stressing the importance of science in art, Leonardo da Vinci and his fellow artists attempted to elevate the status of painting to a liberal

art, alongside geometry, music, rhetoric and astronomy. These arts were those deemed worthy of serious intellectual study at the

universities in their time, whereas painting had been regarded since the Middle Ages as a craft, a lowly manual skill. In the classical age,

such activities had often been performed by slaves, and painters of Leonardo's time were desperate to throw off this stigma.

1)

2)

3)

4)

By arguing for the acceptance of painting as a liberal art, they sought to advance their own social standing.

By dissociating themselves from craftsmen, and allying their skills with mathematics and abstract thought, these artists

slowly began to gain the respect they craved.

So Leonardo da Vinci's claim to fame initially lay in being one of the first 'gentlemen artists'.

Leonardo argued that those who practised art without a scientific underpinning would be unable to depict nature exactly as

it was.

Explanation:

The passage only states that painters in Leonardo’s times were eager to elevate their status, not that they succeeded in doing so. Thus [2]

and [3], which implies that they did, assumes more than can be inferred from the passage, and is therefore wrong. The paragraph states

that Leonardo and his contemporaries stressed the importance of science in art in order to make art more respectable. So [4], which

provides a different reason for the same, does not fit the theme of the paragraph. Also, the paragraph is about Leonardo and his

contemporaries as a group – Leonardo’s individual view is not mentioned. So [4] is not a suitable concluding sentence. Only [1], which

emphasizes their main reason for doing so, completes the paragraph correctly. Hence, [1].

Question: 52

Each question has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the sentence that

completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.

The notion that each story has a natural length has long been championed by writers and ignored by publishers. In traditional publishing,

certain lengths are commercially viable. If a draft of a book exceeds these limits, the author will more than likely be asked to cut it. The flip side of the coin is worse, where elegantly crafted stories are puffed up to meet a page count. Good luck getting that perfect 30,000-word novella published unless you're highly valued by your publisher, and even then it's difficult.

1)

When it comes to traditional publishing, size matters.

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 2) There is no place for quality short fiction in the cut-throat world of publication. 3) Fortunately, the ebooks industry is set to remove the burden of length from writing. 4) Even excellent work finds itself on the chopping block, just because it runs over a predetermined length.

Explanation:

Option [3] can be eliminated immediately, as it brings in a new topic – the ebooks industry – so it should be the beginning of a new paragraph, not the continuation of this one. [4] could fit after the third sentence of the passage, which is on the same point – i.e. a book being cut because it is too long – but not after the last sentence of the given paragraph, which is about short books being artificially

lengthened. [2] is too extreme – the paragraph merely says that it is difficult for short fiction to get published, not impossible. Only [1],

which succinctly sums up the main point of the paragraph, fits as its concluding sentence. Hence, [1].

Question: 53

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A9 and A10 are ten members of the same family. There are three couples out of the ten persons in the

family. The persons are related to each other as:

I. A7 is the brother-in-law of A9 and has one unmarried sister-in-law

II. A6 is the grandmother of A10.

III. A5 has one nephew and two nieces.

IV. A10 is the only cousin of A4.

V. A1 is married and has one sister-in-law.

VI. A8 is the sister of one person and the daughter of another person among the given people.

VII. A9 is son of A2. He is married and has one son and no daughter.

The gender of how many persons can be uniquely determined?

 1) 10 2) 9 3) 8 4) 7

Explanation:

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Question: 54

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

How many of the following statements is/are true?

I. A1 has two daughters

II. A5 has two brothers

III. A2 has two grand-daughters

IV. A7 has two nieces

 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4

Explanation:

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Question: 55

Refer to the data below and answer the questions that follow.

A7 is the brother-in-law of

I.A5II.A8III.A9

 1) Only I 2) I and II but not III 3) I and III but not II 4) II and III but not I

Explanation:

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Question: 56

The following question has a sentence with two blanks. Given below it are four pairs of words. Choose the pair that best completes the

sentence.

Eleanor had not been cowed by

husband; and she would not back down now.

rumour in Antioch; she had not

in the face of a papal prohibition on divorcing her first

 1) capricious … complied 2) calumnious … acquitted 3) scurrilous … acquiesced 4) spurious … compelled

Explanation:

'Capricious', meaning 'impulsive', does not fit into the first blank, so option [1] is ruled out. 'Acquitted' and 'compelled' both require an

object, so they do not fit into the second blank grammatically (nor semantically, for that matter), so options [2] and [4] are also eliminated.

'Scurrilous', which means 'abusive or defamatory', fits the first blank, while 'acquiesced', which means 'agreed or submitted', also fits the

second blank. Hence, [3].

Question: 57

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Evolutionary change does not take place directly on the bodies of living beings but on the gene pool of the breed or species. The idea of a

gene pool is central to the body of knowledge and theory that goes under the name of the 'Neo-Darwinian Synthesis' that forms the basis

of the modern understanding of evolution. Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory, himself knew nothing of it. It was not a part of

his intellectual world, nor indeed were genes. He was aware, of course, that characteristics run in families, aware that offspring tend to

resemble their parents and siblings, aware that particular characteristics of dogs and pigeons breed true. Heredity was a central plank of his theory of natural selection. But a gene pool is something else. The concept of a gene pool has meaning only in the light of Mendel's law of the independent assortment of hereditary particles. Darwin never knew Mendel's laws, for although Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics, was Darwin's contemporary, he published his findings in a German journal which Darwin never saw.

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A Mendelian gene is an all-or-nothing entity. When you were conceived, what you received from your father was not a substance, to be

mixed with what you received from your mother as if mixing blue paint and red paint to make purple. If this were really how heredity worked (as people vaguely thought in Darwin's time) we'd all be a middling average, halfway between our two parents. In that case, all variation would rapidly disappear from the population (no matter how assiduously you mix purple paint with purple paint, you'll never reconstitute the original red and blue). In fact, of course, anybody can plainly see that there is no such intrinsic tendency for variation to decrease in a population. Mendel showed that this is because when paternal genes and maternal genes are combined in a child (he didn't

use the word 'gene', which wasn't coined until 1909), it is not like blending paints, it is more like shuffling and reshuffling cards in a pack. Nowadays, we know that genes are lengths of DNA code, not physically separate like cards, but the principle remains valid. Genes don't

blend; they shuffle. You could say they are shuffled badly, with groups of cards sticking together for several generations of shuffling before

chance happens to split them.

Any one of your eggs (or sperms if you are male) contains either your father's version of a particular gene or your mother's version, not a

blend of the two. And that particular gene came from one and only one of your four grandparents; and from one and only one of your eight

great-grandparents.

Hindsight says this should have been obvious all along. When you cross a male with a female, you expect to get a son or a daughter, not

a hermaphrodite. Hindsight says anybody in an armchair could have generalized the same all-or-none principle so that it applies to the

inheritance of each and every characteristic. Fascinatingly, Darwin himself was glimmeringly close to this, but he stopped just short of

making the full connection.

1)

2)

3)

4)

The concept of genes and how they combine was unknown when the theory of evolution was propounded.

The idea of how genes combine in a gene pool is central to evolutionary theory, but was unknown to its proponent, Charles

Darwin.

Though Charles Darwin came up with evolutionary theory, he missed out on explaining how genes and the gene pool work.

Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory, himself did not understand how genes work, and it was left to later

scientists to fill in the gaps.

Explanation:

This passage is primarily about how genes combine (i.e. through ‘shuffling’ not ‘blending’) in a gene pool, and the importance of this

concept in evolutionary theory. The fact that Darwin, the proponent of evolutionary theory, himself did not quite understand how genes

worked (as the concept was unknown in his time) is an important albeit secondary point. So option [1], which does not mention Darwin at

all, can be ruled out. On the other hand, options [3] and [4] focus too much on Darwin. They also misrepresent him, as [3] wrongly implies

that he knew about how genes work and chose not to explain it, while [4] paints an overly negative picture of him (as opposed to the

laudatory tone used towards Darwin by the author). So [3] and [4] can be eliminated. [2], which accords both aspects of the passage –

gene combination and Darwin – the correct amount of emphasis, is the best answer. Hence, [2].

Question: 58

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

'When you cross a male with a female, you expect to get a son or a daughter, not a hermaphrodite.' What is the point that the author is

trying to make with this statement?

1)

2)

3)

4)

It is obvious that hermaphrodites are born only when the process of combining male and female genes goes wrong.

It should be clear how genes work based on the fact that maleness and femaleness are distinct traits that do not mix in

offspring.

Darwin should have understood the principles on which genes work based on the fact that male and female genes do not

blend.

None of the above.

Explanation:

Refer to the last paragraph, where this sentence occurs. According to the author, people in general, and not just Darwin, should have been able to deduce how genes work based on the way that the traits of maleness and femaleness work, i.e. they remain separate in

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offspring, and do not blend (i.e. do not result in hermaphrodites). So [3] is wrong and [2] is correct. [1] is beyond the purview of the passage. Hence, [2].

Question: 59 The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question. Which of the following can be inferred about Charles Darwin from this passage?

 1) He did not know German. 2) He had no idea that genes worked on an all-or-none principle. 3) He was aware of the importance of heredity in evolutionary processes. 4) All of the above.

Explanation:

According to the first paragraph, 'Darwin never saw' the German journal that Mendel's findings were published in, but that does not

necessarily mean he did not know German. According to the last paragraph, Darwin came 'glimmeringly close to' realizing that genes

worked on an all-or-none principle, so [2] is an exaggeration. But [3] is correct: according to the first paragraph, heredity was a 'central

plank' of Darwin's theories. Hence, [3].

Question: 60

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

If you were to interview the author, which follow-up question would you ask him?

 1) How did the concept of genes help in understanding heredity? 2) Are Darwin's and Mendel's ideas still relevant to modern biology? 3) How is the concept of the gene pool important to evolutionary theory? 4) Does the inheritance of gender differ from the inheritance of other traits?

Explanation:

The whole passage, especially paragraph 2, forms the answer to [1], so it would be redundant to ask the question again. [2] is already

answered in the positive in the passage: it can be inferred from the fact that Darwin and Mendel are called 'the father of evolutionary

theory' and 'the father of genetics' respectively. Also, since the whole passage is based on Darwin's and Mendel's ideas, the implication is

that they are still relevant. It can be inferred that the answer to [4] is 'no', as the author gives the example of the inheritance of gender as a

clue to how heredity works in general. But [3] is not answered in the passage: the author asserts that 'the idea of a gene pool

basis of the modern understanding of evolution', but does not explain how exactly this is so. Thus, it would be an important follow-up

question to ask the author. Hence, [3].

forms the

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