Sei sulla pagina 1di 32

GEMS 123

Community Engagement

Prepared and compiled by:
Leonor Petra Elepao

Philippine Womens University
School Year 2013-2014

Course Description:[Baguio, Jones Claire]

Understanding traditional, modern and contemporary communities; its functions
and implications to socio-economic, political enterprise affecting national and global
phenomenon, developing civic consciousness, strong sense of volunteerism and community
participation. Power, authority, good governance and respect for the law. Using
information highways relevant tool for self and social development.

General Objectives:

At the end of the course, the students should be able to:

1. Differentiate a community from a group or organization
2. Describe and compare different kinds of communities.
3. Actively participate in public affairs and promote democracy as a way of life
4. Survey pressing needs, problems & concerns in ones community and recommend
solution s to community problems
5. Apply decorum and collaborative attitude in group discussion and community
6. Describe PWU engagements in community development
7. Appreciate the value of community mobilization and develop appropriate skills
8. Explain globalization and cite its contributions to Filipino culture and society
9. Discuss ethical problems and issues arising from globalization and information
technology and explain the world response to such problems
10. Describe nature of information technology, international relations, protection
and security in digital age, and the international policy dynamics and regulation of
11. Determine and apply significant values and opportunities in cross-cultural
communication within the university and beyond
12. Develop awareness on internationalization of higher education and importance
of cross-cultural communication.



Module 1 Community and Social Identities
Lesson 1 What is a Community
Lesson 2 Kinds of Communities and Identities
Lesson 3 Community Building Skills and Values
A. Pride in Community Heritage
B. Respect for Law, Promoting Peace & Order

Module 2 Civic Consciousness
Lesson 1 Community Problems and Concerns: Socio-Economic , Political
and Environmental
Lesson 2 Community Participation and Governance: Understanding Power
& Authority
Lesson 3 Democracy in Action: Participation and Decision Making

Module 3 Dynamics in the Community
Lesson 1 Group Discussion and Collaboration Skills
Lesson 2 Community Mobilization Skills and PWU Legacy in Community

Module 4 Global Citizenship
Lesson 1 Role of International Agencies in Addressing
Global Community Problems and Concerns: Socio-Economic ,
Political and Environmental
Lesson 2 Ethics in Globalization and Information Technology
Lesson 3 Cross-Cultural Communication and Understanding

Community and Social Identities

What is a community?

The concept of a community; the first step in considering the meaning of community
is to understand that, fundamentally, it is a fluid concept. What one person calls a
community may not match another persons definition. However, those interested in
working with a community must first have a clear picture of the entity they are trying to
address. Understanding the dimensions of the concept of community will enable those
initiating engagement processes to better target their efforts and work with community
leaders and members in developing appropriate engagement strategies.

How, then, can communities be defined? We can answer this question from two
viewpoints a broader sociological or systems perspective as well as a more personal,
individual perspective. In either case, central to the definition of a community is a sense of
"who is included and who is excluded from membership" (IOM, 1995). A person may be a
member of a community by choice, as with voluntary associations, or by virtue of their
innate personal characteristics, such as age, gender, race, or ethnicity (IOM, 1995). As a
result, individuals may belong to multiple communities at any one time. When initiating
community engagement efforts, one must be aware of these complex associations in
deciding which individuals to work with in the targeted community.

From a sociological perspective, the notion of community refers to a group of people
united by at least one common characteristic. Such characteristics could include geography,
shared interests, values, experiences, or traditions. John McKnight, a sociologist, once said
that if one were to go to a sociology department in search of a single, simple definition of
the word community, one would "...never leave. To some people its a feeling, to some
people its relationships, to some people its a place, to some people its an institution"
(CBC, 1994).

Communities may be viewed as systems composed of individual members and
sectors that have a variety of distinct characteristics and interrelationships (Thompson et
al., 1990). These sectors are populated by groups of individuals who represent specialized
functions, activities, or interests within a community system. Each sector operates within
specific boundaries to meet the needs of its members and those the sector is designed to
benefit. For example, schools focus on student education, the transportation sector focuses
on moving people and products, economic entities focus on enterprise and employment,
faith organizations focus on the spiritual and physical well-being of people, and health care
agencies focus on prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries. In reality, these
sectors are a few of the many elements that comprise the overall community system.

A community can be viewed as a living organism or well-oiled machine. For the community
to be successful, each sector has its role and failure to perform that role in relationship to
the whole organism or machine will diminish success. In a systems view, healthy
communities are those that have well-integrated, interdependent sectors that share
responsibility to resolve problems and enhance the well-being of the community. It is
increasingly recognized that to successfully address a communitys complex problems and
quality of life issues, it is necessary to promote better integration, collaboration, and
coordination of resources from these multiple community sectors.

One useful way to describe the community and its sectors is through a technique
known as mapping (Kretzmann et al. 1993). As shown in the following diagram, someone
interested in describing the bounds of a community can map it by identifying primary,
secondary, and potential building blocks, or human and material resources. Each of these
resources has assets that can be identified, mobilized, and used to address issues of
concern and bring about change.

Again, from the systems perspective, another way to understand and describe a
community might involve exploring factors related to:
People (socioeconomics and demographics, health status and risk profiles, cultural
and ethnic characteristics)
Location (geographic boundaries)
Connectors (shared values, interests, motivating forces)
Power relationships (communication patterns, formal and informal lines of
authority and influence, stake holder relationships, resource flows) (Adapted from
VHA, 1993).

Similarly, we can define the community from a broader sociological perspective by
describing the social and political networks that link individuals and community
organizations and leaders. Understanding the nature and boundaries of these networks is
critical to planning engagement efforts. For example, tracing individuals social ties may
help those who are initiating a community engagement effort to identify leaders within a
community, understand community patterns, identify high risk groups within the
community, and strengthen networks within the community (Minkler, 1997).

Beyond the collective definitions of community that researchers and organizers can
apply, an individual also has her or his own sense of community membership. The presence
or absence of a sense of membership in a community may vary over time and is likely to
influence participation in community activities. This variation is affected by a number of
factors. For example, persons at one time may feel an emotional, cultural, or experiential tie
to one community; at another time, they might believe they have a contribution to make
within a different group. At yet another time, they may see membership in a third distinct
community as a way to meet their own individual needs (Chavis et al., 1990). Of course,
they may also have this sense of belonging to more than one community at the same time.
Before beginning an engagement effort, it is important to understand that all these
potential variations and perspectives may exist and influence the work within a given

Other definitions of Community

a unified body of individuals: as
b : the people with common interests living in a particular area; broadly : the area
itself <the problems of a largecommunity>
c : an interacting population of various kinds of individuals (as species) in a common
d : a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a
larger society <a communityof retired persons>
e : a group linked by a common policy
f : a body of persons or nations having a common history or common social, economic, and
political interests <the international community>
g : a body of persons of common and especially professional interests scattered through a
larger society <the academiccommunity>

Community Building Skills and Values

Pride in community heritage; the important role that history plays in the future of
our communities. The place where you live has its own heritage, rich with local history and
traditions. This special past is unique to you and your neighbors, giving your town an
appeal all its own. By unearthing your roots you create a fertile environment in which to
plant the seeds of your communitys future.
Respect for law, promoting peace and order, involves providing people with an
understanding of the principles of and respect for the world that is at the same time unique
and diverse. It implies a collective rejection of violence and chaos. It is also a dynamic set
of relationships of coexistence and co-operation among and within peoples, characterized
by the respect for the human values with the concern to provide the greatest possible well-
being for all.
Promote peace goals as the dominant factor in all forms of art and promote
responsibility for the well-being of the local and global community.

Civic Consciousness

Community Problems and Concerns

Community problems concerns arise because of great economic and social
inequalities that divides the community, and by contempt for basic human rights and the
dignity of the individual which require a greater effort to overcome. Power, creates a
bigger is also a big issue, whether it be political power, social, environmental or cultural. A
community head may have all the best intentions for everyone but given the uncertainty of
his position as the leader, can push him to a different course of action.

Community Participation and Governance; Democracy in Action

Concepts concerning community participation offer one set of explanations as to
why the process of community engagement might be useful in addressing the physical,
interpersonal, and cultural aspects of individuals environments. The real value of
participation stems from the finding that mobilizing the entire community, rather than
engaging people on an individualized basis or not engaging them at all, leads to more
effective results (Braithwaite et al., 1994). Simply stated, change "... is more likely to be
successful and permanent when the people it affects are involved in initiating and
promoting it" (Thompson et al, 1990, p. 46). In other words, a crucial element of
community engagement is participation by the individuals, community-based
organizations, and institutions that will be affected by the effort.

This participation is "a major method for improving the quality of the physical
environment, enhancing services, preventing crime, and improving social conditions"
(Chavis et al., 1990, p.56). There is evidence that participation can lead to improvements in
neighborhood and community and stronger interpersonal relationships and social fabric
(Florin et al., 1990). Robert Putnam notes that social scientists have recently "...unearthed a
wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of
social institutions...are...powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic
engagement." Moreover, "researchers, urban poverty,...and even health have
discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities"
(Putnam, 1995, p.66). For example, Stecklers CODAPT model, for "Community Ownership
through Diagnosis, Participatory Planning, Evaluation, and Training (for
Institutionalization)," suggests that when community participation is strong throughout a
programs development and implementation, long-term program viability, i.e.,
institutionalization, is more likely assured (Goodman et al., 1987-88).

The community participation suggests that:
People who interact socially with neighbors are more likely to know about and join
voluntary organizations.
A sense of community may increase an individuals feeling of control over the
environment, and increases participation in the community and voluntary
Perceptions of problems in the environment can motivate individuals (and
organizations) to act to improve the community (Chavis et al., 1990).

"When people share a strong sense of community they are motivated and empowered to
change problems they face, and are better able to mediate the negative effects over things
which they have no control," Chavis et al., (1990, p. 73) write. Moreover, "a sense of
community is the glue that can hold together a community development effort" (Chavis et
al., 1990, p. 73-74). This concept suggests that programs that "...foster membership,
increase influence, meet needs, and develop a shared emotional connection among
community members" (Chavis et al., 1990, p. 73) can serve as catalysts for change and for
engaging individuals and the community in health decision-making and action.

Dynamics in the Community

Group discussions and Collaboration Skills

The ability to communicate or work effectively with others on a common task;
taking actions which respect the needs and contributions of others; contributing to and
accepting the consensus; negotiating a win-win solution to achieve the objectives of the

Class norms represent the behavior expectations that support the core concepts of
trust, sharing, belonging and respect. Collaborative skills are the specific ways in which
students are expected to behave in order to achieve class norms. After norms have been
developed, collaborative skills are assessed, prioritized and taught.

Collaborative skills that we have identified as promoting the core concepts and
supporting class norms are listed below. This list of collaborative skills has been used
successfully by instructional teams to identify skills that address the ways students and
teachers should interact to realize class norms. The list is not exhaustive and some
classrooms may have to add skills to fully meet their needs.

Behavioural indicators include:-

Building and Maintaining Relationships
Give and receive feedback from peers or other team members in order to perform
the task.
Share credit for good ideas with others.
Acknowledge others' skill, experience, creativity, and contributions.
Listen to and acknowledge the feelings, concerns, opinions, and ideas of others.
Expand on the ideas of a peer or team member.
State personal opinions and areas of disagreement tactfully.
Listen patiently to others in conflict situations.
Define problems in a non-threatening manner.
Support group decisions even if not in total agreement.

Achieving the task

Give and seek input from others (in formulating plans for recommendations).
Assist others in solving problems and achieving own goals.
Share information, ideas, and suggestions.
Ask for help in identifying and achieving goals and solving problems.
Check for agreement, and gain commitment to shared goals.
Notify others of changes or problems in a timely manner.
Make procedural suggestions to encourage progress towards goals.
Check for understanding.
Negotiate to achieve a "win-win" outcome.

Community Mobilization Skills and PWU Legacy in Community Development

The community must be involved not only in the identification of problems, but also
in the actions which solve them. Communities and other interested parties can agree to
work together to plan for the future.
Community mobilisation will only happen after a careful developmental process
that involves participation of community people in making decisions, establishing common
ground (values), and describing and agreeing on everyone's rights and responsibilities in
the process.

Like PWU, its legacy is passed on to the students through the rules and regulations,
curriculum and especially with this course. These are the things the university teaches the
students for them to be ready to face the problems of the communities and help develop it
through the members, the students.

Global Citizenship

Role of Agencies

United Nations [Website]
The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the
Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and
security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better
living standards and human rights.
Due to its unique international character, and the powers vested in its founding
Charter, the Organization can take action on a wide range of issues, and provide a forum for
its 193 Member States to express their views, through the General Assembly, the Security
Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees.
The work of the United Nations reaches every corner of the globe. Although best
known for peacekeeping, peacebuilding, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance,
there are many other ways the United Nations and its System (specialized agencies, funds
and programmes) affect our lives and make the world a better place. The Organization
works on a broad range of fundamental issues, from sustainable development,
environment and refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament and
non-proliferation, to promoting democracy, human rights, gender equality and the
advancement of women, governance, economic and social development and international
health, clearing landmines, expanding food production, and more, in order to achieve its
goals and coordinate efforts for a safer world for this and future generations.

The UN has 4 main purposes:
1. To keep peace throughout the world;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations;
3. To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to
conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each
others rights and freedoms;
4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.

Cooperating agencies

These are bodies or organizations designated to act as UNVs focal point in a given
country. Cooperating organizations are either a Department within the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, such as theDevelopment Cooperation in Belgium, or the national
volunteer sending agency, e.g. Voluntary Service Organization (VSO) in
the UK. The descriptions about the agencies are taken from their websites. For
more information, please visit the organization's respective website.
Australian Volunteers International (AVI)
AVI connects people and organisations internationally to learn from each other and achieve
shared goals within our strategic priorities. AVI's work in people-centred development,
particularly through volunteering, is central to this. AVI works with individuals,
organisations and communities in response to locally identified priorities.
Austrian Development Cooperation
Austrian Development Cooperation (ADC) pursues its goals of reducing global poverty,
ensuring peace and human security and preserving the environment in an international
framework. The policies and programme parameters are agreed on with the European Union
and in international committees (EU, UN, OECD, IFIs). Two policy pillars of bilateral and
multilateral development cooperation are the Millennium Development Goals and the Paris
The Belgian Development Cooperation
Belgium strives for a peaceful and secure world where poverty is a thing of the past and
where there are development opportunities for all. Our efforts therefore complement those
of the international community to achieve sustainable development and a fair world.
World University Service of Canada (WUSC)
WUSC is a network of individuals and post-secondary institutions who believe that all
peoples are entitled to the knowledge and skills necessary to contribute to a more equitable
world. Our mission is to foster human development and global understanding through
education and training.
Canada's Civilian Reserve (CANADEM)
Established in 1996 with startup funding from the Government of Canada, CANADEM is a
non-profit agency dedicated to advancing international peace and security through the
recruitment, screening, promotion and rapid mobilization of Canadian expertise. CANADEM
helps the United Nations agencies, international organizations, government agencies,
consultancy firms and NGOs to identify experts for their projects and offices all over the
world. CANADEM's roster is the only roster worldwide whose primary mandate is to assist
UN recruitment.

Centre for International Studies and Cooperation (CECI)
The mission of CECI is to combat poverty and exclusion. To this end, CECI builds the
development capacities of disadvantaged communities. CECI supports peace building,
human rights, and equity initiatives. CECI mobilize resources and promote exchanges of
Agency for Volunteer Services (AVS)
AVS, founded in 1970, is a non profit organization mainly financed by funds from the
Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, The Community Chest of
Hong Kong and The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. With the vision to build a civil
society and caring community, AVS is dedicated to playing a proactive and pivotal role in
the promotion and development of volunteerism, and to develop partnership with all sectors
of the community to provide value added and quality volunteer service.
Minesterio para la Inversin Extranjera y la Colaboracin Econmica
*in Spanish only*
MINVEC es el organismo de la administracin central del estado a cargo de la promocin de
las inversiones forneas en el pas. El MINVEC tambin dirige y controla el proceso de
negociaciones para constituir las diferentes formas de asociaciones econmicas con
participacin extranjera.
Czech Republic
Czech UNV National Focal Point
Since 1995, Czech volunteers have been actively involved in UN development programmes
and peace missions. More then 190 Czech volunteers in total have operated in developing
countries and crises areas throughout the world so far. Around 20 volunteers are sent every
year to Africa, Asia and the Balkans; 35 per cent of them are women.
Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) - ActionAid Denmark
MS ActionAid Denmark fights poverty by promoting the political empowerment of the
worlds poor. MS supports long-term development work, education programmes and
campaigns as well as exchange of experience and knowledge between people. MS is part of
ActionAid International.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs concentrates on foreign and security policy, trade policy and
development policy as well as on significant foreign policy issues and international relations
in general. The Ministry also assists other branches of government in the coordination of
international affairs.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the government of France is the chief foreign affairs
ministry in the country. The Ministry handles France's relations within the United Nations.

General Association of Retired Volunteers for Cooperation and
Development (AGIRabcd)
AGIRabcdis a non-profit, non-governmental organization, including retired or pre-retired
members. Apolitical and non-confessional, it has been recognized as an Association of Public
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
The aim of development cooperation is to give people the freedom to shape their own lives,
by making their own decisions and taking responsibility for them, without suffering material
hardship. With this aim in mind, the German government is seeking with its development
policy to help make globalisation an opportunity for all. The sectors that German
development cooperation will focus on in particular in the future will be education, health,
rural development, good governance and sustainable economic development. The guiding
principle in all efforts is the protection of human rights.

German Development Service (DED)
The German Development Service is one of the leading European development services for
personnel cooperation. Since its formation in 1963, DED has assigned over 16 000
experienced and commited technical advisers to improve the living conditions of people in
Africa, Asia and Latin America. Together with its local partners DED works towards reducing
poverty, achieving self-determined sustainable development and securing natural resources.
With some 2 000 technical advisers currently working in 47 countries, DED is working on
behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
and cooperating in a range of different ways with other national and international
development cooperation organisations.
Irish Aid
Irish Aid is the Government of Irelands programme of assistance to developing countries.
Irelands development cooperation policy is an integral part of Irelands wider foreign policy.
Our aid philosophy is rooted in our foreign policy, in particular its objectives of peace and
justice. Our development cooperation policy and programme reflect our longstanding
commitment to human rights and fairness in international relations and are inseparable
from Irish foreign policy as a whole.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministero Affari Esteri)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the government of Italy is the chief foreign affairs ministry
in the country. The Ministry handles Italy's relations within the United Nations.

Volontari nel mondo (FOCSIV)
*in Italian only*
FOCSIV la Federazione di 64 organizzazioni non governative (Ong) cristiane di servizio
internazionale volontario impegnate nella promozione di una cultura della mondialit e nella
cooperazione con i popoli dei Sud del mondo, con lobiettivo di contribuire alla lotta contro
ogni forma di povert e di esclusione, allaffermazione della dignit e dei diritti delluomo,
alla crescita delle comunit e delle istituzioni locali.

Coordinamento delle Organizzazioni non governative per la cooperazione
Internazionale allo Sviluppo (COCIS)
*in Italian only*
Il COCIS associa attualmente 25 organizzazioni non governative laiche e progressiste che
operano in diversi settori della cooperazione allo sviluppo, condividendo un'etica basata
sulla promozione dell'autosviluppo, la solidariet tra i popoli e la centralit della persona. Il
COCIS promuove la proposta politica delle ONG associate, rappresentando per esse il luogo
di confronto, elaborazione, collaborazione e rappresentanza congiunta.

Seniores Italia - Partner per lo Sviluppo ONLUS
Seniores Italia - Partner per lo Sviluppo ONLUS is the leading Italian non-profit organization
of voluntary senior experts. Their mission is to support short-term advisory services
provided by senior volunteers in different areas of intervention such as agriculture,
industrial design, manufacturing processes, banking, energy, infrastructures, social and
health services, and urban requalification.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the government of Japan is the chief foreign affairs
ministry in the country. The Ministry handles Japan's relations within the United Nations.
Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV)
*in Japanese only*
JOCV was established in 1965 to provide official Japanese overseas assistance programmes
abroad at a grassroots level. The JOCV Program is one of Japan International Cooperation
Agency's (JICA's) principal activities as part of its international cooperation carried out on
behalf of the Japanese government.
Korea, Republic of
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
The The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of the Republic of Korea is in charge
of diplomacy, external economic policy, overseas Korean nationals, international situation
analysis and overseas promotional affairs.

Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
KOICA was founded as a government agency on April 1, 1991, to maximize the
effectiveness of Korea's grant aid programs for developing countries by implementing the
government's grant aid and technical cooperation programs.
Ministere de la Cooperation et de l'Action Humanitaire
*in French only*
La coopration luxembourgeoise au dveloppement se place rsolument au service de
lradication de la pauvret, notamment dans les pays les moins avancs. Ses actions se
conoivent dans lesprit du dveloppement durable compris dans ses aspects sociaux,
conomiques et environnementaux - avec lhomme, la femme et lenfant en son centre. Ces
actions sinscrivent prioritairement dans la mise en uvre - dici 2015 - des objectifs du
Millnaire pour le dveloppement. Ainsi, les principaux secteurs dintervention de la
coopration relvent du domaine social : la sant, lducation, y compris la formation et
linsertion professionnelles et le dveloppement local intgr. Les initiatives pertinentes
dans le domaine de la microfinance sont encourages et appuyes, que ce soit au niveau
conceptuel ou au niveau oprationnel.
The Ministry of Labor
The Ministry of Labour in Myanmar aims to promote fair bour practices between employers
and porkers and to actively participate in the ional development endeavours through
rendering its services to both employers and workers.
New Zealand
Volunteer Service Abroad (VSA)
VSA is a home-grown Kiwi volunteering organisation and has placed more than 3,000
skilled New Zealanders on volunteer assignments overseas since 1962.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The essential task of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to work for Norways interests
internationally: to safeguard the countrys freedom, security and prosperity. The United
Nations have always been a mainstay of Norways participation in the international
community. Norway gives priority to the efforts to make the UN a strong and effective
organization that serves as a cornerstone for an international legal order and a worldwide
security system. An important issue for Norway is the progress of achieving the Millennium
Development Goals. Today, Norway is one of the five largest voluntary contributors to the
United Nations development efforts. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs handles Norways
relations within the United Nations.

Instituto Portugus de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento (IPAD)
*in Potrugese only*
A poltica de Cooperao Portuguesa e de Ajuda Pblica ao Desenvolvimento coordenada,
supervisionada e dirigida, desde Janeiro de 2003, pelo Instituto Portugus de Apoio ao
Desenvolvimento, I.P. (IPAD). O IPAD, I.P. tem por misso propor e executar a poltica de
cooperao portuguesa e coordenar as actividades de cooperao desenvolvidas por outras
entidades pblicas que participem na sua execuo.

Oikos cooperao e desenvolvimento
Founded in 1988 in Portugal, it is an internationally recognized non-profit, Non-
Governmental Organisation working for development. It coordinates its actions with public
and private entities that share its values and the objective to eradicate poverty and to
develop sustainable solutions so that everyone can have a dignified life. Since 1992, it is
recognized as an 'entity of public utility' by the Portuguese Government. In 2000 it was
granted Consultative Status by the United Nations Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC). It has its headquarters in Portugal and delegations in Africa and Latin America.
It works in the areas of humanitarian action, sustainable development and global

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The two departments constitute the development co-operation branch of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland. The Development Co-operation Department is
responsible for planning development co-operation activity, while the practical
implementation of the projects and their monitoring, as well as the volunteering
programme, is the responsibility of the Department of Implementation of Development

Slovak/UNDP Trust Fund
Five-year period of successful development cooperation partnership between the
Government of the Slovak Republic and Bratislava Regional Centre of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) resulted in 2008 in a new initiative focused on
strengthening the Slovak ODA system, enhancing programming and monitoring capacities,
sharing best practices and expertise of Slovak experts and enabling the Slovak ODA
professionals to gain international development cooperation experience. This initiative also
provides new opportunities for strengthening relationships between Slovakia as a new donor
and its target recipient countries while using UNDPs programmatic and administrative
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The mission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to implement foreign policy and perform
tasks stipulated by the Foreign Affairs Act (Ur. l. RS, No. 45/2001), as well as other
regulations and acts.
Agencia Espaola de Cooperacion Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID)
*in Spanish only*
La Agencia Espaola de Cooperacin Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID), es una
Entidad de Derecho Pblico adscrita al Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperacin a
travs de la Secretara de Estado de Cooperacin Internacional (SECI). Es, como establece
la Ley 23/1998, de 7 de julio, de Cooperacin Internacional para el Desarrollo, el rgano de
gestin de la poltica espaola de cooperacin internacional para el desarrollo, y su objeto,
segn el Estatuto de la Agencia Espaola de Cooperacin Internacional para el Desarrollo,
es el fomento, la gestin y la ejecucin de las polticas pblicas de cooperacin internacional
para el desarrollo, dirigidas a la lucha contra la pobreza y la consecucin de un desarrollo
humano sostenible en los pases en desarrollo, particularmente los recogidos en el Plan
Director en vigor cada cuatro aos.La lucha contra la pobreza es el objetivo final de la
poltica espaola de cooperacin internacional para el desarrollo. Esta, es parte de la accin
exterior del Estado y est basada en una concepcin interdependiente y solidaria de la
sociedad internacional. La Declaracin del Milenio y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio
(ODM) configuran una agenda y metodologa comn en la lucha contra la pobreza, por lo
que son el principal referente de la poltica espaola de cooperacin internacional.
The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA)
SIDA works according to directives of the Swedish Parliament and Government to reduce
poverty in the world. The overall goal of Swedish development cooperation is to contribute
to making it possible for poor people to improve their living conditions.

Forum Syd
*in Swedish only*
Forum Syd works to reduce poverty by challenging oppression and discrimination. To
achieve this, it collaborates with 200 Swedish member organisations and thousands of
organisations and networks worldwide. It strives to strengthen civil society via development
cooperation, advocacy and forming of opinion, as well as skills and methods development. It
has offices in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. Its main office is in Stockholm.
The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
SDC is Switzerlands international cooperation agency within the Federal Department of
Foreign Affairs (FDFA). In operating with other federal offices concerned, SDC is responsible
for the overall coordination of development activities and cooperation with Eastern Europe,
as well as for the humanitarian aid delivered by the Swiss Confederation.

Centre for Information, Advice and Training (cinfo)
cinfo is the Centre for Information, Counselling and Training for Professions Relating to
International Cooperation (IC). cinfo was established as a foundation in 1990 by the Swiss
Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). cinfo supports SDC in its mandate to
inform the Swiss public about professional opportunities in IC.

Swiss Political Affairs Division
Political Affairs Division IV, Human Security: Peace, Human Rights, Humanitarian Policy,
Migration is responsible for implementing measures to promote peace and strengthen
human rights in the world. The concept of human security focuses on the safety of
individual human beings and protecting people against political violence, war and acts of
arbitrary violence. It is based on the recognition that peace policy, human rights policy and
humanitarian policy are closely interlinked.
Turkish International Co-operation Agency (TIKA)
TIKA is the Turkish Governments Development Cooperation Agency. TIKA has coordination
offices in 20 countries and operates in many countries across Africa, Asia and Europe,
delivering development assistance to partner countries through its projects and activities.
Volunteer Service Organisation (VSO)
VSO is the worlds leading independent international development organisation that works
through volunteers to fight poverty in developing countries. VSO's high-impact approach
involves bringing people together to share skills, build capabilities, promote international
understanding and action, and change lives to make the world a fairer place for all.
Peace Corps
The Peace Corps traces its roots and mission to 1960, when then Senator John F. Kennedy
challenged students at the University of Michigan to serve their country in the cause of
peace by living and working in developing countries. From that inspiration grew an agency
of the federal government devoted to world peace and friendship. Since that time, nearly
200,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in 139 host countries to work on issues
ranging from AIDS education to information technology and environmental preservation.
Today's Peace Corps is more vital than ever, working in emerging and essential areas such
as information technology and business development, and committing more than 1,000 new
Volunteers as a part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Peace Corps
Volunteers continue to help countless individuals who want to build a better life for
themselves, their children, and their communities.
Ethics in Globalization and Information Technology

Cross-cultural Communication and Understanding

Cultural influences suggests that health behaviors are influenced directly by elements of
ones culture. As a result, social norms and other elements of community culture provide a
potential tool for disease prevention and health promotion. Culture involves "the
integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, behavior, and material traits characteristic
of a social group" (Braithwaite et al., 1994, p.409). Another way to understand this concept
is to think of culture as the "luggage" we always carry with us "the sum of beliefs,
practices, habits, likes, dislikes, norms, customs, rituals . . . that we have learned from our
families" (Spector, 1985, p. 60). Cultural identity influences "the groups design for living,
the shared set of socially transmitted perceptions about the nature of the physical, social,
and spiritual world, particularly as it relates to achieving lifes goals" (Airhihenbuwa, 1995,
p. 5). Therefore, those who wish to work with community members should carefully
examine the differences and similarities in cultural perceptions, so that engagement
activities are appropriate for that particular cultural context. This appropriateness, often
referred to as cultural sensitivity, means that programs are developed "in ways that are
consistent with a peoples and communitys cultural framework" (Airhihenbuwa, 1995, p.
An individuals culture influences his or her attitude toward various health issues,
including perceptions of what is and is not a health problem, methods of disease
prevention, treatments for illness, and use of health providers. As Spector (1985, p. 59)
notes: "We learn from our own cultural and ethnic backgrounds how to be healthy, how to
recognize illness, and how to be ill . . . meanings attached to the notions of health and illness
are related to basic, culture-bound values by which we define a given experience and
perceptions." Individuals initiating community engagement activities should understand
belief systems held by community members, especially if they are different from their own.
Cultural experiences also can influence how individuals and groups relate to each other and
to people and institutions of other cultures. Efforts to address these elements of a
community could concentrate on affecting the landscape of information and ideas in which
that community operates.

General Conclusions about the Power and Usefulness of Community Engagement

There is a consensus that engaging and supporting the empowerment of the
community for community health decision-making and action is a critical element in health
promotion, health protection, and disease prevention. The impact of programs that target
individual behavior change is often transient and diluted unless efforts are also undertaken
to bring about systematic change at multiple levels of society (Braithwaite et al., 1994).
Scholars have described several trigger activities that might begin the community
engagement process. Some of these trigger activities are tied to legislative or program
mandates, while others involve special initiatives, such as those of public health
departments, grant makers, health service providers, or existing community groups and
coalitions. Once triggered, the community engagement process itself can take many forms.
It can range from cooperation, where relationships are informal and where there is not
necessarily a commonly-defined structure, to collaboration, or partnerships where
previously separated groups are brought together with full commitment to a common
mission (Mattessich et al., 1992).
The organizational concepts from the literature discussed in this section of the
document lead to a number of general conclusions about what lies at the heart of successful
community engagement efforts. These conclusions, which follow here, provide a useful
segue to the community engagement principles outlined in Part 2.
community engagement efforts should address multiple levels of the social environment,
rather than only individual behaviors, to bring about desired changes.
Health behaviors are influenced by culture. To ensure that engagement efforts are
culturally and linguistically appropriate, they must be developed from a knowledge
and respect for the targeted communitys culture.
People participate when they feel a sense of community, see their involvement and
the issues as relevant and worth their time, and view the process and organizational
climate of participation as open and supportive of their right to have a voice in the
While it cannot be externally imposed on a community, a sense of empowerment
the ability to take action, influence, and make decisions on critical issues is
crucial to successful engagement efforts.
Community mobilization and self-determination frequently need nurturing. Before
individuals and organizations can gain control and influence and become players
and partners in community health decision-making and action, they may need
additional knowledge, skills, and resources.
Coalitions, when adequately supported, can be useful vehicles for mobilizing and
using community assets for health decision-making and action.
Participation is influenced by whether community members believe that the
benefits of participation outweigh the costs. Community leaders can use their
understanding of perceived costs to develop appropriate incentives for
Contributing to the Success of Community Engagement Efforts
History of collaboration or cooperation in the community
Collaborating group (and agencies in group) seen as leader in community Favorable
political and social climate

Mutual respect, understanding, and trust
Appropriate cross-section of members
Members see engagement in their self-interest benefits of engagement as offsetting
Ability to compromise

Members feel ownership share stake in both process and outcome
Every level in each organization in collaborating groups participates in decision-making
Flexibility of collaborating group
Clarity of roles and guidelines
Ability to sustain itself in midst of changing conditions

Open and frequent interaction, information, and discussion
Informal and formal channels of communications

Goals clear and realistic to all partners
Shared vision
Unique to the effort (i.e., different at least in part from mission, goals or approach of
member organizations)

Sufficient funds
Skilled convener

(Based on a review of the literature and excerpted from Mattessich and Monsey, 1992)

For Preliminary Exams and Final Exams

Document a community engagement you have done to help solve a community problem
and concern. Please indicate the following:

What is the community problem? Brief background.
Why you chose that specific problem to address?

Please attach a video of you in the community engagement (not less than 10 minutes) or
pictures of not less than 5 photos with you in it.

The text should be not less than two pages of letter size paper single space, font 12 and fly
page should be in a separate paper with name and title.



This module introduces Community Problem Solving as a teaching and learning strategy.
As such, it is the practical application module that builds on the ideas for citizenship
education developed in Module 7. It also draws on the ideas about experiential, enquiry
and values education, Future Problem Solving and learning outside the classroom in other

Community Problem Solving provides students with an opportunity to practice the skills
that are needed to participate in finding solutions to the local issues that concern them.
This helps to develop the important citizenship objectives of learning for a sustainable
future and integrates skills for both students and teachers of using experiential and
enquiry-based strategies. It also integrates skills in the planning of values clarification and
values analysis with the possible solutions so students can take action to help achieve a
sustainable future.


To develop an understanding of Community Problem Solving, especially as it may be used
in education for sustainable futures.
To identify the skills students need to participate in Community Problem Solving.
To explore questions and issues that may be encountered when teaching through
Community Problem Solving.
To identify teaching and learning strategies that may be used as part of a Community
Problem Solving project.

Activity 1

Q1: List five problems you are concerned about in your community.

Q2: What skills or experience do you have that might be helpful in finding a
solution to any of these problems?

Q3: What are you currently doing to help address any of these problems?

(Succeeding questions are for the Students of the community of PWU)
Exploring Community Problem Solving
Name a problem in your community that you think students would be interested in

Selecting a problem
Why is this important to your community?

Do your students have the skills to be able to tackle this problem at the present

Do you have time to undertake the entire Community Problem Solving process for
this problem, or might a smaller problem be better to begin with?

Evaluating and developing student skills
What skills do your students need to undertake Community Problem Solving?

What kinds of guidance might you need to provide?

What is the current status of this problem in the community?

Are there any conflicts of interest among groups in the community over this
problem? If so, what are they?

How can decisions be made to resolve the issue?

Developing visions
What are students visions for the future in relation to this problem?

What are the alternatives?

Which vision do they prefer and why?

Planning actions
What changes will bring the situation closer to their visions of a sustainable future?

What barriers must be overcome to allow these changes to take place?

List the steps that must be taken to make the changes. This is the plan of action.
How can the plan of action be evaluated?

Taking actions
How will the planned actions solve the problem?

What is the role of students in deciding on these actions?

Evaluating actions and changes
What actions were taken?

What changes resulted?

To what extent are these changes the same as the vision?

How were barriers overcome?

Academy for Educational Development (AED), Porter Novelli, Johns Hopkins
University. Coalitions and public health: a program managers guide to the
issues. Washington (DC): Academy for Educational Development; 1993 April. Contract No.
200-91-0906. Prepared for the National AIDS Information and Education Program, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention.

Airhihenbuwa CO. Health and culture beyond the western paradigm. Thousand Oaks (CA):
Sage Publications; 1995.

Bracht N, Kingsbury L. Community organization principles in health promotion: a five-stage
model. In: Bracht N (editor). Health promotion at the community level. Newbury Park (CA):
Sage Publications; 1990.

Braithwaite RL, Bianchi C, Taylor SE. Ethnographic approach to community organization
and health empowerment. Health Education Quarterly 1994;21(3):407-416.

Butterfoss FD, Goodman RM, Wandersman A. Community coalitions for prevention and
health promotion. Health Education Research 1993;8(3):315-330.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Ideas: community and its
counterfeits [transcript]. Toronto (Canada): CBC RadioWorks; 1994 January.

Chavis DM, Wandersman A. Sense of community in the urban environment: a catalyst for
participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology

Fawcett SB, Paine-Andrews A, Francisco VT, Schultz JA, Richter KP, Lewis RK, Williams EL,
Harris KJ, Berkley JY, Fisher JL, Lopez CM. Using empowerment theory in collaborative
partnership for community health and development. American Journal of Community
Psychology 1995;23(5):677-697.

Fawcett SB, Paine-Andrews A, Francisco VT, Vliet M. Promoting health through community
development. In: Glenwick, DS; Jason, LA (editors). Promoting health and mental health in
children, youth and families. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 1993.

Florin P, Mitchell R, Stevenson J. Identifying training and technical assistance needs in
community coalitions: a developmental approach. Health Education
Research 1993;8(3):417-432.

Florin P, Wandersman A. An introduction to citizen participation, voluntary organizations,
and community development: insights for empowerment through research. American
Journal of Community Psychology1990;18(1):41-55.

Goodman RM, Steckler AB. The life and death of a health promotion program: an
institutionalization case study. International Quarterly of Community Health
Education 1987-1988;8(1):5-21.

Goodman RM, Wandersman A, Chinman M, Imm P, Morrissey E. An ecological assessment
of community-based interventions for prevention and health promotion: approaches to
measuring community coalitions.American Journal of Community
Psychology 1996;24(1):33-61.

Hanson P. Citizen involvement in community health promotion: a role application of CDCs
PATCH model. International Quarterly of Community Health Education 1988-89;9(3):177-

Institute of Medicine. The future of public health. Washington (DC): National Academy
Press; 1988.

Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. Assessing the social and behavioral
science base for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention: workshop summary and background
papers. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 1995.

Kretzmann JP, McKnight JL. (Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Neighborhood
Innovations Network, Northwestern University) Building communities from the inside out: a
path toward finding and mobilizing a communitys assets. Chicago (IL): ACTA Publications;

Labonte R, Robertson A. Delivering the goods, showing our stuff: the case for a
constructivist paradigm for health promotion research and practice. Health Education
Quarterly 1996;23(4):431-447.

Levine S, White PE. Exchange as a conceptual framework for the study of
interorganizational relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly 1961;5(4):583-601.

Mattessich PW, Monsey BR. Collaboration: what makes it work; a review of research
literature on factors influencing successful collaboration. St. Paul (MN): Amherst H. Wilder
Foundation; 1992.

McKnight JL, Kretzmann J. Mapping community capacity. Evanston (IL): Center for Urban
Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University; 1990.

McMillan B, Florin P, Stevenson J, Kerman B, Mitchell RE. Empowerment praxis in
community coalitions, American Journal of Community Psychology 1995;23(5):699-728.

Minkler M. Improving health through community organization. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM,
Rimer BK, (editors). Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1990.

Putnam RD. Bowling alone: Americas declining social capital. Journal of
Democracy 1995;6(1):65-78.
Rich RC, Edlestein M, Hallman WK, Wandersman AH. Citizen participation and
empowerment: the case of local environmental hazards. American Journal of Community
Psychology 1995;23(5):657-676.

Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press; 1962.

Spector, RE. Cultural diversity in health and illness. East Norwalk (CT): Appleton-Century-
Crofts; 1985.

Stokols D. Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health
promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996;10(4):282-298.

Thompson B, Kinne S. Social change theory: applications to community health. In: Bracht N,
(editor). Health promotion at the community level. Newbury Park (CA): Sage Publications;

Voluntary Hospitals of America, Inc. (VHA). Community partnerships: taking charge of
change through partnership. Irving (TX): Voluntary Hospitals of America, Inc.; 1993.

Wandersman A, Florin P, Friedmann R, Meier R. Who participates, who does not, and why?
an analysis of voluntary neighborhood organizations in the United States and
Israel. Sociological Forum 1987;2(3):534-555.

World Health Organization (WHO), Health and Welfare Canada, Canadian Public Health
Association. Ottawa charter for health promotion; an international conference on health
promotion. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: November 17-21, 1986.