Sei sulla pagina 1di 17


abhanga."Betd"; a standing posture with a slight -amalalea,"Fruit"; a fattened, fluted round form used
bend in both the upper and lower halves of the as a crowning member of the superstructure of
body so that a plumb line from the top of the head northern-style Hindu temples, as a relearing de-
to a point midway between the heelspasscsslightly corative motif on such superstructures,and some-
to the right ofthe navel. times in other atchitectural contexts.
abhaya mudra. A gesture of protection and reas- Amitebha. "Light (Radiance) Without End"; "in-
sumnce (the granting of the "absence of fear") finite radiance." One of thejlna 3r:ddhas; he sym-
dispiayed by deitics to their worshipers; the hand bolizcs entry to attainmenr rhrough mediratiol and
(usually the dght) is held palrn outward with the presides over the westem paradise, Sukhavati. As
fingers pointing upward. In Buddhism, it is used presiding Buddha in Sukhtvati, he is identical with
as a teaching gesture,for it is through the Buddhist Amltayus.
teachings thar the "absence of fear" (of death) is An.ritabha/ Amitayus. The Bnddha who presides
granted. over the westcrn paradise, Sukhavati. Sre a/-,o
a&fiirr&a.Religious consecrationor initiatiotl by sprin- Amirabha; Amitayus.
kling with water. Amitayus. "Life Without End." Another name for
acarya.O\e who observes(the rules of his religious Amitebha as the presiding Buddha of the western
otder); a teacheror spiritual guide. paradise,Sukhavati. In contrast to Arnitabha, how-
adhiyhana. base (of a Hindu tenple) . ever, Amitayus is not considered to be one of the
Adi Buddha. The supremeBuddha; rhe enbodimenr jina Buddhas.
of linyati;in certain esoterictraditions, the Buddha Amra. Mxngo trcc.
fion whom emanatethejlaa Buddhas.Technically, anandafindara. A dance performed by the god Siva;
he is withoutforDr, but, accordillg tovarioustcxts, he the nadantu.Seepp. J3J-36 ard Fig. 2r.34.
may manifest as difercnt suprene Buddhas, includ- Ananta. "Endless." Thc serpent upon which Visnu
ing Vairocana,Vajradhara, Aksobhya, and othcrs. reclinesor sits. Also called Sega.SeeFig. ro.z9.
driAsa.Without violence; the doctrine of non-injury aiijali xndra. "'lwo-h"ndf,r1. pose"; a g.rt"oreofrespect
to living beings praciced by members of many and saiutation in which the two hands are held
Indic religious sects. together near the chest, palms touching. See Fig.
aiil'arya. Sovercignty. 5.r2.
Ajaikapnda Bhairava. "One-lcgged goat Bhairava." aflturAla.An interrncdiate space in a temple; an an-
A one-leggcdform ofBhairava. SeeFig. 19.43. techamber or vestibule bctween the main shrine
akala. Eaher. In Buddhism, "spacc" in the absolute and the ardhanatdapa.
sense;thc itlfiniry of Universality. -Ihe
anugnha. god Siva's power to grant grace to a
Aksobhya. "Imperturbable." One of thejina Suddhas; devotee.
he symbolizesthe awakening ofthe will to cnlight- Afiuttatuyagini-f4nttu- A classificationof Buddhist Tan-
enment and presidcs over the eastcm paradise, tric texts that emphasize the most esotcric teach-
Abhirati. SeeFig. r8.rr. ings of the "nrother" or femalc f prajin radition.
al ha. A standitg posrure in which the deiry is apsaras(pl. apsansas).A female minor divinity that
shown activeiy posed, sometimes trampling upon inlrabits the sky, apwrasasare the "wives" of the
an cnemy, usually with onc leg bent, the other gatidharuasand ^re often depicreddancing or making
stretched.SeeFig. music.


ardhantandapa.A closed hall (na4dapa) wiicb may be ligions, iqnorance is seenas an "encmy" that must
joined to the main shrine of a terr-rPle6y an anturald bJ defeatld in order to achievereligious "victory."
or rnay abut it dirccdY ayudhapwuga.A personilication of one of Vignu's
Ardhanarilvara. "The Lord who is half woman"; a weapon attributes. SeeFig. ro.:9. CI

represcntationof Siva cornbined into a single body bocn

wlth his consort. The proper right side ofthe body bala. A term for "wall" in Orirsrn architec(rrrc.
is rnale, the proper left, female. SeeFigs. r3 6, 18 3o' Bahubali (Gommate6vara).A Jain saint; thc son of ?t-

ardhaparyairka. A half-squaning standing pose char- !.gabhan-dra(thc first lair tithaikara) . SeeFig. zz.3
acteriitic ofangry (&rodlra)deities. SeeFig. 18 13 bala. Powcr strcngth; forcc.
ardha pataka. "Half-flag"; a hand gcsture. See pp' Balarlma. "Rama of strength"; thc clder brother of bodln
267-68. Kr$na. Balarima is considered to be the seventh Brat
asatld.Se t or throne; the leg Positions or slttlDg incarnationofVignu. SeeFig r8.3z. he
postures assumed by deities and religious practi- Bhagavad-Ctta.The "Song of the Lord [Krgna]"; an
doners. appendedportion ro the Mahabhantu which has as tri
ajola. "Absence of sorrow"; a kind oftrec; also the a theme thc notiou that only deedsspringing fron
red flower of that tree. altruistic motives, devotion, alrd faith can lead ro Fi!
aloka dohada.A dahadawho grasPsatr djokd tree; a rhe rcalization ofBrahman. Central to much Kr;na Brah
symbol ofbirth and creation. SeePP. 68-69' tir
asidhanr. Metal of eieht alloys. Seep. 388 and cheP. bhagawta. A devotee. In later Hinduisrn, generalll' bo
r 8 ,n . 7 . used for devoteesof Krsna. lo.
aStadikpalas. The eight protective, directional deities; bhakti. "Devotion"; a mystical religious doctrine oi Brah
the iesenrsofrhe regronsofthe sky faith by which the devotee, through ardent, un- brAh
astapaririradevata. l\i eryhr pa'iuara or "retrnue compromising love of the god, attains unity wjth Hi
deiriesarrendingthc rn:ringod ofa shrine Usurlly the god. brha
p[accdin surroundingcircuit'. corridors.or shrine' bhasdaLTl\e libftty of a Jain religious establishment Budr
of a templc. flre number r"ric' accordtngto some bhik5u.A "beggar" or "mendicant." A Buddhist or M
systems. fain monk (fem. bhiklu4r, a nun). mi

asflia. "Asserter"; one who is "orthodox" and accepts biogona4dapo. The "hall of offerings [enjoyl.renr. rei

the authority ofthe Vedas. wealth, possessions]"in an Orissantempie. bxdd

asurc.ln the Vedas, a classof gods who were adver- bhntni. floor; [otrndation; level: stagc:
sariesofthe deras.Later, the teln came to refer to a story. In architecture, the levels or stories (of a Budt
type of demon. burlding or supcrsfructurc). In Buddhist Lhoughr. tel

aivanedha.Y cdichorsesacrifice the stalcs 1or spirirurl sphcre') through uh'ch : budd
alrotd/d. A rrurler rhe uahata of the goddessSrr' See bodhisattva (or practitioner) moves in quest oi Bud
Pl. zz, enlightenment. se
alt)attha. A {ig tree (Lat Fins teligiosa)',the bodhi bhunispdrla mudra. "Earth-totching gesture." Char- Pc
tree of Sakfamuni Br'rddha; a fipal tree' Its lcaves acteristic of depictions of Sekyamuni Buddha in dh
arc essentialiyheart-shapcdand have an elongated his victory ovet Mtra. The right hand exten& cr
ooint. SeeFig. r'4d. downward, palm inward, and touches (or reaches oli

Arman. In Indrc rcliqiou' thought. the Un'versel; toward) the earth. Used only for seatedfigures. rel

Brahman. SeePP. 29, 3o. Sc?Fig. 8.2r.

ahlafl.lnhrdic religious thought, the individual See btja. Seed; semen; sound essence.A mystic syllabl:
p.29. that constitutes an essentiaiPortion of a ,ratrrr; caityr
A.'alokite3vara.A nnhasattva bodhisattva,the embodi- Can also refer to the rel,icirLa stipa. re
mcnt of compassion and sometimes of enlighten- biuda. An epithet; usually for a god, a king, or : by
nent itsell Afrer xbout lhe sixth century, he becane great religious teacher. ral
the most populer bodhisattva in Buddhivn For ,oJ[i. In suddhi,-, enlightenment; perfectedknol:- caity
some ofhis variAn! names and forms, seeIndex and edge or wisdom; the result of the uni{ication c:
lllustration Index compassion(&araaa)and wisdon (pra.1na). In
avafit, Ln incartation (lit "descent") of a deiry; bodhitree(botlhiuTky).Enlighrenment tree; eachmorrr lar
generally used to refer to the lorms of the god (lranr.r5i)Buddha became cnlightened while med:- Bl
Vi9nu. tating under a type offfee that cameto be considerea wl
aailTa. "Non-wisdom"; ignorance. In Indic re- his "cnlightenment tree."
crossARY 717
bodhipaksika. The rhirty-seven "rvings" or aspcctsof adkrdprrrsn.A nale figurc rvho pcrsonilics \risnu's
cnlightcnment; "ralcnt" lbr enlishtcnment or the rvireei (ra&ra); onc of tbe ayudlnptrusa:.
thiftv-seveD nrcntll gifts characteristicof e Bud- cdkrardttin. A univcrsaln]onarch Sf. Fjg. J.36.

dirx. rarrdrajalr."Moon-charnbcr" ; thc rou,roccropenrng ar
bodlrisattvalboihtsduual). "ErrlighrcnmcnrBeilg." A thc enclof a "barrcl-vaulrcd"ball. lts shapcis used
potenrialBuddha; a bcirg desrinedro atrainllutl- as e rcfeating decorativernotlf in Sotdt Asirn
dhahood;a bcinq capableofattainirrgBuddhahood religiousarchrtccnrrc. Src Fig. t2.3.
.,r'hoscrvcs:rsa guidc to others on thc luddhLt carrrra. A danccpose.SceFig. :r.33.
padr. Srr:p. ri5. cdlrltDitillatilltltrti. Thc menfl -four lbr1lls or :rspcccs
It bodhyaiginudra. Scepp. 4o2-l and Fi.s.r ti.r S. '1'hey
of Visnu. are usuall_v dcpiccd :r\ sran;ing,
b Brahna. A Vcdic and Hindr godlin latcr l-lrnduisln, lbur-armed ligures llho crn Lc rccognrzeo onr1,
hc is seenas the god of crcatiorl and is considc'rcd bl the twcntv-four variant rrrrs n r,,,hich thc
i to be, aions u'ith Siva and Visnrr, one of thc Hindu god's four principal attribures ma., bc rotercd
] triad. Hc is soncrines cotrsidl-rcdro be a rlil,pala , . r ' e L i ' I . r n , l . .F . lr o ,l 'rpLor'. ,.'
pr1' ard suardian of thc zenith resiolr of the sk\. Src T. A. Cioplnathallao, Eluutntsol llituh lrattogralthy
E I i s . I t .r 8 . (Mrdras: Larv liinting Horrsc, r9r4 r6; : vols.
Brahna &rpala. Thc severcclhcrd of li-aluni: somc- in 4, Ncu York: Paragon l3ook Rcprinr Corp.,
tincs held in dre hand of a lludclhist dein to sr-rn- r 9 6 3 J r, : r : 2 2 9 3 2 .
bolizesuprcrnacvovcr Ilrahnranism.S.. iig. ri.rr, rarrrl. Fh-r'hisk; chowriel rlso callcd rarrrara.Held
lor'"'erproper left hand. by figurcs artending respccrcdindividuals (borh
Brahnan. Thc Universal;Atnan. Seepp. :t9, 3o- relglous and sccular).S.r Fjq. 4.12.
0 , a t . r . n ' t ' t , aoh a ) .T ' r e ; r ' . . r l r . 1 . . ' i . \ e d . . r , . d cl,rrrr. Urrlbrell:r: parasol. A smrbol oi roralt1.,
Pfotcction,or honor.
[1had.Great; 1:rrge; gigantic. chaya:tanbha. "Shadc-pilJar";a t\fe ol hcro storrc
Iluddha (l.,rrl/la). An enlight,:.ncd,omniscicnt leing. (rrdgdl).S.r Fig. 9.3r.
May rcGr to rnortal 0rtrrlri) beines (suchasSak-r'a-
n . r r n 'S r d d h - ) o r L h o \ c^ r h e . b . r r - . r , r n . . . " r r c " r Daksinanhrti. SeeSiva Daksinanlrti
realns. danaru. A typc of drun consisringof r$,o rriangul:u
buddhaloha. Buddha-world. A world that is presided forms Soincd at the apc)ies;uscd by drnccrs. Whcn
over by a Buddha.Srcp. 2,47. hcld rn thc hand of e deitv, it can rcpresent thc
Buddhandt&a.Morber of Buddhas. The Pr,tjii a?arcniia rhlthm of tirnc and thc crcrtivc ener!j\'. Thc te.o
texls. joiDed sectionsmA\ also represcnt thc nrlc arrd fe-
Ituddhapada. Footprint of a BLrddha. rtralc principlcs. S.. Fig- 19.47, propcr right hantl,
B u d d h i . n , .T h e B r r o d i r r sr t. l i , r , . l r . r , - n \ r u r r . , sccondfrom top.
sects,and variatioDsrevc:ria greatdivcrsitv; onLl.a dardahasta. "Stall-hand," or tgajahdsta("clcphanr-
portioDofthc religionccnrerson rhc historicalBud- hand"): a harrdgcsrurc.Ss. p. JIJ and Fig. 2r.33.
dha, Saklarnuni, and his tcachrngs.Irs basic prur, dar'aan."Vicrvurg"; espcciallvh:rvrng siehr of :r sacred
, ' u l e , r ' r l . . d e n o n r : . l e n c cr. . ! j j p r . 5 l o n .I n d g e rc - - inage, placc,or revcrcdperson.
ous works; for most Buddhists,the eoal of thc dataltlnnnika.The ten sragcsof achiercmcnr of thc
rellgiorl is to att?in cnlighleDrnent,and, bencc, bodhisattva,leading to Buddhahood. Sometines
cxtinccionof individualexistcnce (rrlrrana). Dunbers other dran tcn are given (sucb as cicvcn
md drirtcen) though thev arc srill calic.l thc ren
carrya.A sacred spot, sotrrerinlesassociatcdrvith a saagcs.
r . l i c . t . . n - r . . 1p . r e . o r b u r . . J .I r n r 1 b c r . , r ^ c d da\A1jdtarc. Tl\c ten principal ararar-ror rncarn:rtionsof
by a trec or nroond and surroundcdby a sacrcd Visnr.r.The incarnationsusuall.,citerl rrc: r. Ma-
railing (relila). A srrpais a tvpe ofrairTa. r ' 1 r / f J : : . h u r m . , r . r r o : , e 73:. \ - r " l r . b o , r ; l
caitya\z|l. A ha11that conrainsa rnirya. 4 Nrsirhha (nanJion); 5. Vimana-Trivikrama
;aftra. Wheel; discus; sonretinrcsa solar svnrbol. (drvarf); 6. ParaiLrrama (Ranrarlith the axe); 7.
l n l i u n d h I l , r h c . a l r ar . t c r . ^ r h . \ r ' c c o t r L . Ranra; 3. Krsna; 9. llalaram:r(or, sometrr-ncs, Sikya-
law (dharntacahra) and, soncrirnes, to (tkvaruunj muni Iluddha); ro. Kalkin. Accordlng ro Vaisnevitc
B r r d d - r ' .t r r . r' - r r r r u r rb. r ' r r 1 . ,, 1 , . , r ' , 1 1 l t l . r r g h r .r l . c L r ' r r . i l e r r r ,' r r . , r r .r , l ' . ' e . ) r e r d ;
rvheelof the laql' jnro motion. In llinduisrl, thc apleared;thc tcnrh,Kalkin, is srillawaited.
ca&r,ris a s,vmbol(aud *'eapon) of Visnu. /eal. l-he residcncc of rhe dcity; rhe main shrine

ofa Hindu temple and its suPentructure; a ritltra. Signifies deep meditation rather than communica-
Sometimes used to refel to the temPle as a whole, tion to a devotee. The term may also refer to the
including its manfopas.IJscd especially in Orissan similar lap position of one hand while the other
architectural terrninology. (Similar terms include (usually the right) makes another mu&a. See Figs.
derakula, ilevagara,deuagrha,devalaya.J 8.r3,8.14,8.r8,8.2o.
deva.A god of the Vedic Pantheon belonging to the Digambara. "Sky-clad" (naked) Jain sect; one of the
ry'eraclass;later, the term is used generically to refer two rnainJain sects,distinguishedfrom the Svetan-
to a god or deity. (Fcm. /eri.) bar. b1 irt more rigorottr asceticism.
dikpala. A rcEent or guardian of one of the directions gala'
devakoitha.A niche on the exterior of the wall of a
or quarters of the sky who protects the world fron-r a5
sourhcrn-styleHindu temple conceiningan image
of a deity or, sometimes, other {igures. See Figs. demons.Imagesofdi[palas are often depicted facing
the directions on Hindu temples. Usually, eight ofl
2r.t2-r4' 2r.r7, 21,r8.
deva-kulika. A variant of deoabula(see deul\. Ofren such guardians are listed (attadikpala),who guard
the four r,rain and four intermediate directions; tb,e:
used to refer to the small cells containing sacred
images in the cloister surrounding a temPle. See sometimes,two others are cited as protectors of the
Fig.2o.Jr. zenith and nadir. SeeFig. r5.r4 for Agni, guardian
devaprtra. "son of god"; a term sornctimes used to ofthe southeast.
"-lwo-iearted one"; seepp. 68-69. the :
refer to kings in Indic epigraphsand other contexts doha,La.
ilhartna."Lrw; practice; justicc; duty (moral or rcli- drauida. Or.e of the three major "styles" of Hirrdu
giou')." h Buddhi.rn.refersto the be'is or c"sence architecture; the "southei' tryl". s." p. slo.
Dravidian. Rlrlrtilrg to e group of South Indian Ganes:
of the religion itself, its foundation ln Hinduism,
languages(Tamil, Malayalarn, etc.) and the people ano
refers especially to duty performed for its own
sake,without thought of reward. who spcak ther,r.
as \_-:t
dharnacakra."Law-wheel"; "whecl of the law": the dlrga. A fort; difiicult ofaccessor impassable.
Durga. The supremegoddessin Hinduism, who came to ::,q
fust sennon of Sakyamuni Buddha is said to have
to have her owr very important cult. Shc cornbines beg-:!
"set the wheel of the law into motion," that is, to
have set the process of world righteousnessinto aspectsof a war,rior goddessand a lrother Iigure P P ': T
and is lakti of Siva, to name only a few of her Gang:- 1
motion. Reprc'entedas a whecl in arr. ln dcpic-
characteristics.SeealsoDurg- MahiSisurarnardini. the .'r
rion. of Sai.yamuni'sfirr. \eImon, a wheel m,y
be placed in front of or beneath the Buddha. See Durga Mahi;asuramrrdini. Durga a5 suPremevicto:
over the demon (aslra) Mahiga and a symbol oi Gange.-:
rciigious attainment. See p. r9r and Figs. ro6. Gar,=-
dharmacahramtdra. A teaching gesture (nulra); the
r4.r7, r J.8, r5.2o,r7.26. gafihal,t
gesture of "setting the wheel of thc law into mo-
duarapala.Door guardian. SeeFig. rc.s, (Fetu. doar6- cotn:E
iion." The gescure requircs both hands, held at
about chest level and touching each other, though palika- SeeFig. 14.22.)
tbafttura1llt.An arch (tora1a)surrounding a doorwa! seec :
there are many variations in the way the hands
(duaru).SeeFrg.9.9. Garud.r
can touch.
dvitala. "'fwo-tiered"; a tvro-tiered superstntctureon wirl: :.
dharnakaya,"Law-body"; the universal condition of
a southern-style Hindu temple. See Figs. 14.23' dess:-
order. Scepp. I15. :o3. Secalsorri&aya.
27.15, to b:
dhannapala.Guardian of the lawi a protector of the
to re l
Buddhist faith; a Buddhist tutelary deity often
EkadaSamukha."Elcvcn-headed"; a forr,r of Avalokr- ghatfi. !
having a tcrrifying appearanceand an angry (&rolia)
character.Seep. i83 and Pl. 2r' teivara in which he has cleven heads. Seep. z6;
and Fig. rz.z7. iranci :
dhoti, A g tr.rrentcovering the lower portion of the
body, worn around the waist and passedbetween ekawkhaliiga. A li*ga with a representatior of :
singleface. SeeFig. ro.9. non: :
the legs to be tucked in behind.
dhuaja. A stardard, banner, fag, or pole A form -lheLatin
Fius religiosa, attha laee.
i ne for the 43:u SeeF-:
.rnd 'ymbol usedunivcr'ally in Indic religions
dhvajacanbha. A pillar standard; a flagstaff.
and r:
dhynna nudrn. A meditation hand-pose. Usually, gada. A nace or club. One of Vi94u's principal ai-
cribotes.SeealsoGadidcvi. Gomm::
both hands are placed in the lap of a seated{igure,
palms upward, with the right hand atop the left. Gadadevr. "Mace-goddess"; the personification c:
GrossARY 719

Vignu's mecc (gada), which rakes a ftnale fbrm. torso, cspecially as a convcntiotl in mature Pala
SscFig. ro.7. sculpture.SccFigs. r8.r7, I8.r9.
qajala-va."Elcphant-htnd" ; secdandahasta. gopl. Milkmaid; cowhcrdcss. One of Krsna's fcoale
b" Gajalak5rni. "Elephant-Laksnl" ; a goddess sym- comp:urions.Scr Pl. 43.
b o t z r r r gp r o ' p e r : t r . ' 1 ,. r , l r ' r c e".r r d 4 l l \ nc r o u \ r . \ \ . go7,ura.A south Iidirn tcnple gatervay. See Figs.
Shc is depictcd with two clephants sprinkling 2r.29,23.8,24.6.
waterover hcr. seL'Fig.r4.rr- grira. "Ncck"; an architecturaltern. In southern
Gajendraurokse. Sre p. zrr and Fig. ro.3r. lnclin stlle tenr1,les,thc n'a1l portion bcncath the
1ala. "Flock,"'inulritude": usuall,v, rcprcsented liklnra nd -vtli of the superstrlrcture over the
asdwarvcs. Src Fig. r4.36. SolDeservc Asattendants shrinc. It ma,v be square, circular, or octagon:ll in
to Siva (Fig. r4.r9, top lcft). The god Gane$ (Lord shapc.
ofgaaas)presidesovcr thclanas who, in this contcxc g u d h n t ' . t n l a 1 a I. I e a ' , r ' , b l r I r l l o f r . r r ' p l e :-
end sorne othcrs, syrubolizc tirc "categoricf' (all rerm Lrscdcspcci:ll,v in *'estern lndian (Gujarati)
drat c"tr bc counted, conprehendcd, or n:rmed). nomcnclature.Scrp. 485.
gandhakuti. "Fraqrauthall." ganas.(]ualiries; thc threc universal qualities.Seeralas,
oattlharua. "Frtgrarcc"; a kind of sky-drvelling sdttrdjtd las)and pp. :79, 367.
dcttt gardhntas are somctinrcs considcrcd to bc jrnl. "Vcncrible": a religious guitle; a spiritual
tire rnusiciens of thc gods. Their "rvivcs" erc thc

gaali. "TrrurL"r an architcctural terrn. Sedp. 413. lari-,,:. A (*i1d) goosc; sonctinlcs erroncoLlsll trms-
r n ' r 1 C . . n r 1 ' r r i tL. o - d f . n r n : . r r " r r ' o ( o r ' lared as srvan.ln Bucldhisnr,a semidivine bird that
mcl popul:rr HindLr god, charactcrizcd b,r, his is ficclucntll cited es a rcsidcnt of various paradises
elephant hced (antl, oftcn, lrodv). lIe ts tlso Kno\\'rl llarill:ua. A clcit-vwho is half-Vi;nu (llarj), half-
asVighncSv:rta(Overconer of Obsuclcs Ihindrences Siv:L(Hrra). The inraec is said ro rcprcscnra syr-
to religious anrinncnt]) and is rrrvokcd rt thc crcrisnr betrvccn thc cults of drc trvo gods. S.e
bcgrnning of :rny verturc, inclLrding rvorship. Sre F i g s .t o . r o , z o . r r .
pp. r9o-9r and Fig. r3.:7. Hariri. A goddcs; patronessof children. Sre pp.
Gangi. Thc Cartgeslliver; tirc goddesspcrsonif,ving r47 .+8.LDdFig. 8.26.
the G:urgcs lliver. llcr synbol and r,r/rarrais drc hdrntika.A reiiing crownins x Ilr/d. Sr( Fjg. 6.I.
tnkart. SceFigs.7.2,ro.37. Ha-r'egrivrL. "Horsc-r'rcck"; a ficrcc form of Avaloki-
Carigndhare(rrrrrLi). Siva as bc:rrcr of G:rnge, the tc(vrr:r. Slr Fie. I8.23. In lluddhisn, he is also a
(iangcslliver. Sr:cpp.279,28r xnd Fig. 13.8. dhanldpnlu. ln Flinduisrn, the narue to onc
garbhagln. "Wonb chambcr." l'hc rnncr, ;.rincipal of \iisnu'snren) inc:Lm:rtions.
conlpaltnlcllt ofr tclnple in rvhich thc n.rjor unage Hcruka. A lluddhisr dcitl and a classof deities.Scr
or /iriqa is placcd and, rs such, thc coutaincr ol the p p . 3 9 E9 9 e n d F i g . r i l . r t .
sccdof rnanilcstation. Ilcv:rjLr.A BucLlhistdeity. Ser p. 399 and Fig. t8.r4.
GarLrde.A p:ut Lrird, pxrt human crcarure essociatcd Hirralarra."Lcsscr or sm:rllcr vehicle"; uscd ro dc-
u'idr suu and rir; dre tardlr,r of Vi9nt. l1c rs t[e scrib.' thc foru of Buddhism in rl,hicir it is believcd
desrrover of scrpenrsand, likc Gane(a,is considercd ,',^l..rl.r11.,or',.r'tl . g r . o ' 1 , ^ 1 " 1 'I 1 1
to bc :r reruover of obstacles(th:rt is, hindrances iluddhahood. The tcnn rvas apprreDtl-r crc:rtcd b,v
to religiors .Ltt.inmcnt). \ 4 . 1, . , r . . r l i Ld d l ,' ' . , r " 1u ' e r r .r ' . , ] , c t o l I \
,qharta.A bell; lts tmnsieirtsound is svmbolic of rhe cormotxtiorl.Thc so-callcdHinalinists, thcrclbrc,
irnpermanencc of cxlstc'trcc.M:ry' be held in thc rcjcctrhc tc[rr. S.f pf. 32,70, rrJ.
1'",'d dcity. As an attribLrtcof Slv:1,it rnay HindLrlsru.A tcrm uscd to describcthc nan), Pri-
"f "
symbolizccrcation.Ils sourrrlcan n'lm lu':rt'dc- rnaril,vorthodox (Vedic), indigcnousrelisionsxnd
mons and lttracr thc :rttcntiooof worshlPcrsor thc sectsof soLrth Asie (thLrsexcluding Buddhism and llLrddhisr, ir can rcprcscntpralria(rvisdotn). J.rinisrn),drcir oLrscrvarccs, pracices, and belicG.
.S.fFigs.rE.22,2o.rj. The ternr itsclf 1resa fofelen oriqtn; rhele rs no
.grn (,gri). Cl:rrifrcd bLrttcr. Uscd irr borh cooking simrhrlr' corrprehensive*ord nlrive to thc Indic
and religiousritcs. l:urgu:rges.L)uc to thc vast v;trlance ill bclicfs and
(lornnratc(vara.Src Behubah and lig.22.3. prirctices,IliDduls111 is virruallv irrpossiblcto de-
.goalrAla.Corv's-licc; sorrerinlesrctirs ro shapc of 6nc: thcrc is rro conurloncrccd,sctofdognlas,uni-

versally acceptedcanon of texts or deities,nor any servesas Siva's abodc; it is also the residenceoi
"Church," per se. It evolved over nrillennia and Kubera. SeeFig. r6.7.
has roots in the prehistoric cultures of South Asia kala. "'tirr.e" ; the destroyer of all; death. Oftcu used
and thc Vedic beliefs. The major Hindu deities as a name and epithct of deities (both Hindu and
includc Siva, Visnu, and Durg- Buddhnt). AIso neans "black," thc "black one "
lndra. Vedic god of thunder, rain, clouds; later K i h c a k r . . T r r r r e - ' r h c c l .A t u t e l a r l d c i t y o f r h c
rvorshipcd ti a dikpala and as Indra/Sakra, lord Vajrayana / Tantric Buddhist pantheon. SeePl. z6
'7.7a' 17.2o. kalanaka. The d:tnceof time and cternjty; Performed
of TrayastJiriria hcaven. Sce Figs
Indra4r. The consort oflndla. SeeFig. r7.14 by Siva.SeeFig. zr.zo, right.
kdlaia. Pitch,er',\letcr pot; ewer. Sonerimes held as
Orissan architectural tetn for na4dapa; an attribute by a deirl. In architecture,may be the
--n,r.cnrb ly rel::'r
l r . . l l l. r c n c l o s c Jp o r c h . crowning emblcm of a Hindu temple.
jdgdta. In architecture, a terrace, piinth, or platforrn; Kaliy.r.Secpp. JiG37 and Fig. 2r.35. kitur::
fralpa. "World period": aIr aeon; a cosmic cycle. p2r:
rhe basernenrof a temPlc.
fron the creation to the destructiol of the physical be'
I a i n r . r r rl.l r e I . L i nr c l i g i o n .l t s r w o m a i t ri e c l s . r r e( h e
I . ) i g r r r r b . ' ' . r , n d( i c t r r l t b r r * . A " n o n o r t h o d o x ' univcrse.
rcligiotr, its followers reject the authority of the kalpadrunn. "Trce of the world period"; a wish- !
VeJas and bclieve in a series of twcllty-four iit- fulfilling tree. SeeFig. 5.2. 9'l
kalpalata."Yire of the world pcriod"; a wish-fulfilline c-:{
/fiaa&aras, onc of whon-rwas Mahlvira (Grcat Hero)'
vine or ctccpcr. Sc€ Fig. i.9, along thc copine r6. -
a contcnporiuy of Sekyamuni Buddha's. Sea pp.
stone. koSan
undcr which the kalpaulk5a."Tree of dre world pcriod"; a ll'ish- krodha
' /anlu. Rose-applc tree; the trce deic
princc Siddhartha (Sakyarnuni Buddha) sat during fulfilling tree. S?eFig. J.2.
his first neditation. SecFig. 8.r8. kalya4a na4/apa. "Marriagc h:rli " In late soutb
jafi. Mafied hair; charactcristicespecially of ascetics Indian architecture, a building or pavilion in the det:
tempie complex for celebration of divine wcddine krodh:
and ofSiva asthe great Yogitr.
of one of the many festivals.SeeFigs.23.J,23.6. kroe
-iatuko. "Birth story"; a narrativc Kfq{ra
lives of Sakyamuni Buddha prior to his final life. Kalytnasunduam[ i. Marriage ceremony of Siva
and Parvati.SerFigs.20.2,20.3,27.31. Hin:
As a fully eniightened being, thc Buddha was able
frap;/a. A skull or cup nade of the upper part of, vip
to reracmber theselivcs and he revealcd then ro his
disciples.In erch case,the purpose of tLe rcvelation skull. The ternr nav also refcr to a severedhead-
Such :r cup or head n-raybe hcld as an attribute in Krs4a
was to enPhesize the virtuc denonstrated by his
actions in that life and, thereby, to have his lives the lrand of a deity (usually o{ rhe krodha typc).
kaparda.A type of scashell; a hairstyle in which rhe hisc
serveas a modcl for others.
locks of hair curl spirally like the top of a shei1. k ika
loatnuk la. Crown o[ rnJtted ]lliLi worn bv sotrrc
of 5ivr'
is espccr'rlly
L-rLrr Characteristicof some Buddha figurcs as well :s tot
jina. "Yictor; victorious." A beirrg who has attained the!
rhe state of suprene knowlcdge. In Jainism, a tir- kapadfu. Chuacterized by or wexitg a kapardc rDot

,tdi[a/,1, In Buddhism, one ofthe uraniGstationsof (hairstyle).

the fivejidaas (transccndentknowledges) that make karnta. "Act; actiotri deed." Seepp. z9 3o. ksatril
kartri. L typc of knife. An attributc hcld by some ktelra
Lrpl.,orlli{enhghrcnrnenr). lhc fivejrrraBuddhesare
considcredro-b. d;rc.t,on*l Buddha'.I he Frveare deities. In Buddhism, it is used n-retaphoricaliyto Pro
flay the skin ofthe meditaror asa gestureofdestror-- i!uDc
aimost invariably given as A}5obhya (east), Rat-
ing the ego. and
nasambhava(south), An.ritnbha (west), Amoghasid-
Karnikeya. "Related to the Krttikas (Pleiade$." The InI
dhi(rrord4.^ ,d V,'rocrn,lccnter) In 'orrrc'ystems.
Hindu god who is rlso known as Skanda,Kunara. kno
Vairocana is associatedwirh the east and Akgobhya
with the celter. Guha, Subrahnanye, and Sakddhara,arrrong other an1(

jnara. Knowledge: specifically, suprernc knowlcdge narnes.He is sometimes considered to be the son kula.
of Si.ra; gene'ally, he is depicted as a youth. S.. srd
or cranscetdentinsight
Figs.8.4o,rr.7, r9.12. ilr!
&aruza.(Buddhist) Conpassion; a quality that con- isti(
Kailasa. A ralgc of mouncains in the Himalayas'
sritures half of Buddhahood, the other half oi usu
In Hinduisrn, it is the name of the mountein that
cLClssARY 7 21
lhich is praTia(u'isdonr).Cbaracterisric of the Bo- A)l beilgs, inclLrdinsBLrddhrs,bodhis:rrtves, and
dr,.,,rr.A . r . , ^ l . r c , v , . , .s ! L r ( 1 . odrcrs,le cirssificdaccordinqto rhrss\'stcm.
ka1o,sdtld. A stAndinqnleditationpose ch:]racteristic t r' ,., ..ij ) . A r .l, .l . r. .. rro r,:.
ofJein irqures. The bc'dl shorvs no bcld lurd thc Slc Fiq.:r.:6.
hatrdshans do*n at thc sides.Scr:Fiq. :-r.3. /r a.{ r..' .'r'.\-..l
Kctllrlati. The exrrhlv p:1r:1.lisc thar rvill l-.c prcsidcd kirroll,dl,in. A rheirrricrlfaviliol irr r l(cr alareml']e.
ovcr bv Maitrc)':! rt thc ti1llc of his dcsccntes I Sr'r'ligs. :;.3 ro.
I(LasarpanaAvalokiteiv:rr:r.A lor nr of Avalokjreivua. la",r.A rnrrk, s.,rrl.ol, ,l sisn, espccl.rllv rhc
S f . F r q .r S . J . .ruspicious nurts oD rhe bodl.of e lluddh.r,bodhi-
lhatrniga. A tlpe of stall or club rvirh :r sknll rLtthe saLLva, ol calralarrir;.
Sikllrruni is srirl to hrvc had
b top svmbolizing victorv ovcr dcmons, fiat is, thi1t1-t$'ornrlor lol.r,;rr,r-'.
.!rr p. r:r.
lihnara. A crearr.rrc thxt is p.rrt bird, part human, or'
Lakyrane. "Erdoucd lith .ruspicious nrarks-" The
h.rlt bro$cr of Itarr:r. A lrlor ch:uactcrof thc
I par! horsc, pilrr hrmrn. SoDrctillrcs considcrcdto Rar;a1,anl. Stl I'iq. ro.39rrcl Pls.j5,.1,-r.
! bc :Ltvpc ofgarr/l,rrlr. Lrksnri. "N1aLk": "tokcn"; "sigu." Tlrc goddes of
]<trrtint&ha. A "denron" ruask p1acc,:labolc doof- so,:,,:lfortune urci *crLth. qL'lrerrll\consjdcrcclro
wals:rnd nichcsoftcmplcs or at the rop ofrhe h.rlo be rhc prircipal conyrrt of VjsnLr.Shcls conrmollv
or back-slab of sculpted imagcs. It is intcndcd to lino\l'1r i]\ )fi
drive awav cvil rnd protcct thc devour. Scr Fig. '1
L| lr' 'o u'1, ' t... 1 , . r ' o u. r r f
rS.I7. s|stcnr.rtizef)of thc l)iiup:rre Srivirc scd, u.ho rs
ko sattbakut i. Trcasurehall. cr-.rrslclcrcd ro bc :ur in<lrnrrion of 6ivr. Hc is
lrolra. "Anqr;"; "lvrrrhfirl"; cherrctcrlsricof sornc gc'n.'le11r dc.picrcdln err rs rukcd, u.trh rn crecr
d ^ ' r. . B r , . l . l' lrr , r d H l d . . . l ' " r'g. , r,r l l n g r rS. t l i l g . r 5 . r r .
to rvard olf enemiesof rhe iiidr rnd protcc the lallta\dttn. A posturcof c.rsclrd rclrrerion. f)ne Jeg,
devout..SrrI)l. r,tr. gcrcrallr'the lcfi. is tblclcdorr thc scrt u.hjle rhe
lrodhdkaya.An urgrl lbnr of a clcitr. Scc alvr orhcr bugs clo*n.,r'erdrtrd somcimcs rcstsLrl)orr a
pedcsralor srool. Sfr Fi-g..\.39.
Krsna. Thc "D:rrlt-One." Olc of drc mosr popular . ' 1. . | . r l ' . . . .r,. pi.rlo .u.e
llirrdu qods, considercd to bc en incirrlrriolr of siqn or indic.rt,:rr oi gr.ndcr or ,cx, cspecirlLl'rhc
V i q n u .. S r lF i s s .r o . r r , 2 T - j J ,r l . r z a n d P 1 .4 3 . S c c nrele ser orqan or firlrllLrs.ln I linduisrl, rhe lrl;ga
d/\-cKrsnaVcnugapala- (phrllus)is asoci.rrccl alnrosrcxclLrsivc'lv rvith Siva.
K;y.raVcqr.rgopela. A ilm of Krsn:r in u'hich hc is 1cnrplcsdcdicarecL ro Sir.r qcncrelh havc a sroneor
rlepictcd plering r llutc q'ith r'hich hc cnch:urts nreral linXa cnshlilccl rs tlrc nt.Linobject ol vencra-
hjs dcvotees.SreFiq.2.2.46. tiorl A /it1j,d
rrul bc sctiuto a l or,, a slDTbolof thc
lrttila. Thc PL'iadcsconsrellation, \\41icL,iccordi.q lcmrlc gcnerativcorqeu, dnr scrvcs:rsits pcdcstll,
to lndic thouglrt, hes six (nor sevcn)srrrs: cech of but, rlore imporr:urt1r',toqcthcf, thc /iri3lrxnd
rhcscstersis considcredto be one ofthc sis ioster yorrr srnrbolizc thc unitr rvithin clLnLlo rhat is
rnothcrs of K:rrtikel.a (Skrnd.r).Scr p. :3r rnd ' , , . ! r i^ r h , . . , , ,, 1 , " . . . s . 1 .
"n rxg.r:
C h a p .r r , n . r 5 . rrrl be aclorncdrvirh hcadsor llccs rLno,occrsron-
l . r p r y r A r , r r " r , ' - . r l , . " f r l r , r n , r . . . r .. . .ll .j.r1,.. 1,. s,r f ..i..
' : , a , a ' a . l , - J . t r . c r r c l . ^. . :. , . i ' 1l
lrorcctivc dcrw. Sr:cFig. r r. r4. Lohnrtin. "]&illd toLcl." lrr lLrrldhism,a irrm of
KLrbcla.A lalsa erd kins ofthe la[sa-'.Cod of$crhh Ar.rLrkiteivrrr. Sr,r'Pl. -:7.
and richesan.l a /i&lala of$c nor.herh dLrcctlon-
Irr I3Lrddhisnr,hc scrvcs as a rllrararllala. He is rlso , ' n l . r . n lr . F . , r . n , c . . . , , .td. r .., ofbr*1. r:;'r.e
knorvn ls \'eiirevana, Jlrrrrbh:I1x,and Pincik.,, fourrrlorr rcnrplesofKirnatrkr. Sff Fiq.22.2E.
i1n1o|gother nillllcs.scr Fig. j.3. trltlfil,ltaram.Onc of thc tlo lujor cpics of South
L ' . l a f t t l r . I r l l r r ' , r1' , , . . . . r ' . ^ ( 1 . . . - Asii. Sc. pp. .lo J r.
sidcretions thar hc)psdcfine m individueL's posirion nnhubhi,isl<rutLnna. The Grcrt I)cparrure *.hcreby
in socie!\'.In M.rharina lluddhisru, all cL:Lr,rctcr- Pnrrcc Srdllhlr:thrlcft Lis pehcc ro scck rruth and
istics ol cxistcncc arc classiierl irto "fanriLies," k n o r v l c d g eS. i r p p . 9 9 ,r 4 r 4 z : r n dF i g . E . r 9 .
usu:rllyconsiderecl to bc cithcr t'rveor srxrrrrrurrrbcr. tltaltAdrAra." ()rcat daar" ; a nrorulrr'trtai ctrtl ancewf,y.
722 GtossARY

Mahakale. An angry, Protective rnanifestation of the shrine area directly, or nray Prccede a transi-
Avalokite3vara and a dharnapdla(protector) of the tional space (such as an antechamber) beforc thc
Buddhistlaw. SeePl. zr' drrine, or rnay be completely detached from the i.:
mahamandapa. L latge rna4dapa(usually with rnany portion of thc temple that contains thc shrine r-
oillar,t preccding checentrrl shrinearea' May be entircly enclosed, partially cnclosed, or :_
,nnharo,,io. "C."riB.ittg': in Buddhi'rn, a rupre:rre opet (without walls)-
bodhisattva,S??P. rr5. na4dk. "Tenple." o:
nahastupa.'Grcarsrttpa : , lrrgc stapa.SccFig 6 t' ntaigala. ftt auspicious:igrr. U'u.rlly erght ,re ciicd o:
Maha-uidyadeus. "Gre.rt KrrowledgeGoddcs'es lrr (astanLahgala).
tlre larn religion, the 5ixteengoddes'c' who per- nanfrd. Ar. incantatiou; a vcrbal cha[t; a nystic sy1-
,oniiy tlrc varioLrskind' of knowlcdge and arc lablc; a phonetic synbol that both evokes and
invoLed at various stagesin rcligious Practices Ses vivilies the divinity bei[g propitiared. A araatra IL

Ftg. zo.S7. consistsof a sericsof syllableswhich mav or rnav ri

^ohaiilraro. "Gt. r,ihara"; a large Buddhist monastic not have tratslarableneaning; ir is thc sound ofthe d
establishrnent,usually having a number of srnalicr anlTd,ttot its "sense," that is ilnPortant. A ,tdtr,/n
tnonesclcunlts. rnay be personifred(seeFig. 18.6).
Mahevira. "Great Hero." Thc twenty-fotuth of the lrirlfi Buddha. A morcal (human) Buddha, such as
Megadha, ca 540-468 Sakyamuni. In various types ofBuddhisrn, difcrent
fain turhaikaras; he lived in I
B.c. SccpP. 3r-12. nun-rbcrsare cited, bur, frequently, Iive, or eight,
Mahayina.-'iGrcat Vehicle." one of the rnajor cate- such Buddhas are mentioned- Sce Fig. 12.39
sorics of Buddhist practices,encomPassing:r wide Maravijaya. "Victory over Mara." Sikyanuni Bud- nirl,
iariery of secrs,beliefs, and Pracliccs.Mrheyenists dha'sdefeatof Mira ("death," "destroycr," "killcr"l s
tyPe ald
crnpn,,.rzebodhi.attr'r' of tlrc ,'r,:/ra'art,'o rnd, th r', hi' art rinrrrcnroI thc lrber.'t'veprorni'c oi nag
b.lieve i,, rhe potentiel of all ,enricnt being' ro Buddhahood. In arcistic represcntations,the Bud- d
achieveBuddhahood. S?ePP. 32, 70, Ir4-r5 dha-to-be is shorvn scated bcneath his borlll tree. ilal
Maheivara. "Great Lotd " Ao epith.r ofSi.'". his right hand usr.rallyrcaching lowrfd the eardl or
Mahilasuranardini. "slavcr of the Buffalo DeInon " touching ir (lfitLnispatla rrrlrlra) to call the carth t
S?eDurga Mahiglsurarnardini. (goddes) to lvirness his right to attainnent ind. tlaS
i'Friendly"; "benevolcnt"; "loving." In somctimes, the arlties of Mara, his tempter's
Budihisrn, Maitrcye appeersas both a Buddha and daughtersor others of Mira's retituc, are shown iI: I
a nahasattuabodl.risattva As a bodhisattva,Maitrcya the composition. See pp. r4z 43 arrd Figs. 8:t. tfig
is said to reside in the Tuqita heavcl, where he r 2 .r J . r,Ag
awaits his rebirth as the ncxt mortal (rMrrrr;i) nnstaka."Head" ; lhe crowning elemcnts of a Hindu nal
Buddhe. As a Br.rddha(of the fucure), Maitreya will ternple towcr. r
presidc over KetLur:rti, an earthly pamdise whcrc lritr. "Mother"; a goddcs; rhe goddcsswho persoui-
iris dcvotccs will residc in great tranquility and rvill ies the Grcar Mother, rhe mother ofall thilgs.
bc able to hear hirn preach the docrrine. For Bod- ,,dtld. A lno[astcry or c]olster' Na
hisattvaMairrcya,seeFigs 8.rJ, 8 3,1,r8'2o, 2r'38; naika. (Also, fifildrd arTdrrfl.) "Mother"; a divinr
for Maitrcva l]uddira, -,eePl. 8. nother; a jaAfl of one of tire Hindu gods. Sevcra,
nakara, L nythologicxl qutsi-crocodilian creaturc r r r t n b . r t , r e g i v c n , b u f . o f t e l l . ) r ' v e l la r c n J l l l e i Na.
that is a symbol of auspiciousnessand thc primal (sdptafitka). Also, a type ofloatra. Srr Figs. 13 r:. t'
lifc sourcc-The vehicle (ealana)ofthe rivcr goddes r6.8. t'
G.rns;. S.c Fig. 5.8. rrrayn.Thc illusionary naturc ofrhe phcnomenalworlC' 2
u , r / o .i r o . ^ r y l , g , r r l r r r d : . r r i r r go f L ' c , r d ' : ,w r c . r d r ' Thc power ofillusion or arti{ice. Srr P. 29. fiAs1
tnndala. L circular diagram; a tyPc o[ Yttrd' A Ma)'a(dcvi)."lllusion"; "pon'et of illusion." Th: C
nnddla car.scrve as the basisfor the groLrnd plan nxme of the rDothcr of Sakyauruni Buddha; thai nAtl
of a buiiding, es au aid to visuelization during from which he was born. c
ncditation, as a r,-ragicalor syrnbolic offering, ald ,,rd),t/d.A Pexcock.The aa,arraof Skanda,Anitalus. l\x
in othcr capacities.Used in all Indic rcligions. For and othcrs. I
An architectural exal-rplc, sre Fig. 6.u; for a trl-o- 'rcdrr, lnc OernrOt :r-rrrryd,
dinrcnsionalexarnple,serPl 15. nitltuna (rlso naithuna).A loving couple; the act t':
fldftddDd,A hall or porchlikc area, usually pillared' in Iove. Mithunns serve as sYnlbols of r.urion (r.rnit:
*..,"ru... A rlaadaparnay bc atrachedto wirhin duality) in thc Ildic rcligions and har':
GrossARY 72Ji
other meanings as well. They are cotsidered fitting xaugraha (nangrha). Thc nine pianets or the nine
ldornrnents to religious slructures and are found pl:rnct dcities. SdeFig. 19.33.
decorating or flanking doorways and at other loca- nidhi. "Treastre." Kubera, the god of wealth, is
lions on suchbuildings.Sre Figs.9.4, r;.r4, r9.4o, said to havc :nile nidhis, all of which may be pcr-
24.r3, sonificd.
nro[pa. "Reiease"; "liberation." The religious goal i latrakaya. In Buddhisrn, the "transformation
of Hindus, whcrcby the ildividual realizesa sratc bod,v." The bodv-form taken by a rrrdraslBuddha
of otenesswith the Universal. or another r,r:nifcsr tcachcr. See pp. rr4-r5. See
nndra. A "sca'l" or "sign." A gcsturc madc rvith
one or both hands. Sometines, the terrrr lrdrtd riryana."B1ow oui'; "extinguish."The goal towards
(hand) is substituted for nndrd ir naming rhe ges- rvhich Buddhists strivc. The alraiDnlenr of perfec!
turcs. In Buddhism, the term is r generrc nanle knowledge and intcgration with the Universal.
for thc fcmale compatrion (prryria) of a male r , i a . A r t r c h eo l c . , v i r t :. ' r ' i c \ e r e r . , p l e .
deity. ,''. "Mar." Used wirh rhc namc of one of Vi5nu's
'atkln r,a\dapn.fhe front lr..1lor porch of. rerrple. dtjatars)refels to a humai.or partially human fon,r.
rrrl&lta. "Crown or diadern"; a tiara. Seca/soNrsirirha aud Nr-Varahr.
,rrrli. A forrn; al image or represerltatroD ; a tDalll- Nrsirhha (Narasirhhe). Thc man-1ion incamarion of
ftstation; a personiftcarion(esofa god). V i s n u .S c eF i g s .9 . 3 o ,r 7 . 2 7 , 2 3 . r 5 .
nftta trrti. A dancc-fomr; a manifestalior ofa dcit)'
aada.A roar (asofa lion); a voice. perforrning a dalce. EspeciallycharactclisricofSiva,
nddanh. TLe atLdndafil1da1,adancc pcrformcd by but other gods, such as K;gna alrd Ganela, arc also
S i v a .S e ep p . J 3 J - 3 6a n d F i g . 2 r . 3 4 . s l , o * n d a n c i n gS. r t F i g s .: r . 3 3 , : r . 3 4 .
trag,r.A snake (sarpa);gcnerally, a cobra. A serpent nrtta salfia. A dance-pavilion; ^ taqddpa lot daice
oerr\. lrenl. r4gl?r.J pcrforrnancesand ccremonies; a fiald1ita4dir.
,agalc-rara.A type oftree; :l twig or 11owcrofrhis rree Nr-Varaha. Visnu in his Veri)r:r (boar) irrcarnarion,
nrrv bc clrricd as an atribute of Bodhisatrva Mai- depiccd rvith the bod,v of e nan and the head of
rrcya. a boar. Scepp. 19:-93 and Fig. ro.r:'.
rrarara."Town"; "pertaining to tllc city." Thc stylc
of tcnrplc archirecture associatedwilh northern Otu na4i patlnt lrrira. A lluddhist jartra; t\1e t antn
India. Seep. 5,10. of Avalokirelvara. ft is generall,vtrenslatcdto neau
1filarajd.A scrpc\tking. Sre Figs. 5.r2, 12.5. " t r L c e $ c l / , ' , ? r di ' i r r t l r el o r r r r. 7 ' a 1 , , ,' la 7
in c.or(ric
Agi i. SeetiAta. lluddhism, thc jcrvel is seen ,rs the mele sex orgaD
nnlanbaldn. In Kerafa, thc cloistcr sulroruding a (rajm), rvhile the iotus in which ir restsis intcrprercd
H i r r d ur c r r r p lcco r r r p l e \S. c . F I g .2 J .r . as the fenlrlc generativc organ (l,aga). The six syl-
ttandlkAta naqddpa. Iu Kerafa, :L deac\crJ nandapa lablesof thc rrrarro-a are personi{icd in dre Sad:rkgari
preceding the rnain telnple. Src Fig. :5.4. forrr of Avalokiteiv:rra.S??Fig. r8.6.
Nandi (Nandin). "Thc Happy One." Siva's bLrll
L,ahad. SeeFig.23.11. patlua. "LotL:'s." Onc of rhc mort Lrniversal arrd
11dtd. seenf. u idcsprcrdsrnbols in Indic cuhure,the lotus scrvcs
Nara-Narayana (Nr-Narayana). Two saints rvho are as a pedcst.l upon which divinc bcings sland or sir
together considered to cornpr-isetirc fourth of rhc rnd is an attributc characteristic of narv dcitics.
twenty-two rninor incarnaliots of Vi5nu. Scc pp. Its syrlbolism has manv veriations, brrt ir is invari-
zro-r r and Fig. ro.3o. abiv associatedrvith transcendcnce,lifc-asserrion,
rrasti[a. "Denier." Onc who rejects dre aLrthoriry gricc, and peacefulness.Speci{ic subt,vpcs ald
of che Vedas. Src pp. 28-29. color variations of thc lorus carrv specific ncan-
natat atdir. "Hal1 of dance"; onc of rhc arandapas rngs.
ofan Orissal tcurple;a trila sabhh. Padruapani."Flaving a iotus in thc haud": a fomr of
\ . r r . r r - j - . K i n g o l l ) - n c e : S i v . ,. . , l o r d o f d . , r r . c . the Bodhisettva Avalokiteivara.
SceFigs. r3.:o, 2r.33) 2r.31. Orher vlrtualiy equi- lddnfisafia- "Lotus-seat"; a sittiDg posture in *hich
valent terms includc Nateia and Natesvara. both lcgs are crosscdand each foor rests upon thc
noa-cltokl A nine-conpartrnent hall; a typc of thigh of tire oppositc 1cg. Used bv 1,ogiru and
rnandapa,tlrc ceiling of which is divided into nirrc religious practitioners primarily during meditation.
coliers, arrangcd in three rows of thrce. Characteristic of divinities, especially of Ruddhas
724 GlossARY

and tnthaikdlas or otherswho are being depicted in lala (strength);9. jtara (transceDdent knowledgc);
pcaceful,meditative forms. Other namesfor idcnti- nd rc. prajin (transcendentwisdon). Whcn onlv
cal (or slighdy variant) forms inclnde vajrayary- six are given, thc first five oftJre iist remain ascitcd,
aikasana, vajfisana, dhyanasdna. S.'eFig. ro.2o. bLrtthe tcnth, pralria,is listed asthe sixth.
pallippadai.h sott\India, a ternplc that servesParti:llly parcit, " Axc" ; lhe axe attribute carried by a numbcr
as a coirnemorativc funerary monun-rentfor a dc- of Buddhist and Hindu dcities.
ceasedrolal personagebut is, at thc sarnetime, also parikranB. " Circtrnambulrtion" ; "roaming abour":
dcdicated to e deit-v. cspcci:rll,v, circumambulatiol (ofa deity or a reJigious
-fhc . r n r c r u r e pr e rl o u r r d p . , n o f r e l r go L r 'u r . , c t i . t .
paiiu jina tnandala. na4dala of the five jirra Bud- "
dhas.Seep. 263. whel circurumbulation is perforDrcd with thc
paicaloha. An alloy of iive mctals, usuallf cired as objec of vcncrrtion to the right of thc dcvotcc
being copper, silvcr, gold, tin, and lcad; the alloy (that is, with the devotee noving in a clockrlise
prcsur,red to have bccn popularly used in south llrshion), the circumambulrtior, is ci)ed pralakSina;
Indian rr ctalwork. whcn the objcct is to the left (and tJrc rvorshipcr
. . , o v e ,i r r , c o r r n r c r c l o . k w i sdei ' e . r i , . r , ) r. h c , . -
paica nakarc. The iivc "rl'-i'; in Hindu Tanrric
practiccs,the enjoyrDentofthe conrpanv ofwomcn culTambulationis calledprnsar,ya. Cloclwisc novc-
(nrdra), tbe drinking of wine (rrra,/a),thc cating of rDcnt is considcrcdto be auspicious;counterclock-
llcsh (raafisa),thc ceting of fish (rrrar-,1,a), and sexual lvisc lnovement is inauspicious and gcncrrllr'
intercoirsc (lnilnna). Thc,v are so called bccause associeted wjth death.Se. pp.62,:o8-ro.
in Sarskrit all the tames of thcse things begin rvidr pari irNalJa.Thc "completc" rrln,ipa; thc 6rr.rl p:rssing
thc letter l;. Sornc lists substitute htuuan sacriice, . r s r y o f S a k l r r r r u r rBr u d d h " : h r s c x t i n c t i i, . I l (
the use of thc human skull as a drinking vessel,and dceth aftcr which the lluddhe was to havc no rrrorc
thc singing of lusty soDgsfor sone of thc prlctices. births.SerFigs.8.23,rz.r4.
Although the fivc "rrr'-." arc not specifrcallv ruen- pariudra. O:nc of the "retitruc"; e deity attcnding
tioned as a group irr Buddhist tcnts, the sxnlc rire main deiry ofa shrinc.
practicesoccur in Tentric Buddhisn. Seep. 468. yorivaralaya. A 'hrir'c for ,r 1'arirar,r dcrry.
paicaratha. "Fivc-rat/ra": a side of a pcdcstal or tt Parnaiabari. A femalc &rorllradeity and :rn emanation
building thar is ollier so that its length is divided ofdre BuddhaAkgobhla. Seep.4oo and Fig. rE.r5.
into Iive sections.S.e p. trri. parlta-rlevata."Side-deit1"; secondar) deitics of
Peicer,tra. A Vaignavite sect. The Drflrning of ils :lr iconogrephic progranr, usu:rll,v placed in sub-
n . r r n e( " F r v eN r g l r t . ' ) r . o L r ( L r r ci .' r r c i t ' o r ' g i r r ' . sidiarynichcsin a tcn,ple.
Its doccrines,however, can be tr"ced to the latc first P r r v . r t r .I h e p f i r ) c r p r(l o r . s o r ro t S r v : . H c r e l ' i r h r, '
rnillenniun g.c. and arc known to have bcen and variant forms includc Devi, Durga, Crr.rrr,
formalized around A.o. roo. Thc Pencaratra sect ^ilt t, lvl-1t1ilocvl, ano uDtJ,

ernphasizesrnonotheisnl, bhakti, ad simple lbrurs po1,r.A paintcd bemrer or cloth.

of worship. phatirsaa. A peakcd, p,r'relnidal roof rising fr-onr a
paiayatatl(I. "Five-tcmple (shrine, support, abodc, squarebase.SccFig. II.rr.
rcsdng piace)." In architecture, a temple thar has I pidla. Horizoltal platformlike divisions or courscs
ccnrr.rl,hrine strrrorrndcdbv {otrr othcr. Scr Frg. of lhc superstrucllrc o\er t\e .idgd,iahal1llual1daj)a)
ro.27. ofan Orissantemplc.Sft Fig. I9.r9.
Pdncika. A rvcrlth god aud ya&saking; another nanre ptpal. borlhitree of Sali\arullni Buddh:r. Scc :rlst-'
fbr Kubera. Scc pp. 146 48 end Fig 8:5. Seeaho
pi-va. In Orissan architecture, thc p1:rtfornr or brse
r r r . ' r tr: r c r c l t e r :, u ' r d t .
p a n d i , aA. . c h o b r : r l e . ' r r ' c d comprisirg thc lower portion of a tcnrplc.
para,,fiaA . Fudd]ri* r c r r r rt t t e r r ) l n g : p,rl,n. \i,rr": Lhlolc. Thc pede.r',1of .'r' i:rr'';.
specifically,rhe virrues to be perfcctcd b,vI bodhisat- or liiga.
tva in thc quest for brtddhehood. Gcnera1l1',six or prul*anandala. "Circle of light or radi:tncc"; :rn alr,:
tcn ere cited, though mmerinrcs rrvclvc are narDed. or haio radiaring 6on the head or bod,v indic:rtirre
The ten arc: r. rinaa(giving, charitt, generosiry); 2 trrnscendencc or diviDit,v. Sonetjmcs c:rlled a
rila (rnoralitl',proper conduct): 3. lsarrii(patiercc); yrabhavalt.Sccalsoiirajcalratnd \nasprablfiukra.
4. Irirya (cnergy, vigor'): 5. dhyatn (ncditetion); p r , r r l ,srrir n . T o t r - r d r h c r i g l r t " : r ' , , t . t t s o r t r r r ' t t i t t c
6. rpaya (skillful lneans);7. pra4idhana(vows);8. in a clockwiscdirecrion.Sccalsolari[rorrra.
crossARY 725
prdrlaksindpathd. A passager"'ayor rv:rlkwav 1bl cir-- pufiyaparafiita.Pcrlcction of moral or religious ncrit.
cunrarnbulation surrounding an in,:rgc, shrirrc, or Purenxs. Meaning "o1d," these arc ancient tales or
building. In lX/eslcrn lircrature, the term is uscd histories, especiallya specific type of rext that re-
gcncricalll to refer to all circLtuanbulatorv pas- cords stories abont thc gods and the anciclrt Indic
segervals.Ho'"vcvcr, since the lerrn prarlaksinatn- dvnasries. Sedpp. 3o-3r.
plics onlv cJocku'isc nlovenrent, the nAnc nav It nrnaghatn. Vase-of-plcntv.
b e r n . , p p r o ; ,rt e l " r r o r r ' cr o n ' r . o f c i r c r r r r . r r r r b r r l . r -lrl/,r,!d. "Mln." As a sullix (esit cakraptnrsa),it refers
tion, rvhich are performed in a connterclockwisc ro a personification.Thc tcrm alsorefcrs to the nrale
( p r , r , , r , , ydai )r , , r " r . . 5 L c . r l s o nrernbcr of tbc prakrti-purusa dualjtr. Scc also
lrdJ,in. "Wisdon." Thc transcendentelrvisdonr that
constitutcsone half of rhe srareof buddhahood. pustaka-A lrook or nTanrucript; sonletirllc'sheld in
It is personified in MahaleDa Buddhisn :rs a thc hand ofa deitv asen :rtliburc.
li:rr alc who can servc es a consorr to a nalc dcitv,
ald, rhus,ashaifofa unitcd du:rlitl that reprcsents Rahu. "Seizer." Onc of thc nine p1:rnets (nauagroha)
buddhahood.As:r fcmale consort, rhc fr,1i, js in Indic astroDornical thought; thc :rscetdingnode
sonlctirnes corrpirrcd rvith dre jn&ti in HjnduisrD of thc moon. IlahLr is bclicvcd to causeeclipscsby
althoughthe ternrs:rrcnor full,vcquivaient. seizing and slvallo*ing the sun and moon. His
Pr:!jnaparan1ita.In Buddhisn, thc fcninine personifi- bodv rvas supposcdlyseveredfron Jrisheed and,
cxrion of dle P/dj,l,ilaldnil, tcxrs and thc pcrsoni- thus, he is ofrcn dcpictcd as a head rvithour:r bodv.
f i c . , t i o no f p c r t c c r\ \ r s d o ' r . S h . i s r o r n e t i n r er,c - r H i . b o J y . s K < r r r . r r r o r l r eo rf r l r cr r n e p l , r , r c r. sr n r l
g,rrdcd as thc nrodrcr (thrt is, crcator or source) thc descending nodc ofthe moon.) SccFigs. r9.33,
of all Buddhas. r9.31.
yakata. An cnclosure wxll of e south Indian tcmple;"Ki1g."
au enclosurewall ar,dthc conrpoundcrearcdb.r,the lajallla. Ali, a-{rr,li rhe posc of royal casc. Both legs
u . r l l n . . , o r r r hl r r d r . r lne r )r l ( : I r . \ e r e d ! \ . r i k \ \ ) arc beDtand xrc pl:rcedorr the sc:rt;one knee (usually
that scr'vesas ln enclosure boundarv in a soudr thc riehl) js raised *fiilc dle othcr resrs flir on
l n d i . r rtre r r f l c .S c i I i g . : 4 . r o . rhc scat. The t&'o fcet are closc togcther. Ser:Fig.
prckti. \he "urge to produce." That which has the 20.37.
imnanenr qu:rlity of crearivitv or production; the rafa-r.One of the threc universal qualitics (guza-r);it
rescrvolr of potcrrial. In FlindLrthoLrghr,prakri irnplies ncntal activitl and rhe rhlrhmic division
is seenas thc active prirrciple and is pcrsonified as a ofspaceand timc. Secp. :79.
fcnralc. With ! flt$d) the rTTaleprinciple, r'hich is rafarrrar."King-bor'"; a priDce.
coDsidercdto be inactivc, all things are nallifested. Ranra. The scvcnth inc:nlation of Visnu, rvho ap-
Togethcr, thc n1ile and femrlc principles represent pcared on earth as thc king of Avodhli ro save
all of crcation, that is, Nature, whjch is both rhc the world fron destruction br the den,on Rtvana.
crertor and destrovcrof:rll. l h e . r o r \ 'o f h i s + r r g g l c , i , r . r ep r . n c i p . r. rl r L r j e or rf
pralanbapaddsatn. A sitting posture in r'hich rhe trvo (ne Kal ,afahi.
legs hang dou,nrvard. It is often ca1led"Europcan Ranayata. One of the two major epics of ancient
pose." Also knorvn as lladrr-.arraand,paryaikasana. Indii. S.r pp. 30 3r.
SccFig. 8.2. raiXa nondapa.An asscmbll hall in a tcmple; a tlpc of
prasauya."'loward the left"; r'noving or rurning in a nandapa; a sabhananrlapa.
counterclockr"'iscdircction. Scc alsoparikronfi. fithd. "C^rt or chariot." Solnetinrcs used to refcr
ltraslata.A Aat surfece; e flat top; a level. In rrchltcc- to the tcrnple dlar scrvcs as rhe "charior" (even
turc, the ent:lblatlrrcabove the rvall ofa structurc. though inuuov:ble) of :r deity. The term rlso rcfcrs
prcln."Dcad"; "departed."Often deined asa "hungry to the pcdcstalofrn jmagc or thc b:rscofa building
ghosr," the term refcrsto thc fornl into lvhiclr bejngs (that houscsan inrage). In forrr, the pcdestalor base
who havc been lustful end sreedl in their past livcs nray be ofiiet, in which case,rhc r,1lr,1is dcfined by
ere born. Scr p. 393and Fis. r8.J. the nunrbel of its scctions.For this latter neaning,
paf. Thc acts perfomed to honor or u orship a r.. P. 213.
divinitr. M:r1 includc rhc ollcring ofilorvers, food, 'Jervcl-born."
Ratnasambhava. Onc of the jlrra
aDdl'!'aterto the god. Buddhas; thc Buddha of the sourh, $'hose 1/rrdr4
pr,r1a.Monl or religiousfrcrit. is the horse.Scr Fig. r8.r:.
72b GrossARY

Ravana. A demon who is bcst known as the principal It may servc as thc crownilg clement of a tower
demon of the Rarrtala4acPic. (s, lig. :4.n) ot a. a decor.rivc morif rePertedon
rhe ,roric, of rhe suPe-strrrclureof , to,'rh lndirn
rckha. "Streztk"', "ourlinc." In orissan architccture,
the name for the ji/ehala-tyPctenPlc; the curvilinear sryle tcnplc (-reeFig. 14.23), as well as in other
portior of a jilfirld. architccrurai and dccorative contexts.
jifa. An enclosureor cloister (seep 457).
rckhadeul.A rckha-ryPetcnPle.
lalal:haijika. A tree goddes (ur&Saderdtr)who grasPsa
!.9abhandtha.Thc' first ttrthaihard. Srs Fig' ro 42'
rsitrisr). A reer. An inspi|cdpocr:a s;ge' :Al i'rce.
',,ipnkayo. '[orrn-bodl of
n errly B.rddhi',n, the sannbltahga.A sranding posturc in which thc legs are
systcn. At solne Point before the unbeni and thc weight of the body distributed
fourth century, the concept was divided into the equally on the feet. SeeFig. 14.26.
sanbhogakayaand the nimuryakaya,which are still sonihogokaya."Bliss Body." One of the thtee kayos
krrown collectively x pakaya. See also trift'l'd' of dre Mahayana Buddhist rrileayasysteir. It is one
Seepp. r t4-r J. branch of thc rnpakafa, the odrer being the lir-
na1al<aya-It is iD this form that Buddhas appcar to
sabhama4lapa.An assemblyhall in a tcrnple; a rnaz- their bodhisanvas.The jlta Buddhas arc manifesta-
dapa;a rai|a tna\daPa. tiois ofthis ftaya.Sccalso lrlAdya.SeePP. 261-64'
S"d.k5"., iu,lokit.ivera. "Six-syllrble \vrloki- sarhgha. Buddhist monastic comrnunity; the
tc3vara." A forn-r of the Bodhisatrva Avalokite3vara rnernbcrsofsuch a comnunity.
as the Personification of the six-syllable ntarrra hlharatB. A monasterY.
6' saaiara. Thc rounds ofrebirths undergone by a living
"on nini padnehluh." sedpP. 393 94 and Fig 18
Saddhanttaptt4danka-sLrrra. A Buddhist sitra; "tl.e being; transrnigratiou.The concept, and acceptalce
rrrra ofihc lotus of drc wonderful l:rw." of it, is a presuppostiou of tire Indic rcligions in
sadhau, Thet which lcads to thc (religious) goal; gencral. Seepp. 29-30.
a type of Tantric religious practice. Also, in Bud- Srr"n,".". one oithe Heruka deities ofBuddhism and
dhi.-, typ" of text that serves as a ritual and an angry (&rodha)emauAtion of the Buddha Akso-
" bhya. SeeFiq. t 8.zz
. iconographic guide.
Saivite. Pertaining to Siva. ,a,iuot. Aye^rl ar er^.Used in calendricreckonings
latii. r. A spearlikeirnplemcnt that is $e cmblcm of sdntlhara.A. type of temple characterizcd by an en-
Skanda (Karnikeya). See Fig. 8.4o z "Energy " closed passagelvayfor circuurambulation. Sse Figs'
In Hinduism, the fen-rinile creativeforce or the per- 24.24 20.27.
sonification of that forcc as the fenale consort of iailla. A conch or conch shell Carried asan attribute
a male dcity. A coroliary of the concept ofprale1i of deitics, especiallyVig4u. It servesas both a rvar
t.u*p.t a musical instrurnent; its sound is
Scc also praAlti. Thc corresponding terrn in Bud- "nJ
dhism is praiia. It is unhrowr asto whethcr thc two consideredto be a symbol of the tratsience of the
rnc"ning, of thc *ord iakti as "spear" and "fcnale universe.
sannudfi. six bone ornaments wom by Tantric
.nergy't stc,tt frorn rclated or completely difercnr,Jand Tantric divinities. SeeFig. r9.47
root-words. In al1ycase,in certain Buddhist contexts
at least,thc spearsubstirutesfor the fcmalc (pralria), saptiitattka. "Scven Mothers." Though the numbtr
perhrps;sr pun on rhe word saAtr' of these goddcssesis generally given as scven, the
5ri'vr,,r,rrti.One of rhc rrorr'l i'rrla'r5irBLrddh"':thc li.t oF goddc*es 'rho compri'e thc group varies'
Buddha who livcd in Magadha (ca 563-483 n c )' The'inothers" are seenesia&tisofsevcral principal
Thoueh sometines rcqarded as the "founder" of Hindu gods.
Buddirisrn, hc is nr fait held by Buddhisrs ro be saptaratha."severtatha"; a side of a pedestal or
only one of a number of Pastnortxl lluddhas and building that is olIset so that its length is divided
potential future mortal Buddhas.Seepp. 31 3u into sevcnsecdonsSre P. zl3.
jni (iald). A tree (L*. Shoreatobtsta); thc rree graspcd Sarasvati.Thc namc ofonc ofdrc ancient rivers ofthe
by Quccrr Maya rs .he birtlr ro Prirrc' 5id- northwestern Indic region. Though it was one of
dJrarrha,tltr future Saky:mrrnrBuddha thc n-rostrenowned of the rivers rnen[ioncd in the
jala. A type ofshrine or a nriniature version of a shrinc 4g Verta,it is today virtually dried up. Also, rhc
pe-.scni{icationofthe river asa goddesswho is seen
thar is rcctangularin plan and hasa "barrei-vaulted"' Si
o, perh"ps, ltto.. propcrly, "barrel-shaped" rooi cooro.t (^,td sonetines a daughtcr) of Brahma,
crossARY 727
but also asa consort of Vignu. Sheis regardedase god of desruction. He may appearin many forms,
goddessoflearning andwisdom. SeeFig. zo.4r. botlr peacefuland angry. Ifis charactetisticvahana
Sadnlo.Aleogryph; a winged lion or tiger. is the br:ll Nandi; he has many attributes, bur one
Sarvavid Vairocana. "All-knowledee Vairocarra." A of the most important is the trident. Irr temples
manifesadon of the Adi Buddhal the embodirnenr dedicatedto htn, a lilrya is usuallyplacedas the
of.iarya and omniscience;the personificationofthe centrel votive object in the shrine rather than an
undill-erentiated state.Seepp. 402-3and Fig. r8.r8. . anthtopomorphicimageof him.
Jdti. A suttee: a faithful. dutiful wife who immolates Siva Aadhakasuravadhamuri. Siva as destroyer of
henelf on her husband'sfuneral pyre. In someparts . the demon (asuta)Ar.dhaka.SeeFig. 16.6.
of India, sucha woman is afterward honored by a SivaBhiksSgaaa. A form of Siva.Seepp. 516-17and
memorial stone. Fig.2r.rr.
tattlid. r. A being or creature. z. One of the three SivaDaksinamurti.A form of Siva as the supreme
qualities (gr4ar) in operation throughout the uni- teachetof yoga, knowledge, music, and the Vedas.
versein Hindu thought; the cohesiveforce implying The tetm daksinais thought to reftr to the south
a concentrationof energy and a coming together. (supposedly the direction thc god faced when
- Seep.279- teachingthe sages,and the direction associatedwith
Sega."Remainder"; the serpent upon which Vignu deathand,hence, perhaps,the overcomingof death
reclinesor sits. Also called Anenta ("Endless").See through Siva'steachings)or, ahematively,to the
Fig. ro.29. right, perhaps io referenceto the usual teaching
Siddhartha.The princely nameofSakyamuni Buddha; gestureof the god's right hand in this form. See
the name of that Buddha during the preenlighten- , FLgs.14.38,2r.r7-
ment yearsofhis lastlifetime. SjvaVisapraharanamurti. A form of Sivaasa world
3ikharu,t. In north Indian architecture,the spireor savior.Seep.3zr and Fig. 14.39.
tower over the shrine of a temple. SeeFig. zo,z|. Skanda.SeeKirttikeya.
z. In south Indian architectue, the term doesnot Skandamata, "Modrer of Skanda."Seehrttika.
refer to the entire superstructurebut only to the Somaskanda.Siva with Uma and Skanda.A rype of
globular or domical roof of the uppermostelement representationof Siva witl his consort and son that
in the supersructr:re.It is topped by a finial known waspopular in south India beginning in the Pallava
asa rtrli andis supportedby the "neck" (grita). See period.SeeFig. 14.27.
Figs.14.23(for an examplelackng e stupi),zt.zt. auaqta.An ascetic;a monk,
Silpin.An atchitect;.a craftsman. Sri. In Hinduism, the goddessof good fonune and
sirhha-A Iion- wealth, sometimesconsideredto be an espectof
sirhhaghoga, "Voice of the lion"; a referenceto the Lak5mi. In Tantric Suddhism, aa angty (krodha\
teachingsof Sikyamuni Suddha. female. For the latte\ seePl- 22-
3ithhaxada. 'Ihe, i/t&oril.The main shrineofa Hindu templein Kerala.
"lion's roar"; a referenceto the
teachingsof S-kyamuni Buddha. Seep- 602.
SirhhanadaAvalokite3vara, "Avalokite6vara of the stanbha,A pillar; frequently,a fiee-standingpillar.
lion's roar"; Avalokite3vara asreciterof the Bud- AIsoknown aslatl.
dhist teachings.SeeFigs. r8.7, 2o.37. sthAnaka."Standtng." The representationof a figurc
sirhhasana. "Liot seator throne"; a throne supported in a standingposture.
by lions.SeeFig. 8.3r. Also, "sitting postureof the stipa. "Crest"i "summit." ln Jainismand Buddhism,
lioq" an asana. an architectural term denoting a dome-shapedor
lbalcahra."Head-whee1"; a halo that is restricted to rounded structurethat containsthe relic of a Bud-
the head of a figure. See alsoliraiptabhacaktaatd dha,greatteacher,or other honoredindividual, and,
ptabhana4dala. thus,generallyconsidered to be a type ofsepulchral
3iraiprabhaukta."Head-light wheel"; a halo that is monument.May be madein miniature(or votive)
restrictedto the headof a figure. See*lso litaicakra form, but even smallerversionsoften contain relics.
atd.ptabhana4dala. A srupaisa rypeof ruitya.SeeFig.6.t.
Slta. "Furrow"; the heroite of the Ranayattaepic ar.d. $npi (elsosfipika)."Pimacle." The usuallyvase-shaped
the wife of Rama; shewas abductedby the demon finial atop the superstructureof a south Indian
Rivana and carried off bv him to Sri Lanka. sryle Hindu temple.
Siva."Auspicious."One ofthe principalHindu gods; Subrahman. ya. "Dear to btdhmans."An epithet and

form of Skauda. Known primarily in south India. ered a 6ster method of attaining religious achieve-
SeeFi,g.24.2. ment than the more conveltional means: however,
Sukhtvati. "Land ofBliss." The narne of the western it is also more dangerous, due to its involvement
paradiseover which Amitebha / Amitayus presides. of_ the practitioner in normally prohibited jn-
3linya."Zerc" ; dre void,. Seeinnyata, dulgedces.Seep. 468.
luhyafi. "Err'ptlness"; "nothingness"; "voidness." tapas."Heat" (and, hence, ?orential power). In con-
In Buddhism and Hinduism, the trental state that trast to the heat generatedby sexual desire (&ana),
is to be achieved as the final result of religious fiis rype of "hear" is associatedwith religious
practices;neither exiscence nor [onexisrence;non- austerity. Through penance and renunciation, the
being; a state ofcomplete neutrality that is consid- individual-whether well- or evil-intentioned-
eredto be the ultimate realiry.It is seenasa dynamic, may gain power of such rnagnitude that even the
not a passive,stete. gods rnay be threatened. For a penance-perform-
Surya. "Sun"; the sun god. See Figs. 8.42,, r7.zr, ing individual, seeFig. r4.r9, top center.
19.3J. Tara (also Taraka). "Star"; a goddessknown in the
sutra. "Thtead." A short text or doctrine consisring of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist religions. She is besr
aphoristic thoughts or rules "threaded" together known in Mahayana Buddhism, where she is
into a sequence.In Buddhism, all siilras are con- implicitly the Nordr Star, and, hence, a guide (to !trr
sidered to represent the teachings of Sakyamuni the devotee). As such, she is an importani goddess brt
Buddha. However, the Hinayanists do not accept in her own right; she is also the consort of Avalo- .hiF
all Mahayana sitras as being authentrc. kite$ara. SeeFig. 20.63 and Pl. 30. cotrl
suabha kakaya."Selioriginated form." In Buddhism, tarjani mwhA.A thre rening gesture.SseFig. r8.rj. Tipq.
the Adi Buddha; the source of all and that from Tathagatagarbha. "Womb of the Thus-Gone One." tioDt
which all things derive. The word tathagatuis rranslated as "Thus-Gonc
suastika."Of good. fortune"; an auspicious emblem One" (that is, one who has arrived at perfect thet
shapedlike an equal-armed crosshaving bent legs. knowledge and, thus, a Suddha). Widt garbha seco
It is found in the Indic regions as early as the Indus ("womb"), the rerm refers to Buddha-poteniial or
, civilization. SeeFig. 2.r7. the essenceof Buddhahood. In Maheyena Bud- dhir
Svetinbara. One of the two pincipal Jain sects; dhism, the term refers specifically to the germ or (dho1
rne wnl(e-lrressed seci. essenceof potendal Buddhahood that is found in
all seatientbeings. nuol
tala, "Place." In architecture, a tier, especially, one of le7as.Spiritual power. bi!ulapl
the tiers of the supentructure over the shrine in a thang-ka ('fibet^n). A painting on cloth; a banner Trivih
south Indian style temple . Perntlngi ^ !at4. Vi5o-r
tetmds-One of the three qualities (grias) in operation Theravada. The Pali term for the SansLrit stharirar.rada, is oq
throughout the unive$e according to Hindu 'ipeech
the of the elders." A form ofBuddhism of and l
thought; the opposite of sattl)a; the destructive, the so-called Hinaytfla category. Tusit2-
disintegrating charactedstic that prevents concen- . rirtha.A holy sire: a pJaceof pilgrrmage. MaiE
ffation and is symbolic ofdissolution and nonbeing. tithaikata. "Ford-[nder." A Jainjina ("conqueror").
Seep. 279. One rvho has attainedperfect knowledge. There are Una-tr!
(taxtld; also, Tantric, Tantrisrn). The origin twenty-four such beings in the Jain system for the siniu
of the term is obscure and has been variously in- present time-cycle, the twenry-fourth being Maha- Up*i:
terpreted. In Indic religions, the term refers to a vira, who lived in Magadha (ca. 54c468 !.c.). For Seep1
classof texts and the practicesand beliefs associated a list of the twenty-four, see Senjamin Walker, updsaka
with them; Tantras are characteristicof some sects Hindu Woid: An Extyclopedic Sutuey of Hinduisn, (Fen-
in all the Indic religions. They are associatedwith z vols. (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1968), ,pay. '
emphasis on the Gmale, se:-ual syrnbolism, and 2i505-O. mearu
secret,esoterictraditions and practices.Though the totatra. An arch; a portal; a gateway. See Fig. 5.8. be m;
goels of Tantrins and practitioners of other fonns Trtyastririria. The heaven of thirty-three (Vedic) male I
of the Indic religions are essentially similar, the gods, situated above Mount Meru; it is presided iltnA. Or
methods used to achieve the goals propounded by over by Indra / Sakra. fested
the Tantrins difler greatly from the other more 'lhe
tribhaiga. "thrice-bent" posture. A standing
widespread religious practices. Tantrism is consid- posture in which the head, chest,and lower portion (luckv
GrossARY 729
ofthe body are angled instcadofaligned verrically; other exalted beings, sucb zs nahasatna bodhi-
a plurnb line from the top ofthe headpasses through s a t t v a sS. e eF i g . 7 . t r .
the lcft 1orighr) pupil. rhe center of rhc chcst, a;ri;a. A knot of hair, probably a turbarl knot, atop
rhcn to the lefi 1or righr) o[ rhc nrvel .rnd.Irnrlly. thc head of a nale figure; indicative of princcly
to a point betweenthe heels.SeeFig. r8.5. hcritage.SeeFig. 7.rr.
nikaya. "'lhtcc bodics"; a Mahayana Buddhist doc-
trine conccrning the rhreefold naturc of Buddha- vahatla."Vclricle"; the mount or carrier of a god; a
hood. Thc thrcc "bodies" ue the nirnanakaya being who accornpanies a god. ualtand is
i l r - n r f o r r r , - t r o r ro" - " l o r r " B o d l ) , r h c r c . ' l n r rusuallya thcrior,rorph and may synbolize an aspect
of the norral Btddhas; -rarrbfioga&a7a ("3liss or quality of the deity.
Body"), t)rc rcalm of thc jlrra Buddhas; and the Vairocana. One of the -.arrrllrola&a7a Buddhas and, in
dharnakayn("Law Bod,v"), dre realm of the Adi some systems,a rnanifestation of rhe dhannakaya.
Buddha. Thc tiit firakayd and sanbhogakayarc He is also sometimesconsideredto bc a manifcsta-
together klowD as r pakAta. rion of thc Adi Buddha.
/ril!/a. "Three-h:Jl" ; :r triple-shrined structure. Vaiqnavite.Pertaining to Vignu.
l r r n u r r i . " T - i p l c f o r r r r "o r " t n p l e i m r g e . - - s o l c - ugrra. Atr implcment; an attribute. It rs sometrrnes
times used to refer to a singlc, triplc-hcadcd figLrre, dcincd as "thundcrbolt," though this is only a
b r r r : l r o n r . . 1r e f e ' t . , r h ' c c \ e p . . r . r tier n r g e ' $ o r - limired explanation of the term. The word is
shiped together (-rceFig. r4.i3). Thc triad usually comr,ronly translatcdas "diamond"; however, this
consisrsof Siva, Vi;nu, and Brahna. is epparcntly incorrect. Regaldiess of its cxact
Tripitaka. "-fhtce baskcts"; in Buddhisn, the collec- rranslation, it servcs as a s,vmbol of pernunency
tions of sacredwritings. and imnutability, and, in Buddhism, thc adaman-
triratha."'lhrcc-ratha"; a side of a pedestalor building tine nature ofthe universe.The rajra is a pronged in-
that is offset so rhat irs length is dividcd into three slnulcnt, sometimesflat, sometimesfully rounded,
sections. ,Se(p.2r3. with prongs at both cnds. The number of prongs
triratfla. "'lhtee ie'nels"; the thrcc "jewels" of Bud- varies but is alr'ays idcntical at both ends and is
dhism, that is, the Buddha, thc Buddhist law an odd, rather than even, nunber. (SeeFig.8.3z,
(dharna), er,d thc nonastic community (-rd/igra). lefr, for a one-pointed cxample.) In Tantric Bud-
tri.iala. A tridcnt; en attribute characteristic of a dhism, all Buddhist deities are considcred to be
numbcr of dcitics, espccially 5iva. uajras or njra-betngs rnd thc rrajra also servcs as
hiiilaptltusa. The pcrsonificetion of the tndent. a synbol of the phallus. In sonc Buddhist contexts
Trivikrar,Ta. r. Onc of rhe twentl.-four forms of (seePl. r5), deities ofnon-Buddhist panthconsrvho
Visnu. z. An epithet for Vanana, thc dwarf, who havc bccn convertcd to the Buddhist dharna re
is onc of Visnu's ten major incarnations.Sccp. 298 referred to as aajra-c.
and Fig. t,airahlikarc (nadra). A hand posture that signi{ics
Tugita. The heaven presided ovcr by Bodhisattvr the syllable hwh (hun) h Vajrayana Buddhisn.
Maitreya. Thc hands and wrists are crossedin front of thc
chest; the right hand holds a lajra whilc thc lcft
Urna-Mahe6vara-Siva, scatcd,with his consorr Uma holds a glraata-the two symbols in the crossed
sitting upon his left knee. Ser Fig. 15.26. lrands thus symbolizc thc union of male (uajra) ard
Upanigads.A body of encient Indic religious texts. femde (gharta), and of skillful means (upaya; t\e
Seepp. z8-3o. rnale) and wisdom (prajna; tbe female). See Fig.
rpa-ra&a."Follower." ln Buddhism, a lay worshiper. 19.47.
lrem. upastFa,) Vajrapani. The bodhisatwa who bears ;L uajta it hts
ryaya. "Ski1lful neans; praclice." In Buddhism, the hand. See Fig. 8.32, left; for his angry form, sea
r u c , n s b y u h i c h k n o w i e d g eo r r o m p a . s i o nm a r Pl. 14.
be madc nanifest; it is identiiied with thc active, v ajraparyaikasana." Vajrc-thtone sitting." The lotus
male principle. position dsdrr; seepadnfisana.
rrrra. Onc of thc auspiciousmarLs of the body mani- uajrEsana."Vajra-seat." The scat of cnlightcnment
fesredas a whorl ofhair or a circle or protubcrancc urder the lodll tree. Also, rhe seat (or alrar?)
between the eyebrows. lt is one of the lal5anas prescntly bcneath the lndhi ttee at Bodh Gaya is
(lucky signs) of a Buddha and is characteristicof kr.o'Nr as hijtasalla. Sc€ Fig. Thc tcrm also

refers to a throne or seat that has a aajra upon it tAinnent). Sometimes, uighnasarc pcrsonilied and
or o padmdsana, the sitting posrure. (Some authori- deities are shown trampling upon them as if to
l".r^- fhF- .(rp Fio rR r<
ties, howcver, contend that there are diferences
between the udiasalla, rajrularyaikisana, xrd rihala. A rnorTestety;may be eicher
padnasana postves.) or rock-cut.
Vajrasattva. "Vajru Being." In Buddhisrn, a being titnana. shrine porcion of a telnplc and its super-
th,rr rhe practirionerbcconret wh"n genel.rringr str!1cture.
ma4dala.In Buddhist art, an image that symbolizes ,i/dgdl.A hero store. SeeFig.9.3r.
the fully-enlightelcd practitioner as the undif: rirl,d. Hcrois11l.
ferentiatcd state of the Universal (iiryara). See Vigaprahipflanurti. SeeSiva Vigapraharanamfirti.
p. 46o and Fig. zo.r3. uisnayd, A gesture of wonder, astonishmcnt, ol ya ft:
Vajra)'ena. "Vajra vehiclc." one of the major praise. The arlr is bcnt at the elbow; the fingers s1-
types of Buddhist Practices; Tanlra, or Tantric point upward and the palm irward. SeeFig. 2r.3. ro
BuCdhisrn. Seep. 32. Visnu. Onc of the nost important Hindu gods; rhe 35:

Vdman:r. The dwarf incarnation of Visnu. Sre also "preretver" of tlre Urr'rcrsc.Hc apperrt in rn-nr
Trivikrama and Fig. forms, but is perhaps best known in his ten in-
vatla lala. "Fotest g rland." A garland worn by Visnu cxrnations (dalatafird) aud his twcnry-four forns
that is usually shown hanging down to his knecs. (tat nimlattufift\. tic5
Sr? Fig. r 8.28. Vignu Amttyairyana. Visnu as creator, reclining
rarada nndfi- The gift-bestowing gesture. It can be on the serpent Ananta. Seep. zro ald Fig. ro.29.
nade with eithcr the right or left hand; thc hand Also called Viinu Segaiayana.
extcnds dowflward, rvith the palm outward, as if Visnu Caturmurti. A four-headed fonn of Vi9nu.
offering son-rething to a devotee, and, in fact, Seep. 367and Fig. 17.r7,
sonetimcs an object of offcring is held in e hand Visnu Sankartana.One of the twenty-four fornrs of
perfonrring thts utfua. Scr Figs. r8.8, r8 28. Visnu. SeeFig. z,o.6z.
Varaha. The boar incarnarion of Vi9nu. In this form, Visnu Scsaiayana.SeeVismr Anantalayana.
the god may appear completcly as an anin-ral(see Visnu Vi3varupa. "Visnu (Having) All FonTTs."
Fig. rr.r) or as Part-lnan, Part-beast,iu which case Vi5nu as the Univcrsai, in whom is embodied all
he rnay be identiiied as NJ-Variha (see Figs ro.8, things and frorn whom all things cmanate. See p.
ro.rz). Seepp. r9z-93. : 3 3 a n dF i g s .r r . r J , 2 o . 4 .
Varu4a. one of the principal Vedic gods and, iater, uitatka nudri. A gesturc of discourse or discussion.
one of the dikpalas (protector of the west). Sec Thc tips ofthe index linger and thurnb of the hand
Fig. tg.z,z. are pressed togcthcr to form a circle, with the
Vasudeva. A maniGstation of Visnu; one of the othcr lingets pointing upward. See PI. 3r, lefr
twenty-four fonr-rsof Visnu; sonetincs, an epithet figures.
ofKr;na. (The namc should not be confused with nkladevatd. A tree goddess. Sre Fig. 6.6. Sec also
that ofVasudeva, the father ofKrqna.)
vau (also war). A step-wcll. SecFigs. 20.60, 20.61. ryaklryana mufua. A gesture of expianation or dis-
Vedas. A group of texts sacled to Hinduism. See course in which the pain is outward, and thc lin-
pp. 27 28. gers upward, with the thunb and index ftrgcr (or
or pcdesta
,reJi.An ^l,.r.l .rn .Lltar-sr*nd the thumb and mother finger) forming a circle
uedika. P' railing enclosing a sacrcd .4ir14) or a sPot SeeFig.
or object ofvenemtion. ryala (or uyalaka).A homcd lion (1;li).
t,esara.L "rrrlle" or a "hybrid." The name of a stylc uyiha. A manifcstrtion or enlanation; generalll, an
of architecture believed to be associatedwith the emrnation of Vilnu but lot a ftrll incarnation
Dcccan rcgion. Seep. 54o. \ r s i o no f r P a r a d i r c .
L r B u d d h i ' m . . nc x p a n s i \ e
ridya. Ktowledge, especially practicel knowledge;
lore. yajia. A sactifice an offcring; a religious practice.
'Berrer '
vidyadhata. of Wisdorn Esoe.irlly, ligrrre' cspcciaily characteristicof Vedic worship.
,iepicrcd,, if flvrns a6ot. thq lc.ri5 qf i.'i1i65whrle ya&sa.A malc nature spirit; a wealth dcity and guardr-
b.".irrg g".l"nis (lhat symboiize the attainlnent of ao of treasurc. Yafr;asare especiallyassociatedwith
s r r p r e r nuei ' d o r n ) .S c eF i g s .r 8 . 8 .1 8 2 5 . 1 82 8 . trees.(Fenr. yokti, yaksirl.)
vighia. An obstaclcor impcdiment (to rcligrou! ir- yakqr(ar yak5ilti).See7aftsaand Fig. 5.r3.
GrossARY 7J7

1ali. A holncd lion (r,1,a/a). the perlbrmar,ce of religiors dutics; and raja 1oga,
\ r r r r ' . I n c - o . Lo f d e . r t l rt :l ' e . l r o ' ," r l r ' I - d . r l ' , tire ro,valw'ay,which is considcrcdto be thc suprcnc
orre lvho conchrctsthe dead ro the ghcc of the forrn of Toga and rhe one for which ali othcrs
ancestots.Hc is consicleretlto be guardian of thc scrve merely ils prefxratioD, Yrga ts a vcrv im-
sorth (thc dircction asvrciated lr'ith dceth) and is . | ] . . I I . l r . n r ,w l t p r e . r r
onc of d1e directionel eurrclian dciries (diATalas). logir pmcticesare classiliedinto various svstcms.
S . s p . 3 3 8a n dF i g . r j . 2 J . yogrrr.A practirionerofTqgn.
Yarnuna. Thc Yemurra (or JerrrLnl andJumne) River; yo.grrri.A ferualc practitiotcr ofyya. A1so, :r goddcss
thc goclless per-sonifrurg thrr rivcr. Her slnbol or .r rvom.rn possessed of uaercal pox'cr-s.l)illclcut
and r/rlard is thc tortoisc.SccFig. ro.37. nurlbcrs ofyrgirrir arc citcd; sirt,v-four is :r popular-
; n , , r r n\. r r r c c l r . . r i d. ' ' , c r'lr '\'. oeol I i\ i ly given nurnber. l'o.qiri * orship implicitlv srrggcsts
s,vrnbolic di:rqrrnr. A 1,ntrrr,:rrrar' scrvc :rs itn ai.l scxualreligrouspractices.Vcrr' fcl' tenples of the
to mcdit:rtion, alnlos! xs a rli1p or ch:ut caD scr\ic ),ogiri cult rrc krroln irr Sourh Asia. Sre Figs.
.rsa grricle. A nayJnld is .\ trpc of y Ma. r9-4r 43 and zo.:r, zo.::.
l ldrii. A pole; in Buddhist -.itl, xrchitecture,thc 7ori. The female gendrtlvc orEan; thc vulva. The
I 1tr4. pole drat rcprcscnrsrhe World Aris. s,vnrbol of tl,c limJc principle. Mav selve as thc
D yoga."YoLc": "union (asifjoined b,vr -r'oke)."Prac- pedcstal (or rccciver) of the liiga cnshrincd il
ticcs bv rvhich the iodlvidual rtaerllpts to "\'oke" a Saivitc tcmple. Togethcr, thc ltlLga :Ltd yotti
t himself rvith the Univer-s:rl.1'hcrc rre rlenl' trpcs fepresent thc uniq rithin dualit! th:rt is ccnrral
; ofloga, and yoglc practicesxrc niversal to a1l thc to much Hindu thought.
Irrdicr-eligions:thcv can be tracedin a1t at lcilsr:ls yr.qanaddha.Scxuallr joirccl: joincd :rs a pxir. A re-
! far back es thc lnclus civilization. In Hinduisur, the pfeserlretion()1x mrle il intercourservith his fcmale
nanrv t"vpes of 1,opainclude: hatha yoga, .'bidt consof!. Thc cxtcnsioD aDd complction of the con-
enrplrasizcsm:rsterr. of drc bodr'; bhakti yaga, ceptofrrrirlrrra.Srl Fig. r8 r4.
rvhich srcssesunconditionallovc:rnd devotion of' ytn'arnja. T\c heir :rplarent; the clorvn pritrcc. Thc
god; .iiana i,o3a, t'hich propounds reintegr-i1!;on term is sonretinresused to lefel to thc Bodhisattva
tlrrongh kuorvlcdgc; kanta yooa, *hich cmphasizes lr,laitlcve, thc futurc Buddha.