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Chem!stry

Concentration

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Concentration is a measure of the amount of a solute dissolved in a solvent to make one unit volume of a solution.

Unit volume: dm 3 (1 dm 3 = 1000 cm 3 ) Unit of Concentration: mol/dm or g/dm

 concentration in mol/dm 3 = concentration in g/dm 3 =

number of moles of solute

volume of solution measured in dm 3

mass of solute measured in g

volume of solution measured in dm 3

/

(

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Concentration in g/dm 3 can be changed into mol/dm 3 , and vice versa, using the following relationship:

concentration in mol/dm 3

Exercises:

=

concentration in g/dm 3

relative molecular mass of the solute

1. Calculate the concentration of the following solution, in mol/dm 3 :

 (a) 0.8 mol of H 2 SO 4 in 2 dm 3 of solution (b) 0.25 mol of HCl in 250 cm 3 of solution (c) 0.02 mol of NaOH in 50 cm 3 of solution (d) 29.25g of NaCl in 4 dm 3 of solution (e) 9.8g of H 2 SO 4 in 250 cm 3 of solution

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2.

Calculate the number of moles of:

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4.

5.

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8.

9.

10.

 (a) NaOH in 2 dm 3 of 0.5 mol/dm 3 NaOH (b) H + in 4 dm 3 of 0.5 mol/dm 3 of H 2 SO 4 (c) KOH in 25 cm 3 of 0.4 mol/dm 3 of KOH (d) HNO 3 in 100cm 3 of 6.3 g/dm 3 of HNO 3 (e) Na + in 500 cm 3 of 5.3 g/dm 3 of Na 2 CO 3

A solution of sodium hydroxide has a concentration of 0.2 mol/dm 3 . Calculate the

concentration of the solution in g/dm 3 .

A solution is made by dissolving 4.9g of sulphuric acid to make 1000 cm 3 solution. Calculate the concentration of the solution in mol/dm 3 .

200 cm 3 of solution contains 3.65g of HCl. Calculate the concentration in

(a) g/dm 3

Calculate the number of moles of sulphuric acid in 25.0 cm 3 of 2.0 mol/dm 3 sulphuric solution.

What mass of potassium hydroxide must be dissolved in 1000 cm 3 to make a

250 cm 3 of solution of concentration 0.4 mol/dm 3 ?

50cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, which has a concentration of 2.0 mol/dm 3 is decomposed. The equation of the reaction is given below:

(b) mol/dm 3

2H 2 O 2 (aq)

2H 2 O (l)

+

O 2 (g)

(a)

(b)

(c)

How many moles of hydrogen peroxide are there in 50 cm 3 of the solution?

How many moles of oxygen are formed when 50 cm 3 of the hydrogen peroxide decomposes?

Calculate the volume of oxygen produced when 50 cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide solution decomposes.

30 cm 3 of 0.1 mol/dm 3 NaOH reacted completely with 25.0 cm 3 of H 2 SO 4 in a titration. Calculate the concentration of H 2 SO 4 in:

(a) mol/dm 3

(b) g/dm 3

18.0 cm 3 of 0.2 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid reacts with 24.0 cm 3 of potassium hydroxide solution to form salt and water. Calculate the concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution in:

(a) mol/dm 3

(b) g/dm 3

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11. Calculate the volume of 0.5 mol/dm 3 solution of sodium hydroxide required to

neutralize 24.7 cm 3 of 0.1 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid.

12. What volume of hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.25 mol/dm 3 is required to

neutralize 22.5 cm 3 of 0.40 mol/dm 3 sodium hydroxide solution?

13. The table shows the results of experiments to measure the volume of dilute

sulphuric acid (column 1) needed to neutralize the mass of sodium hydroxide

(column 2) dissolved in the volume of water (column 3):

 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Experiment Volume of sulphuric acid required / cm 3 Mass of sodium hydroxide / g Volume of water / cm 3 1 20 1 20 2 40 2 40 3 40 2 20 4 ? 1 40

From these results, what volume of sulphuric acid is needed to neutralize the

sodium hydroxide in the fourth experiment?

 (A) 5 cm 3 (B) 10 cm 3 (C) 20 cm 3 (D) 40 cm 3 (E) 80 cm 3

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Answers to Concentration Calculations

 1. a) 0.8 mol of H 2 SO 4 dissolved in 2.0 dm 3 = 0.8  (1  2) = 0.400 mol/dm 3 b) 0.25 mol of HCl dissolved in 250 cm 3 = 0.25  (1000  250) = 1.00 mol/dm 3 c) 0.02 mol of NaOH dissolved in 50 cm 3 = 0.02  (1000  50) = 0.400 mol/dm 3 d) 29.25 g of NaCl = 29.25  58.5 = 0.5 mol 0.5 mol of NaCl dissolved in 4.0 dm 3 = 0.5  (1  4) = 0.125 mol/dm 3 e) 9.8 g of H 2 SO 4 = 9.8  98 = 0.1 mol 0.1 mol of H 2 SO 4 dissolved in 250 cm 3 = 0.1  (1000  250) = 0.400 mol/dm 3 2. moles = (c  v)  1000 c = concentration in mol/dm 3 v = volume in cm 3 moles = mass in g  relative molecular mass a) moles of NaOH = (0.5  2000)  1000 = 1.00 mol b) H 2 SO 4  2H + + SO 4 2–  0.5 mol/dm 3 H 2 SO 4 will contain 2  0.5 = 1.0 mol/dm 3 H + moles of H + = (1.0  4000)  1000 = 4.00 mol c) moles of KOH = (0.4  25.0)  1000 = 0.0100 mol d) concentration of HNO 3 = 6.3  63.0 = 0.1 mol  0.1 mol/dm 3 moles of HNO 3 = (0.1  100.0)  1000 = 0.0100 mol e) concentration of Na 2 CO 3 = 5.3  106.0 = 0.05 mol/dm 3 Na 2 CO 3  2Na + + CO 3 2–  0.05 mol/dm 3 of Na 2 CO 3 will contain 2  0.05 = 0.1 mol/dm 3 Na + moles of Na + = (0.1  500)  1000 = 0.0500 mol 3. relative molecular mass of NaOH = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 = 40.0 mass of NaOH = 0.2  40.0 = 8.0g  concentration = 8.00 g/dm 3 4. moles of H 2 SO 4 used = 4.9  98.0 = 0.05 mol 0.05 mol of H 2 SO 4 dissolved in 1000 cm 3 = 0.0500 mol/dm 3 5. a) 3.65 g of HCl dissolved in 200 cm 3 = 3.65  200 g dissolved in 1 cm 3 = (3.65  200)  1000 = 18.25 g/dm 3 b) moles of HCl = 3.65  36.5 = 0.1 mol 0.1 mol of HCl dissolved in 200 cm 3 = 0.1  200 mol dissolved in 1 cm 3 = (0.1  200)  1000 = 0.500 mol/dm 3 6. 2.0 mol in 1000 cm 3 = 2.0  1000 mol in 1 cm 3 = (2.0  1000)  25.0 mol in 25.0 cm 3 = 0.0500 mol 7. relative molecular mass of KOH = 39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0 = 56.1 mass of 0.4 mol of KOH = 0.4  56.1 = 22.4 g

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 8. a) 2.0 mol of H 2 O 2 in 1000 cm 3 = 2.0  1000 mol in 1 cm 3 = (2.0  1000)  50 mol in 50 cm 3 = 0.100 mol b) from the balanced chemical equation, 2 mol of H 2 O 2 produce 1 mol of O 2  0.1 mol of H 2 O 2 will produce 0.1  0.5 = 0.0500 mol of O 2 c) volume of gas = mol  24.0 dm 3 = 0.05  24.0 = 1.20 dm 3 9. a) 0.1 mol of NaOH in 1000 cm 3 = 0.1  1000 mol in 1 cm 3 = (0.1  1000)  30 mol in 30 cm 3 = 0.003 mol 2NaOH (aq) + H 2 SO 4(aq)  Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) from the balanced chemical equation, 2 mol of NaOH react with 1 mol of H 2 SO 4  0.003 mol of NaOH react with 0.003  0.5 = 0.0015 mol of H 2 SO 4 there are 0.0015 mol of H 2 SO 4 dissolved in 25.0 cm 3 of solution = 0.0015  25.0 mol of H 2 SO 4 dissolved in 1.0 cm 3 of solution = (0.0015  25.0)  1000 mol of H 2 SO 4 dissolved in 1000 cm 3 of solution = 0.0600 mol/dm 3 b) relative molecular mass of H 2 SO 4 = (2  1.0) + 32.0 + (4  16.0) = 98.0 mass concentration of H 2 SO 4 = 98.0  0.06 = 5.88 g/dm 3 10. a) 0.2 mol of H 2 SO 4 in 1000 cm 3 = 0.2  1000 mol in 1 cm 3 = (0.2  1000)  18.0 mol in 18.0 cm 3 = 0.0036 mol 2KOH (aq) + H 2 SO 4(aq)  K 2 SO 4(aq) + 2H 2 O (l) from the balanced chemical equation, 1 mol of H 2 SO 4 react with 2 mol of KOH  0.0036 mol of H 2 SO 4 react with 2  0.0036 = 0.0072 mol of KOH there are 0.0072 mol of KOH dissolved in 24.0 cm 3 of solution = 0.0072 24.0 mol of KOH dissolved in 1.0 cm 3 of solution = (0.0072  24.0)  1000 mol of KOH dissolved in 1000 cm 3 of solution = 0.300 mol/dm 3 b) relative molecular mass of KOH = 39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0 = 56.1  mass concentration = 0.3  56.1 = 16.8 g dm –3 11.

2NaOH (aq) + H 2 SO 4(aq) Na 2 SO 4(aq) + 2H 2 O (l)

moles of sulphuric acid = 0.1 mol in 1000 cm 3 = 0.1 1000 mol in 1 cm 3 = (0.1 1000) 24.7 mol in 24.7 cm 3 = 0.00247 mol from the balanced chemical equation, 2 mol of NaOH react with 1 mol of H 2 SO 4

amount of NaOH = 0.00247 2 = 0.00494 mol

volume of NaOH = 0.00494 (0.5 1000) = 9.88 cm 3

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12.

NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) moles of sodium hydroxide = 0.4 mol in 1000 cm 3 = 0.4 1000 mol in 1 cm 3

= (0.4 1000) 22.5 mol in 22.5 cm 3 = 0.009 mol from the balanced chemical equation, 1 mol of NaOH react with 1 mol of HCl

amount of HCl = amount of NaOH = 0.009 mol

volume of HCl = 0.009 (0.25 1000) = 36.0 cm 3

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