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SREE SAKTHI ENGINNERING COLLEGE


899/1, BETTATHAPURAM, KARAMADAI, COIMBATORE 641 104
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)






















DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

LABORATORY MANUAL
EE6361 / ELECTRONICS LABORATORY

(III- SEMESTER EEE)




PREPARED BY, APPROVED BY,
K.Karthiha, A.Umaamaheswari,
Assistant professor, HOD,
EEE. EEE.


SREE SAKTHI ENGINNERING COLLEGE
899/1, BETTATHAPURAM, KARAMADAI, COIMBATORE 641 104
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING

EE6211-ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
LAB MANUAL
Name: _________________________________________________
Year/Sem: ________________ RollNo : _______________
Dept.: ________________ Register No:
_______________





















REGULATION R-2013

EE6211 - ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS LAB

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS (SYLLABUS)





LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Experimental verification of Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws

2. Experimental verification of network theorems (Thevenin, Norton, Superposition and
maximum power transfer Theorem).

3. Study of CRO and measurement of sinusoidal voltage, frequency and power factor.

4. Experimental determination of time constant of series R-C electric circuits.

5. Experimental determination of frequency response of RLC circuits.

6. Design and Simulation of series resonance circuit.

7. Design and Simulation of parallel resonant circuits.

8. Simulation of low pass and high pass passive filters.

9. Simulation of three phases balanced and unbalanced star, delta networks circuits.

10. Experimental determination of power in three phase circuits by two-watt meter method.

11. Calibration of single phase energy meter.

12. Determination of two port network parameters.



















INDEX

S.NO DATE NAME OF EXPERIMENT Page Marks Signature
No


1 Verification of kirchoffs law.


2 Verification of Thevenins and Norton theorem.



3 Verification of superposition theorem.


4 Maximum power transfer theorem.


5 Transient Response of RC Circuits for DC input


6
Frequency response of series & Parallel




resonance circuit.






7
Design and Simulation of series resonance




Circuit






8
Design and Simulation of parallel resonant




circuits






9
Simulation of low pass and high pass passive




filters






10
Simulation of three phases balanced and




unbalanced star, delta networks circuits.






11
Experimental determination of power in three




phase circuits by two-watt meter method






12 Calibration of single phase energy meter.


13 Determination of two port network parameters


14
Study of CRO and measurement of sinusoidal




voltage, frequency and power factor
























RC Transients:-























V











S. No. T(ms) V (t) Amps.

1

2

3

4

5

















Ex No. : 05

Date:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF RL AND RC CIRCUITS FOR DC INPUT

AIM:

To obtain the transient response of RL and RC circuits for dc input

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No. Components Type/Range Qty.

1 Regulated power supply ( 0-15 )V 2 Nos.
2 SPST (single pole single throw switch) 1 No
3 Resistor 100 2 No
4 Capacitor 0.01 F 1 No
5 Stop watch 1 No
6 DPST 1 No



THEORY:

Electrical devices are controlled by switches which are closed to connect supply
to the device, or opened in order to disconnect the supply to the device. The
switching operation will change the current and voltage in the device. The purely
resistive devices will allow instantaneous change in current and voltage.
An inductive device will not allow sudden change in current and capacitance
device will not allow sudden change in voltage. Hence when switching operation is
performed in inductive and capacitive devices, the current & voltage in device will
take a certain time to change from pre switching value to steady state value after
switching. This phenomenon is known as transient.

The study of switching condition in the circuit is called transient analysis. The state of the
circuit from instant of switching to attainment of steady state is called transient state. The

time duration from the instant of switching till the steady state is called transient period. The
current & voltage of circuit elements during transient period is called transient response.
PROCEDURE:

1. Charge on capacitor is o initially.

2. If there is a charge in it, short circuit the terminal then the charge will be dissipated.

3. Close the switch at t = 0

4. Simultaneously switch on the stop watch.

5. For every 2 seconds note down the voltage across capacitor until
Voltmeter reaches 5 V.After reaching 15V allow 10 sec. for it.
THEORETICAL VERIFICATION:

R-L Circuit:

V. = Ri + L
di

dt

15
= R I(S) + L S I(s)
S

R-C Circuit;

V. = Ri +
1


15
= I (s)

10
8


Idt 100





C

S

s




















THEORETICAL CALCULATION:






























































































































RESULT:

Thus, the transient response of RC circuits for dc input wasobtained.





CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

250mH 1 F




FG
~
(0-30) MHz
1k
CRO








TABULAR COLUMN:- Input voltage, V = ..V

in





Sl.N
o Frequency (Hz) Voltage (Vo)
Voltage Gain


= 20 log V /Vin



0





























Ex No. : 06

Date:

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SERIES AND PARALLEL RESONANCE
CIRCUITS

(a) FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

AIM

To determine and obtain the frequency response of a series RLC circuit

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Sl. No Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity

1 Decade Resistance Box 1 k - 1

2 Decade Inductance Box 250 mH - 1

3 Decade Capacitance Box 1 F - 1

4 Function Generator (0 - 3) MHz - 1

5 C.R.O. - Analog 1

6 Bread Board - - 1

7 Connecting wires - - Required

THEORY

An A.C. circuit is said to be in resonance with its power factor becomes unity at
which the impedance of circuit becomes purely resistive. The frequency at which
such condition occurs is called resonant frequency. At resonance the circuit current is
maximum for series resonant.

FORMULAE

Resonant frequency, F
0
= 1 / [2 LC]

Band width = F
2
F
1


Quality factor = W
0
L / R Where, F
0
Resonant frequency







Model graph:




























F
1
Lower cut off frequency in Hz

F
2
Upper cut off frequency in Hz



































PROCEDURE:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram

2. Set the values of R, L & C

3. Frequency varied from 1kHz to 100 kHz in steps

4. At each step the frequency and voltage is noted down

5. Graph is drawn between frequency along X axis and voltage along Y axis













































THEORETICAL CALCULATION:




























































































































RESULT:

Thus the frequency response of series resonant circuit was obtained




CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


1 F








FG
~
(0-30)MHz
250mH 1k
CRO







TABULAR COLUMN: - Input voltage, V = ..Vin



Voltage Gain
Sl.No Frequency (Hz) Voltage (Vo)
= 20 log V /Vin
0






































(B) FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT

AIM

To determine and obtain the frequency response of parallel R L C circuit

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Sl.
Name of the apparatus Range Type Quantity

No





1 Decade Resistance Box 1 k - 1



2 Decade Inductance Box 250 mH - 1



3 Decade Capacitance Box 2 F - 1



4 Function Generator (0 - 3) MHz - 1



5 C.R.O. - Analog 1



6 Bread Board - - 1



7 Connecting wires - - Required





THEORY

An A.C. circuit is said to be in resonance when its power factor becomes unity.
The impedance of circuit at resonance becomes purely resistive. The frequency at
which such a condition occurs is called resonant frequency.

The impedance is given by Z = R + j (X
L
- X
C
)

When the impedance is real, the | Z | is minimum. At resonance the power factor is unity

Therefore, Z = R and reactive part is zero. Thus X
L
- X
C
= 0

0
= 1 / LC

f
0
= 1 / 2 LC










MODEL GRAPH:
























THEORETICAL CALCULATION:












































FORMULAE USED:

Resonant frequency, f
0
= 1 / 2 LC

Band width
= F
2
F
1

Quality factor = 0L / R

Where,

f
0
Resonant frequency in Hz

F
1
Lower cut off frequency in Hz

F
2
Upper cut off frequency in Hz

PROCEDURE

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram

2. Set the values of R, L & C

3. Frequency varied from 1kHz to 100 kHz in steps

4. At each step the frequency and voltage is noted down

5. Graph is drawn between frequency along X axis and voltage along Y axis


















RESULT

The frequency response of a parallel R.L.C. circuit was obtained.










SIMULATION DIAGRAM



































































EXP.NO: 07

DATE:

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF SERIES RESONANCE CIRCUIT

AIM

To design and simulation of series resonance circuit using Pspice and Matlab



SOFTWARE REQUIRED

Orcad-
Pspice
Matlab

PROCEDURE

Pspice


1. Build the schematic shown in Figure 1.

2. Vm is an AC voltage source (VAC) from the source library. It needs to be set for 1 volt.

3. L1 is an ideal inductor from the Analog Library. Set for 1000mH.

4. R is an ideal resistor from the Analog Library. Set value to {Rx}. Next add part
namedParameters. Then double click on part to enter edit mode. Click on new
column, name = Rx, value = 200. Then click on column, select display and click on
name and value.

5. C1 is an ideal capacitor from the Analog library. Change the value to 40pF.




PSPICE SIMULATION PROFILE SETTINGS

1. Do analysis setup

a. At top of screen click on Pspice

b. Click on New Simulations Profile

c. Type name of profile that you wish.

d. Under Analysis tab, select AC sweep from the Analysis type pull down menu.

e. Under AC Sweep Type


































Fig. a



























Fig.b

Fig.(a)&(b) Result of input impedance of series RLC tank circuit










2. Select Logarithmic and Decade as shown.


i. Start freq = 100

ii. End freq = 10Meg

iii. Points/Decade = 101

f. Then click the run Pspice button. (Looks like a play button)

g. After running, look at schematic file and click on trace, add trace.

h. Next Select Db () on left, select M () on left, select V (Vm:+), then divide by M(I(Vm)).


3. Use the same circuit as above, and from the Pspice button, Markers, Advanced, select db
magnitude of current marker and Phase of Current marker, and place in series next to L1.






























Fig. Simulation Profile Settings



















































































Fig. Series Resonance Circuit









MATLAB

Input impedance of series RLC tank circuit

disp('starting the function of Zinput_seriesRLC1');
%define all the component values and units for
Tank Vm=1; %volts
R=200; %ohms
C=40e-12; %Farads
L=1000e-6; %Henrys

%define the input
impedance Zin_numb=[L*C
R*C 1]; Zin_de=[0 C 0];
Zinput=tf(Zin_numb,Zin_de)
figure(1)
bode(Zinput)
title('Input impedance of series RLC tank
circuit') %calculating important parameters of
the tank [z,p,k]=zpkdata(Zinput,'v');
wo=sqrt(1/L/C)
Beta=R/L
Q=wo/Beta
disp(' finished the function of Zinput_seriesRLC1');


















Result

Thus the series resonance circuit was designed and simulated using Pspice and Matlab


















Pspice Simulation Diagram of Parallel Resonant Circuit






















Output














































EXP.NO:08

DATE:

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PARALLEL RESONANCE CIRCUIT



AIM

To design and simulation of parallel resonance circuit using OrCAD - Pspice and Matlab

SOFTWARE REQUIRED

Orcad-Pspice

PROCEDURE

Pspice

1. Build the schematic shown in Figure 1.
2. Apply the IAC, because we want to plot the frequency response
3. Set ACMAG =0.001 in IAC
4. L1 is an ideal inductor from the Analog Library. Set for 1H.
5. R is an ideal resistor from the Analog Library. Set value to {Rx}. Next add part
namedParameters. Then double click on part to enter edit mode. Click on new column,
name = Rx, value = 200. Then click on column, select display and click on name and
value.
6. C1 is an ideal capacitor from the Analog library. Change the value to 100nF.



PSPICE SIMULATION PROFILE SETTINGS

1. Do analysis setup
a. On the ORCAD Capture CIS menu select new simulation profile
b. Choose AC Sweep/Noise in the Analysis type menu
c. Set the Start Frequency at 100, the End Frequency at 10Meg and the Points/Decade at 101
d. Make sure Logarithmic is selected and set to Decade
e. Click OK

2. Use the same circuit as above and place the db magnitude of voltage marker and the
phase of voltage marker in series next to output capacitor.





























































































MATLAB

Input impedance of Parallel RLC tank circuit

function[Zinput]=Zinput_parallelRLC1()

disp ('Starting the function of
Zinput_seriesRLC1'); Im =0.0001;
R=20000;
C=100e-
09; L=0.1;

Zinductor=tf([L 0],[0,1]); Zcapacitor=tf([0
1], [C 0]);
Zinput=1/(1/R+1/Zcapacitor+1/Zinductor)
figure(1)
bode (Zinput)
title ('Input impedance of parallel RLC tank circuit')

[z,p,k]=zpkdata(Zinput,'v');
w0=sqrt(1/L/C) Beta=1/R/C

Q=w0/Beta

disp ('finished the function of Zinput_seriesRLC1');










Result

Thus the parallel resonance circuit was designed and simulated using Pspice and Matlab


































Fig.1.a.Circuit diagram


































Fig.1.b.Output for above circuit
Fig.1.Low Pass Passive Filter


















EXP.NO:9

DATE:

SIMULATION OF LOW PASS AND HIGH PASS PASSIVE FILTERS

AIM


To design and simulation of low pass and high passive filter using P-spice


SOFTWARE REQUIRED

Orcad Pspice

PROCEDURE

(a) Low Pass Passive Filter

Pspice

1. Build the schematic shown in Figure 1.
2. Apply the VAC, set VAC to 1.
3. R is an ideal resistor from the Analog Library. Set value to 1k
4. C is an ideal capacitor from the Analog library. Change the value to 0.1u.

This is a classical low pass filter with RC cut off frequency (-3db) that can be estimated by the
formula f
c
= (6.28*R*C), and in our case f
c
=1 / (6.28*0.1*1k)=1.59khz, where we express the
capacitances in uF, resistance in kohm and frequency in kHz


PSPICE SIMULATION PROFILE SETTINGS

1. Do analysis setup
a. On the ORCAD Capture CIS menu select new simulation profile
b. Choose AC Sweep/Noise in the Analysis type menu
c. Set the Start Frequency at 10, the End Frequency at 1Meg and the Points/Decade at 10
d. Make sure Logarithmic is selected and set to Decade
e. Click OK

2. Use the same circuit as above and place the voltage marker and the db of voltage marker































Fig.2.a.Circuit diagram













































Fig.2.b.Output for above circuit
Fig2 .High Pass Passive Filter







High Pass Passive Filter

Pspice

1. Build the schematic shown in Figure 1.
2. Apply the VAC, set VAC to 1.
3. R is an ideal resistor from the Analog Library. Set value to 1k
4. C is an ideal capacitor from the Analog library. Change the value to 0.1u.

This is a classical low pass filter with RC cut off frequency (-3db) that can be estimated by the
formula f
c
= (6.28*R*C), and in our case f
c
=1 / (6.28*0.1*1k)=1.59khz, where we express the
capacitances in uF, resistance in kohm and frequency in kHz





















Result

Thus the passive low pass and high pass filter was designed and simulated using Pspice.




















































Fig. Three-Phase Circuits with Line and Load Impedances








































Fig. Pspice circuit for Three-Phase Circuits with Line and Load Impedances









EXP.NO:10

DATE:

SIMULATION OF THREE PHASES BALANCED AND UNBALANCED STAR, DELTA
NETWORKS CIRCUITS

AIM


To build, simulate, and analyze three-phase circuits using OrCAD Capture Pspice
Schematics under balanced and unbalanced conditions, and to understand the
characteristic of 3-phase power transmission circuits


SOFTWARE REQUIRED

Orcad Pspice

Problem:

1 .In Fig, lets assume that the three-phase circuits are balanced and each has a magnitude (peak value)
of 170 V at 60Hz in the positive sequence with Va = 170 V 0
0
. The line impedance is (1 + j10) , and the
load is (20 + j20). Find: a) the line currents (Ia, Ib, Ic) and the neutral current (In) in peak values b) the
power loss in each line, including the neutral c) the power factor for each phase of the load

2. Repeat problem for given figure, but lets now assume that the three-phase circuits are unbalanced and
operating in the positive sequence with Va = 170 V 0
0
. Use the same line impedance, but the load is now
(20 + j20) for phase A, (50 + j10) for phase B, and (5 + j50) for phase c.


Procedure

1. Three-Phase Balanced Circuits

a. Build the three-phase circuits of Figure 1 onto the Schematic window

b. To get parts, click button on the right hand side menu. Alternatively, you could also get parts
by going to the top menu, click on Place, and then select Part.

c. If no library is shown on the Place Part window, then you will have to manually add the library
by clicking the Add Library button. Look for a library called Source and click on it. The
SOURCE library should now be listed on the Place Part window.

d. The three-phase voltages are made up of three ac sinusoidal single-phase voltage sources
Vsin under the SOURCE library to build the three-phase voltages. Once the Vsin part is on
the schematic, double click on it to assign its parameter values:











































Simulation setting window



































AC=0 DC=0 FREQ=60 PHASE=0 VAMPL=170 VOFF=0

Note that the other two Vsin voltages should have the same parameter values as above except their phases
(for V2 and V3) should be -120
0
and + 120
0
, respectively (assuming the phase sequence is positive).

e. Passive components such as Resistor, Inductor, or Capacitor can be found under the ANALOG
library. For the given impedances in the problem 1, determine the resistor and inductor values.
These are the values that you will need to assign for the Resistors and Inductors on the schematic.

f. Connect a 0/ source ground to the neutral points (node n and N in Figure 1). The ground can
be obtained by clicking on the right side bar menu, and then select 0 /SOURCE in the Place
Ground window as shown in Figure.

g. After the schematic is done, go to Pspice on the top menu, and select New Simulation Profile. A
window appears asking you to name the simulation profile. Type in any name, but preferably something
that relates to your schematic, such as three-phase. Then, hit OK and the following window appears.

j. Enter the following values for the simulation settings and then hit OK: Run to time=1050ms,
Start saving data after=1000ms, Maximum step size=0.1ms Check the box for the Skip the
initial transient bias point calculation (SKIPBP)

k. Run Pspice Simulation by selecting Run under Pspice on the menu. Once the simulation is
completed, a Probe window will appear as shown in Figure. However, if there is an error or more
on your schematic then the simulation will stop. You should then go back to the schematic page
and trouble-shoot the schematic.

l. To show various waveforms (voltage, current, power) from the schematic, go back to the
schematic window and then place the markers or probes to any place of your interest on the
schematic. The probes are located just below the top menu and there are four probes available:
voltage (V) , voltage differential (V+V-) , current (I) and power (W). Note that you should run your
simulation again every time you add or remove probes.

m. To observe the input voltage waveforms, place the Voltage markers on top of each Vsin symbol on
your schematic. This will automatically generate the waveforms on the Probe window. Switch to the Probe
window and you should see the waveforms of balanced three-phase voltages as shown in Figure

n. Remove voltage probes for Phase B and Phase C from the schematic, and add a current probe into Phase

A.









































Three Phase Voltage waveform





































Voltage and current probes or markers on Phase A










o. Switch back to the Probe Window, you should now see the Phase A voltage and the line
current A as shown in Figure.

p. Rescale the current waveform by a factor of 10 to see the current waveform more clearly. This
is done by double clicking the name of the current waveform (I(R1) in Figure

r. To determine the times when these zero crossings occur, you may use the cursors by clicking on
the menu. There are two cursors which are movable by the use of left click and right click of your
mouse. At this point, the two cursors should be on one of the waveforms. To find out which waveform
the cursors are currently on, look at the names of the waveforms (bottom left of the plot). If the
legend of the waveform is surrounded by a square then the cursors will be assigned to the waveform.
Also, if you look at the bottom right of the plot, you should also see a small window entitled Probe
Cursor which shows the location of the cursors (x and y coordinates) on the plot

s. The Probe Cursor window consists of 3 rows and 2 columns. The first column shows the time in
ms and the second column show the voltage in Volts and/or current in Amps. The third row shows
the difference between the two x-points (row 3 column 1) and the two y points (row 3 column 2). See
Figure again. t. Use the right click of your mouse to move one cursor to find the zero crossing of the
voltage as shown in Figure. Use the left hand click to measure the zero crossing of the current. Note
that you wont be able to get exactly 0 for the y points, so do the best you can to get a number close
to 0. Ask your instructor to verify your result and then print it out.

u. From the zero crossing values that you just obtained, measure the power factor as seen by
the source, i.e., power factor associated with the total impedance of he load and the line. Is it a
lagging or leading power factor?

v. Zoom to fit the plot by clicking on the upper right corner of the plot. Delete both waveforms
from the plot, and plot the neutral current by placing the current probe on the neutral line on the
schematic. Observe the value of the neutral current.

w. Delete the neutral current waveform from the plot, and, instead, add the load voltage from phase
A to the plot. Switch to the Probe Window and you should see the load voltage waveform on the plot.











































Voltage and current after rescaling the current waveform
























Figure. Zooming in to the zero crossing points

























2. Three-Phase Unbalanced Circuits

a. Build a three-phase unbalanced circuit using the same three-phase schematic of part 1.
Change the load impedance to the values listed in Problem 2.

b. Run the simulation and obtain the load voltage waveforms into a single plot. Copy and paste into
Word. Note that because the circuit is unbalanced, the voltage at the load side of the neutral line is
not the same as the voltage at its source side, i.e. at ground level. Hence, to obtain the load voltage
waveform, you have to use the Differential Voltage probe or marker from the menu. With this probe,
you will have to place two markers (since it will be measuring a differential voltage): V+ marker and
V- marker. Place the V+ marker with the first click of your mouse

to the top terminal of load resistor R1a and place the V- marker on the bottom terminal of load inductor L1a.

c. Delete the load voltage waveforms and obtain the input voltage waveforms (i.e., the three
phase voltages at the source side) into a single plot. Copy and paste into Word.

d. Remove the input voltage waveforms and now plot the current waveforms (all line currents
and neutral current) into a single plot. Rescale any current waveform if necessary to make all
waveforms visible on the plot. Copy and paste into Word.

e. Determine the power factor for each phase of the load by measuring the phase difference
between the voltage across and the current through it. Note that the phase difference between
the voltage across and the current through each of the three load phases should be equal
(theoretically) to the angle of the corresponding load impedance.









Result

Thus the three phase circuits (balanced or unbalanced, star or delta) are designed and
analyzedusing Orcad Pspice software.























CIRCUIT DIAGRAM




























THREE PHASE POWER AND POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENT






































EXP. NO. 11

DATE:

MEASUREMENT OF THREE PHASE POWER AND POWER FACTOR



AIM

To conduct a suitable experiment on a 3-phase load connected in star or delta to measure
the three phase power and power factor using 2 wattmeter method.


OBJECTIVES

1. To study the working of wattmeter

2. To accurately measure the 3 phase power

3. To accurately measure the power factor

4. To study the concept of star connected load and delta connected load

APPARATUS REQUIRED:



S.NO NAME OF THE APPRATUS RANGE QUANTITY

1 Two element wattmeter (600V,10A,LPF) 1

2 MI Ammeter (0-10)A 1

3. MI voltmeter (0-600)V 1

4. Power Factor meter 1

5. Connecting wires Required


FORMULA TO BE USED:

Output power W = W1+W2 in
KW PF = W/ ( VpIp)
Let x revolution / kWh be the
rating. Now x revolution = 1 kWh
= 1* 3600*1000 watt-sec.

Constant k of energy meter = 3600 * 10
3
/ x watt-sec

For each load, indicated power Wi is given as Wi = k/t watts









TABULAR COLUMN:



S.NO LOAD CURRENT WATTMETER INDICATED Time taken % ERROR


I (Amps) READING, POWER,
,


t (secs)



Wa (W) Wi (W)































NOTE:

From the calibration curve it is possible to predict the error in recording the energy. So the correction can
be applied to the energy meter reading so that correct energy reading can be obtained and used.





Where





K= energy meter constant (watt-sec)

t = time for 1 revolution (sec)

% error = Wi Wa / Wi * 100 Where
Wi is indicated power in watts

Wa is actual power shown by wattmeter in watts

% Error can be zero +ve or ve.






PROCEDURE:

1. Switch ON the 3 phase MCB.

2. Vary the load step by step.

3. For each step note down the wattmeter, voltmeter, ammeter readings.

4. Determine the power using the formula.





















RESULT:

The Power and Power factor of the given experiment is measured by using two wattmeter methods.


















CIRCUIT DIAGRAM























SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

TABULAR COLUMN:

Sl.No True power KW No of Time True energy Energy % error
revolution kWh recorded
kWh















EXPT. NO.12

DATE:

CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGYMETER

AIM:

To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power factors

OBJECTIVE:

1. To study the working of energy meter.

2. To accurately calibrate the meter at unity and other power factor.

3. To study the % of error for the given energy meter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO NAME OF THE APPRATUS RANGE QUANTITY

1 Single-Phase Energy meter 1

2 Wattmeter (300V,10A LPF) 1

3. Stopwatch 1

4. M.I Ammeter (0-5)A 1

5. M.I Voltmeter (0-300)V 1

6. Connecting wires Required


FORMULA TO BE USED:



1. True energy = W*t

2. Energy Recorded = No of revolution /Energy meter constant.

3. %error = (True energy- Energy recorded)/True energy

CONNECTION PROCEDURE:



1. Connect the main supply to the MCB input.

2. Connect voltmeter, Ammeter, in series and parallel with supply.

3. Connect MCB output phase terminal to main M terminal of wattmeter.

4. Connect Line L signal of wattmeter to energy meter 1S terminal.

5. Connect voltage V of wattmeter to supply neutral terminal.

6. Connect main supply neutral to 2S terminal of Energy meter.

7. Connect 2L, 1L terminal of Energy meter to RL load terminal L1, L2.










EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:



1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. Switch on the power supply.

3. Vary the load and keep one particular position.

4. Note down the wattmeter readings.

5. Determine the time require to complete the revolution of energy meter.

6. From that find out the actual energy consumed, energy recorded and percentage of error.



THEORY































RESULT:



Thus the given single phase energy meter is calibrated with actual energy consumption and found out the error.






























Circuit Diagram























































EXP. NO. 13

DATE:

DETERMINATION OF TWO PORT NETWORK PARAMETERS

AIM

To calculate and verify Z, Y, ABCD, and H parameters of two-port network.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Sl. Name of the component Specifications Quantity

No.

1 Resistors
1K 2

2K 1


2 Regulated Power Supply (RPS) 0-30 V 1

3 Voltmeter 0-20V 1

4 Ammeter 0-20 mA 1

5 Decade Resistance Box (DRB) 10W-1MW 1

6 Bread Board 1

7 Multi meter 1



THEORY:
In Z parameters of a two-port, the input & output voltages V1 & V2 can be expressed in terms of
input & output currents I1 & I2. Out of four variables (i.e. V1, V2, I1, I2) V1& V2 are dependent
variables whereas I1 & I2 are independent variables. Thus,

V1 = Z11I1+ Z12 I2 -----(1)
V2 = Z21I1 + Z22 I2 -----(2)

Here Z11 & Z22 are the input & output driving point impedances while Z12 & Z21 are thereverse &
forward transfer impedances.




In Y parameters of a two-port, the input & output currents I1 & I2 can be expressed in terms of input &
outputvoltages V1 &V2. Out of four variables (i.e. I1, I2, V, V2) I1& I2 are dependent variables whereas V1 & V2
areindependent variables.

I1 = Y11V1 + Y12V2 ------(3)
I2 = Y21V1 + Y22V2 -------(4)
Here Y11 & Y22 are the input & output driving point admittances while Y12 & Y21are thereverse &
forward transfer admittances








OBSERVATION TABLE:

Z Parameters

Sl.No
When i/p is open ckt When o/p is open ckt



V2 V1 I2 V2 V1 I1







Y Parameters

Sl.No
When i/p is short ckt When o/p is short ckt



V2 I1 I2 V1 I1 I2







ABCD Parameters

Sl.No
When o/p is short ckt When i/p is short ckt



V1 I1 I2 V2 V1 I2







H Parameters

Sl.No
When o/p is open ckt When o/p is short ckt



V1 V2 I1 V1 I2 I1













ABCD parametersare widely used in analysis of power transmission engineering where they are termed as
CircuitParameters. ABCD parameters are also known as Transmission Parameters. In these parameters, the
voltage & current at the sending end terminals can be expressed in terms of voltage & current at the receiving end.

Thus,
V1 = AV 2 + B (-I2)
---------(5)
I1 = CV2 + D (-I2) ----------- (6)

Here A is called reverse voltage ratio, B is called transfer impedance C is calledtransfer admittance
& D is called reverse current ratio.




In h parameters of a two port network, voltage of the input port and the current of the

Output port are expressed in terms of the current of the input port and the voltage of theoutput port. Due
to this reason, these parameters are called as hybrid parameters, i.e. outof four variables (i.e. V1, V2,
I1, I2) V1, I2 are dependent variables.

Thus,
V1= h11I1 + h12V2 ------------- (1)
I2 = h21I1 + h22V22 ----------- (2)

H11 and H22 are input impedance and output admittance.

H21 and H12 are forward current gain and reverse voltage gain

PROCEDURE:

Z-Parameter

(1) Connect the circuit as shown in fig. & switch ON the experimental board.

(2) First open the O/P terminal & supply 5V to I/P terminal. Measure O/P Voltage & I/P Current.

(3) Secondly, open I/P terminal & supply 5V to O/P terminal. Measure I/P Voltage & O/P current using multi-meter.

(4) Calculate the values of Z parameter using Equation (1) & (2).

(5) Switch OFF the supply after taking the readings.







SAMPLE CALCULATION:

Z PARAMETER:

(1) When O/P is open circuited i.e. I2 = 0

Z11 = V1/I1, Z21 =V2 /I1.

(2) When I/P is open circuited i.e. II = 0

Z12 = V1/I2, Z22 = V2 /I2.

Y PARAMETER:

(1) When O/P is short circuited i.e. V2 = 0

Y11 = I1/V1 Y21 = I2 /V1

(2) When I/P is short circuited i.e. VI = 0

Y12 = I1/V2 Y22 = I2 /V2.




ABCD PARAMETER:

(1)When O/P is open circuited i.e. I2 = 0

A = V1/V2 C = I1 /V2

(2)When O/P is short circuited i.e. V2 = 0

B = -V1/I2 D = -I1 /I2

H PARAMETER:

(1)When O/P is short circuited i.e. V2 = 0

h11 = V1/I1 h21 = I2 /I1

(2)When I/P is open circuited i.e. II = 0

h12 = V1/V2 h22 = I2 /V2














Y-Parameter

(1) Connect the circuit as shown in fig. & switch ON the experimental board.

(2) First short the O/P terminal & supply 5V to I/P terminal. Measure O/P & I/P current

(3) Secondly, short I/P terminal & supply 5V to O/P terminal. Measure I/P& O/P current using multi-meter.

(4) Calculate the values of Y parameter using Eq. (1) & (2).

(5) Switch off the supply after taking the readings.






ABCD Parameter

(1) Connect the circuit as shown in fig. & switch ON the experimental board.

(2) First open the O/P terminal & supply 5V to I/P terminal. Measure O/P voltage & I/P current

(3) Secondly, short the O/P terminal & supply 5V to I/P terminal. Measure I/P& O/P current using multi-meter.

(4) Calculate the A, B, C, & D parameters using the Eq. (1) & (2).

(5) Switch off the supply after taking the readings.




H Parameter

(1) Connect the circuit as shown in fig. & switch ON the experimental board.

(2) Short the output port and excite input port with a known voltage source Vs. So that V1 = Vs and
V2 = 0. We determine I1 and I2 to obtain h11 and h21.

(3) Input port is open circuited and output port is excited with the same voltage source Vs. So that V2 =
VS and I1 = 0, we determine I2 and V1 to obtain h12 and h22.

(4) Switch off the supply after taking the readings.




RESULT:

Thus the various parameters of the two port network has been calculated and verified







































Fig.1.Basic structure of CRO


























Fig.2. Front Panel of CRO\











EXP. NO. 14

DATE:

STUDY OF CRO AND MEASUREMENT OF SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE, FREQUENCY AND POWER
FACTOR

Objective

To introduce the basic structure of a cathode-ray Oscilloscope.

To get familiar with the use of different control switches of the device.

To visualize an ac signal, measure the amplitude and the frequency




Theory

Cathode-ray Oscilloscope



Fluorescent screen (see Figure 1). When the cathode is heated (by Theory Cathode-ray Oscilloscope
applying a small potential difference across its terminals), it emits electrons. Having a potential difference
between the cathode and the anode (electrodes), accelerate the emitted electrons towards the anode,
forming an electron beam, which passes to fall on the screen. When the fast electron beam strikes the
fluorescent screen, a bright visible spot is produced. The grid, which is situated between the electrodes,
controls the amount of electrons passing through it thereby controlling the intensity of the electron beam.
The X&Y-plates, are responsible for deflecting the electron beam horizontally and vertically.



A sweep generator is connected to the X-plates, which moves the bright spot horizontally across the screen and
repeats that at a certain frequency as the source of the signal. The voltage to be studied is applied to the Y-plates. The
combined sweep and Y voltages produce a graph showing the variation of voltage with time, as shown in Fig. 2.



Alternating current (ac)

An ac signal can be of different forms: sinusoidal, square, or triangular. The sinusoidal is the most popular
type, which is the natural output of the rotary electricity generators. An ac voltage source can be represented by

(t)
m
sin(wt ) (1)

Where
m
is the maximum output voltage value, =2 ( is the frequency), and is the phase shift.

Table 1





Frequency (Hz) Period (T)Sec F(Hz) V
p-p
(V) V
rms
(V)

200

X

1000

Y

2000




V
rms (multimeter) =

Procedure

Part one

1. Turn on the Oscilloscope, wait a couple of seconds to warm up, then the trace will show up on the screen.

2. Adjust the intensity and the focus of the trace.

3. Use the X &Y-post. Knobs to center the trace horizontally and vertically.

4. Connect a cable to Ch1 socket.

5. Turn on the Heath kit.

6. Connect the cable from Ch1 of the CRO to the SIN connector of the Heath kit, via a piece of wire.

7. A signal will appear on the screen.

8. Make sure that the inner red knobs of the Volt/Div and the Time/Div are locked clockwise.

9. Set the frequency of the generator to 200 Hz.

10. Adjust the Volt/Div and the Time/Div knobs so that you get a suitable size signal

(From 1-2 wavelengths filling most of the screen vertically).

11. Count the number of vertical squares lying within the signal, then calculate the peakto peak
value as:

Vp-p= No. vertical Div x Volt/Div

12. Calculate Vrms value, record in Table I:



V
rms
= V
p-p
/ 2.sqr root (2)

13. Measure Vrms using the multimeter (connect the probes of the multimeter
to the SIN and the GND connectors).

14. Calculate the period T, record in Table I:

T = No. horizontal Div. Time/Div

15. Calculate the frequency, =1/T, record in the table.

16. Repeat steps 10-14 for the frequency values as in the table

Part two

1. Connect the cable from Ch1 to the upper connector of the line frequency of the Heath kit.

2. Adjust the Volt/Div and the Time/Div knobs so that you get a suitable size signal

(From 1-2 wavelengths filling most of the screen vertically).

3. Calculate the peak to peak voltage value.

4. Calculate Vrms value.

5. Measure Vrms using the multimeter.

6. Measure the period T, then calculate the frequency.

Vp-p=

Vrms=

Vrms (multimeter) =

T=

f=







Result

Thus the CRO basic structure, measurement of voltage and frequency was studied.