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www.eeecube.com An Overview • X-ray machine • Radio graphic and fluoroscopic techniques • Computer tomography

An Overview

X-ray machine

Radio graphic and fluoroscopic techniques

Computer tomography

MRI

Ultrasonography

Endoscopy

Thermography

Different types of biotelemetry systems and patient monitoring

Electrical safety.

www.eeecube.com X – Ray Machine • An X – ray image is created with high

X Ray Machine

An X ray image is created with high density, high contrast and high sharpness on film

Density or Darkness is proportional to the amount of X rays that penetrate the film

Contrast is a measure of the darkness of the desired image compared to its surroundings

Sharpness or Clarity is influenced by the distortions in the X ray beam

Block Diagram of an X – Ray Machine www.eeecube.com Pulse Duration Timer Rotor Control High

Block Diagram of an X Ray Machine

Block Diagram of an X – Ray Machine www.eeecube.com Pulse Duration Timer Rotor Control High -
Pulse Duration Timer
Pulse
Duration
Timer

Rotor Control

Machine www.eeecube.com Pulse Duration Timer Rotor Control High - Voltage Source Control Filament Current
High - Voltage Source Control
High - Voltage
Source
Control

Filament

Current

Control

- Voltage Source Control Filament Current Control High – Voltage Transformer High – Voltage Rectifier

High Voltage

Transformer

Current Control High – Voltage Transformer High – Voltage Rectifier Intensifying Screen Thermal

High Voltage Rectifier

Intensifying

Screen

Transformer High – Voltage Rectifier Intensifying Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator

Thermal

Overload

Detection

Bucky

Diaphragm

Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube
Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube

Film

Collimator Patient
Collimator
Patient
Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube www.eeecube.com
Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube www.eeecube.com
Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube www.eeecube.com
Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube www.eeecube.com

Lead

Shield

Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube www.eeecube.com

X- Ray

Tube

Screen Thermal Overload Detection Bucky Diaphragm Film Collimator Patient Lead Shield X- Ray T ube www.eeecube.com
www.eeecube.com • Power Supply Arrangement • Aluminium Filters • Collimator • Bucky Diaphragm •

Power Supply Arrangement

Aluminium Filters

Collimator

Bucky Diaphragm

Lead Shield

All these components are used to

Improve the quality of the image

Increase the contrast

Improve resolution

Minimize the dose of X rays used on the patient

www.eeecube.com Power Supply Arrangement Timer Contactor kV Control High Voltage High Voltage X – Ray

Power Supply Arrangement

Timer

Contactor
Contactor
www.eeecube.com Power Supply Arrangement Timer Contactor kV Control High Voltage High Voltage X – Ray Tansformer
www.eeecube.com Power Supply Arrangement Timer Contactor kV Control High Voltage High Voltage X – Ray Tansformer
www.eeecube.com Power Supply Arrangement Timer Contactor kV Control High Voltage High Voltage X – Ray Tansformer

kV

Control

High Voltage High Voltage X – Ray Tansformer Rectifier Tube Tube Filament Transformer
High
Voltage
High
Voltage
X – Ray
Tansformer
Rectifier
Tube
Tube
Filament
Transformer

220 V

mA Control
mA
Control
Ray Tansformer Rectifier Tube Tube Filament Transformer 220 V mA Control High Voltage Transformer www.eeecube.com

High Voltage

Transformer

www.eeecube.com Power Supply Arrangement • The mains voltage is stepped up by a high voltage

Power Supply Arrangement

The mains voltage is stepped up by a high voltage transformer

The kV control gives the necessary input to the X ray tube to

produce the required wavelength of X rays

A contactor linked with a timer is used to deliver the X ray output in

the required time interval

Then it is given to a high voltage transformer followed by a high voltage rectifier

The output is applied across the anode and cathode of the X ray tube

A circuit with mA control and tube filament transformer is present in order to provide the necessary current for the filament of the cathode

www.eeecube.com Aluminium Filters • Emitted X – rays contain a broad range of frequencies •

Aluminium Filters

Emitted X rays contain a broad range of frequencies

X rays at unwanted frequencies only increase the patient dose and decrease the image contrast

Aluminium filters absorb lower X ray frequencies and hence the intensity of low frequency X rays incident on the patient is reduced

Thus the negative effects produced by the low frequency X rays

are greatly reduced

Simply, the aluminium filters confine the X rays to the region of interest

External Shutter Internal Shutter www.eeecube.com Collimator X – Ray Tube Anode X – Ray Beam

External

Shutter

Internal

Shutter

Collimator

X Ray Tube Anode

Internal Shutter www.eeecube.com Collimator X – Ray Tube Anode X – Ray Beam www.eeecube.com Light Reflector

X Ray Beam

Light

Reflector

Lamp

www.eeecube.com Collimator • Placed between the patient and aluminium filter • It is an aperture

Collimator

Placed between the patient and aluminium filter

It is an aperture diaphragm which restricts the beam falling on the

patient

Does the necessary shaping of the X ray beam

Consists of a shutter with a rectangular or circular hole of suitable

size or four adjustable lead strips which can be moved relative to each other

A lamp and reflective pattern on the patient

This is used to locate where the X rays will strike and position the beam accordingly

Bucky Grid www.eeecube.com Primary Radiation Patient X – Ray Film Scattered Radiation Bucky Diaphragm Lead

Bucky Grid

Primary Radiation Patient X – Ray Film
Primary
Radiation
Patient
X – Ray
Film
www.eeecube.com Primary Radiation Patient X – Ray Film Scattered Radiation Bucky Diaphragm Lead Vanes

Scattered

Radiation

Bucky

Diaphragm

Primary Radiation Patient X – Ray Film Scattered Radiation Bucky Diaphragm Lead Vanes www.eeecube.com

Lead

Vanes

Bucky Grid www.eeecube.com

Bucky Grid

To reduce scattered radiation, which may produce poor sharpness

in the image, the region of the patient being examined must be

compressed

The bucky grid is introduced in between the patient and the film cassette to improve the sharpness of the image

Consists of thin lead vanes separated by spacers of a low attenuation material

The lead vanes are usually angled so that the primary radiation which carries the information can pass between them while the sacttered radiation from the object strikes the lead vanes and is absorbed

Radiography and Fluoroscopy www.eeecube.com S. No. Radiography Fluoroscopy 1 X – ray image is developed
Radiography and Fluoroscopy
www.eeecube.com
S. No.
Radiography
Fluoroscopy
1
X – ray image is developed
by photosensitive film
X – ray image is developed by
photoelectric effect and
fluorescence principle
2
High geometric resolution
can be obtained
Fair resolution can be obtained
3
Wide range of contrast can
be obtained
Contrast can be increased by
introducing electronic image
intensifier
4
Patient is not exposed to X –
rays during examination of
www.eeecube.com
the X – ray image
Patient is exposed to X – rays
during examination of the X – ray
image
www.eeecube.com 5 Patient dose is low Patient dose is high 6 Permanent record is available
www.eeecube.com
5
Patient dose is low
Patient dose is high
6
Permanent record is
available
Permanent record can be made
by inserting video tape recorder
7
Image can be obtained after
developing the film and the
examination cannot be made
before developing the film
Immediately image can be seen
and examination can be finished
within a short time
8
Movement of organs cannot
be observed
Movement of organs can be
observed (Real time experiment)
9
Efficiency is more
Efficiency is lesser in direct
fluoroscopy, can be increased
with modern systems
www.eeecube.com

Computer Tomography

Also called Computerized Axial Tomography or Computer Transmission Tomography

Principle

Measurements are taken from the transmitted X rays through the body and contain information on all the constituents of the body in the path of the X ray beam

Using multi directional scanning of the object, multiple data are collected

Mathematical Basis

If the total attenuation long rows and columns of a matrix is measured, the attenuation of the matrix elements at the intersection of the rows and columns can be computed

The number of mathematical operations necessary to yield clinically applicable

www.eeecube.comand accurate images is so large that a computer is essential to do them

B ack Projection Reconstr uction www.eeecube.com Step 1 Suppose the actual attenuation values, normalised to

Back Projection Reconstruction

Step 1

Suppose the actual attenuation values, normalised to zero, are

represented by 2*2 matrix,

2 0

1 3

Each number in the matrix represents the attenuation of the space

where it is located

Step 2 (First Estimate) www.eeecube.com The first estimate is obtained adding the elements along the

Step 2 (First Estimate)

The first estimate is obtained adding the elements along the

rows and replacing them with the sum

2

2

4

4

Step 3 (Second Estimate)

Add the elements along the columns and replace them with

the sum

3

3

3

3

www.eeecube.com The second estimate is obtained adding the above matrix to the first estimate 2

The second estimate is obtained adding the above matrix to

the first estimate

2

2

 

3

3

 

5

5

4

4

+

3

3

=

7

7

Step 4 (Third Estimate)

Add the elements along the north east diagonal and replace

them with the sum

2 1

1 3

www.eeecube.com The third estimate is obtained adding the above matrix to the second estimate 5

The third estimate is obtained adding the above matrix to the

second estimate

5

5

+

2

1

=

7

6

7

7

1

3

8

10

Step 5 (Fourth Estimate)

Add the elements along the north west diagonal and replace

them with the sum

5 0

1 5

www.eeecube.com The fourth estimate is obtained adding the above matrix to the third estimate 7

The fourth estimate is obtained adding the above matrix to

the third estimate

7

6

 

5

0

 

12

6

8

10

+

1

5

=

9

15

Step 6 (Final Image)

Normalize the fourth estimate to zero by subtracting 6 from

each element

6

0

3

9

Then divide this by 3 to yield final image 2 0 1 3 www.eeecube.com •

Then divide this by 3 to yield final image

2 0

1 3

The final matrix is the same as the first one

The numbers in the matrix correspond to the attenuations of locations

on a tissue slice having the same spatial relationship as the matrix

numbers

It is seen that the final image has the same attenuation as the actual

transverse slice but the values are obtained from external measurements

of attenuation using CT

The computer does similar calculation in large scale and

finds the matrix values

Block Diagram for a Computer Tomography Scanne r www.eeecube.com Timing kV + mA Control High

Block Diagram for a Computer Tomography Scanner

Timing kV + mA Control High – Voltage Supply Tube Position Control X – Ray
Timing
kV + mA
Control
High – Voltage
Supply
Tube
Position
Control
X – Ray
Tube
Dedicated
Detectors
Microprocessor
Patient
CRT
Output Unit
And Storage
Detector Scanner
Camera
Data Bus
Control Bus
• The timing, anode voltage (kV) and beam current (mA) are controlled by a computer

The timing, anode voltage (kV) and beam current (mA) are controlled by a computer

through a control bus

The high voltage d.c. power supply drives an X ray tube that can be mechanically rotated along the circumference of a gantry

The patient is lying in a tube through the centre of the gantry

The X rays pass through the patient and are partially absorbed

The remaining X ray photons impinge upon several of as many as 1000 radiation detectors fixed around the circumference of the gantry

The detector response is directly related to the number of photons impinging on it and in turn to tissue density

When the photons strike the detector they are converted to scintillations

The computer senses the position of the X ray tube and samples the output of the

detector along a diameter line opposite to the X ray tube

The output unit then produces a visual image of a transverse plane cross section of the patient on the cathode ray tube

Sou rces of errors and scan artifacts • Noise • Motion artifacts • Artifacts due

Sources of errors and scan artifacts

Noise

Motion artifacts

Artifacts due to high differential absorption in adjacent tissues

Technical errors and computer artifacts Applications of Computer Tomography

Central Nervous System

Orthopedics and Bone Tumours

Thorax

Abdomen and Pelvis

Neck

Radiography Planning

www.eeecube.com Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Makes use of RF region of the electromagnetic spectra to

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Makes use of RF region of the electromagnetic spectra to provide an image

A patient is placed in placed in an external magnetic field which causes the magnetization of protons of hydrogen atoms in the body

Due to magnetization, these protons align about the external

magnetic field

Now a radio frequency pulse at resonance frequency is transmitted

into the patient under controlled and prescribed condition

The individual proton responds by emitting a frequency signal called nuclear magnetic resonance signal

www.eeecube.com • These signals, during their return from high energy states to ground state, are

These signals, during their return from high energy states to ground state, are picked up by the RF coils and produce an image

Advantages

Superior contrast resolution

Direct multi - planar imaging, slices in the sagittal, coronal an oblique directions can be obtained directly

Absence of harmful radiations like x rays, Y rays, positrons

www.eeecube.com Magnetic Resonance Phenomenon • Our body consists of millions of atoms • Nearly 80%

Magnetic Resonance Phenomenon

Our body consists of millions of atoms

Nearly 80% are hydrogen atoms

Each hydrogen atom has one proton in the nucleus

It is spinning and hence a nuclear magnetic moment is associated

with it

The value of the moment depends on the mass, charge and the rate

of spin of the nucleus

Normally the spinning of the nuclei is random and the associated magnetic moment can be pointed in any direction

www.eeecube.com In the presence of a large external magnetic field, its axis rotation will precess

In the presence of a large external magnetic field, its axis rotation will precess about the magnetic field

At equilibrium the lower state has more nuclei than the higher state

Using radio frequency radiation with an energy exactly equal to the energy difference between two nuclear energy states, one can achieve population inversion by raising the nuclei from lower

energy state to higher energy state

The excited nuclear spins will slowly return to its equilibrium emitting a radio frequency signal called Nuclear Magnetic

Resonance (NMR)

MRI instrumentation www.eeecube.com

MRI instrumentation

A magnet is present which provides a strong, uniform, steady magnet field

Superconducting magnets are used, they are cooled to liquid helium temperature and can produce very high magnetic fields

The signal to noise ratio of the received signals and image quality are better than the conventional magnets

Different gradient coil systems produce a time varying, controlled spatial

non magnetic fields indifferent directions

The patient is kept in this gradient field space

Transmitter and receiving R.F. coils are present surrounding the site on which the image is to be constructed

There is a superposition of a linear magnetic field gradient onto the uniform magnetic field applied to the patient

Sign al Processing Unit Image Storage Display www.eeecube.com Computer B lock Diagram of a MRI

Image Storage

Display

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

Computer

Computer
Computer
Computer
Unit Image Storage Display www.eeecube.com Computer B lock Diagram of a MRI System Interface X –

Block Diagram of a MRI System

www.eeecube.com Computer B lock Diagram of a MRI System Interface X – Gradient Power Coil Y
www.eeecube.com Computer B lock Diagram of a MRI System Interface X – Gradient Power Coil Y
Interface
Interface

Interface

Interface
Computer B lock Diagram of a MRI System Interface X – Gradient Power Coil Y –

X Gradient Power

Coil

of a MRI System Interface X – Gradient Power Coil Y – Gradient Power Coil Z
of a MRI System Interface X – Gradient Power Coil Y – Gradient Power Coil Z

Y Gradient Power

Coil

X – Gradient Power Coil Y – Gradient Power Coil Z – Gradient Power Coil Signal
X – Gradient Power Coil Y – Gradient Power Coil Z – Gradient Power Coil Signal

Z Gradient Power

Coil

Coil Y – Gradient Power Coil Z – Gradient Power Coil Signal Average Receiver R.F. Generator
Coil Y – Gradient Power Coil Z – Gradient Power Coil Signal Average Receiver R.F. Generator

Signal

Average

Receiver

R.F. Generator

R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter

R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter

R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter
R.F. Power Amplifier and Transmitter

Transmitter

Coil

Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier

Pre - amplifier

Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier
Pre - amplifier

Receiver

Coil

Patient Magnet
Patient
Magnet
www.eeecube.com • W hen the superposition takes place, the resonance frequencies of the precessing nuclei

When the superposition takes place, the resonance frequencies of the precessing nuclei will depend on the positions along the direction of the magnetic field gradient

This produces a one dimensional projection of the structure of the three

dimensional object

By taking a series of these projections at different gradient orientations using X, Y and Z gradient coils a two or three dimensional image can be obtained

The gradient magnetic field can be controlled by computer and that field can be positioned in three time invariant planes (X, Y and Z)

The transmitter provides the R.F. signal pulses

The received nuclear magnetic resonance signal is picked up by the receiver coil

By two dimensional Fourier Transformation the image is constructed by the computer and is displayed on the television screen

Ultrasonography www.eeecube.com

Ultrasonography

Technique by which ultrasonic energy is used to detect the state of the internal body organs

Bursts of ultrasonic energy are transmitted from a piezoelectric or magnetostrictive transducer through the skin and into the internal anatomy

When this energy strikes an interface between two tissues of different

acoustical impedance, reflections (echoes) are returned to the transducer

The transducer converts these reflections to an electric signal

This electric signal is amplified and displayed on an oscilloscope at a distance proportional to the depth of the interface

Ultrasonic diagnosis differs from radiological (X ray) diagnosis in that no shadow images are obtained

The cross sectional or linear images are obtained through parts of the body

www.eeecube.com • • Uses mechanical energy at a level which is not harmful • Hence

Uses mechanical energy at a level which is not harmful

Hence it is called a non invasive technique

Ultrasonic imaging is safe

Potential applications

Neurology to find brain tumor

Ophthalmology to find any foreign objects in eye

Cardiology to determine the cross section of the heart and the heart rate

Gynecology to monitor the fetus growth and to indicate the presence of twins

To identify breast cancers

www.eeecube.com Blo ck Diagram of a Computer Controlled Ultrasonic Image Form i ng S ys

Block Diagram of a Computer Controlled Ultrasonic Image Forming System

Transducer

Transducer

Position

Data

Receiver

Signal

Processing

Image

Storage

Display

Position Data Receiver Signal Processing Image Storage Display Computer Front Panel Controls www.eeecube.com
Computer
Computer
Computer

Computer

Computer
Computer

Front Panel

Controls

Position Data Receiver Signal Processing Image Storage Display Computer Front Panel Controls www.eeecube.com
www.eeecube.com Ultrasonic Imaging Instrumentation • The transducer position data are fed to the computer •

Ultrasonic Imaging Instrumentation

The transducer position data are fed to the computer

The computer sends this information to signal processing unit

It also receives the signals from the receiver and controls the receiver sensitivity

Proper depth gain compensation is calculated by the computer and given to the signal processing unit

The ultrasonic velocity is calculated and given to display unit

Using the image storage unit, the patient information is displayed

Digital real time scanners are used for displaying ultrasound images

www.eeecube.com Digital Real Time Ultrasonic Scanner Mixing A/D Memory D/A . Circiut . . .

Digital Real Time Ultrasonic Scanner

Mixing A/D Memory D/A . Circiut . . . Receiver Circuit/ DGC Circuit T.V. Monitor
Mixing
A/D
Memory
D/A
.
Circiut
.
.
.
Receiver
Circuit/
DGC Circuit
T.V.
Monitor
Colour
Control
Coder
Probe
TV Synchronous Signal
Generator

Patient

DGC Circuit T.V. Monitor Colour Control Coder Probe TV Synchronous Signal Generator Patient www.eeecube.com
DGC Circuit T.V. Monitor Colour Control Coder Probe TV Synchronous Signal Generator Patient www.eeecube.com
www.eeecube.com • The echoes from the patient body surface are collected by the receiver circuit

The echoes from the patient body surface are collected by the receiver circuit

Proper depth gain compensation is given by DCG circuit

The received signals are converted into digital signals and are stored in the memory

Meanwhile, the scan converter control receives signals of transducer position and TV synchronous pulses and generates X and Y address information which is fed to the digital memory

The stored digital image signals are processed and colour coded and are given to digital to analog converter

Then they are fed into video section of the television monitor

Endoscopes www.eeecube.com • Tubular instrument used to inspect or view the body cavities which are

Endoscopes

Tubular instrument used to inspect or view the body cavities which are not

visible to the naked eye normally

In each endoscope there are two fiber bundles

One is used to illuminate the inner structure object

The other is used to collect the reflected light from that area

From this we can view the inner structure of the object

There are two types flexible and rigid

Sometimes it is equipped with small forceps for taking sample of tissue biopsy specimens for microscopic studies

In the endoscope, at the object end there is an assembly of objective lens and prism and at the viewing end, there is an eye lens

Firing Control and Timing Unit www.eeecube.com www.eeecube.com Endoscopic Laser Coagulator High Power Argon Laser

Firing Control and Timing Unit

Endoscopic Laser Coagulator

High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser

High Power

High Power

Argon Laser

High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser
High Power Argon Laser

Partial Beam Splitter

Power Supply

Lens System Micropositioner Encapsulated
Lens System
Micropositioner
Encapsulated

Power Meter and Heat Sink

Quartz Fibreguide Endoscope
Quartz Fibreguide
Endoscope

Synchronous Filter Shutter

www.eeecube.com • It uses argon ion laser as high energy optical source and endoscope as

It uses argon ion laser as high energy optical source and endoscope as the delivery unit

Argon ion lasers are very useful in the coagulation of blood vessels since its

green light is highly absorbed by the red blood vessels and hemoglobin

It is also advantageous to use argon ion lasers for photocoagulation of retina because of its smaller beam diameter and its ability do coagulation without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue

To control gastric hemorrhage photocoagulation is adopted

With the help of endoscope, the output from the argon ion laser is delivered to the required spot to arrest the gastric bleeding

Laser beam can be moved in any direction using the flexible endoscope

Using an endoscope the beam can be delivered to the required site as well as viewed for proper alignment

www.eeecube.com Thermography • Process of recording true thermal images of the surfaces of objects under

Thermography

Process of recording true thermal images of the surfaces of objects

under study

The thermal images are maps of temperature

Contain both qualitative and quantitative information

Types

Infrared Thermography

Liquid Crystal Thermography

Microwave Thermography

www.eeecube.com Infrared Thermography Operation • A chopper is inserted in front of a infrared radiation

Infrared Thermography

Operation

A chopper is inserted in front of a infrared radiation detector

Infrared radiation from body and from black body for calibration enter the detector

The detected output by detector is amplified and led to phase sensitive detector

The detected signal by phase sensitive detector is amplified and given to analog meter or digital meter and the absolute temperature of an object is calibrated and displayed

www.eeecube.com Simplified Block Diagram of a Thermographic Equipment Synchronization Pulses to CRT Preamplifier

Simplified Block Diagram of a Thermographic Equipment

Synchronization Pulses to CRT

of a Thermographic Equipment Synchronization Pulses to CRT Preamplifier Demodulator CRT Reflecting Scanning Mirror

Preamplifier

Demodulator

Synchronization Pulses to CRT Preamplifier Demodulator CRT Reflecting Scanning Mirror Chopper Detector Body
CRT
CRT

Reflecting

Scanning Mirror Chopper Detector
Scanning
Mirror
Chopper
Detector

Body Surface

www.eeecube.com Every thermographic equipment is provided with a special camera that scans the object •

Every thermographic equipment is provided with a special camera that scans the object

A display unit is provided for displaying the thermal picture on the screen

The camera contains an optical system in the form of an oscillating flat

plane mirror

This mirror scans the field of view at a very high speed horizontally and vertically

It also focuses the collected infrared radiation onto the chopper

The chopper disc interrupts the infrared beam so that a.c. signals are produced which are amplified and demodulated further

The demodulated signals are given to the Cathode Ray Tube in synchronization with scanning mechanism

The signals are displayed on the screen by intensity modulation

www.eeecube.com Liquid Crystal Thermography • Liquid crystals are a class of compounds which exhibit colour

Liquid Crystal Thermography

Liquid crystals are a class of compounds which exhibit colour

temperature sensitivity

In this method, the temperature plate consists of a blackened thin

film support into which encapsulated liquid crystals cemented to a

pseudo solid powder have been incorporated

Thermal contact between the skin surface and plate produces colour change in the encapsulated liquid crystals

Red for relatively low to violet for high temperatures

In infrared thermograms it is vice versa

www.eeecube.com A good Thermographic equipment should have • Short frame time (less than 4 seconds)

A good Thermographic equipment should have

Short frame time (less than 4 seconds)

High resolution (more than 100, 000 picture elements)

A small size and light weight optical head

A wide spectrum band detector near the wavelength of 10 microns

Interfaces for image processing

Medical Applications of Thermography www.eeecube.com • Healthy Cases • Tumors • Inflammation • Diseases

Medical Applications of Thermography

Healthy Cases

Tumors

Inflammation

Diseases of Peripheral Vessels

Burns and Perniones

Skin Grafts and Organ Transplantation

Collagen diseases

Orthopedic Diseases

Brain and Nervous Diseases

Hormone Diseases

Examination of Placenta Attachment

www.eeecube.com Bio - Telemetry • Electrical technique for conveying biological information from a living organism

Bio - Telemetry

Electrical technique for conveying biological information from a

living organism and its environment to a location where this information can be observed or recorded

Used for

Monitoring patients in hospital from a remote location

Monitoring astronauts in space

Monitoring patients who are on the job or at home

Monitoring the athletes who are running a race

www.eeecube.com Essential Components of a Bio – Telemetry System • Transducer – converts the biological

Essential Components of a Bio Telemetry System

Transducer converts the biological variable into electrical signal

Signal Conditioner amplifies and modifies this signal for effective

transmission

Transmission link - connects the signal input to the readout device

www.eeecube.com Block Diagram of a Bio – Telemetry System Biological Signal Transducer Conditioner Transmission

Block Diagram of a Bio Telemetry System

Biological

Signal

Transducer

Conditioner

Transmission

Link

Read out Device

Conditioner Transmission Link Read – out Device ECG EEG EMG Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes
Conditioner Transmission Link Read – out Device ECG EEG EMG Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes
Conditioner Transmission Link Read – out Device ECG EEG EMG Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes
Conditioner Transmission Link Read – out Device ECG EEG EMG Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes

ECG

EEG

EMG

Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH

Electrodesout Device ECG EEG EMG Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Thermistor Strain Gauge Glass Electrode Amplifier

ThermistorECG EEG EMG Temperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes Strain Gauge Glass Electrode Amplifier & Filter

Strain GaugeTemperature Blood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes Thermistor Glass Electrode Amplifier & Filter Radio Frequency F.M.

Glass ElectrodeBlood Pressure Stomach pH Electrodes Thermistor Strain Gauge Amplifier & Filter Radio Frequency F.M. Transmitter

Amplifier &

Filter

Radio Frequency F.M. Transmitter

Video Recorder Tape Recorder C.R.O X.Y Recorder

www.eeecube.com Design of a Bio – Telemetry Systems • Telemetering system should be selected to

Design of a Bio Telemetry Systems

Telemetering system should be selected to transmit the bio electric signals with maximum fidelity and simplicity

There should not be any constraint for living system

The size and weight of the telemetry system should be small

Should have more stability and reliability

Power consumption should be very small

In the case of wire transmission, the cable should be shielded

www.eeecube.com Block Diagram of a Typical Single Channel Radio Telemetry System Biosignal Source Transducer Conditioner

Block Diagram of a Typical Single Channel Radio Telemetry System

Biosignal Source

Single Channel Radio Telemetry System Biosignal Source Transducer Conditioner Radio Transmitter Display

Transducer

Channel Radio Telemetry System Biosignal Source Transducer Conditioner Radio Transmitter Display Conditioner Radio

Conditioner

Telemetry System Biosignal Source Transducer Conditioner Radio Transmitter Display Conditioner Radio Receiver
Radio Transmitter
Radio Transmitter
Display Conditioner Radio Receiver
Display
Conditioner
Radio Receiver
www.eeecube.com • A miniature battery operated radio transmitter is connected to the electrodes of the

A miniature battery operated radio transmitter is connected to the electrodes of the patients

This transmitter broadcasts the biopotential over a limited range to remotely located receiver

This detects the radio signals and recovers them for further

processing

There is negligible connections or stray capacitance between the electrode circuit and the rest of the system

So the receiving system can even be located in a room separate from

the patients

www.eeecube.com Types of measurements made • Active • Passive Types of Transmitters used •

Types of measurements made

Active

Passive

Types of Transmitters used

Tunnel diode FM transmitter

Harley type FM transmitter

Pulsed Hartley Oscillator

www.eeecube.com Single Channel FM Transmitter BD d L Bio – signal Source d TD 1.5

Single Channel FM Transmitter

BD d L Bio – signal Source d TD 1.5 V R S
BD
d
L
Bio – signal
Source
d
TD
1.5 V
R
S
www.eeecube.com • Tunnel diodes are higher active devices (TD, BD) • The circuit has higher

Tunnel diodes are higher active devices (TD, BD)

The circuit has higher fidelity and sensitivity

Circuit Details

Radio Frequency used 100 to 250 MHz

Frequency response 0.01 Hz to 20kHz

Input Impedance 300 Kilo Ohms to Mega Ohms

Temperature Stability of Carrier Frequency 0.05% / o C

• Varactor diodes ‘d’ are used for frequency modulation

• The signal is transmitted through the inductor ‘L’ which is also one of the components in the tank circuit of R.F. Oscillator

www.eeecube.com Advantages • All the signals can be transmitted from the surface of the subject

Advantages

All the signals can be transmitted from the surface of the subject to a

receiver in a normal hospital environment

No shield room is needed

Interference is greatly reduced

www.eeecube.com Hartley Type F.M. Transmitter R 1 R 4 C C 2 1 C 2

Hartley Type F.M. Transmitter

R 1 R 4 C C 2 1 C 2 R 5 E C 2
R
1
R
4
C
C
2
1
C
2
R
5
E
C
2
T
2
o
T
1
Signal
Input
R
R
3
2
o
F.M. Transmitter R 1 R 4 C C 2 1 C 2 R 5 E C
www.eeecube.com • The capacitorC 1 and inductor L form the tank Circuit components of Hartley

The capacitorC 1 and inductor L form the tank Circuit components of

Hartley Oscillator

The Capacitors C 2 are coupling capacitors

T 1 is the driver amplifier transistor and T 2 is the oscillator transistor

The fact that the capacitance between emitter and base of a

transistor is voltage sensitive is used to frequency modulate the

carrier

www.eeecube.com Physiological Parameters Telemetering Transmitter www.eeecube.com X X ’ o o R 1 C 1

Physiological Parameters Telemetering Transmitter

X

X

o

o

R 1 C 1 0.1 uF 1.3 V 15 turns 10 turns M Core
R 1
C 1
0.1 uF
1.3 V
15 turns
10 turns
M
Core

47pF

www.eeecube.com • To measure temperature, a thermistor is placed in the place of R 1

To measure temperature, a thermistor is placed in the place of R 1

To measure pressure, the pressure changes should be given to move

the core ‘M’

To measure pH or any change in voltage, suitable electrodes are

connected across the voltage input XX 1

www.eeecube.com Biotelemetry System with a Subcarrier Bio – Signal 20 kHz 100 MHz Carrier Carrier

Biotelemetry System with a Subcarrier

Bio

Signal

20 kHz 100 MHz Carrier Carrier Amplitude Frequency Amplifier Transmitter Modulator Modulator
20 kHz
100 MHz
Carrier
Carrier
Amplitude
Frequency
Amplifier
Transmitter
Modulator
Modulator
Receiver
Receiver

First Stage

Demodulator

Modulator www.eeecube.com Receiver First Stage Demodulator Filter Amplifier Second Stage Demodulator Display

Filter

Modulator www.eeecube.com Receiver First Stage Demodulator Filter Amplifier Second Stage Demodulator Display

Amplifier

Modulator www.eeecube.com Receiver First Stage Demodulator Filter Amplifier Second Stage Demodulator Display

Second Stage

Demodulator

Modulator www.eeecube.com Receiver First Stage Demodulator Filter Amplifier Second Stage Demodulator Display

Display

• • The signal is modulated on a sub – carrier to convert the signal

The signal is modulated on a sub carrier to convert the signal frequency to the neighbourhood of the sub carrier frequency

Then the R.F. carrier is modulated by the sub carrier carrying the signal

The receiver detects the R.F. and recovers the sub carrier carrying

To avoid the loading effect a sub carrier system is used

the signal

Since the sub carrier frequency is quite different from all noise interference and loading effect, it can be separated by filters

An additional stage of demodulation is needed to convert the signal

from the modulated sub carrier back to its real frequency and amplitude

Multiple Channel Telemetry Systems www.eeecube.com

Multiple Channel Telemetry Systems

Types

Frequency Division Multiplex System

Time Division Multiplex System

Frequency Division Multiplex System

Each signal is frequency modulated o a sub carrier frequency

Then these modulated sub carrier frequencies are combined to modulate the main R.F. carrier

At the receiver side, the modulated sub carriers will be separated by the proper band pass filters after the first discrimination

The individual signals are received from these modulated sub carriers by the second set of discriminators

The low pass filters are used to extract the signals without any noise

www.eeecube.com Frequency Division Multiplex System Input Channel I Main FM FM Receiver Sub Carrier Amplifier

Frequency Division Multiplex System

Input Channel I Main FM FM Receiver Sub Carrier Amplifier Transmitter Demodulator FM f 1
Input
Channel I
Main FM
FM Receiver
Sub Carrier
Amplifier
Transmitter
Demodulator
FM
f
1
Output
Input
Channel I
Channel II
Sub Carrier
Sub Carrier
Amplifier
BP Filter
LP Filter
o
FM
Demodulator
f
f
2
1
Output
Input
Channel II
Channel III
Sub Carrier
Sub Carrier
BP Filter
LP Filter
o
Amplifier
Demodulator
FM
f
f
2
3
Output
Channel III
Sub Carrier
BP Filter
LP Filter
o
Demodulator
f
3
www.eeecube.com Tim e Division Multiplex System • The transmission channel is connected to each signal

Time Division Multiplex System

The transmission channel is connected to each signal - channel input for a short time to sample and transmit that signal

Then the transmitter is switched to the next signal channel in a definite

sequence

When all the channels have been scanned once a cycle is completed and the next cycle will start

At the receiver end the process is reversed

The sequentially arranged signal pulses are distributed to the individual channels by a synchronized switching circuit

If the number of scanning cycles per second in each signal is large and if the transmitter and the receiver are synchronized, the signal in each channel at the receiver side can be recovered without noticeable distortion

www.eeecube.com Time Division Multiplex System Output Input Channel I Channel I FM FM Amplifier Gate

Time Division Multiplex System

Output Input Channel I Channel I FM FM Amplifier Gate Gate LP Filter o Transmitter
Output
Input
Channel I
Channel I
FM
FM
Amplifier
Gate
Gate
LP Filter
o
Transmitter
Receiver
Input
Output
Channel II
Channel II
Amplifier
Gate
Gate
LP Filter
o
Synchronization
Signal
Input
Output
Channel III
Channel III
Gating Signal
Amplifier
Gate
Gate
LP Filter
o
Generator
Gating Signal
Generator