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ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS

BRIEF NOTES
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UNIT I :: ELECTRON DYNAICS: CRO

19 31
1.602 10 , 9.1 10 e C m kg


, F force on electron in uniform electric field E
F=eE; acceleration
eE
a
m

If electron with velocity ' ' v moves in field


' ' E
making an angle ' ' can be
resolved to
sin , cos v v
.
Effect of agnetic Field ! on Electron.
"hen ! # $ are %er%endicular %ath is circular
2
; ' '
mv m
r Period t
Be Be


"hen slant with ' ' %ath is & 'elical.
E$()*I+,- +F ./*
E0E.*/+-*)*I. 1EF0E.*I+, -E,-I*I2I*3
2
e
a
lL
S
dV

)4,E*I. 1EF0E.*I+, -E,-I*I2I*3


2
m
a
e
S lL
mV

2elocity due to voltage 2,


2eV
v
m

"hen E and ! are %er%endicular and initial velocity of electron is 5ero, the %ath is
.ycloidal in %lane %er%endicular to ! # E. 1iameter of .ycloid=6$, where
u
Q

,
E
u
B
,
Be
m
.
UNIT II :: SEICONDUCTOR !UNCTION
,
i e
S G have 7 electrons in covalent bands. 2alency of 7. 1o%ing with trivalent
elements makes ' ' p , 8entavalent elements makes ' ' n semiconductor.
.onductivity
( )
n p
e n p + where
, n p
are concentrations of 1o%ants.
&
n p

are mobilitys of electron and hole res%ectively.
" # "
1iode e9uation
1
d
T
V
nV
d s
I I e
_


,

2
; ln
d T A P
d o
d i
V V N N kT
r V
I I q n
_

0 19
0 273; 1.602 10 T C q C

+
1iode dro% changes
0
@2.2 / mv C , 0eakage current
s
I doubles on
0
10 C
1iffusion ca%acitance is
d
dq
c
dv
of forward biased diode it is
I
*ransition ca%acitance
T
C is ca%acitance of reverse biased diode
n
V


1 1
2 3
n to
/E.*IFIE/-
.+8)/I-I+,
'" F" .* F" !/
C
V
m
V

2
m
V

2
m
V

rms
V
2
m
V
2
m
V
2
m
V
" $ "

;
T
kT
V
q

:= !olt5man .onstant

/i%%le factor
1.21 0.482 0.482

/ectification efficiency
40.6% 81% 81%
PIV
8eak Inverse 2oltage
m
V 6
m
V
m
V

UNIT III :: FILTERS
'armonic .om%onents in F" +ut%ut,
0
2 4 1 1
cos 2 cos 4 .....
3 15
m
V
v !t !t


+ +
' ;



" % "
.a%acitance In%ut Filter,
Inductor In%ut Filter,
.ritical inductance is that value at which
diode conducts continuously, in or half cycle.
0. FI0*E/,
2
2
12 LC

or
1.2
, 50 , , . "or #$ Lin # Cin %
LC

FI0*E/,
/. FI0*E/,
0. 0)11E/,
1 2
1 2
2
. . .....
3
n
n
c c c
L L L
& & &
& & &

;E,E/ 1I+1E
;E,E/ /E4(0)*+/

;
i $
s i $
s
V V
I V V
'

>>

$
$
$
V
r
I

*(,,E0 1I+1E
.onducts in ,
"
r
( (
, $uantum mechanical tunneling in region a<=<b<c.
<ve resistance b<c, normal diode c<d.
p
I
= %eak current,
v
I
= valley current;
p
v
=%eak voltage > ?@ m2,
v
v
=valley voltage
=.A@ 2. 'eavy 1o%ing, ,arrow Bunction , (sed for switching # 'F oscillators.
2)/).*+/ 1I+1E

(sed in reverse bias # as tuning variable ca%acitance.

( )
T n
T '
)
C
V V

+
; n==.A for diffusion, n==.@ for alloy Cunction,
1
o
T n
'
T
C
C
V
V

_
+

,

25
B
C
C
is figure of merit, -elf resonance
1
2
o
S T
"
L C

" & "


F"1 !ias ,ormal
1iode =.D 2 1ro%
/everse !ias
8'+*+ 1I+1E-
1iode used in reverse bias for light detection.
1ifferent materials have individual %eak res%onse to a range of wave lengths.
UNIT " IV
!B*, !i%olar Bunction *ransistor has 6 BunctionsE !E, !.
.om%onents of current are
,
nE pE
I I
at
EB
Cunction where
nE nE
nE pE E
I I
I I I

+


Emitter efficiency,
* nc
nE
I
I

trans%ortation factor.
/ ; / BE " ( BC r (
" ' "
e ( c
I I I +
;
c c
e (
I I
I I

1o%ing Emitter 'ighest
!ase 0owest
e c (
I I I > >
0eakage currents E , ,
CB* CE* EB*
I I I
( ) 1
CE* CB*
I I +
A .onfigurations are used on !B*, .E, .! # ..

.ommon Emitter, 2I characteristics

0
;
ce BE
i ie e ce
B c
V V
' + r r r
I I




AC E(u)*+l,nt C)rcu)t
.++, !)-E 2I .')/).*E/I-*I.-

" - "


In.ut C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0 C)rcu)t Out.ut C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0
CE
C
V
B
I
I

;
1
C
E
I
I

; ;
V
CB
C c( EB
i( e "( c(
E e c
I V V
+ r + r
I I I



UNIT " V
h< %arameters originate from e9uations of am%lifier
2 2 0 2
,
i i i r " i
v +i + v i + i + v + +
&
i i
v i are in%ut voltage and current
2 2
& v i are out%ut voltage and current

i
+ in%ut im%edance , ,
ie i( ic
+ + + ( ) , , 1
e e e
r r r + 1
]

"
+ current gain , ,
"e "( "c
+ + +
( ) , , 1 + 1
]

r
+ reverse voltage transfer , ,
re r( rc
+ + +

o
+ out%ut admittance , ,
oe o( oc
+ + +
FIE01 EFFE.* */),-I-*+/, FE* is (ni%olar 1evice

" 1 "
CO2ARISON
!E !.
-)*(/)*I+, fFb fFb
).*I2E fFb rFb
.(* +FF rFb rFb
)80IFIE/ .+8)/I-+,
.! .E .F
i
' 0+" E1 'I4'
I
A
I
A 1 +
V
A 'igh 'igh GH
o
' 'igh 'igh low
AC E(u)*+l,nt C)rcu)t
Con0truct)on n"C/+nn,l ."C/+nn,l
-=-ource, 4=4ate, 1=1rain
4- Bunction in /everse !ias )lways

gs
V .ontrols 4ate "idth
2I .')/).*E/-*I.-

Tr+n03,r C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0 C)rcu)t Forw+rd C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0

-hockley E9uation

2
1
gs
d dss
p
V
I I
V
_



,
,
0
1
gs
m m
p
V
g g
V
_



,
+-FE*E etal +Iide -emiconductor FE*, I4FE*

D,.l,t)on T4., o03,t S4m5ol0 En/+nc,m,nt o03,t

1e%letion *y%e +-FE* can work width 0
gs
V > and 0
gs
V <
Tr+n03,r Forw+rd
C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0 C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0
" 6 "
OSFET !2ET
'igh
10
10
i
'
8
10
0
50 ' k 1m
1e%letion
Enhancement ode
1e%letion
ode
1elicate /ugged

Enhancement +-FE* o%erates with,
gs t
V V > ,
t
V T+res+old Voltage

Forw+rd C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0 Tr+n03,r C/+r+ct,r)0t)c0

UNIT VI :: BIASIN7 )n B!T 8 !FET
FiIing +%erating 8oint $ is biasing

FiIed !ias Emitter -tabili5ed Feedback !ias
CC B B BE
V I ' V + FiIed !ias ( ) 1
CC C B B B BE
V ' I I ' V + + +
( ) 1 Re
CC B B BE
V I ' V + + +
" 9 "

,%ET I Ta(le
gs
V

I
=
SS
I
=.A
P
V
2
SS
I
=.@
P
V
4
SS
I
P
V
=
CO2ARISIONS
B!T FET
.urrent controlled 2oltage controlled
'igh gain ed gain
!i%olar (ni%olar
*em% sensitive 0ittle effect of *
'igh 4!"8 0ow 4!"8
( ) ,
S GS T
V sat V V
( )
2
( )
ds GS T
I *N ) V V




2+0*)4E 1I2I1E/ !I)- EI**E/ -*)!I0I;E1
FIJE1 !I)-
STABILITY E:UATIONS

1 0 2 3 c c BE
I S I S V S + +

1 2 3
; ;
C C C
C* BE
I I I
S S S
I V



, -*)!I0I*3 F).*+/
( ) 1
1
B
C
S
dI
dI

- must be as small as %ossible, ost ideal value =H


'ow to do determine stability factor for bias arrangementK 1erive
B
C
dI
dI
and
substitute in -
)m%lifier formulaeE
l
V I
i
-
A A
-

,
i
- measured with out%ut shorted

0
Z measured with in%ut shorted
! "#$li%ie&
'
(
"e
+ or ;
;
i
- re ;
T
e
V
r
I
;
L
v
e
'
A
r

) "#$li%ie&
1
( ; ;
L
v i e
e
'
A - r
r

"#$li%ie& ( )
'
( 1 ; 1 ;
ie
V
i
+
A
'
+
( )
1
i "e E ie
' + ' + + +
' 8arameter odel .E
;
1
"e
I
oe l
+
A
+ $

+

L
V "e
ie
-
A +
+

" #; "
2
1 2
CC
B
V '
V
' '

+
,
;
E
E B BE C
E
V
V V V I
'

( ) ( ) 1 Re
.
Vcc 'c I(
I( '( V(e
+ +
+ +
) "#$li%ie&
; ; .
L
i i( I "( V "(
i(
'
' + A + A +
+

FE*
.- am%lifier ( )
0
** ;
V m d d d
A g ' r - '
.ommon 4ate )m%lifier
,
1
s
V m d i
m s
'
A g ' -
g '

+
.ommon 1rain
1
;
1
m s
V o
m s m
g '
A -
g ' g

+
/. .ou%led )m%lifiers
If cut off fre9uency
1
1
2
"
'C
,
1
1
1
1
+"n ;
1
"
A
"
"
.
"

_


, _
+

,
6 / , 20 / Slope dB octave dB decade ,
%
,c+"-e. 2
2
or "
"

is beta cut off fre9uency where 0.707


"e
+ "alls (/
"

is cut off fre9uency where 0.707

t
" is
1
"e
+
gain bandwidth %roduct.
UNIT VII :: FEED BAC< A2LIFIERS
)m%lifier gain stands for any of 2oltage am%lifier, .urrent am%lifier, *rans resistance
*rans admittance am%lifier

2e feed back am%lifier de%ends on * 1 * 1 , 1


( (
A ve " ve " + > < +
Feed back reduces noise distortion, gain variation due to %arameters, increases !".
( ) 1 A +
is called de<sensitivity factor.
F,,d 5+c= +m.l)3),r0
2oltage series, voltage shunt; .urrent series, current shunt
" ## "
0
0
; ;
1
"
"
i
&
& A
A A
A & &


+
i s "
& & &
%o& -ol+"/e, c0&&en+ se&ies
( ) 1
"
i i
$ $ A +
1
"
A
A
A

+
, for all
1
"
i
i
$
$
A

+
, %o& -ol+"/e o& c0&&en+ s10n+
( ) 1
"
o o
$ $ A +
, %o& c0&&en+ se&ies, s10n+
0
1
"
o
$
$
A

+
, %o& -ol+"/e se&ies "n2 s10n+.
UNIT VIII :: OSCILLATORS
!arkausen .riterion for oscillation loo% gain =H, ==
=
, A?=
=
.
')/*0E3 +-.I00)*+/
./3-*)0 +-.I00)*+/-
*uned ckt re%laced with .rystal
8hase shift oscillator
"ein !ridge +scillator
" #$ "
1
2
T
"
L C

,
1 2 T
L L L 0 + t , ;
2
1
L
L

,
.+008I*- +-I00)*+/,
1 2
, L L
re%laced by
1 2
, C C
,
. re%laced by 0;
1
2
T
"
LC

1
s
LC

,
1
p
T
LC

3!4 5,6!7
1
2 6
"
'C

, 29 A ,
inimum /. sections A
1 2 1 2
1
2
"
' ' CC

,
i% R1.R2.R, 1.2. ,
1
2
"
'C
;
1
3 A


)84 5,6!7
1
4
2 6
C
"
'
'C
'

_
+

,
, 29 A ,
inimum /. sections A
" #% "