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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER

What is a Computer: Computers are not very intelligent devices, but they
handle instructions flawlessly and fast. They must follow explicit directions from
both the user and computer programmer. Computers are really nothing more than a
very powerful calculator with some great accessories. Applications like word
processing and games are just a very complex math problem.

Software and Hardware: If you use a player piano as an analogy,


the piano can be thought of as the hardware and the roll of music as the
software.

The software a series of very simple computer instructions carefully


organized to complete complex tasks. These instructions are written in
programming languages (like BASIC, PASCAL, C...) to help simplify
the development of applications.

The hardware is what sits on your desk and executes the software
instructions. The player piano is useless unless the roll of music has
been written correctly.

Hardware Components:
Input Devices

A keyboard and mouse are the standard way to interact with the computer. Other devices
include joysticks and game pads used primarily for games.

Output Devices

The monitor (the screen) is how the computer sends information back to you, whether it
be surfing the web or writing a memo. A printer is also an output device.

Storage Devices

Hard disk drives are an internal, higher capacity drive which also stores the operating
system which runs when you power on the computer.
"Floppy" disk drives allow you to save work on small disks and take the data with you.

Memory

When you use a program, the computer loads a portion of the program from the hard
drive to the much faster memory (RAM). When you "save" your work or quit the
program, the data gets written back to the hard drive.

Microprocessors

PCs primarily use microprocessors (sometimes called the chip) manufactured by Intel.
The older Intel versions include the 386, 486 and now the Pentium line.

Macintoshes use PowerPC processors by Motorola.

Megahertz (MHz) is the internal processor speed in which computer instructions are
performed. The MHz speed does not always indicate the power of the microprocessor.
Newer processors can execute more instructions at the same or slower MHz. For
example, an Intel 486 @100MHz is less powerful than a Pentium @75 MHz (but the
MHz is "faster").

Hardware Accessories:
Modems

Modems allow you to communicate with other computers using a phone line. Modem
speeds are in bits per second (14.4, 28.8 and 56 thousand bits per second are standard).

CD-ROM Drives

A CD-ROM drive is a high capacity storage device which lets you read data from the
disk, but not write data back. The speed of the drive (how fast the CD platter spins) is
measured in multiples from the first generation drives. New drives are up to 24X (or 24
times the first drives), but while the CD spins faster, it is not really 24 times faster in
actual output.

Printers

There are different types of printers (laser, ink jet, dot matrix) with differing quality of
output. They are measured in dpi (dots per inch) and ppm (pages per minute), the higher
the better.
Scanners

Scanners "digitize" printed material (like photos and graphics) and save it to a graphic
file format (like .GIF or .JPG) for display on the computer.

Operating System Software:


Operating system software provides a "user interface" for users to manage files, start
programs, customize computer settings, and other tasks. The operating system also
provides the fundamental core computer functionality for programmers.

Intel based PCs use Microsoft Windows version 3.1 (older) or Windows 95 as the
operating system. Macintoshes use the Macintosh operating system.

Software Applications: Application software uses the operating system software and
provides the real functionality of a computer. Applications include:

Word Processing (MS Word, WordPerfect, Ami...)


Spreadsheets (Lotus 123, MS Excel...)
Database (DBase, Fox Pro, Oracle...)
Presentation (MS PowerPoint, Persuasion...)
Internet Browsers (Netscape Navigator, MS Internet Explorer)
Games.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER
DOS COMMANDS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
What is an external / internal command?

In MS-DOS there are two types of commands. An Internal command, which is a


command embedded into the command.com file, and an external command, which is not
embedded into command.com and therefore requires a separate file to be used.

For example, if your computer does not have fdisk.exe and you try using the fdisk
command, you would receive an error "Bad command or file name." Fdisk is an external
command that will only work if fdisk.exe, or in some cases, fdisk.com, is present.

However, as long as MS-DOS is running on your computer internal commands such as


the CD command will always be available and does not require any other files to run.

5 Internal Commands

1. Del: To delete one or more files.


Syntax:Del filename

2. Exit: Exit from the command interpreter.


Syntax:Exit

3. Date:View or change the systems date.


Syntax:date

4. Time: To display and set the time of the system.


Syntax:time

5.Dir: To show the directories.


Syntax:Dir

5 External Commands

1.CHKDSK:To check the disk.

Syntax: chkdsk volume letter: [[path]filename] [/F] [/P] [/R] [/X]

2.Diskcopy: Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk
Syntax:diskcopy

3.COPY:TO copy one file to another.


Syntax:copy sourcefile newfile.
copy from [source\filename] to [destination\folder]

4.Print:To print the file.

Syntax:print filename.

5.DELTREE:To del the dir and subdirectories.

Syntax:deltree.

INTRODUCTION TO MS-WORD

INTRODUCTION

Let us consider an office scene. Many letters are typed in the office. The officer dictates a
letter. The typist first types a draft copy of the letter. The officer goes through it to check
mistakes regarding spelling errors, missing words, etc. and suggests corrections. The
typist changes the letter as suggested by the officer. This is a simple example of word
processing.

There are many software packages to do the job of word processing. Some of them work
in DOS environment. Example are WordStar, Word Perfect and Professional Write. But
in these days working in WINDOWS is becoming more and more popular. So let us
consider software for word processing which works in WINDOWS. Our choice is MS-
WORD because it is the most popular software in these days.

MS-WORD is a part of the bigger package called MS OFFICE, which can do much more
than word processing. In fact when you open up MS OFFICE you will find four main
components in it. They are MS-WORD (for word processing), MS EXCEL (for
spreadsheet), MS ACCESS (for database management) and MS POWERPOINT (for
presentation purposes). However, we will limit ourselves to MS-WORD only in this
lesson.

OBJECTIVES
After going through this lesson you should be in a position to

• start the MS-WORD package


• be familiar with the MS-WORD screen
• advantages and Features of Word Processing
• some common Word Processing Packages
• how to invoke Ms-Word
• learn the capabilities of Ms-Word

WHAT IS WORD-PROCESSING?

Word Processor is a Software package that enables you to create, edit, print and save
documents for future retrieval and reference. Creating a document involves typing by
using a keyboard and saving it. Editing a document involves correcting the spelling
mistakes, if any, deleting or moving words sentences or paragraphs.

(a) Advantages of Word Processing

One of the main advantages of a word processor over a conventional typewriter is that a
word processor enables you to make changes to a document without retyping the entire
document.

(b) Features of Word Processing

Most Word Processor available today allows more than just creating and editing
documents. They have wide range of other tools and functions, which are used in
formatting the documents. The following are the main features of a Word Processor

i. Text is typing into the computer, which allows alterations to be made easily.
ii. Words and sentences can be inserted, amended or deleted.
iii. Paragraphs or text can be copied /moved throughout the document.
iv. Margins and page length can be adjusted as desired.
v. Spelling can be checked and modified through the spell check facility.
vi. Multiple document/files can be merged.
vii. Multiple copies of letters can be generated with different addresses through the
mail-merge facility.

(c) Some Common Word Processing Packages

The followings are examples of some popular word processor available

• Softword
• WordStar
• Word perfect
• Microsoft word
IMPORTANT FEATURES OF MS-WORD

Ms-Word not only supports word processing features but also DTP features. Some of the
important features of Ms-Word are listed below:

i. Using word you can create the document and edit them later, as and when
required, by adding more text, modifying the existing text, deleting/moving some
part of it.

ii. Changing the size of the margins can reformat complete document or part of text.

iii. Font size and type of fonts can also be changed. Page numbers and Header and
Footer can be included.

iv. Spelling can be checked and correction can be made automatically in the entire
document. Word count and other statistics can be generated.

v. Text can be formatted in columnar style as we see in the newspaper. Text boxes
can be made.

vi. Tables can be made and included in the text.

vii. Word also allows the user to mix the graphical pictures with the text. Graphical
pictures can either be created in word itself or can be imported from outside like
from Clip Art Gallery.

viii. Word also provides the mail-merge facility.

ix. Word also has the facility of macros. Macros can be either attached to some
function/special keys or to a tool bar or to a menu.

x. It also provides online help of any option.

GETTING STARTED WITH MS-WORD


We have already told you that for working in Ms-Word you should be familiar with
WINDOWS. If you have not covered WINDOWS so far then read that first and then go
through MS-WORD. By now you must be aware of the fact that a software package is
improved from time to time. These improvements are sold in the market as new versions
of the same software. Thus you will find many versions of MS-WORD being used in
different offices. In this lesson we will cover the version MS-WORD 97, which is latest
in the market and contain many improvements over the older versions. However, you do
not have to worry if you have an older version such as WORD 6.0 or WORD 95. All the
commands available in these older versions are also available in WORD 97 and they are
compatible.

While working in MS-WORD you have to work with a mouse. Also one can work, to
some extent, through the keyboard. The use of mouse is simpler as it is fully menu
driven. In MS-WORD every command is available in the form of ‘icons’.

You can go inside MS-WORD by the following way

1. Take the mouse pointer to START button on the task bar. Click the left mouse
button. The monitor will show like as follows:
2. Move the pointer to programs. You will notice another menu coming up to the
right.
3. In that menu identify where Microsoft word is placed. Move the cursor
horizontally to come out of programs.
4. Move into the rectangular area meant for Microsoft word. Click the left mouse
button there. The computer will start MS-WORD. You will find the screen as
follows.

Important components of the screen.


(a)Title Bar

The title bar displays the name of the currently active word document. Like other
WINDOWS applications, it can be used to alter the size and location of the word
window.

(b)Tool Bars

Word has a number of tool bars that help you perform task faster and with great ease.
Two of the most commonly tool bars are the formatting tool bar and the standard tool bar.
These two toolbars are displayed just below the title bar. At any point of time any tool bar
can be made ON or OFF through the tool bar option of View Menu.

(c) Ruler Bar

The Ruler Bar allows you to format the vertical alignment of text in a document.

(d) Status Bar


The Status Bar displays information about the currently active document. This includes
the page number that you are working, the column and line number of the cursor position
and so on.

(e) Scroll Bar

The Scroll Bar helps you scroll the content or body of document. You can do so by
moving the elevator button along the scroll bar, or by click in on the buttons with the
arrow marked on them to move up and down and left and right of a page.

(f) Workspace

The Workspace is the area in the document window was you enter/type the text of your
document.

(g) Main Menu

The Word main menu is displayed at the top of the screen as shown in the Fig. 9.1. The
main menu further displays a sub menu. Some of the options are highlighted options and
some of them appear as faded options. At any time, only highlighted options can be
executed, faded options are not applicable. Infect if the option is faded you will not be
able to choose it. You may not that any option faded under present situation may become
highlighted under different situations.

MAIN MENU OPTIONS: The overall functions of all the items of main menu are
explained below.

(a) File

You can perform file management operations by using these options such as opening,
closing, saving, printing, exiting etc. It displays the following sub menu.

(b) Edit

Using this option you can perform editing functions such as cut, copy, paste, find and
replace etc. It displays the following sub menu.

(c) View

Word document can be of many pages. The different pages may have different modes.
Each mode has its limitations. For example in normal mode the graphical picture cannot
be displayed. They can only be displayed in page layout mode. Using the option "View"
you can switch over from one mode to other. It displays the following Sub menu.
(d) Insert

Using this menu, you can insert various objects such as page numbers, footnotes, picture
frames etc. in your document. It displays the following Sub menu.

(e) Format

Using this menu, you can perform various type of formatting operations, such as fonts
can be changed, borders can be framed etc. It displays the following Sub menu.

(f) Tools

Using this menu, you can have access to various utilities/tools of Word, such as spell
check, macros, mail merge etc. It displays the following Sub menu.

(g) Table

This menu deals with tables. Using this menu you can perform various types of
operations on the table. It displays the following Sub menu.

(h) Window

This menu allows you to work with two documents simultaneously. This would require
two windows to be opened so that each one can hold one document. Using this menu, you
can switch over from one window to another. It displays the following Sub menu.

(i) Help

Using this menu, you can get on-line help for any function.

SHORTCUT KEYS
• CTRL+C (Copy)
• CTRL+X (Cut)
• CTRL+V (Paste)
• CTRL+Z (Undo)
• DELETE (Delete)
• SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item
in the Recycle Bin)
• CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
• CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
• F2 key (Rename the selected item)
• CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next
word)
• CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous
word)
• CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next
paragraph)
• CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous
paragraph)
• CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
• SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on
the desktop, or select text in a document)
• CTRL+A (Select all)
• F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
• ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
• ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
• ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
• ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
• CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have
multiple documents open simultaneously)
• ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
• ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
• F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
• F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
• SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
• ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
• CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
• ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
• Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the
corresponding command)
• F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
• RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
• LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
• F5 key (Update the active window)
• BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows
Explorer)
• ESC (Cancel the current task)
• SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-
ROM from automatically playing)
• CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager)

DIALOG BOX KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS


If you press SHIFT+F8 in extended selection list boxes, you enable extended selection
mode. In this mode, you can use an arrow key to move a cursor without changing the
selection. You can press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to adjust the
selection. To cancel extended selection mode, press SHIFT+F8 again. Extended selection
mode cancels itself when you move the focus to another control.

• CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)


• CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
• TAB (Move forward through the options)
• SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
• ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the
corresponding option)
• ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
• SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
• Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
• F1 key (Display Help)
• F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
• BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or
Open dialog box)

STEPS FOR MAIL MERGE


1) Create and save an Excel sheet with a column for each field (first_name, last_name,
address, city, state, etc...)

2) In word go to "tools" --> "letters and mailings" --> "mail merge"

3) Select what you want --> maybe labels

4) Select merge from a list and select your excel file

5) Specify the type of label (size) you are using and click merge.

INTRODUCTION TO MS-EXCEL
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that is used to store, sort and efficiently crunch
numbers. Accountants use Excel to keep track of transactions for their company. Students
might use Excel to help draw conclusions from the data they gathered on a science
project.

No matter what you are using Excel for it is important that you have the basic knowledge
required to do the everyday operations you will encounter while using this program.
Practical Learning: Starting Microsoft Excel

• To start Microsoft Excel, from the Taskbar, click


Start -> (All) Programs -> Microsoft Office -> Microsoft Office Excel

The Office Button

Introduction

When Microsoft Excel opens, it displays an interface divided in various sections. The top
section displays a long bar also called the title bar.

The title bar starts on the left side with the Office Button. If you position the mouse on it,
a tool tip would appear:

The Options of the Office Button

When clicked (with the mouse's left button), the Office Button displays a menu:

As you can see, the menu of the Office Button allows you to perform the routine
Windows operations of a regular application, including creating a new document,
opening an existing file, or saving a document, etc. We will see these operations in future
lessons.

If you right-click the office button, you would get a short menu:

We will come back to the options on this menu.

The Quick Access Toolbar

Introduction

On the right side of the Office Button, there is the Quick Access Toolbar. Like a normal
toolbar, the Quick Access displays some buttons. You can right-click the Quick Access
toolbar. A menu would appear:

If you want to hide the Quick Access toolbar, you can right-click it and click Remove
Quick Access Toolbar. To know what a button is used for, you can position the mouse
on. A tool tip would appear. Once you identify the button you want, you can click it.

Adding a Button to the Quick Access Toolbar


By default, the Quick Access toolbar is equipped with three buttons: Save, Undo, and
Redo. If you want to add more buttons or more options, you can right-click the Quick
Access toolbar and click Customize Quick Access Toolbar... This would display the
Excel Options dialog box:

To add a button to the Quick Access toolbar, on the left list of Add, click an option and
click Add. After making the selections, click OK.

To remove a button from the Quick Access toolbar, right-click it on the Quick Access
toolbar and click Remove From Quick Access Toolbar.

The Quick Access Button

On the right side of the Quick Access toolbar, there is the Customize button with a down-
pointing arrow. If you click or right-click this button, a menu would appear:

The role of this button is to manage some aspects of the top section of Microsoft Excel,
such as deciding what buttons to display on the Quick Access toolbar. For example,
instead of using the Customize Quick Access Toolbar menu item as we saw previously,
you can click an option from that menu and its corresponding button would be added to
the Quick Access toolbar. If the options on the menu are nor enough, you can click either
Customize Quick Access Toolbar or More Commands... This would open the Excel
Options dialog box.

The main or middle area of the top section displays the name of the application:
Microsoft Excel. You can right-click the title bar to display a menu that is managed by
the operating system.

On the right side of the title bar, there are three system buttons that allow you to
minimize, maximize, restore, or close Microsoft Access.

Under the title bar, there is another bar with a Help button on the right side.

The Ribbon

Introduction

Under the title bar, Microsoft Excel displays a long bar called the Ribbon:

Minimizing the Ribbon

By default, the Ribbon displays completely in the top section of Microsoft Excel under
the title bar. One option is to show it the way the main menu appeared in previous
versions of Microsoft Excel. To do this:
• Right-click the Office Button, the Quick Access toolbar, or the Ribbon itself, and
click Minimize the Ribbon
• Click or right-click the button on the right side of the Quick Access toolbar:

This would display the Ribbon like a main menu:

To show the whole Ribbon again:

• Right-click the Office Button, the Quick Access toolbar, or one of the Ribbon
menu items, and click Minimize the Ribbon to remove the check mark on it
• Click or right-click the button on the right side of the Quick Access toolbar and
click Minimize the Ribbon to remove the check mark on it
• Double-click one of the menu items of the Ribbon

Changing the Location of the Ribbon

By default, the Quick Access toolbar displays on the title bar and the Ribbon displays
under it. If you want, you can switch their locations. To do that, right-click the Office
Button, the Quick Access toolbar, or the Ribbon, and click Show Quick Access Toolbar
Below the Ribbon:

To put them back to the default locations, right-click the Office Button, the Quick Access
toolbar, or the Ribbon, and click Show Quick Access Toolbar Above the Ribbon.

The Tabs of the Ribbon

The ribbon is a type of property sheet made of various property pages. Each page is
represented with a tab. To access a tab:

• You can click its label or button, such as Home or Create


• You can press Alt or F10. This would display the access key of each tab:
To access a tab, you can press its corresponding letter on the keyboard. For
example, when the access keys display, if you press Home, the Home tab would
display
• If your mouse has a wheel, you can position the mouse anywhere on the ribbon,
and role the wheel. If you role the wheel down, the next tab on the right side
would be selected. If you role the wheel up, the previous tab on the left would be
selected. You can keep rolling the wheel until the desired tab is selected

To identify each tab of the Ribbon, we will refer to them by their names.

The Sections of a Tab

Each tab of the ribbon is divided in various sections, each delimited by visible borders of
vertical lines on the left and right. Each section displays a title in its bottom side. In our
lessons, we will refer to each section by that title. For example, if the title displays Font,
we will call that section, "The Font Section".

Some sections of the Ribbon display a button. If you see such a button, you can click it.
This would open a dialog box or a window.

The Buttons of the Ribbon

Since there are various buttons and sometimes they are unpredictable, to know what a
particular button is used for, you can position your mouse on it. A small box would
appear to let you know what that particular button is used for; that small box is called a
tool tip:

You can also use context sensitive help in some cases to get information about an item.

You can add a button from a section of the Ribbon to the Quick Access toolbar. To do
that, right-click the button on the Ribbon and click Add to Quick Access Toolbar:

Remember that, to remove a button from the Quick Access toolbar, right-click it on the
Quick Access toolbar and click Remove From Quick Access Toolbar.

The More Buttons of the Ribbon

In some sections of the Ribbon, on the lower-right section, there is a button: That button
is used to display an intermediary dialog box for some action. We will see various
examples as we move on.

The Size of the Ribbon

When Microsoft Excel is occupying a big area or the whole area of the monitor, most
buttons of the Ribbon appear with text. Sometimes you may need to use only part of the
screen. That is, you may need to narrow the Microsoft Excel interface. If you do, some of
the buttons may display part of their appearance and some would display only an icon.
Consider the difference in the following three screenshots:

In this case, when you need to access an object, you can still click it or click its arrow. If
the item is supposed to have many objects, a new window may appear and display those
objects:

The Work Area

The Name Box


Under the Ribbon, there is a white box displaying a name like A1 (it may not display
A1...), that small box is called the Name Box:

The Insert Function Button

On the right side of the Name box, there is a gray box with an fx button. That fx button is
called the Insert Function button.

The Formula Bar

On the right side of the Insert Function button is a long empty white box or section called
the Formula Bar:

You can hide or show the Formula Bar anytime. To do this, on the Ribbon, click View. In
the Show/Hide section:

• To hide the Formula Bar, remove the check mark on the Formula Bar check box
• To show the Formula Bar, check the Formula Bar check box

The Column Headers

Under the Name Box and the Formula bar, you see the column headers. The columns are
labeled A, B, C, etc:

There are 255 of columns.

The Row Headers

On the left side of the main window, there are small boxes called row headers. Each row
header is labeled with a number, starting at 1 on top, then 2, and so on:

The Cells

The main area of Microsoft Excel is made of cells. A cell is the intersection of a column
and a row:

A cell is identified by its name and every cell has a name. By default, Microsoft Excel
appends the name of a row to the name of a column to identify a cell. Therefore, the top-
left cell is named A1. You can check the name of the cell in the Name Box.

Practical Learning: Using Cells

1. Click anywhere in the work area and type A


(It doesn't matter where you click and type)
2. Click another part of the worksheet and type 42XL
3. Click again another place on the worksheet type Fundamentals and press Enter
The Scroll Bars

On the right side of the cells area, there is a vertical scroll bar that allows you to scroll up
and down in case your document cannot display everything at a time:

In the lower right section of the main window, there is a horizontal scroll bar that allows
you to scroll left and right if your worksheet has more items than can be displayed all at
once:

Sometimes the horizontal scroll bar will appear too long or too narrow for you. If you
want, you can narrow or enlarge it. To do this, click and drag the button on the left side of
the horizontal scroll bar:

The Sheet Tabs

On the left side of the horizontal scrollbar, there are the worksheet tabs:

By default, Microsoft Excel provides three worksheets to start with. You can work with
any of them and switch to another at any time by clicking its tab.

The Navigation Buttons

On the left side of the worksheet tabs, there are four navigation buttons:

If you happen to use a lot of worksheets or the worksheet names are using too much
space, which would result in some worksheets being hidden under the horizontal scroll
bar, you can use the navigation buttons to move from one worksheet to another.

The Status Bar

Under the navigation buttons and the worksheet tabs, the Status Bar provides a lot of
information about the job that is going on.

Microsoft Excel File Operations

Saving a File

A Microsoft Excel file gets saved like any traditional Windows file. To save a file:

• You can press Ctrl + S


• On the Quick Access Toolbar, you can click the Save button
• You can click the Office Button and click Save

Two issues are important. Whenever you decide to save a file for the first time, you need
to provide a file name and a location. The file name helps the computer identify that
particular file and register it.
A file name can consist of up to 255 characters, you can include spaces and dashes in a
name. Although there are many characters you can use in a name (such as exclamation
points, etc), try to avoid fancy names. Give your file a name that is easily recognizable, a
little explicit. For example such names as Time Sheets, Employee's Time Sheets,
GlobalEX First Invoice are explicit enough. Like any file of the Microsoft Windows
operating systems, a Microsoft Excel file has an extension, which is .xls but you don't
have to type it in the name.

The second important piece of information you should pay attention to when saving your
file is the location. The location is the drive and/or the folder where the file will be saved.
By default, Microsoft Excel saves its files in the My Documents folder. You can change
that in the Save As dialog box. Just click the arrow of the Save In combo box and select
the folder you want.

Microsoft Excel allows you to save its files in a type of your choice. To save a file in
another format:

• Press F12 or Shift + F12


• You can click the Office Button and position the mouse on Save As and select the
desired option:

• On the Quick Access Toolbar, you can click the Save button . Then, in the Save
As dialog box, click the arrow of the Save As Type combo box and select a
format of your choice

There are other things you can do in the Save As dialog box:

Practical Learning: Saving a File

1. To save the current document, on the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button
2. Type Fundamentals
3. Click the Save button

Saving under a Different Name and New Folder

You can save a file under a different name or in another location, this gives you the
ability to work on a copy of the file while the original is intact.

There are two primary techniques you can use to get a file in two names or the same file
in two locations. When the file is not being used by any application, in Windows
Explorer (or in My Computer, or in My Network Places, locate the file, right-click it and
choose Copy. To save the file in a different name, right-click in the same folder and
choose Paste. The new file will be named Copy Of... You can keep that name or rename
the new file with a different name (recommended). To save the file in a different location,
right-click in the appropriate folder and click Paste; in this case, the file will keep its
name.

In Microsoft Excel, you can use the Save As dialog box to save a file in a different name
or save the file with the same name (or a different name) in another folder. The Save As
dialog box also allows you to create a new folder while you are saving your file (you can
even use this technique to create a folder from the application even if you are not saving
it; all you have to do is create the folder, click OK to register the folder, and click Cancel
on the Save As dialog box).

Practical Learning: Save a File With Different Settings

1. To save this file using a different name, click the Office Button, position the
mouse on Save As, and click Excel 97-2003 Workbook
2. Change the name of the file to Employment Application
3. On the toolbar of the Save As dialog box, click the Create New Folder button (if
you have a hard time finding it, press Alt + 5
4. Type My Workbooks and press Enter. The My Files folder should now display in
the Save In combo box. If you clicked Cancel or pressed Esc now to dismiss the
Save As dialog box, the computer would still keep the folder
5. After making sure that the My Files folder displays in the Save In combo box,
click the Save button

Opening a File

The files you use could be created by you or someone else. They could be residing on
your computer, on another medium, or on a network. Once one of them is accessible, you
can open it in your application.

You can open a document either by double-clicking its icon in Windows Explorer, in My
Computer, from the Find Files Or Folders window, in My Network Places, or by locating
it in the Open dialog box. To access the open dialog box, on the main menu, click File ->
Open... You can also click the Open button on the Standard toolbar.

A shortcut to call the Open dialog box is Ctrl + O.

Practical Learning: Using the Open Dialog

1. Click the Office Button and click Open


2. In the Open dialog box, click the arrow of the Look In combo box, select (C:); the
(C:) represents your hard drive
3. Locate the folder that contains your exercises and display it in the Look In combo
box
4. Click Allentown Car Sales1
5. Click the Open button
Files Properties

Every file has some characteristics, attributes, and features that make it unique; these are
its properties. You can access a file's properties from three main areas on the computer:

• If the file is saved on the desktop and/or it has a shortcut on the desktop, if you
open My Computer, Windows Explorer, or the folder (as a window) where the
file is stored, right-click the file and click Properties. If the file were saved on the
desktop, you would see only some of its properties, the most you can do there is
to assign a Read-Only attribute. In My Computer and Windows Explorer, you will
be able to change the file's properties.
Before opening a file or while in the Open dialog box, you can view some of the
file's properties although you won't be able to change them.
• When the file is opened in Microsoft Excel, you can click the Office Button,
position the mouse on Prepare, and click Properties. This would display some of
the most common attributes of the file:

To change an item, you can click its text box and edit or replace the content. To get
more options, you can click the Document Properties button and click Advanced
Properties...

A file's properties are used for various reasons. For example, you can find out how much
size the file is using, where it is located (the hosting drive and/or folder), who created the
file, or who was the last person to access or modify it. The Properties dialog box is also a
good place to leave messages to other users of the same file, about anything, whether you
work as a team or you simply want to make yourself and other people aware of a
particular issue regarding the file.

Practical Learning: Changing a File’s Properties

1. You should still have the Allentown Car Sales1 document opened. Otherwise
open it.
Click the Office Button -> Prepare -> Properties
2. Click the Document Properties button and click Advanced Properties...
3. Click the General tab. Notice the icon associated/registered with the file. Review
the created, modified and accessed dates
4. Click the Summary property sheet
5. Click the Title text box and type Allentown Car Sales
6. Click the Subject text box and type Weekly car sales summary
7. Click the Manager text box and type Georgia Delaine
8. Click the Category text box and type Employees Sales Results
9. Click the Keywords text box and type accounting, sales, review, employees,
cars
10. Click the Comments text box and type This is a summary sales review, if you
have any concern, please contact Mrs. Georgia Delaine, the Sales Accounts
Manager. If you make any changes, send her an e-mail immediately

11. Click the Statistics, Contents, and Custom tabs to review their content
12. Click OK to register the changes and close the dialog box
13. To close Microsoft Excel, click the Office Button and click Exit Excel

INTRODUCTION TO POWER POINT


Open the PowerPoint program (choose whichever method you prefer). Once it opens, the
following screen (called a dialogue box) will appear:

This screen prompts you to make a selection from the following:

• AutoContent Wizard: This prompts you to make a title slide and then leads you
through choosing a presentation category. Once you choose one you are provided
with an outline that follows a conventional format for this kind of presentation
(e.g. Training, Selling a Product, Service or Ideas). You then type your ideas over
the sample text or prompts in the outline view.
• Template: This is a pre-formatted master that has been designed so that the colors
and backgrounds create a particular "look." You can apply a template to a new or
existing presentation. It will apply to all slides.
• Blank Presentation: This enables you to create slides on a plain white
background.
• Open an Existing Presentation: Enables you to continue working on a
presentation you have already created and saved.

For the purposes of this exercise, click on the circle next to Blank presentation and then
click on the OK button.

Creating Slides

You can create new slides in a variety of ways:

• Click on the Insert menu and select the new slide option OR
• Click on the new slide icon that appears in the tool bar OR
• Select the Ctrl and M keys.

This will take you to the new slide dialog box (see below) which shows you the choices
of slide layouts. You can now choose the format for your next slide. Example: Title slide,
bulleted slide, graph slide, 2 column text slide, text and clip art slide. Move the pointer
over each of the slide choices, clicking once on each (don't double click as this will create
a slide). As you click on each slide the name of the slide format appears in the gray box
on the right. Explore the different layout options that are available.
Create a title slide:

Since the first slide of a presentation is usually the title slide, start your presentation by
double clicking on the title slide. A title slide will appear. The words Click to add title
and click to add subtitle are shown in dotted boxes. Click on the first box and type in
the name of your presentation. Then click in the next box, this time typing in your name
and any other information you might want to include in the subtitle box.

Bulleted list slide:

1. Add a bulleted list slide.


2. Type in a title for the slide in the space provided. [Tip: Use the same format for
all slide titles, so if if you capitalize the title on one slide, do this on all slides, or
use lower case on all]
3. Click where it says add text and type the first bulleted point. Notice that a bullet
appears in front of the phrase.
4. Press the enter key. A new bulleted line appears.
5. To change the bullet appearance:
6. Click on the Format menu and select bullet. This will produce a Bullet dialog
box that enables you to choose the bullet symbol, color, and size. When you click
once on a symbol, an enlarged image of the bullet will appear so you can see what
it will look like. When you have found one you like, click the OK button.
Experiment with different bullet formats.
7. If you want to indent items within a bulleted list to create a sub-list, select the
items you want to indent and then click on the demote button on the tool bar.
8. PowerPoint 2000 uses AutoFit Text which automatically resizes the text to fit the
size of the text box. Thus, if you only have a few words of text in your bulleted
list, the font size will be large. As you add more text, the font size will
automatically be adjusted to become smaller.

If you view these guidelines


online, this image will be
animated. In the animated version
it shows:
(a) larger size text when there are
only four items in the bullet list
(b) smaller size text when there
are five items in the list
[animated image taken from www.microsoft.com]
Viewing PowerPoint Presentations

Tri-Pane View:

The new Tri-Pane View is a new feature of Power Point 2000/2001. It allows you to add
slides, double-check your outline, edit and reformat text, and type commentsóall in one
combined view. This means that you don't have to jump between slides or slide views to
keep track of your points. This also means that it takes you less time to create your
presentation.

Screen shot showing the tri-


pane view.

(a) On the left is the outline view


of the slides showing the text that
appears on each.
(b) On the right is the slide view,
showing text, images, and
background.
(c) On the bottom is the notes
page view, showing the presenter
notes that accompany the slide.
[image taken from www.microsoft.com]

You can resize each of these 3 panes by clicking on the border or frame of the pane.
When you do this the cursor becomes a two-sided arrow. Drag this over to increase or
decrease the size of the pane.

Slide Views:

In addition to the Tri-Pane view (described and shown above) Power Point presentations
can be shown in 5 different views. To see the sample presentation in each of these views,
click the View menu. This will list the following views:

• Slide view: The best view for editing slide content and layout.
• Outline view: Shows only text. Useful for developing initial content of slides
and for viewing text content of entire presentation in a linear form.
• Slide sorter: Allows you to see many slides at once. Use when you want to:
reorder slides, delete slide, create transitions between slides, create build effect of
a slide, rehearse talk time of slide if you have slides running on a timer.
• Slide show: This is the view you use when giving the presentation. To advance
to next slide, click on mouse or hit forward arrow key. Hit back arrow key to
return to previous slide. To quit the slide show, hit the escape key (this will take
you to the slide sorter view).
• Normal view: This is the default or tri-pane view,

Practice using each of the views. You can switch among view options either by using the
View menu or clicking on the small view buttons shown at the bottom left of the screen.
When you hold the selection arrow over them the name of the view will appear, making it
easier for your to locate the view you want.

Changing the order of slides, deleting slides, and duplicating slides

To change the order:

In outline view:

1. Click on the icon symbol that of the slide you want to move (you can tell
that when you have selected it because the icon becomes highlighted and
the cursor changes into the four-arrows symbol).
2. Drag the slide to the point at which you now want it to appear in your
presentation
3. Release the mouse button.

In the slide sorter:

1. Choose the slide sorter view (from menu or by clicking on the slide sorter
icon on the tool bar). This will display the slides in rows.
2. Click on the slide you want to move, drag the slide to its new position
3. Release the mouse to "drop" the slide into its new location.

To delete a slide:

Either the outline or in the slide sorter view, click on the slide and hit the delete key.

To duplicate a slide:

1. Either in the outline or in the slide sorter view, click on the slide
2. From the menu choose edit --> duplicate (or use the short-cut control-D).
[This is a useful feature if you want to create a number of slides that have
the same design. Simply create one and then duplicate it as many times as
you need in order to create the required number of slides].

Changing the design of slides (apply design)

PowerPoint comes with a series of slide designs. You can change the design of the slides
by:
1. From the Format menu --> select Apply Design Template. When you do this a
Apply Design Template dialog box appears.
2. Click on designs in the list to preview what they look like (a small picture of the
design will show in a window when you click once on a design name). When you
find one that you like, click the apply button.
3. Even though the design you have chosen may look good on your computer screen,
it may not necessarily be effective when projected on a screen (the font on some
designs is difficult to read). You should therefore check this before giving a
presentation, or if this is not possible, select a design that you know works well,
such as dark text on light background, or white text on black background.

Tip: If you intend to print handouts of your slides (usually 3 or 6 slides per page), you
can preview what your slides will look like in black and white by clicking on the View
menu --> select Black and White (Windows) or Grayscale (Mac). This is important to
do as when printed in black and white, some slide designs make it very difficult to read
the text.

Inserting and formatting text

Once you have created a slide you can type text in the pre-formatted text boxes provided
on the slide, or you can create text boxes. For pre-formatted text boxes:

1. Click in the text box and begin typing. The font size, color, and style will be
predetermined by the presentation design that you have chosen (Later you can
experiment with changing the Presentation Design and notice how the font
changes). You can change the font, but do so with caution as the default has been
selected for what works best for each slide layout and design.
2. To change font size: Drag across the words you wish to reformat, then from the
format menu bar select font. This will bring up the Font dialog box which
allows you to change the font, font style, size, effects, and color.

(You can also change the font color by clicking on the font color button on the drawing
tool bar and the font size button on the formatting toolbar)

Inserting Headers and Footers

For professional presentations it is a good idea to create a header or footer to display


information about your presentation on every slide (example: to display your name and
organization).

1. From the menu bar, choose View -- > Header and Footer. This will bring up the
header and footer dialog box.
2. Click on the the slide tab:
o enter your choices for what you wish to have displayed on the slides (date
and time, slide number, and footer). The position of choices you make will
be shown in the preview window.
o click on the box "Don't show on title slide" if you do not want your footer
on this slide.
3. Click on the notes and handouts tab:
o Again make your selection and enter the text you want to appear, but this
time you have a choice of header and footer (you may choose either or
both).
4. Click Apply to All to have the header and/or footer to appear on all slides or
Apply to have your choices to apply only to the currently selected slide.

Moving and resizing text boxes and objects

1. To move any object, click and hold down the mouse button so that the pointer
turns into a 4-way arrow. Then drag the object to the desired destination and
unclick to "drop" the object.
2. To resize a box or object, click and drag on one of the top, side, or corner boxes

(handle bars).
3. The top and side ones make the object narrower or shorter (and do not keep the
original proportions of the object). The corner handlebars enable you to reduce
the object size while maintaining its original proportions.

Inserting clip art

Clip art refers to pictures that can be inserted into presentations. Power Point comes with
a library of clip art. This can be inserted in a variety of ways:

• Click on the Clip Art icon in the tool bar


• From the Insert menu, select Picture and then follow the arrow to the right and
select Clip Art.
• If you are using a Text & Clip Art slide, there will be a a clip art box on the slide.
Double click the clip art icon on this slide.

Any of the above options will open the clip art gallery dialog box. Then:

• You can view all categories or select one category from the list.
• To insert the clip art:
PC users: Click on the picture you want to insert --> from the call out box that
appears select the first icon insert clip icon).
Mac users: Double click on your choice of clip art (or click on it once and then
click the OK button).
• This inserts the image on your slide. If necessary you can then resize it and drag it
to a different place on the slide.

Creating build effects

Usually you should use build effects only for slides that have separate lines of text and
for which it is appropriate to have participants see one line at a time rather than the full
text. You may also use this if want images to appear at a different time than the text.

1. Have open the slide that you wish to animate.


2. From the menu select Slide Show --> choose Animation --> Custom animation.
This will bring up the Custom Animation dialog box.
3. A small picture of your slide appears in the preview window and a list of the
objects on your slide in the adjacent window.
4. In the preview window, click on the object or text that you want to animate
(usually the bulleted text box, which will be called something like, "Text 2."
("Text 1" is usually the page title).
5. Under the effects tab choose the entry and sound from the pull down menus (so
that items appear one at a time from the direction you choose and making the
sound you choose).
Tip: While it's fun it create presentations that have items appearing randomly and
with sound effects, for the audience this is very distracting. It's usually more
effective to have items appear as fast as possible from the same direction, without
any sound.
6. If you want a line of text to dim once the next line of text appears, under After
animation select the dim color. You can preview what this looks like by clicking
on the Preview button. This dim effect helps your audience focus on the point
you are discussing, but still allows them to see the whole list.
7. Under the Order and Timing tab, select the order in which you want the items on
the slide to appear and also select what will initiate the animation (mouse click or
timer). It's best to set this to on mouse click if you are going to be giving the
presentation (if you want the presentation to loop automatically, choose that
option, but for now use the former choice).

Creating transitions

1. From the menu select Slide Show and then --> choose Slide Transition. This will
bring up the Slide Transition dialog box.
2. Click on the arrows next to where it says No Transition and select one of the
options. Tips: It's usually best:
a. to have the slides advance on mouse click rather than automatically
b. to have the slides advance without any sound (distracts and then annoys!)
c. As fast as possible -- so click on the fast button and also select a transition that
appears rapidly.
3. Usually it's best to have the same transitions for all slides, so select the Apply to
all button.

Inserting photographs, video clips, and sound

To insert photographs, video clips, or sound, you follow a similar procedure to inserting
clip art (see above).

From the Insert menu, select Picture and then follow the arrow to the right and select
From File. You will be prompted to identify the source of the picture. Locate the drive
and folder in which you have the picture/video/sound (best to keep it in the same folder
as the rest of your power point presentation). Alternative option for photographs: Open
the picture, copy it (using edit -- copy), switch to your power point presentation, and
paste the photo into the slide.

(Note: Inserting photographs, video clips, or sound is covered in detail in the


Intermediate Power Point Workshop)

Drawing your own graphics

To insert lines, boxes, and an assortment of shapes you will use the drawing tool bar.
1. Autoshapes allows you to create a variety of shapes:

Select from the list and then move the pointer onto the slide. The pointer will turn
into a cross. Click with the cross at the point where you want to draw the shape
and drag across the screen, then release. You can then resize the object using the
handlebars, or change the object color (see "Changing background color of the
box" and "Moving and resizing text boxes and objects" above).

2. The arrow is for drawing different kinds of arrows. Click on this and
then move the pointer onto the slide. The pointer will turn into a cross. Click with
the cross at the point where you want your arrow to begin and drag across the
screen, then release. To choose the style of the arrow, click on the arrow that you
have drawn and then select the arrow style icon from the tool bar:

Click on the style of your choice from the list that appears.

3. The line is for drawing lines, and works in the same way as the arrow. You
can also change the line style by using the line and dash style icons found on this
same tool bar.
4. The shadow and 3-D tools are for creating shadow and 3-D effects on
other images. To use these you first have to draw an autoshape or a box using the
rectangle or oval tools

5. Click on the rectangle or oval and follow the same steps as you would
for drawing an autoshape (see above). Once you have drawn your image on the
screen, click on it and then select either the shadow or 3-D icon. Make your
selection from the shadow or 3-D choices that appear.

Changing the color of an object

1. Double-click on the object to bring up the Format AutoShape dialog box. Select
the Colors and Lines tab.
2. Click on the color and select the desired color from the choices that appear, or
click on More Colors to give you a wider choice of colors. When you have made
your choice, click OK.
3. Fill Effects: In the Format AutoShape dialog box:
1. select the Colors and Lines tab, Click on the color and choose Fill
Effects.
2. Click on the One Color radio button and move the slider all the way over
to Light.
3. Under Shading Styles, select any of the shading styles you think would be
attractive (Hint: click on the radio buttons to see what each of the styles
look like, then click on the appropriately shaded box). Click OK and click
OK again.

You can also change the color of an object by clicking on the object and then clicking on
the Fill Color icon on the drawing tool bar. Then follow the same steps as above.

Inserting text boxes

Typically presentations include text in the form of bulleted lists. However, you may want
to add text someone else on the slide (separate from the bulleted list). To do this:

1. Click on the Rectangle icon shown in the drawing tool bar. This will change your
cursor to a "plus" sign.
2. Click anywhere on your slide and, without releasing the left mouse button, drag a
rectangular box about 2 inches square.
3. Click on the Text icon, and then click on the box you just created in step 2. This
will highlight the box and place a text cursor on the box.
4. Type in the box. (Note:You may find that the text overflows the box and is
generally ugly.)
Double click on the highlighted edge of the box. This opens a Format AutoShape
dialog box. Select the Text Box tab, and then check the little box saying Word
wrap text in autoshape. Click OK.
5. You can fit the text in the box either by changing the box size or by changing the
font size:
1. Changing the box size: With the box highlighted, click once on one of the
tiny square boxes along the border of the box and drag it to the desired
size.
2. Changing the font size: Select the text in the box by triple-clicking any
word in the text. On your toolbar above the slide, change the font size by
selecting a smaller number than the one currently listed.

Copying box (or any object)

It is often easier to create a single box, get it the way we want, and then simply copy the
box and replace the text for subsequent boxes. You can duplicate any object by selecting
it, copying it to the clipboard, and pasting it to your slide. Here's how you go through the
process with this box:

1. Select the box by clicking somewhere on its edge. If you can see the cursor
flashing in the box, the box is not selected. You need to select the box by clicking
somewhere on its border.
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu. (Hint: You can also click on the Copy icon on
your toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+C)
3. Select Paste from the Edit menu (or click on the Paste icon or use the keyboard
shortcut Ctrl+V). This pastes a copy of the original box on the screen.
4. You can then move copy of the box to any place on the slide by clicking on it and
dragging it.

Creating Charts (Graphs)

[This section of these guidelines was adapted from the Intermediate PowerPoint
Guidelines developed by Barbara Johnson of UMD ITSS]

1. Create a new slide --> choose the chart slide (to add new slide go to insert --> new
slide --> choose chart layout). A chart slide will appear.
2. Click where it says "click to add title" and type in a title for your slide (example:
Recreation Choices)
3. Double click in the lower region where it says Double click to add chart --> this
will open an example of a chart with its accompanying datasheet. You can edit
these to create your own chart (so you do not have to set up your own graph from
scratch).
4. Notice the changes in your menu and tool bars (different from those on other
slides).
5. Move your cursor over the datasheet area --> notice that it turns into a white cross
6. Click on the heading of column A--> when the whole column becomes
highlighted, press the Delete key to clear the sample data from this column
7. Repeat for columns B, C, and D
8. Following the example below, enter data into the datasheet:
o Click in the first cell of column A
o Type a description of the data (example: number of pets)
o Click in the first column for the first data series. Delete the word "East"
from the enter a name for this data set (example: cats)
o Type a name for the first data set
o Click in the cell to the right of this cell and enter the value for that cell
(Example: 8)
o Repeat, giving a name for the subsequent data sets and inserting a value in
the next to each (Example: dogs = 15; Birds = 3)
o
9. When you have entered the data close the datasheet window.
10. If you want to customize the graph:
11. Make sure the graph is selected (so that is has a broad, hashed line around it)
12. From the menu bar --> choose Chart
13. From the chart menu --> choose Chart Type to change the type of graph from the
default to pie charts or lines (or any of the other choices). You can choose "Chart
Options" to make changes to how the chart displays. Example: choose Chart
Type. You will see a window similar to this:
14. Make sure the Standard Types tab is selected.
15. Click on some of the different chart types (in the left window) to see the different
subtypes associated with each (in the right window). If you want to see how your
data will appear as the selected chart type, press and hold the button in the lower
right labeled Press and Hold to View Sample.
16. When you are done making your choice --> click the OK button. [Note:
depending upon the data in your data sheet, some graph types will not be
applicable]
17. One possible frustration comes about when the graph type that you want to use is
based on organizing the data by row (when you have it in columns) or by column
(when you have it is rows). Fortunately, this organization is under your control
when you define the data series. To define the data series:
18. Make sure the graph is selected. It should have a broad, hashed line around it
19. From the menu bar --> choose Data --> from the data menu, choose either Series
in Rows or Series in Columns. (Usually, the data series starts in rows, so if your
graph is not displaying as you expected, try the series in columns.)

Printing

Click on print icon or go to File menu and select print. A Print dialogue box appears,
asking you to select what you want to print. Choose from:

o Slides (will print one slide per page): Print these if you intend to make
overhead transparencies of the slides.
o Notes pages: Print these if you have made notes and want to use them to
guide you while you are giving the presentations (like note cards used in
giving a speech). Having these not only helps remind you of details that
aren't on the actual slides, but also enables you to face your audience
rather than having to turn to read/look at your slide on the screen.
o Handouts (2 - 9 slides per page). Typically you should print 3 slides per
page if you expect participants to take notes about what you have on each
slide. If you just want them to have a copy of the slides for future
reference, then 6 slides per page works fine.
o Outline view: Print this when you want an outline of all your slides
o without text.

INTERNET AND INTERNET ADVANTAGES


A global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked
into exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike online services, which are centrally
controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host,
is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local
services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by
design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most
online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also
possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP).

INTERNET ADVANTAGES
There many advantages to using the internet such as:

• Email.
Email is now an essential communication tools in business. It is also excellent for keeping
in touch with family and friends. The advantages to email is that it is free ( no charge per
use) when compared to telephone, fax and postal services.
• Information.
There is a huge amount of information available on the internet for just about every
subject known to man, ranging from government law and services, trade fairs and
conferences, market information, new ideas and technical support.
• Services.
Many services are now provided on the internet such as online banking, job seeking and
applications, and hotel reservations. Often these services are not available off-line or cost
more.
• Buy or sell products.
The internet is a very effective way to buy and sell products all over the world.
• Communities.
Communities of all types have sprung up on the internet. Its a great way to meet
up with people of similar interest and discuss common issues.

STEPS OF INSERTING CHARTS IN MS EXCEL


Enter the Chart Data

The first step in creating a column chart is to enter the data into the worksheet. When
entering the data, keep these rules in mind:

1. Don't leave blank rows or columns when entering your data.

2. Enter your data in columns.

Two Options for Selecting the Chart Data

Using the mouse

1. Drag select with the mouse button to highlight the cells containing the data to be
included in the column chart.

Using the keyboard

1. Click on the top left of the column charts's data.


2. Hold down the SHIFT key on the keyboard.
3. Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to select the data to be included in the column
chart.

Selecting a Column Chart Type

Note: For help with these instructions, see the image example above.

1. Click on the Insert ribbon tab.

2. Click on a chart category to open the drop down list of available chart types.

(Hovering your mouse pointer over a chart type will bring up a description of the
chart type).

3. Click on a chart type to select it.

For this tutorial

1. Choose Insert > Column > 3-d Clustered Column.

2. A basic column chart is created and placed on your worksheet. The following
pages cover formatting this chart to match the column chart shown in Step 1 of
this tutorial.

Chart Tools Ribbon

Note: For help with these instructions, see the image example above.

When you click on a chart, three tabs - the Design, Layout, and Format tabs are added to
the ribbon under the title of Chart Tools.

Choosing a style for the column chart

1. Click on the column chart.

2. Click on the Design tab.

3. Choose Style 3 of the Chart Styles

Adding a title to the chart

1. Click on the Layout tab.

2. Click on Chart Title under the Labels section.

3. Select the third option - Above Chart.


4. Type in the title "2003 - 05 Income Summary"

Formatting the Column Chart - 2

Adding a drop shadow to the title

1. Drag select the chart title.

2. Click on the Format ribbon tab.

3. Choose Text Effects > Shadow > Offset Right.

Coloring the chart background

1. Click on the chart background.

2. Click on the Shape Fill > Gradient > Linear Diagonal option.

3. Choose Shape Fill > Gradient > More Gradients to bring up


the Format Chart Area dialog box.

4. Choose Color > Dark Blue, Text 2.

5. Click Close.

Changing the gridline color

6. Click on the Layout tab.

7. Choose Gridlines > Primary Horizontal Gridlines > More Primary


Horizontal Gridlines Options
to bring up the Format Major Gridlines dialog box.

8. Choose Line Color > Solid Line and set the line color to white.

9. Click Close.

Beveling the chart edge

1. Click on the chart background.

2. Choose Shape Effects > Bevel > Divot.


Formatting the Column Chart - 3

Note: For help with these instructions, see the image example above.

Coloring the chart floor

1. Click on the chart background to select it.

2. Click on the Layout ribbon tab.

3. Choose Chart Elements > Floor to select the floor area of the chart.

4. Click on Format Selection to bring up the Format Floor dialog box.

5. Choose Fill > Solid Fill to add a blue color to the floor.

6. Click Close.

Hiding the vertical axis

1. Choose Chart Elements > Vertical (Value) Axis to select the chart's vertical
axis.

2. Click on Format Selection to bring up the Format Axis dialog box.

3. Choose Line Color > No Line.

4. Click Close.

Applying 3-d rotation to the chart

1. Choose Chart Elements > Chart Area to select the chart.

2. Click on Format Selection to bring up the Format Chart Area dialog box.

3. Choose 3-D Rotation in the left hand window.

4. In the right hand window, set the rotation to:


o X - 50
o Y - 20

Column Chart Tutorial Data


Enter the data below in the cells indicated to create the column chart covered in this
tutorial.
Cell - Data
A1 - Income Summary - The Cookie Shop
A3 - Total Revenues:
A4 - Total Expenses:
A5 - Profit/Loss:
B2 - 2003
B3 - 82837
B4 - 57190
B5 - 25674
C2 - 2004
C3 - 83291
C4 - 59276
C5 - 26101
D2 - 2005
D3 - 75682
D4 - 68645
D5 - 18492

INSERTING TABLES IN MS WORD


Insert or create a table

Insert a table
In Microsoft Office Word 2007, you can insert a table by choosing from a selection of
preformatted tables — complete with sample data — or by selecting the number of rows
and columns that you want. You can insert a table into a document, or you can insert one
table into another table to create a more complex table.

Use table templates

You can use table templates to insert a table that is based on a gallery of preformatted
tables. Table templates contain sample data to help you visualize what the table will look
like when you add your data.

1. Click where you want to insert a table.


2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table, point to Quick Tables, and
then click the template that you want.
3. Replace the data in the template with the data that you want.

Use the Table menu

1. Click where you want to insert a table.


2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table, and then, under Insert Table,
drag to select the number of rows and columns that you want.

Use the Insert Table command

You can use the Insert Table command to choose the table dimensions and format
before you insert the table into a document.

1. Click where you want to insert a table.


2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table, and then click Insert Table.

3. Under Table size, enter the number of columns and rows.


4. Under AutoFit behavior, choose options to adjust the table size.

Create a table
You can create a table by drawing the rows and columns that you want or by converting
text to a table.

Draw a table

You can draw a complex table — for example, one that contains cells of different heights
or a varying number of columns per row.

1. Click where you want to create the table.


2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table, and then click Draw Table.

The pointer changes to a pencil.


3. To define the outer table boundaries, draw a rectangle. Then draw the column
lines and row lines inside the rectangle.

4. To erase a line or block of lines, under Table Tools, on the Design tab, in the
Draw Borders group, click Eraser.
5. Click the line that you want to erase. To erase the entire table, see Delete a table
or clear its contents.
6. When you finish drawing the table, click in a cell and start typing or insert a
graphic.

Convert text to a table

1. Insert separator characters — such as commas or tabs — to indicate where you


want to divide the text into columns. Use paragraph marks to indicate where you
want to begin a new row.

For example, in a list with two words on a line, insert a comma or a tab after the
first word to create a two-column table.

2. Select the text that you want to convert.


3. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table, and then click Convert Text
to Table.

4. In the Convert Text to Table dialog box, under Separate text at, click the option
for the separator character that you used in the text.Select any other options that
you want.
Place a table inside another table
Tables that are inside other tables are called nested tables and are often used to design
Web pages. If you think of a Web page as one big table that holds other tables — with
text and graphics inside different table cells — you can lay out the different parts of your
page.

You can insert a nested table by clicking in a cell and then using any of the methods to
insert a table, or you can draw a table where you want the nested table.

About the Table Tools contextual tabs


You will need to know where the Design and Layout Table Tools contextual tabs are
when working on the design and structural layout of a table. The Design and Layout tabs
are only visible after you have clicked inside of a table, and appear at the top of the
screen on the ribbon.

STEPS FOR CREATING PRESENTATION IN AUTO CONTENT WIZARD

Creating Presentation with AutoContent Wizard.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns =


"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />
PowerPoint offers a variety of ways to create a new presentation. You can create a
presentation by using wizard or a template. You can also create a blank presentation.
Start Auto Content Wizard
The first option in PowerPoint dialog box under Create a new presentation using is the
From AutoContent Wizard. The AutoContent Wizard is a guide composed of several
screens that help you to create a professional presentation quickly and easily. It basically
takes you through series of questions. You can choose options to create a good
presentation.
The Steps to create a presentation using the AutoContent Wizard are:-

1. Select the AutoContent Wizard option from the PowerPoint dialog box.

A dialog box as shown in the figure displayed.


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The AutoContent Wizard can create 8 to 12 slides with suggested content that you can
change.

2. Click on the Next Button.

A Dialog box as Shown in the Figure is displayed.


Press a category button for the type of presentation you are going to create and then select
the presentation that best suits your need.

3. Select the presentation style in the Next screen as Shown

The following screen helps choose the type of output you will be using and the wizard
will select the best color scheme for your presentation. You can change the look of your
presentation by applying other color schemes available in the format menu.

4. Enter data into each text box and click on the Next Button.

The information entered by you will be put into the presentation be the wizard for you.
You can always change this information later.

5. The next screen will end the AutoContent Wizard and in turn your presentation will be
created as Shown below.

The Presentation created by the wizard for you will be seen in the Normal View as
displayed in the figure below.

STEPS FOR INSERTING ORGANISATION CHART IN POWERPOINT

Create an organization chart


You can insert an organization chart into a document to illustrate an organization’s
structure or to depict other hierarchical relationships—for example, the families, genera,
and species of a particular order of biological organisms. To add an organization chart,
perform the following steps:

1. On the Insert menu, point to Picture, and then click Organization Chart.

Office will then insert an organization chart with a single top-level box and three
subordinate boxes, and the Organization Chart toolbar displays. (This toolbar
appears automatically whenever you select an organization chart.)
2. To add text to a box, click in it and type the desired text.
3. To add a new box, click an existing box to select it, click the down arrow on the
Insert Shape button on the Organization Chart toolbar, and then click the
desired relationship of the new box to the selected box, as shown below:

Or, to insert a new box with the Subordinate relationship, simply click the Insert
Shape button (but not on the down arrow).

To delete a box, click on one of the box’s borders to select the box (so that eight
moving handles appear around the box) and then press Delete.

4. To modify the overall structure of the organization chart, click the down arrow on
the Layout button on the Organization Chart toolbar and choose the structure
you want.
You can move a particular box within the chart by dragging one of the box’s
borders and dropping the box on another box.

Tip The AutoLayout command on the Layout drop-down menu (which is on


by default) causes Office to automatically maintain the positions and sizes of the
individual AutoShape objects that make up an organization chart (or one of the
other types of diagrams described below). This option restricts the ways you can
modify the AutoShapes—for example, you might not be able to drag an
AutoShape to a particular position if this option is on. If you’re customizing a
diagram and can’t modify an AutoShape the way you want, try turning this option
off. Otherwise, you should leave it on.

5. To modify the organization chart’s overall style, click the AutoFormat button on
the Organization Chart toolbar and choose a style in the Organization Chart
Style Gallery dialog box.

To see the name of a toolbar button in a ScreenTip (ScreenTips: Notes that appear
on the screen to provide information about a toolbar button, tracked change, or
comment, or to display a footnote or endnote. ScreenTips also display the text that
will appear if you choose to insert a date or AutoText entry.), rest your mouse
pointer on the button.

Create other types of diagrams


To insert a cycle, radial, pyramid, Venn, or target diagram, perform the following steps:

1. On the Insert menu, click Diagram.


2. In the Diagram Gallery dialog box, click the particular type of diagram you want
to create and then click the OK button. Or, just double-click the diagram type.

Selecting the Organization Chart diagram type has the same effect as choosing
the Insert menu, pointing to Picture, and then clicking Organization Chart. The
procedure for creating an organization chart is different from that for creating the
other diagram types. If you want an organization chart, follow the instructions
above.

Office will insert the basic diagram and will display the Diagram toolbar. (This
toolbar appears automatically whenever you select a diagram other than an
organization chart.) The diagram will consist of a collection of AutoShapes, all
inside a rectangular drawing area (see below).
3. To add text to the diagram, click in any of the AutoShapes that are labeled "Click
to add text" and type in your text.
4. To add a new shape to the diagram (for example, a new sector to a cycle diagram
or a new level to a pyramid diagram), click the Insert Shape button on the
Diagram toolbar.

To delete a shape, click on one of the AutoShape borders and press Delete.

5. To rearrange your text labels within the diagram, select the AutoShape containing
the particular label you want to move, and then on the Diagram toolbar, click the
Move Shape Backward button to move the label within the diagram in one
direction or the Move Shape Forward button to move it in the other direction.

To see the name of a toolbar button in a ScreenTip (ScreenTips: Notes that appear
on the screen to provide information about a toolbar button, tracked change, or
comment, or to display a footnote or endnote. ScreenTips also display the text that
will appear if you choose to insert a date or AutoText entry.), rest your mouse
pointer on the button.

6. To reverse the order of the labels in the diagram, click the Reverse Diagram
button on the Diagram toolbar.
7. To adjust the size of the drawing area containing the diagram, click the Layout
button on the Diagram toolbar and then choose an option.
The Fit Diagram To Contents and Expand Diagram commands change the
overall size of the drawing area that contains the diagram without scaling the
diagram itself.

Note The Resize Diagram and AutoLayout commands on the Layout drop-
down menu work the same way as the Resize Organization Chart and
AutoLayout commands on the Layout menu for an organization chart, described
above.

8. To modify the diagram’s overall style, click the AutoFormat button and click a
style in the Diagram Style Gallery dialog box.

9. To convert the diagram to another type (for example, to change a cycle diagram to
a Venn diagram) while preserving your text labels, click the Change To button on
the Diagram toolbar and choose the drawing type you want as shown below: