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BACKGROUND OF BACKGROUND OF

GE E i i GE Engineering
START WITH
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
Until 40s, geotech was a loosely structured practices
relyung on a few rules of thumb y g
After 1950s, soil mech +foundation engg grew rapidly
due to Terzaghi, Casagrande, Taylor, Skempton, Bishop
and Peck
Practice of soil mech & foundation engg became
vigorous based on rational design approach
Parallel to it practice of rock mech &geology engg also Parallel to it practice of rock mech & geology engg also
evolved
Then all four combined name Geotech Engg in the early
1980s.
POST 2
ND
WORLD WAR
ECONOMIC BOOM ECONOMIC BOOM
Rapid industrialization particularly chemical industries
grew tremendously to produce wide variety of
d t products
Required tremendous amts of organic chemicals while
increase the use of heavy metals increase the use of heavy metals
Mass increase in the qty of wastes and their disposal
A id t l ill f th h i l Accidental spills of these chemicals
Created numerous contaminated grounds in US and
elsewhere elsewhere
POLUTANTS POLUTANTS
The onset of nuclear power plants and nuclear The onset of nuclear power plants and nuclear
waste generation
Awareness of contaminated problem initiated p
Begin the involvement of geotech engineers in
environmental matters
US National Environmental Policy of 1970
Environmental Impact Assessments were o e ta pact ssess e ts e e
required for any federal projects that could
affect the environment e.g. nuclear power plant
Role of Geotechnical Engineers
Geotech engineers lead detailed site investigation for impact
assessments
Another concern was the ultimate disposal of high-level Another concern was the ultimate disposal of high level
radioactive wastes which remain lethal for thousands of years
Play important role in the investigation and characterization of Play important role in the investigation and characterization of
suitable host soil and rocks for waste repositories
Also determine long-term performance of earth materials
under realistic temp and pressure, probable groundwater
impacts, and potential risks
One US Widely Publicized Environmental Case Study
Contamination at Love Canal Contamination at Love Canal
Locate at Upstate NewYork US Locate at Upstate, New York, US
Chemical wastes buried in an old canal and
covered with clayey soil covered with clayey soil
Chemicals seeped out to contaminated the soil
and groundwater and groundwater
Health of residents was adversely affected
Entire area evacuated Entire area evacuated
Drew national attention to improper disposal and
management of chemical wastes management of chemical wastes
RESULTS RESULTS
After 1970 began discussion on prevention & After 1970 began discussion on prevention &
mitigation of improper waste disposal practice
NewUS regulations for (1) remediation of New US regulations for (1) remediation of
contaminated sites & (2) design of effective
waste containment systems for newly created waste containment systems for newly created
wastes
M t d R C ti d R Mooted Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA) and subsequent amendments to
dd i f di l f l t d address issues of disposal of newly generated
wastes
RESULTS RESULTS
In 1980 US Congress passed the In 1980, US Congress passed the
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)
known as Superfund to clean up contaminated
sites sites
In cases where the responsible polluting parties
could not be identified or incapable of paying for could not be identified or incapable of paying for
the cleanup
REQUIREMENTS OF GE ENGINEERS REQUIREMENTS OF GE ENGINEERS
Geotechnical engineer Geotechnical engineer
Knowledge of earth materials and ground water
vital for the a)investigation b)design and vital for the a)investigation, b)design and
c)actual cleanup of the contaminated sites AND
design of containment facilities design of containment facilities
REQUIREMENTS OF GE ENGINEERS REQUIREMENTS OF GE ENGINEERS
Waste containment and remediation problems require Waste containment and remediation problems require
an understanding of physical characteristics of the
subsurface and the ability to engineer it using the skill
of classical geotechnical engineering
Also an understanding of the chemical characteristics
of subsurface and the ability to engineer pollution
control or removal using the skills of environmental
engineering engineering
Thus, a combination of these two engineering to
address various aspects of such problems address various aspects of such problems.
REQUIREMENTS OF GE ENGINEERS REQUIREMENTS OF GE ENGINEERS
In addition knowledge of environmental In addition, knowledge of environmental
regulations, hydrogeology, environmental,
chemistry geochemistry and microbiology is chemistry, geochemistry and microbiology is
needed.
Recognising this fact a newspecialty of civil Recognising this fact, a new specialty of civil
engineering known as Geoenvironmental
Engineering OR Environmental Geotechnology Engineering OR Environmental Geotechnology
or Environmental Geotechnics emerged in the
early 1990 early 1990
ABOUT GE ENGINEERING ABOUT GE ENGINEERING
It encompasses the behaviour of soils It encompasses the behaviour of soils,
rocks, and groundwater when they interact
with contaminants and with contaminants , and
Addresses problems of hazardous and
nonhazardous waste management and nonhazardous waste management, and
Management of contaminated sits.
EVOLVEMENT OF GE ENGINEERING EVOLVEMENT OF GE ENGINEERING
GE evolving rapidly & environmental laws and g p y
regulations that have significant impact on GE
are constantly changing
E i l bl i ll Environmental problems are numerous in all
industrialised and developing countries and to
growwith increased chemical waste generation grow with increased chemical waste generation
& handling
Thus, GE engineers play a vital role in pollution
control strategies particularly in the design of
effective and economical waste containment and
remediation systems remediation systems.
TYPES OF GEOENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
GE problems can be grouped into 3 categories
1. Contaminated Site Remediation
Remediate already contaminated soils &
groundwater using in-situ barrier & in-situ or ex-
situ treatment methods situ treatment methods
2. Waste Containment
Safe disposal of newly generated wastes
impoundment, and landfills
3. Waste Minimisation by Recycling
Minimisation of waste generation and disposal Minimisation of waste generation and disposal
by recycle and using waste materials in various
civil engineering applications, and beneficial use
of closed waste disposal areas of closed waste disposal areas.
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF GE
PROBLEMS WITH EXAMPLES PROBLEMS WITH EXAMPLES
Until early 1970s environmental laws and Until early 1970s environmental laws and
regulations did not exist. Chemicals were used
and wastes disposed off without proper
consideration of potential impacts on public
health and environment.
Result: over 20,000 sites in US alone were
contaminated by toxic chemicals which posed
unacceptable risk to public health and unacceptable risk to public health and
environment (US Environmental Protection
Agency) Agency)
EXAMPLE 1 Love Canal Site near
Ni F ll N Y Niagara Falls, N.Y.
A classical case demonstrates the A classical case demonstrates the
consequences of improper disposal of waste
Between 1942-1953, over 20,000 tonnes was Between 1942 1953, over 20,000 tonnes was
disposed off in an abandoned canal by a chemical
manufacturing company.
In 1953, the Niagara School board bought the
property, despit a warning regarding the chemical
waste presence waste presence
A school was built and opened in 1955, with some
buildings atop the waste-filled canal g p
By 1972, several homes with basements were built
surrounding the school
EXAMPLE 1 Love Canal Site near
Ni F ll N Y Niagara Falls, N.Y.
In 1976 heavy rainfall in the area caused In 1976, heavy rainfall in the area caused
groundwater to rise and subsidence of the
waste filled area and contamination of waste-filled area and contamination of
surface water
S f d t t t d t i Seepage of groundwater transported toxic
chemicals into the basemwents of the
di h surrounding homes.
Children in the area fell sick in 1977 & 1978
and the contamination was discovered
EXAMPLE 1 Love Canal Site near
Ni F ll N Y Niagara Falls, N.Y.
The Love Canal site was then evacuated and The Love Canal site was then evacuated and
a state of emergency was declared
E t i di l ti t thi it Extensive remedial action at this site was
undertaken and a total cost exceeding USD
200 illi 200 millions
This incidence drew national attention and
initiate many geoenvironmental laws and
regulations
EXAMPLE 2 SPILLAGE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS
Occurred during handling, transportation, and
storage and polluted soils and groundwater
Leaking underground storage tanks that contain
petroleum products and other toxic chemicals are
common occurrences
EXAMPLE 2 SPILLAGE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS
Fairfield Semiconductor Corporation, Site at San J ose,
California California
Operated from 1977 and closed in 1983.
In 1981, an underground storage tank contained organic
l t f il d d d t i ti f b th il d solvents failed and caused contamination of both soil and
groundwater by a mixture of solvents.
Estimated 60,000 gallons of waste solvents was released g
Extensive remedial action was necessary including removal
of tanks, installation of slurry walls around the site
perimeter to contain contaminated ground extraction of perimeter to contain contaminated ground, extraction of
contaminated groundwater and treatment of contaminated
soils.
The remedial action cost then was over USD4 millions The remedial action cost then was over USD 4 millions
ROLE OF GE ENGINEERS ROLE OF GE ENGINEERS
Assume a critical role in the remediation of Assume a critical role in the remediation of
contaminated sites in dealing with contaminated
soil & groundwater
Knowledge of soil composition, soil stratigraphy,
groundwater hydraulics, and geochemical can
be applied to assess, develop and implement
effective remedial methods
H h i l d b Have the capacity to lead subsequent
subsurface investigations for the design of in-situ
remedial strategies remedial strategies
WASTE CONTAINMENT WASTE CONTAINMENT
Wastes created always required disposal y q p
despite the best waste management
practices p
Such wastes are: 1)household garbage
2)mine refuse, 3)highly toxic industrial by- 2)mine refuse, 3)highly toxic industrial by
products, and 4)nuclear wastes
Need proper disposal of these wastes in Need proper disposal of these wastes in
engineered waste containment facilities to
protect public health and the environment protect public health and the environment
CONTAINMENT FACILITIES CONTAINMENT FACILITIES
1. For Liquid Wastes
- known as surface impoundments or known as surface impoundments or
more commonly, lagoons & ponds
They have to be lined properly at the - They have to be lined properly at the
bottom to prevent infiltration into
subsurface of their chemicals subsurface of their chemicals
CONTAINMENT FACILITIES CONTAINMENT FACILITIES
2. For Solid Wastes 2. For Solid Wastes
- Containment facilities known as landfills
- In the early 1970s wastes were disposed off In the early 1970s, wastes were disposed off
in open ditches or pits, or piled above the ground
surface
- With no lining at the bottom it led to
contamination of a site as contaminant from the
piles and impoundments seeped out of the pits
and infiltrated the subsurface, causing
d t ll ti groundwater pollution
CONTAINMENT FACILITIES CONTAINMENT FACILITIES
- An impermeable cap constructed over the pit will reduce An impermeable cap constructed over the pit will reduce
rainwater infiltration and subsequently leaching of
contaminants into the groundwater
- However, record showed that contaminants may seep
out and contaminate the soil and groundwater more than
35m below ground level. g
- Corrective action involving costly groundwater treatment
and soil remediation
NEWLY GENERATED LIQUID & SOLID
WASTES WASTES
They are required to be disposed in engineered They are required to be disposed in engineered
impoundments and landfills
All these facilities have liner systems that perform as y p
both hydraulic and chemical barriers
Additionally, these facilities should locate at where y,
hydrogeologic conditions are favourable
Upon reaching their waste storage capacity, the
containment facilities should be covered properly to
isolate the waste & to prevent further infiltration of
i t rainwater
NEWLY GENERATED LIQUID & SOLID
WASTES WASTES
The mechanical stability of liner &cover The mechanical stability of liner & cover
systems should also be ensured
The role of GE engineers is crucial in the The role of GE engineers is crucial in the
(1)selection of a suitable site for locating waste
containment facilities as well as for (2) the containment facilities as well as for (2) the
design and (3)construction of the liner & cover
systems for effective containment of wastes systems for effective containment of wastes.
CONTAINMENT FACILITIES CONTAINMENT FACILITIES
3. Waste Minimising by Recycling
I t ff t d t t if t - In recent years, efforts are made to prevent if not
minimising the generation of wastes through the
use of environmentally benign materials and
innovative manufacturing process innovative manufacturing process
- Recycling to direct wastes from disposal in
containment facilities
Recycled waste e g fly ash and bottomash - Recycled waste, e.g. fly ash and bottom ash
- So far, quite successful with large quantities of materials
being collected
B t t k t th t tili / - But, except paper, market that can utilise/consume
these materials are limited or only minimal quantity
- Thus, new application that can consume large quantity
rec cled materials ha e to be fo nd recycled materials have to be found
CONTAINMENT FACILITIES CONTAINMENT FACILITIES
3. Waste Minimising by Recycling
- So far, large scale beneficial use of recycled
and waste materials for civil engineering
applications is possible applications is possible
- Closed waste containment sites have been
used for recreational industries & commercial
purposes such as parks golf courses and purposes such as parks, golf courses and
buildings
- GE engineers evaluate the feasibility of using
recycled materials as soil substitutes in various
large scale environmental engineering
applications e.g. roadways, embankments and pp g y ,
retaining structures
ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE
PART I Basic Principles PART I Basic Principles
An understanding of GE problems
1 Background on environmental regulations 1. Background on environmental regulations
2. Inorganic & organic chemistry
3. Soil composition & properties
4. Geochemistry Geoc e s y
5. Groundwater
6 Containment fate &transportation 6. Containment fate & transportation
ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE
PART II Assessment & Remediation of Contaminated
Site
1. General overview of sources of subsurface
contamination contamination
2. Methods to characterise the contaminated sites (i.e.
qualitative) qualitative)
3. Methods to quantify the risk posed by the site
contamination
4. Various remedial methods: in-situ barriers
5. Soil remediation technologies
6. Groundwater remediation technologies
ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE
PART III Waste characterisation PART III Waste characterisation
1. Waste containment systems
2 Various sources and types of wastes and their 2. Various sources and types of wastes and their
properties
3 S f f 3. Siting, permiting and design of landfills
4. Design of surface impoundments
ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE ORGANISATION OF GE COURSE
PART IV Several Different Emerging Waste PART IV Several Different Emerging Waste
Management Technologies
1 Waste material recycling 1. Waste material recycling
2. End use of closed landfills
3 f 3. Bioreactor landfill
4. Subaqueous sediment containment
SUMMARY SUMMARY
1. Geotechnical engineering was originally a g g g y
loosely design discipline focus on (i)the use of
earth material, and (ii)the role it plays in
construction
2. After 1950s, underwent tremendous growth.
3. Shift in job involvement began in 1970s as a
i f hi h fil i t l di t series of high profile environmental disasters
occurred led to the increase public awareness
4. As environmental problems become more s e o e ta p obe s beco e o e
prevalent geotechnical engineering plays an
increasing role in finding solutions
SUMMARY SUMMARY
5. Ge engineering has evolved by utilising 5. Ge engineering has evolved by utilising
combined geotechnical & environmental
engineering technologies to address problems
of (i)contaminated sites and (ii)hazardous and
non-hazardous wastes management
6. This new field of engineering is evolving fast
due to changing regulations and advanced
knowledge through research and innovative knowledge through research and innovative
practice methods.