CHAPTER 1. INDUCTION MOTOR MODEL. GENERALITIES.
1.1  Equations of the induction motor model.
1.1.1 – Introduction. A dynamic model of the machine subjected to control must be known in order to understand and design vector controlled drives. Due to the fact that every good control has to face any possible change of the plant, it could be said that the dynamic model of the machine could be just a good approximation of the real plant. Nevertheless, the model should incorporate all the important dynamic effects occurring during both steadystate and transient operations. Furthermore, it should be valid for any changes in the inverter’s supply such as voltages or currents [ROM 1]. Such a model can be obtained by means of either the space vector phasor theory or twoaxis theory of electrical machines. Despite the compactness and the simplicity of the space phasor theory, both methods are actually close and both methods will be explained.
1.1
Induction motor model. Generalities.
For simplicity, the induction motor considered will have the following assumptions:
ß Symmetrical twopole, three phases windings.
ß The slotting effects are neglected.
ß The permeability of the iron parts is infinite.
ß The flux density is radial in the air gap.
ß Iron losses are neglected.
ß The stator and the rotor windings are simplified as a single, multiturn full pitch coil situated on the two sides of the air gap.
sC
sA
Figure 1.1. Crosssection of an elementary symmetrical threephase machine.
1.1.2 – Voltage equations. The stator voltages will be formulated in this section from the motor natural frame, which is the stationary reference frame fixed to the stator. In a similar way, the rotor voltages will be formulated to the rotating frame fixed to the rotor. In the stationary reference frame, the equations can be expressed as follows:
u
u
u
sA
sB
sC
(t) =
(t) =
R i
s
R i
s
(t) = R i
s
sA
sB
sC
(t) +
(t) +
(t) +
d
y
sA
(t)
d
y
dt
sB
(t)
d
y
dt
sC
(t)
dt
(1.1)
(1.2)
(1.3)
1.2
Similar expressions can be obtained for the rotor:
u
u
u
ra
rb
rc
(t) = R
r
i
(t) = R
r
i
(t) = R i
r
ra
rb
rc
(t) +
(t) +
(t) +
d
y
ra
(t)
d
y
dt
rb
(t)
d
y
dt
rc
(t)
dt
Induction motor model. Generalities.
(1.4)
(1.5)
(1.6)
The instantaneous stator flux linkage values per phase can be expressed as:
y
y
y
sA
sB
sC
=
L i
s
sA
=
M
s i
= M i
s
sA
sA
+ M i
s
sB
+ M i
s
sC
+
M cos
sr
q
m
i
+ L i
s
sB
+ M i
s
sB
+ M
s i
+ L i
s
sC +
M
sC + M
sr
sr
cos(
q
cos(q
ra
m
m
+
M cos(
sr
q
m
+
+
+
+
)i
ra
M
+ M
)i
ra
sr
sr
rc
rc
(1.7)
(1.8)
(1.9)
In a similar way, the rotor flux linkages can be expressed as follows:
y
y
y
ra
rb
rc
(
= M cos q
sr
m
)
i
= M
= M
sr
sr
(
cos  q
cos
(  q
m
m
sA
+
+
+ M
sr
(
cos  q
sA
+ M
m +
sB
sr
(
cos  q
m
)
+ M
sr
(
cos  q
m +
i
sB
+ M
sr
cos
(
q
sA
+ M
sr
(
cos  q
m +
sB
+ M
sr
(
cos  q
m
)
i
sC
+ M
r
i
ra
rb
+ M i
r
+ L
+ L
r i
r i
rb
rb
rc
+ M
+ M
r i
r i
rc
rc
(1.10)
(1.11)
(1.12)
Taking into account all the previous equations, and using the matrix notation in order to compact all the expressions, the following expression is obtained:
˘
sA
u
sB
u
sC
u
ra
Í rb
Í Î u
rc
˚
u
È u
Í ˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
Í
Í
Í
Í
Í
È
Í
Í
Í
= Í
R
s
+ pL
pM
s
pM
s
Í pM
Í Í pM
Í Î pM
sr
cos
q
sr
sr
cos
cos
q
q
s
m
m2
m1
pM
s
R
pM
s
sr
sr
pM
pM
sr
+ pL
pM
s
cos
q
cos
q
cos
q
pM
s
s
R
pM
+
s
pL
s
m1 pM
m pM
sr cos
cos
sr
q
q
m2 pM
sr
cos
q
s
m2
m1
m
pM
pM
pM
sr
sr
sr
q
m pM
cos
sr cos
cos
q
sr cos
q
pM
+
r
pL
r
pM
r
q
R
r
cos
cos
q
q
+
pL
m2 pM
m1 pM
r
pM
pM
r R
r
sr
m1 pM
m pM
m2 pM
sr
sr cos
cos
sr
cos
q
q
q
r
pM
r
pM
r
R
r +
pL
m2
m1
m
r
˘ È i
˙
˙
˙
˙ ˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙ ˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˚
˚
Í Î i
˘
sA
Í
Í
i sB
Í
Í
i sC
i ra
Í
i
Í rb
rc
Í
(1.13)
1.3
Induction motor model. Generalities.
1.1.3 – Applying Park’s transform. In order to reduce the expressions of the induction motor equation voltages given in equation 1.1 to equation 1.6 and obtain constant coefficients in the differential equations, the Park’s transform will be applied. Physically, it can be understood as transforming the three windings of the induction motor to just two windings, as it is shown in figure 1.2 [VAS 1].
Figure 1.2 Schema of the equivalence physics transformation.
In the symmetrical threephase machine, the direct and the quadratureaxis stator magnitudes are fictitious. The equivalencies for these direct (D) and quadrature (Q) magnitudes with the magnitudes per phase are as follows:
cos
cos
(
(
q
q+


sin
sin
sA
sB
sC
˘
˙
˙
˙
˚
(1.14)
(1.15)
Where "c" is a constant that can take either the values 2/3 or 1 for the socalled nonpower
invariant form or the value ^{2} _{3} for the powerinvariant form as it is explained in section
1.3.3. These previous equations can be applied as well for any other magnitudes such as currents and fluxes. Notice how the expression 1.13 can be simplified into a much smaller expression in 1.16 by means of applying the mentioned Park's transform.
1.4
Induction motor model. Generalities.
È u
Í
Í ˙
Í a
Í Í Î Í (
Î Í ˚
sD
˘
˙
pL
Í
È +
R
s
s
u
u
u
sQ
r
r
b
˙
˙
˙
= Í L
s p
s
Í pL
L
m
p
q
s
 P
w
m
)
q
m  L
m
 L
m
(
P
w
pL
 L
 L
R
s
+
(
p
q
pL
s
s pL
m
pL
 P
m
s
w
m
)
L
m
(
P
w
m
+ p
R
r
L
r
+
p
pL
q
r
q
r
)
s
p
q
r
m
+ p
m
p
q
r
pL
r
R
r r
+
Where L
s
=
L
s

M
s
,
L
= L
r r

M
r
and L
m
=
3 M
2
sr
.
q
r
)
˘ È i
Í
i
Í
Í i
˙
i
˙
˙
˙
˘
sD
˙
sQ ˙
˙
˙
r a
˚ ˙
Í (1.16)
Î Í b
r
˙
˚
1.1.4 – Voltage matrix equations. If the matrix expression 1.16 is simplified, new matrixes are obtained as shown in equations 1.17, 1.18 and 1.19 [VAS 1].
1.1.4.1 – Fixed to the stator.
It means that ws = 0 and consequently wr = wm.
È
Í ˙
Í u sQ
˙
Í
Í ˙
˙
Î Í ˚
˙
u rd
u sD
˘
u
rq
=
È R
Í Í R
Í pL
Í Î  P
s
+ pL
0
s
0
s
+ pL
s
L
w
pL
m
m
m
m P
w
m
L
m
1.1.4.2 – Fixed to the rotor.
R
 P
pL
m
0
0 pL
m
r
+
w
pL
r
m
L
r
P
R
w
m
L
r
r
+
pL
r
˘ i
È
sD
˘
˙ ˙
i
˙
˙
˙
˙
˚
Í
˙ sQ
Í
˙
˙ Í
Í
˚ Î
Í i
rd
i rq
It means that wr = 0 and consequently ws = wm.
u
Í
Í
Í u
Í
Í
Î
u
È
u
sD
sQ
rd
rq
˘
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˚
=
È R
L
Í
Í
Í
Í
Î
s
+
pL
s
P w
pL
m
0
m
s
 L
R
s
s
P w
+
m
pL
s
0
pL
m
L
R
pL
m
m
r
P w
+
m
pL
r
0

L
m
P w
pL
0
m
R
r
+
pL
m
r
˘
˙
˙
˙
˙
˚
È i
Í
i
Í i
Í
Í
i
Î
Í
sD
sQ
rd
rq
˘
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˚
1.1.4.3 – Fixed to the synchronism.
It means that wr = sws.
È
Í
=
Í pL
Í
Î Í rq
+
˘
u sD
˙
È R
Í
s
pL
u L
Í sQ
˙
Í
s
w
s
u
u
rd
˙
˙
˙
˚
Í
Í
Î L
m
m
sw
s
s
 L
s
R

s
L
m
pL
w
+ pL
s
sw
m
s
s
pL
w
m
+
L sw
m
s
L
R
r
r
pL
s
r


R
L
pL
L sw
w
m
m
r
s
s
r
+ pL
r
˘ È
˙ Í
˙
˙
˙
˚
i
Í
Í i
Í i
Î Í rq
rd
sD
i sQ
˘
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˚
(1.17)
(1.18)
(1.19)
1.5
Induction motor model. Generalities.
1.2 – Space phasor notation.
1.2.1 – Introduction. Space phasor notation allows the transformation of the natural instantaneous values of a three phase system onto a complex plane located in the cross section of the motor. In this plane, the space phasor rotate with an angular speed equal to the angular frequency of the three phase supply system. A space phasor rotating with the same angular speed, for example, can describe the rotating magnetic field. Moreover, in the special case of the steady state, where the supply voltage is sinusoidal and symmetric, the space phasor become equal to threephase voltage phasors, allowing the analysis in terms of complex algebra. It is shown in figure 1.3 the equivalent schematic for this new model.
Figure 1.3. On the right the equivalent two rotating windings induction motor.
In order to transform the induction motor model, in natural coordinates, into its equivalent space phasor form, the 120º operator is introduced:
a
= e ^{j}
, a
2
=
e
j ^{4}
(1.20)
Thus, the current stator space phasor can be expressed as follows:
i
_{s} =
c
[1 i
sA
(t)
+
a
i
sB
(t) a
+
2
i
sC
(t)]
(1.21)
The factor "c", takes usually one of two different values either 2 _{3} or 2 _{3} . The factor 2 _{3}
makes the amplitude of any space phasor, which represents a three phase balanced system,
equal to the amplitudes of one phase of the threephase system. The factor
used to define the power invariance of a threephase system with its equivalent twophase system (see section 1.3.3).
may also be
1.6
Induction motor model. Generalities.
1.2.2 – Current space phasors. During this section the induction machine assumptions introduced in the section 1.1.1 will be further considered. It is represented in figure 1.4 the model of the induction machine with two different frames,
the DQ axis which represent the stationary frame fixed to the stator, and the ab axis which represent rotating frame fixed to the rotor.
sC
sA
Figure 1.4. Crosssection of an elementary symmetrical threephase machine, with two different frames, the DQ axis which represent the stationary frame fixed to the stator, and ab axis which represent rotating frame fixed to the rotor.
The stator current space phasor can be expressed as follows:
i
2
s 3
=
[ i
sA
(
t
)
+
ai
sB
(
t
)
+
a
2 i
sC
( )]
t
=
e j q
(1.22)
Expressed in the reference frame fixed to the stator, the realaxis of this reference frame is denoted by sD and its imaginaryaxis by sQ. The equivalence between the stator phasor and the DQ twoaxis components is as follows:
i
s
=
i
sD
or:
Re
Im
( i
s
)
(
i
s
)
(t)
+
= Re
= Im
j
[ 2
[ 2
3
3
i
sQ
( i
( i
sA
sA
(t)
+
+
ai
ai
sB
sB
+
+
a
a
2 i
2 i
sC
sC
)]
)]
=
=
i
i
sD
sQ
(1.23)
(1.24)
1.7
Induction motor model. Generalities.
The relationship between the space phasor current and the real stator phase currents can be expressed as follows:
Re
Re
Re
(
i
s
)
=
Re
[
2
3
(
(
a
2
i s
(
ai
s
)
)
= Re
[
=
Re
[
2
3
ai
i
sA
+
3 2 (
a
2 i
(
ai
sA
sB
sA
+
+
a
2
+
i
i
a
sB
sB
)]
2
i
+
+
sC
ai
i
sC
sC
)]
=
)]
i
sA
i
=
i
sB
sC
=
(1.25)
In a similar way, the space phasor of the rotor current can be written as follows:
i
r
=
2
3
[ i
ra
(
t
)
+
ai
rb
(
t
)
+
a
2 i
rc
( )]
t
=
e
j
a
(1.26)
Expressed in the reference frame fixed to the rotor, the realaxis of this reference frame is
denoted by ra and its imaginaryaxis by rb. The space phasor of the rotor current expressed in the stationary reference frame fixed to the stator can be expressed as follows:
e j q
=
e
(
j a
+ q
m )
(1.27)
The equivalence between the current rotor space phasor and the ab twoaxis is as follows:
i
r
=
i
r
a
or:
Re
Im
(
i
r
)
(
)
i
r
(t)
+
j
[ 2
[
=
= Im
Re
3
2
3
i
b
r
( i
( i
ra
ra
(t)
+
+
ai
ai
rb
rb
+
+
2
a i
2
a i
rc
rc
)]
)]
=
=
(1.28) 

i 
r a 

i 
r b 
(1.29) 
The relationship between the space phasor current and the real stator currents can be expressed as follows:
Re
Re
Re
(
(
(
i
r
)
[
(
a
2
i
rc
)]
= Re
2
a i
r
ai
r
)
)
=
Re
[
=
Re
[
2
3
2 +
i
3 ra
ai
rb
+
2
3
(
(
2
a i
ai
ra
ra
+
+
a
2
i
i
rb
rb
+
+
=
)]
i
ra
i
=
i
=
rc
ai
rc
i
rc
)]
rb
(1.30)
The magnetising current spacephasor expressed in the stationary reference frame fixed to the stator can be obtained as follows:
i
m
=
i
s
+
(
N
(1.31)
1.8
Induction motor model. Generalities.
1.2.3 – Flux linkage space phasor. In this section the flux linkages will be formulated in the stator phasor notation according to different reference frames.
1.2.3.1 Stator fluxlinkage space phasor in the stationary reference frame fixed to the stator. Similarly to the definitions of the stator current and rotor current space phasors, it is possible to define a space phasor for the flux linkage as follows:
y
s
=
2
3
(y
sA
+ a
y
sB
+ a
2
y
sC
)
(1.32)
If the flux linkage equations 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 are substituted in equation 1.32, the space phasor for the stator flux linkage can be expressed as follows:
=
(1.33)
(1.34)
(1.35)
Where Ls is the total threephase stator inductance and Lm is the socalled threephase magnetising inductance. Finally, the space phasor of the flux linkage in the stator depends on two components, being the stator currents and the rotor currents. Once more, the flux linkage magnitude can be expressed in twoaxis as follows:
y
s
=
y
sD
+
j
y
sQ
(1.36)
1.9
Induction motor model. Generalities.
Where its direct component is equal to:
^{y} sD
= L i
s
sD
+ L
m
i
rd
And its quadrature component is expressed as:
^{y} sQ
= L i
s
sQ
+ L
m
i
rq
The relationship between the components
follows:
i
'
r =
i
rd
+
ji
rq
=
i
r
e
j
q
m
i _{r}_{d} and
i _{r}_{a} and
(1.37)
(1.38)
i _{r}_{q} and i _{r}_{b} may be introduced as
(1.39)
The compactness of the notation in the space phasor nomenclature compared to the twoaxis notation in 1.1. is noticeable.
1.2.3.2 Rotor fluxlinkage space phasor in the rotating reference frame fixed to the rotor. The rotor flux linkage space phasor, fixed to the rotor natural frame can be defined as follows:
y
r
=
2
3
(y
ra
+ a
y
rb
+ a
2
y
rc
)
(1.40)
If the flux linkage equations 1.10, 1.11, 1.12 are substituted in equation 1.40, the space phasor for the rotor flux linkage can be expressed as follows:
y
r
=
2
3
(
2
M
r )
+
i
sB
(
(
M
a M
sr
+
a M
È
i
Í ra
Í
Í
+
Í
Í Î +
+
Í
Í
L
r
+ a M
r +
i
i
sA
sB
i sC
(
(
(
M
M
M
sr
sr
cos
cos
sr cos
a
q q
m
+
a M
sr
cos
(
(
q
q
m
+
m +
+
m
sr
r )
r +
+
2
M
i
M
a M
aL
r
+
a
+
q
(
q
m
+
m +
a
a
2
2
+
r
+
2
sr
(
cos
sc
q
m
+
cos
(
q
2 M
a
sr
m
+
M
M
+
sr
cos
q
m
)
+
+
(
cos
cos
r
+
a
2
r )
L
+
˘
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
_{˙}
˚
(1.41)
By rearranging the previous expression 1.41, it can be expressed as:
È
i
Í ra
(
L
r
i
sa
(
a
+ a M
r +
a
sr
2 M
a M
q +
sr
sr
cos
cos
r
cos
M
2
r )
+
a
i
rb
(
a
2
M
L
r
+
a M
a
2 M
cos
m +
a M
m +
sr
sr
+
(
q
cos
sr
+
+
a
r )
2
M
r
+
r )
L
+
˘
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
r +
+
Í
Í
Í +
Í
Í cos
i
M
sb
( a
(
+
a
2
M
+
15
.
m
)
(
i

(
cos
q
r
+
(
q
m
M
sr
cos
)
M
sr
i
s
q
=
m +
a M
sr
cos
(
)
L
r

M
r
i
r
y
= 2
r 3
+

e
a
j q
cos
q
m
) ˚
_{˙}
2
m
M
=
sr
(
cos
(
q
2 

Í + Î 
a 
i 
sc 

( L r 
+ aM 
r 

( 
L r 
 
M 
r 
) 
i 
r 

' 

r i 
r 
+ 
L 
m 
i 
s 
=
=
= L
And finally:
y r
r
)
m +
L
r

M
=
(1.42)
(1.43)
1.10
Induction motor model. Generalities.
Where L _{r} is the total threephase rotor inductance and Lm is the socalled threephase
'
magnetising inductance. i _{s}
the rotor. Once more the flux linkage magnitude can be expressed in the twoaxis form as follows:
is the stator current space phasor expressed in the frame fixed to
y
r
=
y
r
a
+ j
y
r
b
(1.44)
Where its direct component is equal to:
^{y} ra
= L i
r
ra
+ L
m
i
sa
And its quadrature component is expressed as:
^{y} rb
= L i
r
rb
+ L
m
i
sb
(1.45)
(1.46)
1.2.3.3 Rotor fluxlinkage space phasor in the stationary reference frame fixed to the stator. The rotor flux linkage can also be expressed in the stationary reference frame using the
previously introduced transformation e ^{j}^{q}^{m} , and can be written as:
y
'
r
=
y
rd
+
y
j
rq
=
y
r
e
j q
m
=
(
y
r
a
+
j
y
b
r
)
e
j q
m
(1.47)
The space phasor of the rotor flux linkage can be expressed according to the fixed co ordinates as follows:
y
'
r
=
L i
r
'
r
+
L
m
i
'
s
e
j q
m
=
L
r
i
'
r
+
L
m
i
s
(1.48)
The relationship between the stator current referred to the stationary frame fixed to the stator and the rotational frame fixed to the rotor is as follows:
i
i
s
s
e
=

i
j q
'
s
e
m
j q
m
=
i
Where
i
s
=
i
sD
'
i i
s
=
s
a
+
+
'
s
ji
ji
sQ
s
b
(1.49)
(1.50)
From figure 1.5, the following equivalencies can be deduced:
e
(
j qq
m
)
=
i e
s

j
q
m
(1.51)
1.11
Induction motor model. Generalities.
rb
sD
wm
Figure 1.5. Statorcurrent space phasor expressed in accordance with the rotational frame fixed to the rotor and the stationary frame fixed to the stator.
1.2.3.4 Stator fluxlinkage space phasor in the rotating reference frame fixed to the rotor. Similarly than 1.2.3.3 section, it can be deduced the following expression:
y
'
s
=
y
s
e

j q
m
=
Ê
Á
Ë
L
s
i
s
+
L
m
i
'
r
ˆ
˜
¯
e

q
j
m
=
L
s
i
'
s
+
L
m
i
r
(1.52)
1.2.4. – The space phasors of stator and rotor voltages. The space phasors for the stator and rotor voltages can be defined in a similar way like the one used for other magnitudes.
u
s
u
r
=
=
2
3
2
3
[ u
[
sA
u
ra
(
(
t
t
)
)
+
+
au
au
sB
rb
(
(
t
t
)
)
+
+
2
a u
2 u
sC
rc
(
a
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