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COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS

Product of structural linguistics


* beginning of the 2th ct!"fir# belief in structuralis#
* $%$&"$%'( atte#)ts at se#antic fields *rigidl+ structural,
* $%'s"ho- to define the #! of a -ord.
* C!A!"brea/ing do-n the #! of a -ord into co#)onents *ter# fro#
che#istr+,
* Presu))oses that the #! of each le0e#e can be anal+1ed b+ a co#b!
of #ore general MEANIN2 COMPONENTS *SEMANTIC 3EAT45ES,
* #! co#)onents" atomic6 #! of le0e#es"molecular *concepts,
e!g! #! of the le0e#e MAN co#bines the ato#ic ele#ents( #ale7 adult7
hu#an and differs fro# the #! of the le0e#e 8OMAN b+ onl+ $
co#)onent( fe#ale *not #ale,
9:el#sle; < =a/obson"earliest and #ost influential su))orters6 belie;ed that
the )rinci)les that Trubet1/o+ introduced into )honolog+ should be
a))lied to gra##ar and se#antics
* re)resentati;es of the Euro)ean ;ersion(2rei#as7 Pottier7 Prieto7
Coseriu
* A#erican ;ersion( inde)endent de;elo)#ent7 )ro)osed b+
anthro)ologists( 2oodenough7 Lounsbur+7 8allace7 At/ins6 but later
acce)ted b+ linguists( La#b7 Nida7 8einreich7 >at1 < 3odor
* Each ro- is su))osed to constitute a definition of the #! of the -ord
* Ma:or )roble#s(
? sb! -ho doesn@t understand the co#)onents -ouldn@t understand
the d! *Marsian,
? MAN can be used in 2 senses
? AB" notation and li#ited nb! of co#)!
? choice of co#)!"co#)letel+ arbitrar+
#! is )ro;ided b+ OPPOSITION bet-een le0e#es
E0a#)les used in criticis#
man"-o#an cow"bull
dog"bitch duck"dra/e
#ale co#)! is generic fe#ale co#)! is generic
2nd )art of )airs(SEMANTICALLY MA5>EC LEDEME(entering a s)here
other than conce)tual7 used less
TYPES O3 LIN24ISTIC MA5>ECNESS
? FORMAL M!( suffi0 in the 2nd le0e#e is a for#al #ar/ of
o))osition6 #ar/edness is based on the )resenceBabsence of
)articular ele#ent of for# *#or)he#e,! L! -hose for#s contain
such an ele#ent are formally marked( host"hostess6 count"
countess6 lion"lioness
? DISTRIBTIO!AL M!(for#all+ #ar/ed ele#ent has a #ore li#ited
distribution *nu#ber of conte0ts in -hich it a))ears,6 lion"-ider
distribution! Acce)table( #ale lion7 fe#ale lion6 not acce)table(
fe#ale lioness *tautological,7 #ale lioness *contradictor+,
"# S$MA!TI% M!( se#! #ar/ed le0e#e is the one -hich has a #ore
s)ecific #!*lioness, bitch ha;e a #ore s)ecific #! than lion, dog,
all se#! #ar/ed l! are at the sa#e ti#e distributionall+ #ar/ed
* fly, snail, fish( are the+ A or E for #ale.
* /inshi) ter# anal+sis allo-s dis:unction and con:unction of
co#)onents(
&rot'er(in(law( #ale7 s)ouse"of"sibling"of F sibling"of"s)ouse"of
* C!A! started out as a theor+6 toda+"onl+ a #ethod! Theor+" )ro;ides a
detailed and co#)lete ans-er to ho- sth! functions! Method"au0!
#eans to get close to sth! -ith -hich -e su))ort a theor+
* 5egarded as an atte#)t to set the theor+ of s! fields on stronger
theoretical and #ethodological foundations *but do not )resu))ose
each other,
* L+ons(G%#A# lea)es une*plained at least as muc' as it e*plainsG
3urther )ro)osals of C!A!
* +ottier *$%&H,( AB" notation7 but introduction of descri)ti;e co#)onents
*not re)resented b+ onl+ one le0e#e,
* also belongs to traditional a))roaches but better than man-woman
anal+sis in $%'s( #ore detailed as it uses descri)ti;e co#)!
* no brea/through inno;ations because of re#aining rigidness
2! Sa#)son( IMeaning will escape any cage you put it inJG *AB" notation
is a /ind of cage,
%oseriu" 2 t+)es of se#antic co#)onents(
? S$M$S( #ini#al distinguishing features of #! that function -ithin a
single se#antic *le0ical, field! 3unction" structuring a field b+ #eans
of ;arious o))osition *bet-een chair, armchair, stool!!!,
? %LASS$M$S( #ore general co#)! Co##on to le0e#es belonging
to ;arious le0ical fields *ani#ateBinani#ate6 #aleBfe#ale,
* Se#es and classe#es distinction"roughl+ corres)onds to >at1 and
3odor@s distinction of DISTI!,IS-$RS and MAR.$RS
* That )art of #! -hich is s+ste#atic is )resented b+ #ar/ers and the
rest b+ distinguishers
* Classe#es %LASSIF/7 se#es D$S%RIB$
* $ugene !ida" a))ro0i#atel+ the sa#e a))roach as Pottier
* >ee)s )luses and #inuses7 Pottier@s descri)ti;e co#)onents7 but also
adds nu#bers
C!A! and uni;ersalis#
* #ost e0tre#e for# of uni;ersalis# holds(
a, there is a set of s! co#)! -hich are uni;ersal *le0icali1ed in all
languages, *substantial uni;ersals,
b, for#al )rinci)les b+ #eans of -hich co#)! are co#bined are uni;ersal
*for#al uni;ersals,
c, #! of all le0e#es in a l! can be deco#)osed -ithout residuals into co#b!
of se#! co#)!
Criticis# of C!A!
* -hat has been done u) to no- is inco#)lete and uncon;incing
* anal+ses are li#ited to a s#all )ortion of ;ocabular+ and carried out in
a relati;el+ s#all nu#ber of l!
* in anal+sis of /inshi) ter#inolog+ a nu#ber of different7 eKuall+
)lausible ans-ers -ere gi;en! 8hich is the correct one.
* also at Kuestion" uni;ersalit+ and )s+chological realit+ of se#antic
co#)onents
Le0e#e #eaning in cogniti;e se#antics
* $%Ls" rigorous a))roaches )ut aside7 return to #entalis#6
funda#ental notions( mental picture < concept
* the -a+ -e thin/ and our #ental i#ages are not arbitrar+6 share si#ilar
#! i#ages"through disco;eries in )s+cholog+ < neuroscience
LAMOF
* LABO0( linguistics is a science in;estigating categories6 -ord #! can
be anal+1ed onl+ e#)iricall+ *e0)eri#ents, b+ anal+1ing infor#ants@
ans-ers to a series of dra-ings de)icting ;arious cu)s7 #ugs and
si#ilar containers"Kuantitati;e *#easurable, a))roach to #!
* Mut( a;erage s)ea/er of E! -ouldn@t define or understand such a
definition6 too #athe#atical and so)histicated
* 8hat is #issing( cause 1 effect *relations'ip &etween l# form and
use,
8IE5NMIC>A
*ILe0icogra)h+ and Conce)tual Anal+sisG,
* critici1es Labo;"a))licable onl+ to a s#all )ortion of ;ocabular+
* gi;es definitions to describe #ost full+ the conce)t of #ental i#age7not
for dictionaries
* long definitions6 e*'austi)e descri)ti;e co#)onents
* #a:or co#)onents on the right < e0hausti;e co#)onents on the left
* prototypical cu)s and #ugs
* )rotot+)ical cu)s( ha;e saucers for stabilit+7 eas+ to s)ill liKuid7 #ade of
fine )orcelan7 elegant7 to drin/ -ith fa#il+7 friends7 etc!
* )rotot+)ical #ugs( no saucers7 #ore stable7 bigger7 -ith flat botto#7
eas+ to carr+ around7usuall+ to drin/ out of indi;iduall+
* ha;e a different social function
* #eaning"not anal+1ed onl+ b+ describing -hat -e see7 but also b+
in;estigating conce)t structures and cultural bac/ground
* best a))roach( not b+ using inter;ie-s or lab e0)eri#ents but through
met'odological introspection and t'inking
* e0)ands Labo;@s definitions of cu)s and #ugs b+ adding to
descri)tions of ;isual nature their social and cultural function" identified
best b+ #eans of comparison
* a))roach si#ilar to Fillmore@s S%$!$S and FRAM$S( both include
.!O2L$D,$ OF A %LTR$