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MAT 341 Chapter 1 Section 1 Solutions

David Lawhorn
January 26, 2014
Problem 2e: Verify A(AB) = B is true, where A, B are both sets. If
the statement is false, make the statement true.
I claim that A(AB) = B is false. By denition, we know that
A(AB) = {x|x A x (AB}
Let x A(AB) x A and x (AB) x A or x B, but
x A by our earlier denition. Therefore, since
x A,
and
x B,
A(AB) = (A B) B.
Problem 2k: Show that the converse of A C and
B D (AB) (C D) is false. The converse of the statement is
(AB) (C D) A C B D.
To prove this statement is false, suppose A = ,B = {1} and C = D = {2}.
Using this example, it is true that
(AB) (C D)
since {2, 2}, but A C and B D is false. Therefore, the converse of
the original statement is false.
Problem 2q: Verify (AB) (C D) = (AC) (B D), is true,
where A, B, C, D are all sets. If the statement is false, make the statement
true.
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I claim that the statement is not true. Let a A, b B, a C, b D. We
observe that
(a, b) (AB) (C D)
, but (a, b) (AC) (B D) since a C. To make the statement true,
we must use the inclusion. To show this, suppose that
(a, b) (AC) (B D) a (AC) and b (B D), which shows
that (a, b) (AB), but (a, b) (C D). Therefore,
(a, b) (AC) (B D) (AB) (C D)
.
Problem 3:
Statement: If x < 0, then x
2
x > 0. This is true since since x
2
> x. is
true x < 0.
Converse: If x
2
x > 0, then x < 0. Not always true, since 4 > 2 could
imply x = 2.
Contrapositive: If x
2
x 0, then x 0. Since the original statement
and contrapositive are logically equivalent, this statement is true.
Statement: If x > 0, then x
2
x > 0. If x = 1, then 1
2
1 > 0, which is
false.
Converse: If x
2
x > 0, then x > 0. If x
2
x = 2, then x = 1 is not
greater than zero, but x = 1 still satises x
2
x > 0. Therefore, the
converse of the original statement is false.
Contrapositive: If x
2
x 0, then x 0. Since the original statement
and contrapositive are logically equivalent, this statement is false.
Problem 4:Let A, B be sets of real numbers. Write the negation of each
of the following statements:
(a): a A, it is true that a
2
B.
Negation:For some a A,it is false that a
2
B.
(b): For at least one a A, it is true that a
2
B.
Negationa A,,it is false that a
2
B.
(c): A A, it is true that a
2
B.
Negation:For some a A,it is false that a
2
B.
(d): For at least one a A, it is true that a
2
B.
Negation:a A, it is false that a
2
B.
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Problem 5:
(a) x

A
A x A for at least one A

A.
The statement is true by denition.
The converse of the statement is x A for at least one
A

A x

A
A. The converse is true by denition.
(b) x

A
A x AA

A. The statement is not true by denition.
To show the converse is false,consider A = 0, 1, 2, 3. The element 0 is in A,
but clearly 0 2, 3 A.
(c)x

A
A for at least one A

A.
The statement is false by denition. The converse is false, because x needs
to be an element A

A.
(d) x

A
A x AA

A.
Both the statement and the converse are true by denition.
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