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Chapter 13

The Transfer of Heat


13.1 Heat Transfer
When heat is transferred to or from a
substance, the internal energy can
change.
This change in energy is accompanied by
a change in temperature or change in
phase (solid <-> liquid <-> gas).
There are 3 methods of heat transfer:
Convection
Conduction
Radiation
Convection
Convection is the process in which heat
is carried from place to place by the
movement of a fluid.
Example: Water being heated up in a pan.
The hot water rises, cooler water replaces
it creating a convection current.
13.2 Conduction
Conduction is the process whereby heat
is transferred directly through the material,
with no movement of the material itself.
Example: A fry pan on the stove, heat is
transferred up the sides of the pan and to
the handle. The atoms of the pan vibrate
with energy and pass the energy to the
adjacent atoms.
Equation for Heat of Conduction
The heat, Q, conducted through a bar of
length, L, and cross-sectional area, A, in a
time, t, is
Q =(kA!")t
L
where !T is the temp difference between
the ends of the bar and k is the thermal
conductivity of the material.
#
L
Units of Thermal Conductivity, k
The units of k are
J/(s m C)
Therefore Q will be in Joules
t must be in seconds
A must be in meters
2

L must be in meters
!T must be in Celsius
Conductors and Insulators
Good conductors will have a high k value.
Good insulators will have a low k value.
Table of k values on page 386.
Example #3 pg 387
A wall of a house consists of 0.019 m thick
plywood backed by 0.076 m of insulation.
The inside temperature is 25 C while the
outside temperature is 4.0 C. The area of
the wall is 35 m
2
and k
insulation
= 0.030 J/smC
and k
plywood
= 0.80 J/smC. Find the heat
conducted through the wall in one hour.
Example #3 continued
At the interface between the plywood and
insulation, the heat conducted to and from
the plywood to the insulation will reach an
equilibrium. At that point the temperature
between the materials will reach temp T.
Q
plywood
= Q
insulation
.
k
p
A
p
!T
p
t/L
p
= k
i
A
i
!T
i
t/L
i
But both have the same A and t.
Example #3 continued
To find the equilibrium temperature:
k
p
!T
p
/L
p
= k
i
!T
i
/L
i
(0.030)(25-T)/(0.076) = (0.080)(T-4)/(0.019)
T = 5.8 C
To find Q:
Q = k
p
A!T
p
t/L
p


Q = (0.030)(35m
2
)(25-T)(3600s)/(0.076m)
=9.5 x 10
5
J
13.3 Radiation
Radiation is the process in which energy
is transferred by means of electromagnetic
(EM) waves.
Example: The sun
All bodies radiate energy in the form of EM
waves but usually not in the visible range.
Blackbody
The shinier a surface, the less energy it
absorbs, the more it reflects.
A black object absorbs most of the radiant
energy shining on it.
A perfect blackbody absorbs 100% of the
energy falling upon it.
Internal Temperature
All objects emit and absorb EM waves
simultaneously.
When a body remains at a constant
internal temperature, Q
absorbed
= Q
emitted
.
If Q
absorbed
> Q
emitted
, the temperature rises.
If Q
absorbed
< Q
emitted
, the temperature falls.
Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Radiation
The radiant energy, Q, emitted by an
object that has temperature, T, surface
area, A, in time, t, is
Q = % T
4
At for a perfect blackbody
Q = e% T
4
At if not a perfect blackbody
where e is the emissivity. Value between
0 < e < 1. Rating of how much energy the
object radiates.
Units
Q = e% T
4
At
Q - Heat in Joules
e emissivity = 1 for a blackbody
% - Stefan-Boltzmann constant =
5.67 x 10
-8
J/(s m
2
K
4
)
T temperature in Kelvin
A Radiant area in m
2

t time in s
Example #5 pg 391
The supergiant star Betelgeuse has a
surface temperature of 2900K and emits a
radiant power of 4 x 10
30
W. Assume that it
is a perfect emitter (e = 1) find its radius.
Q = e% T
4
At
Q/t = 1(5.67 x 10
-8
)(2900
4
)(4&r
2
)
4 x 10
30
= (5.04 x 10
10
)r
2
r = 3 x 10
11
m
Example #8 pg 395
A cup (A=0.035 m
2
) of 0.50 kg of water (e = 0.60)
at 273 K (0C) is placed outside on a day when
the temp is 261 K (-12C). The water loses more
heat than it gains by radiation and it freezes.
How long does it take to freeze?
!Q = mL
e% !T
4
At = mL
(0.60)(5.67 x 10
-8
)(273
4
-261
4
)(0.035)t = (0.50)
(33.5 x 10
4
)
t = 1.5 x 10
5
s (or 42 hr)