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'i
,, REPORTS AND MEMORANDA
R. & M. No . 2 8 8 0
A.R.~. ~elmieal l~Imr~
T h e Secondary Fl o w i n Cur v e d Pi pes '
V
H. G. C U M I N G , B.A., Ph.D., D.I.CI
!i i
r
/
Crown Copyright Reserved
LONDON : HER MAJESTX' S STATI ONERY OFFICE
I 9 5 5
F I VE S HI L L I NGS NE T
%_
The Secondary Flow in Curved Pipes
H. G. CUMING,
Communi cat ed by
B. A. , Ph. D. , D. I . C.
Professor A. A. HALL
Reports and Memoranda No.
F e h r u a r y , 1 9 5 2
2880
Sum m ary.--'The Navi er - St okes equat i ons for t he flow of a viscous i ncompressi bl e fluid t hr ough curved pipes of
di fferent sections are solved in power series of t he cur vat ur e of t he pipe. The sol ut i on is gi ven as far as t he first power
of t he cur vat ur e for t he case of an elliptic section and a discussion gi ven of t he effect of t he aspect rat i o of t he pi pe on
t he i nt ens i t y of t he secondar y flow. I t is shown t ha t t he axi al vel oci t y is modified b y t wo cur vat ur e t er ms of opposi t e
effect. For val ues of t he aspect rat i o near uni t y tile first of these pr edomi nat es and t he r esul t ant effect is an increase
of vel oci t y in t he out er hal f of t he bend and a decrease in t he i nner : for l arge val ues of t he aspect rat i o t he second t er m
is numer i cal l y much gr eat er and t her e is a r esul t ant decrease in axi al vel oci t y in t he out er hal f of t he bend and an
i ncrease in t he i nner half. The sol ut i on is also gi ven t o t he first power of t he cur vat ur e for t he case of a squar e
section. Thi s shows t ha t t he i nt ensi t y of t he secondar y flow in a pi pe of square section is gr eat er t han t ha t in a pi pe
of ci rcul ar section. Fi nal l y t he sol ut i on is gi ven as far as t he second power of t he cur vat ur e for t he case of flow tin-ough
a cur ved pi pe of ci rcul ar section when suction pr opor t i onal t o t he cur vat ur e is appl i ed at t he walls. The resul t shows
t ha t wi t h t he par t i cul ar di st ri but i on of suct i on consi dered t he di mi nut i on in flux t hr ough a cur ved pi pe ma y be al most
ent i r el y el i mi nat ed.
1. I nt r oduc t i on. - - Whe n a fluid flows t hr ough a curved pi pe of any cross-section i t is observed
t ha t a s e c onda r y flow occurs i n pl anes per pendi cul ar to t he curved cent r al axis of t he pipe. The
t heoret i cal expl anat i on of t hi s secondar y flow was first gi ven by Thompson 1. There must be a
pressure gr adi ent across t he pipe to bal ance t he cent ri fugal force on t he fluid due to i t s
curved t r aj ect or y, t he pressure bei ng great est at t he out er wall of t he pipe and l east at
t he i nner wall. The fluid near t he t op and bot t om wails of t he pi pe is movi ng more sl owl y t han
t ha t near t he cent ral pl ane due to vi scosi t y and t herefore requi res a smal l er pressure gr adi ent
to bal ance i t s reduced cent ri fugal force. Consequent l y a secondar y flow occurs in whi ch t he
fluid near t he t op and bot t om walls of t he pi pe moves i nwards t owards t he cent re of cur vat ur e
of t he cent r al axis and t he fluid near t he cent r al pl ane moves out wards. Thi s in t ur n modifies
t he axi al vel oci t y. The f ast er - movi ng fluid near t he cent r al pl ane pushes t he fluid i n t he boundar y
l ayer at t he out er wall to t he t op and bot t om walls and t hen i nwards al ong t he t op and bot t om
walls (where i t is r et ar ded due t o i t s pr oxi mi t y to t hese walls) t owards t he i nner wall. Fast er -
movi ng fluid is t herefore cons t ant l y t r anspor t ed to t he out er wall and r et ar ded fluid is carri ed
t o t he i nner wall. The accumul at i on of t he r et ar ded l ayer at t he i nner wall resul t s in a di mi nut i on
of flux t hr ough t he pipe.
Exper i ment al i nvest i gat i ons of t he secondar y flow were made by Eust ace ~, Whi t e a and Tayl oP
and t he first t heoret i cal anal ysi s gi ven by Dean 5 for t he case of an i ncompressi bl e fluid i n st eady
mot i on t hr ough a pi pe of ci rcul ar cross-section whose axi s is bent to t he form of a ci rcul ar arc
of several revol ut i ons. Dean expanded t he velocities and pressure as a power series of t h e
cur vat ur e of t he axis of t he pi pe and gave t he sol ut i on as far as t he f our t h power of t hi s par amet er ,
[he anal ysi s bei ng confined to a region of t he pi pe suffi ci ent l y far downst r eam for deri vat i ves of
Lhe velocities al ong t he pi pe to vani sh.
(8~1) A
The fi rst p a r t of t hi s pa pe r e xt e nds t h e s a me me t h o d t o deal wi t h pi pes of el l i pt i c s ect i on a n d
a di scussi on is gi ven of t he effect of as pect r at i o of t he pi pe on t h e i n t e n s i t y of t he s e c o n d a r y
flow. The s econd p a r t appl i es t h e me t h o d t o pi pes of r e c t a n g u l a r sect i on. An a p p r o x i ma t e
s ol ut i on f or t h e pa r t i c ul a r case of a s qua r e s ect i on is gi ven expl i ci t l y a n d shows t h a t t h e fl ow
is mo r e i nt e ns e t h a n i n a pi pe of ci r cul ar sect i on. The l a s t p a r t i nves t i gat es t he effect of a
pa r t i c ul a r di s t r i but i on of s uc t i on a r o u n d t h e wal l s of a ci r cul ar pi pe on t h e fl ux t h r o u g h i t .
I t is s hown t h a t wi t h a s ui t abl e choi ce of s uct i on t h e d i mi n u t i o n i n f l ux ma y be a l mos t e nt i r e l y
over come. Bo t h t he fi rst a n d l ast pa r t s c ont a i n De a n' s r esul t s as speci al cases.
2. The Secondar y Fl ow i n a Pi p e of El l i pt i c S e c Eo n . - - 2 . 2 . The St r e am F u n c t i o n . - -
Ou~:er
A B , -

t
I
Th e f ol l owi ng r i ght - ha nde d, or t hogona l s ys t e m of axes is e mp l o y e d : 05 al ong t he ma j o r axi s
of a s e c t i on; 0v al ong t h e mi n o r axi s a n d 0 al ong t h e c u r v e d c e nt r a l axi s. Le t t h e ve l oc i t y
c o mp o n e n t s al ong t hes e axes be (u, v, w) ; C t h e c e nt r e of c u r v a t u r e of t h e axi s 0 ~; OC = 2/~
whe r e n is t h e c u r v a t u r e of 0 ; 2a, 2b t he ma j o r a n d mi n o r axes of a sect i on. Le t b/a ---- ~, t hi s
we shal l cal l t he as pect r at i o of t h e pi pe.
Th e fl ow is d e t e r mi n e d b y t he Na vi e r - St oke s ~ e qua t i ons of mo t i o n
Ov
~-~ - - v cur l v = - - gr a d ( { v "~+ pi p) - - ~ cur l cur l v .
a n d t he e qua t i on of c o n t i n u i t y
di v v = 0 . . . . . . . . . .
t o g e t h e r wi t h t h e b o u n d a r y c ondi t i on t h a t v = 0 at t he wai l s.
(2)
(2)
Maki ng t h e non- di me ns i ona l s ubs t i t ut i ons x = ~la, y = n/ Za, z = / a; u = v#/ a, v -= v~la,
w = vz~/a, p = pv'~/a 2 . ~ a n d p u t t i n g Ou/Oz = Ov/Oz = Ow/Oz = 0 we obt a i n f r om e qua t i ons
(1) a nd (2)
Og f~~# ~aN 2
# ~- x+ x~y -
Off; ~ ~ z~
ayd+X~+ l
~4a~w
@ ~ax - -
-~ { ( 2 +
~x
~ z -t- ,~ ~y2 ~ ~x ~y
1 @ ~2~ 1 02# ~a ( 0 ~ 1 ~ / )
Z ~y + ox ~ ~ ~x ~y + l + ~ax g-x ~ g}
1 @ 02ff ' 1 02z~ ~a ~ n2a2~
l + ~axOz ~yd s + z ~y~ + l + ~axox ( l +~ax) ~
~ax)a + ~~ ( l + ~ a x ) ~ = 0 .
Th e b o u n d a r y c ondi t i on is t h a t # ---- ~ = z~ = 0 f or x" + y~ = 1.
2
. . ( 3 )
Di f f er ent i at i ng t he t hi r d e qua t i on i n (3) wi t h r es pect t o z we h a v e a ' ~ / a z "~ = 0 ; i t fol l ows f r om
t h e fi rst a nd s econd equat i ons t h a t a } / a x a nd @ / a y ar e i n d e p e n d e n t of z . @ / a z is t her ef or e
cons t ant . To sol ve equat i ons (3) t o t he fi rst power of ~ we p u t
wher e
~1 = Uo + n a R ~
= ~o + ~ a R%
R - -
1 q - 4 2 0 z "
= Vo -Jr- nctR~v~ l
I
. . . . (4)
The t e r ms i n d e p e n d e n t of ~ yi el d t h e equat i ons of mo t i o n f or fl ow t h r o u g h a s t r a i ght el l i pt i c
pi pe, v i z . ,
~Po ~Po
Uo = Vo = 0 ; ~x - - By - - 0
a nd ~Wo 1 ~wo 2(1 + 1/4 ~)
8x 2 7 ~ 42 8y ~ - -
wo = 1 - - x ~ - y ~ . wi t h t he s ol ut i on
Eq u a t i n g coeffi ci ent s of ~ we obt a i n
ZOo s ~Pi 1 ~2ul 1 ~vl
4 - - ~x + ~ ~y-~ - - 2 ~x ~y
1 ~ib~ ~v~ 1 8~ul
o = - ~ + ~x~ 4 ox ~y
. . . . . . . . . . ( 5 )
. . . . . . . . (6)
OW6 Vl 8Wo 3~wl 1 3~Wl
u~ + 4 ~y - ~x~+ 4~~y~
0 = - - 2 1 + x + ~ + 4 2 ~y~ + ~x
Ox + 4 a y - 0
The l as t e qua t i on ma y be sat i sf i ed i de nt i c a l l y by a s t r e a m f unc t i on ~o def i ned b y t h e e qua t i ons
1 ~p
u~ - - ,t2 ~y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7)
v~ - - 2 8x
El i mi na t i ng Pl be t we e n t he fi rst a nd s econd equat i ons of (6) we obt a i n
~4~0 2 3~o 1 3 ~ _ (1 - - x ~ - - y 2 ) y . . . . . . . . . (8)
~x--~ + 4~ 0 Z g y ~ + 4~ ~y~
wi t h t he b o u n d a r y Condi t i ons ~o/ ax = ~ / O y = 0 for x ~ -F Y~ = 1. The s ol ut i on is
~o = (1 - - x' --y2)2(B~ + B 2 x 2 + B 3 y 2 ) y . . . . . . . . . . (9)
Where Bz = 44(375 + 8202 ~ + 1,1142 ~ + 21248 + 3948)/360(5 -- 24 ~ + 4~)G(2)
B~ = - - 4~(7S + 24 ~ + 34~)/360G(4)
B~ = - - 4~(1S + 264 ~ + 394~)/360G(4)
a nd G(4) = 35 + 844 ~ -t- 1144 ~ + 2046 -l- 348 . . . . . . . . . . . (10)
3
(371) A 2
2.2. Nat ure of the Secondary Fl ow. - - I t appears from equat i ons (4) t ha t ~aR ~ is t he dynami cal
par amet er of t he secondary flow. If W0 be t he vel oci t y along t he cent ral axis for t he flow
t hr ough a st r ai ght elliptic pipe, from equat i on (5) Wo - vR/2a, i.e., R = 2aWo/v. R ma y t herefore
be i nt er pr et ed as t he Reynol ds number for st eady flow t hr ough t he unbent pipe. Fr om equat i ons
(7) and (9)
~4~R 2
u =-= Z~ ( 1 -- x ~ -- y2)[(1 -- x ~ -- y2)(B, + B2x ~ + 3B. y ~)
- - 4Y~( B~ + B2 x~ + B~Y2)] (11)
2~vR ~
v - - ,~2 ( 1 7 x 2 - y ~ ) [ 2 ( B~ + B~ x 2 +B~ y 2 ) - B~ ( 1 - x ~ - y ~ ) ] x y
v vani shes along bot h axes: t herefore a fluid part i cl e ori gi nal l y in t he upper (or lower) hal f of
t he pipe will r emai n i n i t dur i ng t he subsequent mot i on. Also
~vR ~
[ u T l ~ o , o ) = z~ - B, >0
and
[u](0,~-~/= -- ,t8- R2(B~ + Ba)0 < 0 for ~ smal l and positive.
The fluid near t he t op and bot t om walls is t herefore movi ng i nwards whi l st t hat in t he cent r al
pl ane is movi ng out wards. There must exi st two poi nt s, say S and S' , on t he mi nor axis at whi ch
u vani shes. Since v vani shes everywhere al ong t he mi nor axis t hese must be st agnat i on poi nt s
of t he secondar y flow. The following di agr am shows t he essent i al feat ures of t he flow consi st i ng
of two opposed vor t ex mot i ons cent red about t he st agnat i on poi nt s S and S' .
Ouber Inner
An observat i on of
axis. Subst i t ut i on of
is t he val ue of p for x
h a v e
( p l ) - p l ' - -
i.e., PI'
some i nt erest ma y be made on t he pressure var i at i on across t he maj or
ul and vl in t he first two equat i ons of (6) shows t ha t p~ - - P l ' (where Pl '
----- 0) is odd in x and even in y. Put t i ng y = 0 and x = :J: 1 in t ur n we
- - - P , ' ]
(Pl)A + (Pl )B .
2
t he pressure al ong t he mi nor axis is equal t o t he ar i t hmet i c me a n of t he pressures at A and B.
Thi s resul t is verified exper i ment al l y by Ri cht er 7 for t ur bul ent flow and assumed for l ami nar
flow by Keul egan and ]3eij s.
2.3. Effect of the Aspect Ratio o74 the I74te74sity of the Fl ow. - - I t appears from equat i ons (10)
and (11) t ha t for smal l Z, u = O(Z 2) and v = 0(a3). For pipes of smal l aspect rat i o t he secondar y
flow is t herefore gr eat l y reduced. For l arge a, u -- 0(1/a ~) and v ---- 0(1/ ~); t he i nt ens i t y is
t herefore di mi ni shed for l arge aspect ratios. I n t he case of ,~ = co, t ha t is for t he flow al ong t he
channel bet ween t wo i nfi ni t e concent ri c cylinders, t he secondar y flow vani shes al t oget her.
Thi s is r eadi l y expl ai ned on physi cal gr ounds: t he t op and bot t om walls, whi ch r et ar d t he fluid
4
ne a r t h e m and t hus i nduc e t he s econdar y flow, ar e now absent . The f ol l owi ng t abl e shows t he
va r i a t i on of (~) y = 0 across , the cent r al pl ane for var i ous val ues of t he aspect r at i o i n t he case whe n
~a = 0 . 2 and R = 100. The r esul t s ar e s hown gr aphi cal l y i n Fi g. l .
TABLE 1
Ua=l/2
q ~ ) . = 1
5a=2
--1 - - 2 / 3
0. 6
1.9
2. 4
-1/ a
1-9
5. 3
6. 3
2. 6
6. 9
8.1
2/a o 1/a
1"9
5"3
(;' 3
4"3
2"9
0 0
0' 6
1"9
2"4
uz=a 0 1"7 4"3 5-5 1"7 0
5a=4 0 1"1 2-9 3"7 1-1 0
5a=~ 0 0 0 0 0
I t i s na t ur a l t o t a ke as a meas ur e of t he i nt e ns i t y of t he s econdar y flow t he t ot al vor t i c i t y f~
i n ei t her t he uppe r or l ower hal f of t he pi pe ( t hese are equal and opposi t e) .
; i(
4~avR,, ).2(125 + 3102,, -- 4282* -~- 82). 6 + 15,l s)
- - 525 (5 + 22,, + 24)G(2)
If P~ is t he val ue of f~ for 2 = 1, i.e., f2, is t he t ot a l vor t i c i t y i n t he uppe r hal f of a pi pe of ci r cul ar
s ect i on
Y2 12826(125 + 3102,, + 4282 ~ q- 8216 q- 1528)
0-~ - - 15(5 + 22" + 24)(1 + 22)2(35 + 842,, + 11424 + 202 G + 32 s)
( 1 2 )
a nd f21 = 1120 \ 0z / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The va r i a t i on of ~/L)~ wi t h 2 is s hown gr aphi cal l y i n Fi g. 2 f r om whi ch i t appear s t h a t L) a t t a i ns
a ma x i mu m val ue of 3 . 1 ~ whe n 2 = 2. 2. The di mi nut i on of fl ux t h r o u g h a c ur ve d pi pe is due
t o t h e a c c umul a t i on of a r e t a r de d l ayer of fl ui d at t he i nner wal l a nd t hi s i n t u r n is due t o t he
s econdar y f l ow; i t t her ef or e appear s pr oba bl e t h a t t he di mi nut i on is gr eat es t for val ues of 2
i n t he ne i ghbour hood of 2. For 2 = 6 t he flow is of t h e s ame s t r e ngt h as for 2 = 1 ; f ur t he r
i ncr ease i n 2 di mi ni s hes t he i nt e ns i t y of t he flow a s ympt ot i c a l l y t o zer o:
2.4. The Ax i al Vd o c i t y . - - S u b s t i t n t i n g for w0 i n t he f our t h e qua t i on of (6) we ha ve
~2ze'2 1 ~2w,, 2 ( 2 + 1 )
~x,, + 2,, 3y,, ~ x
t he s ol ut i on of whi ch is
1 + 22, ,
= - 1 + 3 2 8 ( 1 - x , , - y , , ) x . . . . . . . ( 1 3 )
Th e a ddi t i on of t hi s t e r m i n t he axi al vel oci t y r epr es ent s an i ncr ease of ve l oc i t y i n t he i ns i de
of t he b e n d and a decr ease of vel oci t y i n t h e out s i de of t he bend. The s ol ut i on of wl, f r om t he
t h i r d e qua t i on i n (6), is a pol ynomi a l of degr ee ni ne i n x and y t oget her , odd i n x and even i n y.
5
Since w~ is also odd in x and even in y, it follows t hat t he di mi nut i on in flux is zero to t he first
order of t he curvature of t he pipe. This polynomial represents an increase of velocity in t he
outside of t he bend and a decrease in t he inside of t he bend. The effect of curvature of the
pipe on the axial velocity is therefore represented by two terms w~ and w2 of opposite sign.
Of these, w~ represents t he effect generally associated with t he flow t hrough a curved pipe and
w2 t he effect generally associated with the flow along a curved channel. In fact, bot h effects are
always present together. For values of ~ near uni t y t he w~ t erm predomi nat es; for large
w~ is o5 order 1/~ ~ but w2 tends to t he limiting value -- x(1 -- x~). The following table gives
the variation in (z~)y=0 across t he maj or axis when R = 100, xa = 0.2.
TABLE 2
'Wo
~a=l
wa=2
wa=4
wa=m
- - 1 - - 2 / 3
27" 8
21 "7
15 "4
19"3
2 2 . 9
3 0 . 3
- - 1 / 3
44" 5
36" 0
30"6
34" 5
38" 3
46" 5
50
50
50
50
50
50
44- 5
53"0
58"4
54"5
50"7
4 2 . 5
2/ 3
27" 8
33"9
40 "2
36"3
32" 7
25 "3
0
0
0
0
0
0
These results are shown graphically in Fig. 3. As Z increases t he point of maxi mum velocity
shifts from the outside of t he bend over to the inside of t he bend. The transition from one t ype
of flow to t he other may be delayed by increasing R since w~ is preceded by an extra factor RL
2.5. T h e S p e c i a l Ca s e ~ ---- 1 ; t he Ci r c u l a r S e c t i o n . - - De a n ' s results for a pipe of circular section
are readily obtained by put t i ng ~ = 1 and transforming to polar co-ordinates by means of t he
substitutions
x = r c o s 0 u , = ), O0
/
y == r s i n 0 uo = - - Dr
.. .. (14)
where u, , Uo refer to velocities in t he radial and transverse directions respectively.
R i = - - ~ / ~ z " from equations (10), B1 ~ B., B~
Then
~5,, and from equation (9)
1
~P - - 1 1 5 2 (1 - - # ) 2 ( 4 - - r~)r s i n 0 .
( 1 5 )
Therefore
~) R12
u . - ( 1 - - r c o s 0
g4 ?) RI 2
uo -= - - 1152 (1 -- r~)(7# -- 23r ~ + 4) sin 0
(m)
6
3. The Secondary Flow in a Pipe of Rectangular Section.--3.1. The Stream Funct i on. --
Ouger wall
t
I
~ ~ " Inner
"~ ] Ya
wall
~--(2
Using t he same not at i on as in t he previ ous section, equat i ons (1) to
i dent i cal l y whilst t he boundar y condi t i ons are now
= ~ = @= 0 for x = 4 - 1 ( a l l y )
We put
y = 4 - 1 ( a l l x)
(3) ma y be applied
= Uo @ xaRR~uz ~ = Vo + naRR2vz
= Po + xaR~fl~ ~ = RR(Wo + xaRR~w~ + ~aw~)
16~ sech ~ @ . . . . . (17)
where R~ = -- x-w- 2~ az . . . . . . . .
The t erms i ndependent of ~ yi el d t he equat i ons of mot i on for flow t hr ough a st r ai ght r ect angul ar
pipe, viz.,
a P o aPo
Uo = Vo = 0 ; ax ~ y - - 0
and a~Wo 1 ~wo ~3
ax ~ + ~ ~y~ _ 16~ cosh 2-~
wi t h t he sol ut i on 9
w0 = ~P,~ c o s h ( 2 n + 1 ) ~ - - c o s h ( 2 n + 1 ) ~ c o s ( 2 n + 1) ~y
- - 1 ) '~ ~
where P,, = i2(n + 1)3 cosh ~ sech (2n + 1) ~ . . . . . . . . . (18)
Thi s series for Wo is r api dl y convergent and we appr oxi mat e t o Wo by r et ai ni ng onl y t he first
t erm, viz.,
Wo = cosh 2~ -- cos ~- . . . . . . . . . . .
Equat i ng coefficients of ~ we obt ai n
ap~ 1 a~u~ 1 a~vl
- - w~ - - ax k ~ aye. ~ dx dy
_ _
~ul 1 av~ _ 0
ax k ~ ay
1 a p l a ~ v l 1 a ~ u l
Z ~y + ax z a ~x ~y
(20)
T h e l a s t e q u a t i o n ma y be s a t i s f i e d i d e n t i c a l l y b y a s t r e a m f u n c t i o n ,/; de f i ne d b y t h e e q u a t i o n s
U~ = 22 ~
O~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (21)
E l i mi n a t i n g 151 b e t we e n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d e q u a t i o n s we o b t a i n
a~0 2 O~o + ~ - - c os h - - c o s h ~ X~ ~
Ox ~ + ,V ax ~ Oy ~ Oy ~ ~ 2; t . / s i n ~y (22)
wh e n c e
7 4 a r ~ 94: N ' ~ .
+ E (C,, s i n h n,t=y + D,,y cosh ~2.~y) cos n=x
~2 I 7~X ~ 7~X
+ 1-~474 9 ~ x 2 cos h ~- - - 512,a ~ c os h ~ c os h ~ + 144~'
+ 72Z = c os h i J s i n u y . . . . . . . . . . . ... (23)
I n s e r t i o n of t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s l e a d s t o t h e f ol l owi ng e q u a t i o n s
- 2 A,, s i n h T q- B,, s i n h T q- T c os h
G, fl I 1 8 ~ 2
. + 144a~
C,, s i n h n , ~ + D,, c os h n , ~ = 0
"~ A,, c os h q- B, s i n h - - -4,
,,=, T 1
q - E ( - - 1 ) " { C f l c s h n ; b r Y + D " ( l c s h n ' ~ r Y +
( - - 1) ' ~ A,~ cos h ~ - -[- B,~ x s i n h
c os h I + (9~ = - - 128,t =) s i n h x = 0 . . . .
, o , , . . . . . . . . .
1 4 4 n ~ (9a = - 184,t ~) c o s h ~ - 112,t"
~ 0 o
cos n~y
( i )
( i i )
(iii)
wh e r e Gp
~.' [
1 4 4 ~ 9~% ~ c os h 7 - - 512't2 c os h ~ c os h
=1, p=l
q- 144i " + 72~-', c o s h - ~l
= 0 , p ~ - 1 .
= 0 (iv)
8
Sol vi ng equat i ons (i) t o (iv) we fi nd
( 2 2 p ~ ) 4;tp pz~ ~ si nh n2~
1 -{- 2 ~ si nh ~ - Bp - - ~ si nh ~-,~=~ ( - - 1) "+p (p~ + ~%~2)2 D,,
144~4 28a si nh ~- + 112 si nh ~ + 9~(1 + cosh
a nd
(sinh 2pZ
2 p ~
4X s i n h p ~ ~ ( - - 1) "+p
1 Dp - - p u 2 ,~=1
1) p si nh p2~ ~5
+( - ~ [ 3 6 ~ ~
(24)
n 3
si nh ~- B,~
(n 2 + ~p~)~
73 + 101~p ~ + 64z~p ~
(1 + z~p~) ~ s i n h ~
6 4 ~ si nh ~ ~' cosh ~ 1
!
( 2 5 )
9 ~ ' 1 + 4x~p ~ 2 ~ ( 1 + z p ~ ) 2 j
3.2. The Speci al Case 2 = 1 ; the Square S e c t i o n . - - Wh e n ,t ----- 1 we h a v e t he case of a s qua r e
Sol vi ng equat i ons (24) a nd (25) a nd r e t a i ni ng onl y A~, B , C~ a nd D, as a sect i on.
fi rst appr oxi mat {on we fi nd
A 1 = 0" 03337
Rs
Let U~ be t he vel oci t y at
U s
C1 = - - 0"001864
- - 0" 02621 D1 = 0" 001858
. . . . . . . (26)
(RR)~=I = - - sech ~.
t he cent r e of a pi pe of s quar e s ect i on; t he n
= 0" 05062~ vRs 2 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (27)
I f Uc be t he cor r es pondi ng . vel oci t y a t t he cent r e of a pi pe of ci r cul ar sect i on we h a v e f r om
e qua t i on (16)
v R12
U c - 288
Ther ef or e U. ( ~ f
U~ = 14. 58
= 2 . 4 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (28)
The s e c onda r y flow is t her ef or e mor e i nt ens e i n a pi pe of s quar e sect i on t h a n i n a pi pe of ci r cul ar
sect i on.
4. The Ef f ect of Suct i on on the Fl u x through a Curved Pi pe of Circular Sect i on. - - 4. 1. Fi r s t
Appr ox i mat i on to the Ax i a l Vel oci t y. - -
Outer ~~'
wall ~ 0 ' ~ ~
_. A 13
I nner
wall
~ C
I
We t a k e as co- or di nat e s ys t e m pol ar co- or di nat es i n t he pl ane of a sect i on a nd 0 al ong t he
c e nt r a l axi s" t he nor ma l suct i on vel oci t y a t t he wal l is t a k e n t o be ~ a Uc o s 0, t h a t is,
9
(371) A*
p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e c e n t r a l axi s.
x = r / a, z - - / a ; u = v~/ a, v = v~/ a, w = ~z~/a, 25 = p ~ / a ~ . ~ a n d p u t t i n g
~u/ Oz = a v / a z : = a w/ a z = o '
we o b t a i n f r o m e q u a t i o n s (1) a n d (2)
~ ~ ~7 ~ ~a cos 0z~ ~
~2 g-x + x ~ O x ~ 1 + ~ax cos O - -
Ma k i n g t h e n o n - d i me n s i o n a l s ubs t i t Ut i ons
We p u t
ax x 3x 30 x ~~0 + x ~302
sin o
- ~ 1 4 - ~ 7 ~ os o ~ + x - x g O /
~ ~7 ~5 ~1~7 ~ a s i n 0z~ 2 @ a ~ 1 ~ ~ 1 O~a
a g-x + x ~ + 7 + l ~ 2 ~ x ~ d ~ O = - x O o + -g~ + x b x x~ - x ~x O-~o
1 ~ ~a cos 0 / ~ ~ ~7
+ x~O0 q 1 + ~ a x c o s Oi , , ~ + x - - - - -
~z~ ~5 ~z~ ~az~ ( ~ c o s 0 - - ~ si n 0) = - - 1 @ a~z~ 1 ~z~
g ~ + x ~ --1 + ~ax cos O 1 + ~ax cos O az ~ - ~ 4 - x a x
+ x ~ aO = q- 1 + ~ax cos O ~ c o s 0 - - ~ 6 s i n 0 - - ( l + ~ a x c o s 0 ) -
] } . _~ I ( l + ~ a x c o s 0 ) x ~ + ( l + ~ a x c o s 0 ) ~ = 0
~X / . . . . . . .
T h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e t h a t v / a . "~ = ~ a U cos O, f f = ~ = 0 f or x = 1.
x ~ O
( 2 9 )
( 3 o )
1 a v l 1 a2ul
- - x m ~ + x 2 a0 ~
Wo ~ 3p, a~vl 1 8vl v,
4 s i nO = - - x ~ O. q- ~ q x ~ x x ~
awo a=w~ 1 Ow~ 1 a=w,
u, ax - - ax ~ +' ; 7 aT + x ~ a0 =
~7) 1
_ a ( x u ~ ) + - 0
1 a=u~ 1 a u~
x a x a0 + x 2 a 0
1 0
. . . . . . ( a ] )
. . ( a g ~ )
wi t h t h e a x i s y mme t r i c s ol ut i on
W 0 ~ 1 - - - X 2 . . . . .
E q u a t i n g c oe f f i c i e nt s of ~ we f i nd
Wo ~ ~Pl 1 ~vl
4 c o s 0 - - ~x x ~ x ~ 0
o P o _ ~ P o _ 0
~x ~0
Uo --=- vo = 0;
a n d " O2Wo 1 aWo 1 a~Wo
Ox ~ + x ~x + x ~ ~0 ~
! 3 = Po q- ~aR~2P~ + ~2a~R~4P~
wh e r e R1 - - 2 ~z ' . _
We h a v e a p p r o x i ma t e d t o ~ b y n e g l e c t i n g a t e r m ~aw, ' i n c o mp a r i s o n wi t h ~ a R d w, ; t hi s ha s
b e e n s h o wn v a l i d f or a n a s p e c t r a t i o of u n i t y i n s e c t i on 2. 4. Th e t e r ms i n d e p e n d e n t of ~ y i e l d
t h e e q u a t i o n s f or t h e f l ow t h r o u g h a s t r a i g h t c i r c ul a r c y l i n d e r wi t h t h e s u c t i o n v e l o c i t y e v e r y -
wh e r e zer o, vi z. ,
The l as t e qua t i on ma y be sat i sf i ed i de nt i c a l l y b y a f unc t i on f ( x ) def i ned b y t h e e qua t i ons
= f ( * ) c o s 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 3 3 )
d
v, = - - -dx [ xf ( x) ] si n 0.
El i mi n a t i n g p l b e t we e n t h e fi rst a nd s econd e qua t i ons of (32) we have, p u t t i n g d f / d x = h( x ) ,
x ~ d3h d~h dh
) - ~ + 6x ~ ) - ~ + 3x )-~ - - 3h = x ~ - - x ~ . . . . . . . . (34)
B C 1 1 (4x3 x~ )
wi t h t h e s ol ut i on h(x) = A ~ x + x + -X ~ + ~ - 2 - -
C 1
wh e n c e f ( x ) = A x 2 + B l og x + x ~ + D + 1 ~ (6x' - - x 6) . . . . . (35)
Th e b o u n d a r y condi t i ons ar e t h a t v~ ---- O, u z = a U/ v R~ 2. cos 0 f or x = 1; i . e. , d ( x f ) / d x = O,
f ( x ) = a U / v R ~ 2 f or x = 1. Si nce u~ a n d v~ ar e b o t h f i ni t e at x = 0 , B= C= 0 . P u t
7 = 192aU/ v R~ 2, t h e n A = - - ~ v ~ (9 + 37), D - - ~ (4 + 97), whe nc e
u~ = ~ , ~ [(4 + 97) - - (9 + 37)x 2 + 6x ~ - - x ~] cos 0
. . ( 3 6 )
- - ] -
v~ ~ , ~ [(4 + 97) 9 ( 3 + 7) x ~ + 30x ~ - - 7x~ sin 0
Pu t t i n g w~ = g ( x ) c o s 0 i n t h e t h i r d of e qua t i ons (32)
d~g dg
x~ -d~ + x ~ - - g = - - 2 x y ( x )
= v { v I x ~ - - 6 x 7 + ( 9 + 3 7 ) x ~ - - ( 4 + 9 7 ) x 3 ~ . . . ( 3 7 )
T h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t g ( x ) = 0 f o r x = I . S o l v i n g w e f i n d
g ( x ) ~ [ ( 1 9 + 8 0 7 ) - - ( 2 1 + 1 0 7 ) x 2 + 9 x * - x ~ ] ( l - - x ~ ) x . . . ( 3 8 )
4.2. Th e Se c ond Al b~r ox i mat i on to the A x i a l V e l o d t y . - - S i n c e w~ is of t h e f or m g(x) cos 0, i t
f ol l ows t h a t t hi s t e r m ma ke s no c ont r i but i on t o t h e f l ux t h r o u g h t he pi pe ; t h e d i mi n u t i o n .in
f l ux ( whi ch was d e d u c e d on phys i c a l gr ounds i n t h e I nt r oduc t i on) is t her ef or e zer o t o t h e fi rst
powe r of t h e c ur va t ur e . Eq u a t i n g coeffi ci ent s of n~ i n e qua t i ons (32) we f i nd t h a t t h e e qua t i on
of c o n t i n u i t y ma y be sat i sf i ed b y a f unct i onf ~( x) def i ned b y t h e e qua t i ons
= A(x) c o s 2 0
l d
v~ = - - 2 ~ [xf~(x)] si n 20 .
Owl OWo v~ Ow~ 3~w~ 1 3w~ 1 O2w~
a n d Ul ~ + Us ~ - + x 00 - - ~x 2 + x ~ + x ~ 005
~2w~ 1 Ow~ 1 3~w~ d~x g d
~x 2 + x ~-x + x ~ 003 - f cos~0 + x ~ - x ( X f ) s i n ~ O - 2 x f l c o s 2 0 i . e. ,
02w~ 0w2 102w2 1 [ dg d f 1
i . e. , x - - ~ + - ~ + x 00 ~ - - 2 Xf dx + X d x g + f g
1 x/ - x / g 4xy
+ ~ cos 20 ~ g - - - -
f r om whi c h i t fol l ows t h a t w2 is of t he f or m re(x) + n ( x ) c o s 20.
!1
. . ( 3 9 )
Th e i nt e gr a l of t h e s econd
t e r m over a cr oss- sect i on is zero, c ons e que nt l y t o fi nd t he di mi nut i on of fl ux Jt wi l l suffice t o
de t e r mi ne re(x). Eq u a t i n g t e r ms i n d e p e n d e n t of 0 i n e qua t i on (39)
i . e. ,
whe nc e
d~m dm 1 [ _ddg x
x - d ~ + dx - - 2 x f +
x ~ ) - - 2 d x
dm _ l f g .
dx
X U x g +
t he c ons t a nt of i nt e gr a t i on bei ng zer o t o pr es er ve a f i ni t e val ue of d m/ d x at x = 0.
condi t i on on m is t h a t re(x) = 0 for x ---- 1.
1 ~
Ther ef or e re(x) = ~2 f , f ( t ) g ( t ) dt
. . . . ( 4 0 )
The b o u n d a r y
1
cfj~/ 76 + 4917 + 720y")t (331 + 1497y + 10507")t 3
A 1
+ (594 + 17207 + 360y~)t 5 - - (569 + 890v + 30y~)f
+ (314 + 1897)t 9 - - (99 + 13~)t ~1 + 16# 3 - - #5 } dt
/
wher e A = 80 (1152)L
Let Fs, F~ be t he fl uxes t h r o u g h t he s t r ai ght and c ur ve d pi pes r es pect i vel y; t he n
~I~, R~ v }
F~ = 2~a ~ f0 [ 2a (1 - - x~)x + ~-a. ~a2R~Sxm(x) dx
= 7t a~R~ + ~2a%R~5~ oxm(x) dx
(41)
7g
a nd Fs ----- ZI avR~.
Ther ef or e
F, _-- 1 + 4 ~l
F--~ 7~ z~a~R~4 o x m( x ) dx
= 1 - - \ 1 - 1 ~ /
(42)
4.3. Va r i a t i o n o f F l u x wi t h S u c l i o n . - - De a n ' s 1 val ue for t he fl ux i t obt a i ne d by p u t t i n g 7 = 0,
t h a t is t he s uct i on is e ve r ywhe r e zero. The n
F ~ _ 1 ( zaR~2)2 ( 4 3 )
F , - 0. 03058, , 11522 . . . . . . . . . . .
Pu t Y(7) = 0. 03058 + 0 . 3 5 1 8 7 + 1.17572. Thi s expr essi on has a mi n i mu m val ue of 0- 00424
whe n 7 = - - 0. 1497.
Ther ef or e
2
a nd is a t t a i ne d whe n 7---- - - 0 " 1497, i . e. , when U = - - O. O0 0 7 7 9 6 v R ~ / a . I t appear s f r om
e qua t i on (43) t h a t t he seri es for F~/ F, conver ges pr ovi de d n a r d 2 < 1152. Thi s c ondi t i on is
sat i sf i ed f or ~a : 0. 1 and R1 = 100. I n t hi s case
F~
F-~ = 1 - - 0-7535y(~,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . (44)
12
The following t abl e shows t he var i at i on in Fc / F, wi t h y; t hese resul t s are shown gr aphi cal l y
in Fig. 4.
TABLE 3
U
--0.4
0.94133
--20-833~/a
--0.2
0.99456
--lO-417v/a
--0-1497
0"99681
--7.797~/a
0-97696
0.2
0.88853
10.417v/a
0.4
0.72927
20" 833,/a
These resul t s ma y easi l y be i nt er pr et ed physi cal l y. The di mi nut i on in flux is br ought about
by t he accumul at i on of a r et ar ded l ayer of fluid i n t he i nner par t of t he bend. When y is posi t i ve
(and hence U) t he r et ar ded fluid is forced t owar ds t he out er par t of t he bend; t he region of
sl owl y-movi ng fluid is ext ended and t he flux f ur t her di mi ni shed, When 7 is negat i ve (and
hence U) t he sl owl y-movi ng fluid is removed by suct i on over t he i nner wall and repl aced by
fast er-movi ng fluid i nj ect ed over t he out er wall. The par t i cul ar di st r i but i on of suct i on we have
consi dered is capabl e of al most ent i r el y overcomi ng t he di mi nut i on of flux due to cur vat ur e : for
t he opt i mum val ue of U = - - 7-796v/a, t he flux in t he exampl e consi dered at t ai ns a maxi mum
val ue equal to 99. 7 per cent of i t s val ue in t he flow t hr ough a st r ai ght pipe.
5. Co u c l u s i o n s . - - Th e Navi er-St okes equat i ons for t he flow of a viscous i ncompressi bl e fluid
t hr ough a curved pi pe of elliptic sect i on have been solved to t he first power of t he curvat ure.
I t has been shown t hat the dynami cal par amet er of t he mot i on is, i n fact, ~a R ~ where R is t he
Reynol ds number for s t eady flow in a st r ai ght pi pe of t he same section and t ha t t he secondar y
flow consists of t wo opposed vor t ex mot i ons in t he t op and bot t om hal ves of t he pipe, t he di rect i on
of flow i n t he cent ral pl ane bei ng away from t he cent re of curvat ure. Thi s flow di mi ni shes for
bot h hi gh and low val ues of t he aspect rat i o of t he pi pe and in t he case when t he rat i o is i nfi ni t el y
large ( t hat is, when t he mot i on t akes place in t he channel bet ween t wo i nfi ni t e concent ri c cylinders)
t he secondar y flow vani shes al t oget her. Thi s suggests t ha t t he secondar y ftow in a bend ma y
be reduced by t he i nt r oduct i on of a number of guide vanes following t he cur vat ur e of t he bend;
t he pi pe is t hen di vi ded i nt o a number of channel s of l arger aspect rat i o in each of whi ch t he
i nt ens i t y of t he flow will be decreased. To t he degree of appr oxi mat i on considered t he axi al
vel oci t y is modified by t wo cur vat ur e t erms. The first of these, i nvol vi ng t he square of t he
Reynol ds number, represent s an i ncrease of vel oci t y i n t he out er hal f of t he bend and a decrease
i n t he i nner hal f ; t ha t is, t he effect general l y associ at ed wi t h flow i n a curved pipe. The second
t erm, i ndependent of t he Reynol ds number, represent s t he reverse effect; t ha t is, t he effect
gener al l y associ at ed wi t h flow t hr ough a curved channel. For val ues of t he aspect rat i o not far
r emoved from uni t y t he first of t hese t erms is t he l arger ; as t he aspect rat i o increases t he second
t er m event ual l y predomi nat es. Nei t her of t hese t er ms gives any cont r i but i on to t he flux t hr ough
t he pi pe so t ha t t he flux remai ns unal t er ed to t he first power of t he curvat ure. For t he special
case when t he aspect rat i o is uni t y we have t he sol ut i on for t he flow t hr ough a curved pi pe of
ci rcul ar section. The same met hod of sol ut i on has also been appl i ed to a curved pi pe of
r ect angul ar section. The resul t s are gi ven expl i ci t l y for t he special case of a square section and
i t is shown t ha t t he secondar y flow i n a square sect i on is st ronger t ha n t ha t i n a ci rcul ar section.
The effect of t he i ncreased resi st ance of a curved pi pe is to cause a di mi nut i on i n t he flux
t hr ough it. The equat i ons for flow t hr ough a curved pi pe of ci rcul ar sect i on have t herefore been
sol ved as far as t he second power of t he cur vat ur e to find t he effect of a di st r i but i on of suct i on
pr opor t i onal t o t he cur vat ur e i n reduci ng t hi s di mi nut i on. The resul t s obt ai ned show t ha t
wi t h t he di st r i but i on of suct i on considered t he di mi nut i on ma y be al most ent i r el y overcome.
13
a, b
~, V,
X, y , Z
R, RI, RR, Rs
U~,U~
xaU cos 0
F, , F,
LIST OF SYMBOLS
Curvature of pipe
Semi-major and semi-minor axes of pipe
bin
Dimensional Cartesian co-ordinates
Non-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinates
Velocity components referred to these axes
Coefficient of kinematic viscosity
Reynolds numbers for st eady flow in st rai ght pipes of elliptic, circular,
rect angul ar and square sections
Total vort i ci t y in t he upper half of curved pipe
Secondary flow velocity at t he centre of pipes of circular and square
sections
The suction velocity at the wall of a pipe of circular section
Fluxes through curved and st rai ght pipes of circular section
No. A utt~or
1 J. Th o mp s o n . . . . . .
2 J. Eus t a c e . . . .
3 C. M. Whi t e . . . .
4 G. I . Ta yl or . . . .
5 W. R . De a n . . . .
6 S. Gol dst ei n (editor) . .
7 H. Ri c ht e r . . . .
8 E . H. Keul egan and K. H. Bei]
9 R . J . Corni sh . . . . . .
10 W. R . De a n . . . . . .
REFERENCES
Title, etc.
Proc. Roy. Soc. A, Vol. 25, pp. 5 t o 8, 356 a nd 357.
Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., pp. 456 t o 460. 1879.
Expe r i me nt s on s t r eaml i ne mot i on i n c ur ve d pi pes. Proc. Roy. Soc.
A, Vol. 85, pp. 122 fI. 1911.
St r eaml i ne flow t h r o u g h c ur ve d pi pes. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, Vol. 123, pp. 645
t o 663. 1929.
The cr i t er i on f or t ur bul ence i n cur ved pipes. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, Vol. 124,
pp. 243 t o 249. 1929.
St r eaml i ne mot i on of fl ui d i n c ur ve d pi pes. Phil. Mag. (7), Vol . 4, pp. 208 ff.
1927.
Modern Developments in Fluid Dynamics, p. 100. Oxf or d Uni ve r s i t y
Press. 1938.
Forschungsarbeiten des Vet. deutsch. Ing., No. 338. 1930.
Journ. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., Vol. 18, pp. 89 t o 114. 1937.
Fl ow i n a pi pe of r ect angul ar sect i on. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, Vol. 120, pp. 691
t o 700. 1928.
St r eaml i ne mot i on of fl ui d in a c ur ve d pipe. Phil. Mag. (7), Vol. 5, p. 682.
1928.
14
9 , 0
S.
y = o
5-0
/
/
/
- I -2/ 3
/ / f
%=2
\
FI G. 1.
\
\
]5
n
o,
~ . 0
1.0
wy=O
/
3 - 0
<
\
\
0 ~ 4-
FIG. 2.
6 A
60
~.0
30
20
I0
0
-~ -z/3
- ~/~ 0 'I~
FIG. 3.
16
1. 0
%
0.6
0- 4
0. 2
Y
-.0 ' 4 - o .~ 0 0. 2
FI C. 4.
0"4 y
17
(371) Wt . 18/9296 K. 9 3.JS~; Hw. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
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