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Friends, now we will discuss some the real life case studies and
understand how techniques of research methodologies are useful
for that.
Case Study No. 1
After Shave Lotion
1. Marketing Brief
Traditionally, and even today quite a few men use alum as an
antiseptic after shaving or used nothing al all. Use of after shave
lotion (ASL) in India is relatively a new phenomenon. With rapid
changes in lifestyle and values, more and more men are today
using this product.
Initially, the use of ASL was mainly confined to the upper class
and most of them relied on imported brands. Many imported
brands viz. English Leather, Williams, Givenchy and Yardley are
still in use among the upper segment of the ASL market. Since
these ASLs are expensive, all can not afford to buy them. Thus, a
need for a cheaper and indigenous brand was felt. Seventies saw
the introduction of two indigenous brands made in collaboration
with the foreign companies. These were - Old Spice manufactured
in India by Colfax Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. in col1aboration with
Shulton of New York and the other brand Monarch was
manufactured in India by J.K. Helen Curtis in collaboration with
Helen Curtis of USA. Old Spice came in a big way to grab a major
share of the ASL market in India and continues to be the market
leader. Eighties saw the introduction of some more new brands-
Savage by Wiltech India Ltd., Park Avenue by J.K. Helen Curtis
and Old Spice Musk by Coaliax Laboratories. ASL market is thus
gradually becoming competitive.
Marketing Issues
It is necessary to analyze the impact of the recent changes mentioned
above and gauge the ASL market. To have a closer look at the ASL
market, some of the issues which need to be studied are:
i. Market share of various brands in Indian market
ii. Perception of consumers about the domestic vis-a-vis
imported brands
iii. Characteristics sought after in an ASL, reasons for
consistency or change in usage of a particular brand
iv. Purchase behaviour of the consumers and advertising
effectiveness
The present study attempts to look at some of these issues
through marketing research.
2. Marketing Research Objectives
The objectives of this research study were:
i. To find out consumer awareness about various ASL
brands in the market.
ii. To study the buying behaviour of consumers, specially
the choice criteria adopted. Also, the brand usage pattern
and the reason for consistency/ change.
iii. To study the perception of the consumers
about Indian ASL brands vis-a-vis foreign
brands.
3. Research Design
Type of study

Exploratoryy
3.1 Sources of Data
As secondary data about the After Shave Lotion market is almost
nonexistant, all the information is obtained from primary source.
3.2 Data Collection Mode
The data collection instrument used for obtaining the desired
information is a questionnaire. (a copy enclosed).
3.3 Sampling Plan
i. Target Population
The target population of the study consisted of men
from middle and upper income groups residing in
Calcutta in the age group of 20-50 years.
ii. Sampling Unit: Household
iii. Sample Size: 150
iv. Sampling Method: Purposive Sampling
4. Data Analysis And Findings
Awareness - Top of Mind
34% of the sample respondent out of 150 said that they did not
use any after shave lotion. Hence the following findings are based
on an effective response from 101 (64%) respondents. See the
graphics in the appendix for various findings. 28% of the
respondents had Old Spice at their top of mind, whereas Brut
had a top of mind awareness of 16%. Park Avenue and English
Leather 12% each. Monarch, Savage, Musk (Jovan) and others
have a top of mind awareness of 8%.
Second Level
No particular brand was prominent at second level of awareness
or recall. Three imported brands namely English Leather, Givenchy
and Yardley were mentioned by 16% respondents Patrichs and A
von were at the second in terms of awareness by of the respondents
(10%), whereas Denim and Brut had 6% (see Exhibit-1)
Present, Previous and Future Brands
On the basis of the present brand being used, Old Spice emerges
as the leader. 33% of the respondents said they are using Old
Spice at present. Other brands being used were Savage, Brut, Park
Avenue and Yardley.
Largest number of the respondents (44%) said they used Old
Spice on the previous occasion. 20% of the respondents mentioned
that they used Brut on previous occasions. Monarch, Jovan (Musk)
and English Leather were the other brands previously used.
Regarding the future choice of brand: Old Spice and Park Avenue
appeared as the most likely choice. (see Exhibit-2)
LESSON 39:
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Reasons for Change of Brand/Consistency
Regarding switching of brands, 34% of the respondents changed
their brands Just for a change 12% changed because the brand
they preferred, was nut easily available.
56% of the respondents continue using the same brand because
they have become habituated to it.
22% said that their resent brand provides them value for money.
12% of the respondents were of the opinion that they use a
brand because they dont like other
brands. (see Exhibit-3)
Reasons for use of ASL
50% of the respondents said that antiseptic property is the
predominant reasons for using an after shave lotion. Among the
other reasons 30% said they use ASL because of the freshness it
gives, 18% use for its perfume, 12% of the respondents like the
sting of ASL. (See Exhibit-4)
Usage Time
56% of the respondents use ASL immediately after shaving, 44%
of them use ASL after taking bath, while 33% of them use ASL
before going to a party. (see Exhibit-5)
Preference for Indian vs Imported Brand
42% of the respondents were found to prefer imported brands
to Indian brands. The reasons mentioned for use of imported
brands are better quality, brand image and status symbol.
For Indian brands, easy availability was the reason cited by 66% of
the respondents. 50% of the respondents felt that Indian brands
were preferable because of lower price. Brand image was given as
the reason for preferring Indian brands by 33% of the respondents.
(Exhibits-6A and 6B)
Purchase Decision
52% of the respondents said that they bought ASL themselves.
38% of them got it as a gift.
10% of the respondents said ASL is bought by their family
members. (Exhibit -7)
Purchase Factors
Brad names was found to be the most important factor that
influenced the purchase decision. Perfume and type of bottle are
considered as the next important factors. Surprisingly, price and
antiseptic property of the brand appeared lesser important factors
in brand choice decision (Exhibit-8)
Conclusions
Among the sample respondents, Old Spice turned out to be the
most popular brand in the after shave lotion market. Park Avenue
has carved a niche for itself in the upper segment of the market.
Imported brands are still considered to be superior quality by a
sizeable number of consumers. Indian manufacturers must
introduce better quality products and use advertising to improve
the poor image of their brands.
Manufacturers call think of launching brands with attractive packing
as a gift item because a sizeable number of sample respondents
said that they get an after shave lotion as a gift. At present most of
the after shave lotions, which are gifted, are imported ones.
Most consumers consistently use a particular brand because they
get used to it. To inspire a change, manufacturers can stress on the
unique or exciting benefits from a particular brand offers.
Appendix
Questionnaire
Dear Respondent,
We are conducting a survey of the after shave lotion market. We
would he grateful if you could fill-up the following questionnaire
in this regard.
1. Do you use an after shave lotion?
( ) Yes( ) No
If you do not use an after shave lotion then go to the Question-
12
2. Please name a few after shave lotions you have heard of.
a ..
b .
c
3. Which of the following brands have you heard of? TICK
a. Park Avenue b Old Spice
c Savage d English Leather
e Patricks f Williams
g Aramis h Givenchy
i Brut j Yardley
4. a. Which after shave lotion are you using at present?.....
b. If you are to select an after shave brand now which brand
will you choose? ......
5. Can you recall the name of the previous brand of after shave
lotion you used? Please
mention......
6. Can you give reasons for consistency/ change in your after shave
lotion!
Consistency
a. Habitual
b. Value for money
c. Dont like others
d. Any other, please specify
Change
a. Like to try other brands.
b. For a change;
c. All brands are same.
d. Any other, please specify.
7. Why do you use an after shave lotion? TICK
a. For its antiseptic properties
b. As a perfume
c. To feel fresh
d. Girlfriend loves it
e. To get the sting.
f. Any other reason, please mention.
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8. When do you use an after shave lotion?
a. Immediate after shaving
b. After a bath
c. Anytime of the day
d. Before going to a party.
e. ............
9. Given an easy availability of Indian and foreign brands of after
shave lotion which brand do you prefer?
( ) Indian ( ) Imported
Why? TICK
a. Perfume is better
b. Quality is better
c. Brand image
d. Price is lower
e. Status
f. Easy availability
g. Any other, please specify.
10. Who buys the after shave lotion for you?
a. Self
b. Family members
c. Normally get it as a gift
d. ............
11. Here we have mentioned a set of factors that you may consider
while buying an after shave lotion? Give your response on a
seven point scale ranging from (1) most important to (7) least
important for each of them.
a. Price
b. Brand name
c. Perfume
d. Antiseptic property
e. Type of bottle (with/ without atomizer)
12. Personal Information:
Age: ( ) less than 18 years ( )18-25 years
( ) 25-35 years ( ) above 35 years
Family Income:
( ) less than Rs. 36000 p.a.
( ) Rs. 36000 to Rs. 72000 p.a
( ) above Rs. 72000 p.a.
Profession
Govt. Service/ Private Service/ Student/ Business/ Any Other ......
Thanks a lot.

Exhibit-L Awareness
Top of Mind
Park Avenue
12%
Others
8%
English Leather
12%
Monaroh
8 %
Brut
16%
Second Level
Patrichs
10%
Denim
6%
Yardley
16%
English
Leather
168/ 0

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Exhibit- 6a
Prefer
Indian/ Imported
80
60

40
2.0

. . .
0
QUALIT
Y
Indian
680%
Exhibit -6b
Why Imported/ Indian?
. . .
.. .
. . .
. . .
Brand Image Status Symb Availability Price
Imported Indian








































Factors
80
40
60
2.0
0

Family
10%
. .
. . .
Price
Brand Perfume Antiseptic Bottle
Exhibit-7 Who
Buys?
Exhibit-7 Who
Buys?
Self 62%
Exhibit-8 Purchase
Factors
%Age
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Case Study No. 2
Decorative Paints
The paint is used by two broad sectors called decorative and
industrial purposes such as protective, automotive, refinish,
signboard and, coach painting. This case study will examine some
issues pertaining to the marketing of decorative paints. A typical
decorative paint is either water based or solvent based. The water
based paints are emulsion (acrylic) or distemper (dry or oil-bound).
The solvent based paints arc known as enamel paints. There are
currently three grades of synthetic enamel paints; Premium,
medium and of economic quality. In 1988 the breakup of different
grades of the decorative paints consumption was as follows:
Enamel Emulsion
Premium Enamel: 44% Premium Emulsion: 3%
Medium Enamel: 12% Economic Emulsion: 13%
Economy Enamel: 44% Flat Oil Paints: 5%
Oil Bound / Dry Distemper: 79%
Competitive Structure
The Indian paint market, today, has 22 large units and 1600 small
units. The big and small scale units contribute an equal amount to
the total supply. In the organised sectors the leading paint
companies are:
Asian Paints
Berger Paints
Garware Paints
ICI
Goodlass Nerolac
Jenson & Nicholson
Shalimar Paints
In the year 1988, the decorative paint market size was estimated to
be 128 million litre, valued at Rs. 48.13 million. The average annual
growth of the market during the last five years was roughly 5%.
Market Share and Brand Names
In 1988, the top five companies market share in decorative paint
market was as follows.
Company Million Litre Market Share(%)
Asian Paints 42.0 32.8
Goodlass Nerolac 16.0 12.5
Berger Paints 11.0 8.6
Jenson-Nicholson 10.5 8.2
ICI 5.5 4.3
Total 85.0 66.4
Exhibit 1 in Appendix-1 presents the different brand names of
major Paint manufacturers in India and Exhibit 2 shows major
companies market share in different class of decorative paints.
These two evidently indicate that decorative paint market in India
is a highly competitive business. Going by the interval of purchase
of any decorative paint, the product is treated asconsumer durable.
Paint purchase process is also thought to be a joint decision where
the end user and Dumber of intermediaries (i.e., the painter,
contractor, dealer/ retailer) seem to interact. But what is the possible
type of role played by these intermediaries is often not clearly
known. In addition, consumers are found to consult their friends
and own family members in the choice decision. Paint advertisers
also seem to convey a lot of messages about their brands and
specific features available in their offerings. The idea is to create
awareness about brands and company names among the end
users so that the brand falls under the acceptable lists in the
consumers mind.
Given such a scenario of the decorative paint market in India, this
study endeavoured to examine the following issues:
I. Marketing Research Objectives
i. To determine how consumers decide on the choice of shade,
packsize, brand in decora-tive paints. Specially to study how
self/ spouse, friend, contractor/ painter, dealer/ retailer.
advertisement influence in the decision-making.
ii. To assess the relative importance attached to the various factors
namely durability, washability, finish, instant drying, range of
pack size, company name, availability and price, while buying
any decorative paint.
iii. To study consumers awareness about brand and manufacturers
name.
II. Research Design
i. Type: Exploratory Study
ii. Source of Information: Consumer survey with a
structured questionnaire (copy enclosed in the Appendix-
II)
iii Sampling Decisions
a. Target Respondent
People who have got their house/ furniture/ some domestic
appliance painted during the last year.
b. Sampling Procedure
To get a representative and unbiased sample it was decided to
choose certain localities in Calcutta.
Initially a sampling frame was prepared with the help of dealers/
retailers of these localities from their sales records.
The above list was divided area-wise and the study decided to
draw samples by systematic procedure to provide repre-sentation
to different localities.
People who refused to cooperate or were not available when
approached were replaced by other members in the list.
To allow recency in the data collected, 50% of the samples were
selected by intercepting the customers at the shop.
c. Sample size
One hundred (the number fixed on convenience). Keeping in
view that it is an exploratory study this many respondent was
assumed to be adequate.
III. Data Analysis
a. To analyse the data regarding the possible influence by different
members in decision-making, it was initially hypothesised that
these form of classifications (shown below) are independent.
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Type of person Choice Decision Regerding
Shade Size Brand
Self/ Spouse
Friend
Contractor/ Painter
Dealer/Retailer
Advertisement
This was tested by Chi-square test.
b. Simultaneously our intuition suggested that some of the
members among the above mentioned people, such as
contractor/ painter, would influence the decision more than
others. So, the study tested whether majority of the consumers
expressed that they consulted some particular type of person
in certain decision-making. Hence, the null hypothesis of this
type can be expressed as,
Ho: Pi> = 0.50-vs- H1 : Pi < 0.50
where Pi = Proportion of consumers who seem to consult a
particular type of person in certain decision-making. i suffix
denotes the particular type of person. This hypothesis was
tested; by Normality test.
c. Data regarding consumers relative importance to the given set
of attributes in choice
decision were analysed by Thurstones Case- V scale.
iv. Findings
i. The table below shows the number of people who consulted
a particular type of person (in column-l) in different decision-
making.
Total Sample Size = 100
Source Consulted (i) Shade(ii) Size (iii) Brand/ Company (iv)

Self/ Spouse 96 30 36
Friend 20 4 20
Contractor Painter 35 80 84
Dealer/ Retailer 8 42 48
Advertisement 15 6 30
Applying X
2
test on this data we found that these decision-making
and sources are not independent. That is, some of the sources are
distinctly more operative in certain decision-making. Consequently,
the study tested the role of spouse/ self, contrac-tors/ painter and
dealer/ retailer in different decision-making.
ii From the table itself it is clear that self/ spouse play an important
role in deciding on the shade of paint bought; whereas
contractor/ painter is the major influencer regarding the size
and brand of paint purchased. Dealers and advertisements
were not found to be much key source of influence in any
decision.
iii. In appendix-III we have shown the derivation of interval scale
of various attributes by Thurstones model. It shows that
durability and finish are the most sought after qualities in
decorative paint. Surprisingly, company name and price came
somewhere in the middle of the scale. It possibly indicates that
consumers surveyed attach more importance to quality of paint
than price.
iv. Data also showed that majority of the consumers were not
aware of the exact brand they had used. They were, however,
able to name the manufacturer. This observation would
possibly give many insight to paint manufacturers on the issue
of whether to have brand or corporate advertising.
Applying X
2
test on this data we found that these decision-making
and sources are not independent. That is, some of the sources are
distinctly more operative in certain decision-making. Consequently,
the study tested the role of spouse/ self, contrac-tors/ painter and
dealer/ retailer in different decision-making.
ii. From the table itself it is clear that self/ spouse play an important
role in deciding on the shade of paint bought; whereas
contractor/ painter is the major influencer regarding the size
and brand of paint purchased. Dealers and advertisements
were not found to be much key source of influence in any
decision.
iii. In appendix-III we have shown the derivation of interval scale
of various attributes by Thurstones model. It shows that
durability and finish are the most sought after qualities in
decorative paint. Surprisingly, company name and price came
somewhere in the middle of the scale. It possibly indicates that
consumers surveyed attach more importance to quality of paint
than price.
iv. Data also showed that majority of the consumers were not
aware of the exact brand they had used. They were, however,
able to name the manufacturer. This observation would
possibly give many insight to paint manufacturers on the issue
of whether to have brand or corporate advertising.
Appendix II
Questionnaire
1. When did you get your house/ furniture/ some appliance
painted last?
2. Which type of paint you used?
3. Can you recall the make (brand/ company name) of the paints
you used?
Brand Name
Company Name
_________ __________
_________ __________
4. What were the reasons for choosing this particular paint?
5. Did you seek the advice of the below mentioned persons while
deciding on the shade, pack size and make (brand/ company)
of the paint?
State your views by ticking in the respective columns below:

Decision regarding choice of
Source Consulted Shade Pack size Brand / Company

Self/ Spouse
Friend
Contract / Painter
Dealer/ Retailer
Advertisement

6. While buying decorativc paints consumers seem to consider
factors such as, price, instant
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Appendix-L
Exhibit 1 : Decorative Paints
Brand Names of Major Manufacturers
Manufacturer
Class of British
Asian
Paints
Jenson &: ICI Shalimar Good/ ass Garware
Paint.!: Paints Nicholson Paints Naolac Paints
1. Premium Luxol Hi Apcolite Brolac Dulux Syn-Superlac Nerolac Syn- Ecomite
Enamel Gloss Syn. Synthetic Dulux thetic Synthetic thetic Pammd
Enamel Enamel Polyurethetic Enamel Enamel Enamel
Syn.
Enamel
Enamel Glosslite
2. Medium Parrot Syn- 3-Mangocs Jensons Duwel Durolac Glosslite Kinglac
Enamel thetic Synthetic Quick
Speed-
gloss
Synthetic Synthetic High Gloss
Enamel Enamel Dl)'ing Enamel Enamel
Syn.
Enamel
3. Economy Butterfly Gattu G.P. Umbrella Maxilite Diamond Palm Tree King Quick
Enamel G.P. Syu. Enamel Synthetic Synthetic G.P.Syn. Dl)'ing S)l1
Enamel Enamel Enamel Enamel Enamel
4. Premium LuxolSilk Apcolite Robbialac Dulux Superlac Nerolac Eomite
Emulsion Acrylic Super- Acrylic Plas- Acrylic Acrylic Plas- ACl}'tic Acryl ic
Emulsion Acrylic
tic
Emulsion
Emulsion tic Emulsion Emulsion Emulsion
Emulsion With
Ror
Int/ Ext.
Silicone ror Use
(nt/ Ext use
S. Economy B.P. Vinyl Super Jensolin x Durolac X X
Emulsion Wall Paint Decoplast Acrylic Acrylic Plas-

Water
Thin-
Emulsion tic Emulsion
nab Ie Wall & Shaliplast
Paint Styrene
6. Flat Oil Bison Syn. Apcolite
Jensolin
Syn.
x Matt Kote Nerolac Emotite
Paints Ext./ lnt. Syn. Ma tt Ext. Finish Paint Syn. Flat Flat Oil
Finish Paint, Pearl Paint.
Lustre
Finish, Oil paint
Neromatt Ext.
Syn. Flat
7. Oil Bound x Tractor Jensolin x Duradol
New
Soldier
Eomite
Syn.
Distemper Syn. Wash- Syn. Wash- Washable. Washable
able Dis- able Dis- Oil Bound Distemper
temper temper Distemper
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drying, availability, range of pack size, company name, finish,
durability and washability
etc. Here you are asked to judge all possible pairs of such factors
and indicate for any pair of factors which factor is more important
to you in the following table. For example, suppose you are asked
to compare between price and durability. Say, you consider price as
more important than durability then put in the price row durability
column the number 1.
Please note that there is no right or wrong answer here.
Perhaps it will be easier for you to fill this table if you start from
the 1st row factor: and compare it with all the column factors. Put
the number 1 in the row whenever the 1st row factor is more
important than the column factor. And similarly. proceed for all
the rows.
Appendix III
Exhibit-3a
Factor Preference Pattern of Consumers
Exhibit 2
Decorative Paints - Maior Paint Companies Market Share
Unit: In Percentage (%)
Company
Class of Paillls
Asian
PaintS
Goodlass Berga Paints Jenson & ICI Ochers
Naola,: Nicholson
Premium Enamel 33 19 12 6 10 20
Medium Enamel 44 10 12 5 1 27.5
Economy Enamel 33 4 13 6 0.7 43.3
Premium Emulsion
Matt 21 17 65 15 22.5 19
Silk - - 30 20 375 12.5
Economy Emulsion 22 14 6.6 7.3 - 50.1
Oil I30und
Distemper 46 17 4 9 - 24
Table belowshows the proportion of consumers (in %) who expressed that
row factor is more
important to the column
factor.

Factor
Row {actor marl: important
10 column factor (in %)

A b c d e f g H
(a) Price - 98.2 79.6 100 29.6 31.5 35.2 50
(b) Instant Drying 1.8 - 55.5 79.6 24.1 14.8 0 18.5
(c) Availability 20.4 44.5 - 68.5 22.2 14.8 18.5 24.1
(d) Range or pack size 0 20.4 31.5 - 0 13.0 16.6 11.1
(e) Company name 70.4 75.9 77.8 100 - 35.2 9.3 48.2
(f) Finish 68.5 85.2 85.2 87.0 64.8 - 24.1 64.8
(g) Durability 64.8 100 81.5 83.4 90.7 75.9 - 98.2
(h) Washability 50 81.5 75.9 88.9 52.8 35.2 1.8

Exhihit-3b
Applying Thurstones formula to obtain the interval scale value
under the Normality assumption we obtained the following table
Factor Price Instant Availa bility Ronge
C
o
m
-
Finish
Durabili
tu
Washa
bility
Drying
Of Pack
size
p
o
n
y


N
a
m
e

(a) Price x ( ) ( ) ( )
(

( ) ( ) ( )
(b) Instant Dtying x ( ) ( ) (( ) ( ) ( )
(c) Availability X ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(d) Range 01 pack
size
x (( ) ( )
(e) Company name xX ( ) ( )
(f) Finish x ( ) ( )
(g) Durability X ( )
(h) Washability X

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a b c d e f g H
a. Price . 2.1 0.83 3.5 (-)0.54. (-)0.48 (-)0.38 0.0
b.Instant Drying -2.1 0.14 0.83 (-)0.71 (-) 1.05 (- )3.5 (-)0.9
c. Availability -0.83 (-)0.t4 . 0.48 (-).76 ( - )1.05 1- )2.09 O.1
d. Rangeof Pack size -3.5 (-)0.83 (-)0.48 . (-)3.5 (-)1.13 (- ).97 (-) 1.22
e.Company name 0.54 0.71 0.76 3.5 . ( - )0.38 ( - ) 1.33(- )0.5
f. Finish 0.48 1.05 1.05 1.13 0.38 . (-)0.71 0.3S
g. Durability 0.38 3.5 2.09 0.97 1.33 0.71 2.10
h. Washability 0.0 0.9 0.71 1.22 0.5 ( - )0.38 (-)2.10
Computingtheaverageof each rowand shiftingtheorigin, weget the. scalevaluefor each
factors as the following
Thurstone's Value
a b c d e F g h
Scale 2.95 0.87 1.30 0 3.08 3.09 4.54 2.41

Case Study No. 3
Portable Generator
1. Marketing Brief
The new economic liberalization policy of 1985 has led to increased
foreign industrial collabora-tions in India. There has been a spurt
in the industrial tie-ups and consequently industrial output has
gone up. Portable generator is one such industrial item where
many new units were set up during 1984-85. For example, Sriram
group collaborated with Honda of Japan and set up a unit with a
capacity of 500 portable generators a day. The Birla group, in
collaboration with Yamaha of Japan entered the portable generator
market with like capacity. Similarly, Greaves Cotton tied up to
produce its brand Called Lombardini portable generator, Kirloskar
group introduced a 1.5 KVA
portable generator; Enfield India followed with Gee generator
and so on. Simultaneously, the local brands were also gradually
introduced. It is estimated that there are about 50-60 units operating
in the local sector with capacities in the range of 100 a day. Thus by
1986 the total output of portable generator industry was in the
range of 2.5 lakhs a month. This demand was however shortlived
and by 1987 many units had closed down. For example, Kirloskar
group has withdrawn the 1.5 KVA machine, Lombardini has also
disappeared from the market and so on (see Exhibit-l to have an
idea about shift in market share). Two major competitors Sriram
Honda and Birla Yamaha are locked in a fierce competition in the
market indulging in price war. (See the following table to see the
price changes undertaken by these two companies within a year).
Table I

Price Fluctuation or Two Leading
Companies

Unit : Rs. Thousand
Jan Fer Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
90 89 86 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 0"
89 87 85 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 77 6

Company
Sriram Honda Birla Yamaha
Market Segmentation
Portable generator has been marketed for domestic and commercial
use. Typically on the basis of user capacity requirements (i.e. wattage
demanded) the following two segments seem to form.
Domestic use: 600 watt
Commercial use: 1000-1500 watt.
But the emerging market segment seems to be the rural market.
As such, the rural market requires generators mainly to run the
pump sets in the farm. This market has been totally ignored by
the two market leaders. While it is true that these two companies
manufacture a better quality generator and they are more expensive,
light and fragile and hence perhaps cannot be left in the open in
the farms. Local brands so far used to satisfy the requirements of
the rural sector. But today the market leaders have realised the
importance of rural market. However, it is also true that the
features looked for in a portable generating set seem to vary from
urban to rural market. For example, till recently portable generators
used to be marketed on factors like low noise level, fuel efficiency,
reliable machine etc. But now the market requirements have
changed. Hence this needs to conduct a marketing research. For
example, if the research reveals that hours of continuous operation
is the most important factor in rural setting, it would imply that
the product should have a large fuel tank as efficiency of the
machine can be increased only up to a point. This in turn implies
that the dry weight would be higher. Thus testing such hypotheses
would enable to identify the optima! feature mix consistent with
technological feasibility and consumer preferences. The study tests
many such hypotheses on data collected from rural and urban
markets to see the difference in the requirement pattern of different
class of users.
2. Marketing research objectives
Broadly speaking, the research objectives are
i. To compare the utility of a portable generator in rural and
urban market.
ii. To examine the perception about the price of a portable
generator by rural vis-a-vis urban consumers.
iii. To study how rural and urban market attach importance to
below mentioned qualities of a portable generator:
a. Noise level
b. Hours of continuous running
c. Ruggedness
d. Dry weight.
3. Research Hypotheses
The issues mentioned above are tested with formulation of some
hypotheses. The different hypotheses and the specific measurement
used are explained below.
Hypothesis-l
Ho: Portable generators utility is equal for both rural and urban
based consumers.
Hl: Portable generator is perceived as a low utility item in urban
market than in rural sector.
This test was based on the response to the following question.
Q : Please list your order of preference for the purchase of the
following items:
a. Colour television
b. Music system
c. Air conditioner
d. Portable generator
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e. VCR
f. Camera
g. Refrigerator
The mean rank obtained by portable generator in rural and urban
segments was analysed.
Hypothesis-2
Ho: Portable generator is perceived as equally expensive in both
rural and urban segments
HI: Portable generator is perceived as less expensive by the rural
consumers.
This was tested using the following question.
Q: Portable generator is expensive for you to afford.

Strongly DisagreeNeither agree Agree Strongly
disagree nor disagree agree
The hypotheses on product features are analysed based on
responses to the following question. Q: Please rank the following
features of a portable generator in your order of preference.
a. Noise level during operation
b. Hours of continuous operation
c. Ruggedness of the machine
d. dry weight of the machine.
Hypothesis-3
Ho: Noise level during operation is an equally important factor
for both segments.
HI: Noise level is a less important factor for rural segment.
Hypothesis-4
Ho: Hours of continuous operation is equally important for both
segments.
HI: Hours of continuous operation is more important for rural
segment.
Hypothesis-5
Ho: Ruggedness is an equally important factor for both segments
HI: RU&8edness is more important for rural segment.
Hypothesis-6
Ho: Dry weight is equally important factor for both segments
HI: Dry weight is more important for urban segment.
Sample Size
The study had selected an equal size of sample of fifty consumers
from urban and rural markets.
Test Statistic
All the above mentioned hypotheses were tested by applying the
t test whose general structure was as follows:
Xl - x2
t -=
S.e. (Xl - X2)
where X
1
, X
2
sample mean scores obtained from the rural and
urban sector respectively. S.c. stands for standard error of the
difference between sample mean. (See chapter on t-test for its
computa-tional formula).
Depending on the structure of the alternative hypothesis the test
had chosen appropriate acceptance/ rejection rule for the null
hypothesis. Data analysis by this t-test on the sample response
showed the following results.
4. Findings
Hypothesis-l : The data indicated that portable generator had a
greater utility for the rural segment than for the urban segment.
Hypothesis-2: The rural segment perceives portable generator to
be less expensive compared to the urban segment.
Hypothesis-3 : Test shows that noise level is a less important
factor for the rural segment.
Hypothesis-4 : Hours of continuous operation is a very important
factor for the rural segment.
An implication of this result is that rural segment would prefer
higher tank capacities. This is understandable since a farmer has to
procure fuel from a far distance that he cant afford to do this very
often.
Hypothesis-5 : Ruggedness of the machine is a feature which the
farmers look for more, as the machine would be in the open field.
Hypothesis-6 : Dry weight is a more important consideration of
the urban segment. A farmer docs not require frequent mobility
of a generator. On the contrary, the urban consumers perhaps put
it in multiple uses and hence look for lighter weight.
Recommendation
It is seen that the research results reveal some important lacunae in
the existing marketing strategy. While the utility for the rural sector
is maximum, this very, segment has been somewhat ignored.
Further the rural sector does not perceive the price of the portable
generator to be expensive, may be in view of their pressing
requirement. Also a review is needed with regard to different size
of features of a portable generator and accordingly, a portable
generator may be positioned in the rural and urban market.
Case Study No.4
Typewriter
1. Marketing Brief
A typewriter machine is an indispensable item in any organisation
and also possessed by many professionals. In India the number
of producers of manual typewriter has remained four for many
years and portable machine is manufactured by Remington Rand
only. The core product of most of the companies are similar. But
users develop some perception based on their experience or
otherwise. As such, the unique selling proposition of all the
companies is invariably after sales service and low price. Typewriter
is a typical product where the people involved in the choice decision,
of which model or make of the typewriter to buy, are often
different from the user of the machine. And these two sets of
people have different preferences about the various existing brands
of typewriters and their role in the choice decision vary. Particularly
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in such a situation any marketer would require to assess how the
decision makers and users judge its offering. Also an analysis of
the demand trends, market share, strengths and weaknesses of
different manufacturers is essential for
any marketing decision. Moreover, there is a prevailing notion
that the buying behavior of typewriter in government (public)
and private sector companies are different. So it is desirable to
examine the possible behavioural differences in public vis-a-vis
private sector companies. Also, in recent times electronic typewriter
has invaded the market in a big way. In the beginning the electronic
typewriter was positioned as a status symbol. But gradually the
electronic typewriter has been projected as having superior features
than any manual typewriter machine. So there is a growing need to
assess the impressions of purchase managers and users about
electronic
typewriters.
Given this background the following paragraph explicitly states
the various marketing research objectives of this study.
Marketing Research Objectives
i. To study the typewriter market in terms of competitive structure
and demand trends
ii. To analyse the perceived strengths and weakness of the
companies operating in the typewriter business in the eyes of
the manufacturers
iii. To examine the buying behaviour regarding the purchase of
manual typewriter in public vis-a-vis private sector.
iv. To assess the perceptions of the user-organisations (decision-
makers) and the typists (users) about existing brands of manual
typewriter and
v. To ascertain decision-makers and users impression about
electronic typewriter.
2. Research Design
This study used an exploratory design to analyse the market size
and competitive scenario and descriptive design to examine buying
behaviour and opinions about electronic typewriter.
A. Information Required
i. Companies operating in the typewriter business, their
production level during 1977-82 and demand trends.
ii. Each manufacturers perception about strengths and weakness
of its competitors.
iii. As in this instance two categories of personnel, typists and
purchase managers, are usually involved in the decision-making
process, so separate response from these two groups of people
in an organisation was obtained. In each organisation the study
asked
a. Purchase/ administrative managers to state the degree of
importance attached to price, past performance,
typists opinion, manufacturers reputation, after sales service,
guarantee, discount offered and terms of payment. (see enclosed
question-naire-1 in the appendix)
b. Also, each purchase/ administrative manager was asked to state
the merits and demerits of electronic typewriter.
c. Moreover, each purchase/ administrative manager was asked
to indicate the possibility of switching over to electronic
typewriter.
d. Five typists were asked to judge different brands of type writers
which they have used with regard to clarity of prints, lightness
of touch, availability of after sales services, speed and durability.
e. Similarly, these typists were asked to state their impressions
about the merits and demerits of electronic typewriter. (See
enclosed questionnaires detailed).
B. Source of Information
i. Secondary Scanning of annual reports of typewriter companies
and discussions with marketing personnel of the typewriter
companies located at Calcutta.
ii. Primary Conduct Consumers surveys with the help of two
questionnaires, one meant for typists and other for purchase/
administrative managers.
C. Schedule of Information Collection
Two sets of questionnaires were developed to secure data on the
lines suggested under the section titled Information Required
(copy enclosed in annexure 1).
D. Data Collection
Location of the Study - Calcutta
i. Information about typewriter industry was obtained from the
manufacturers through in-depth interview of key marketing
personnel ,within each company.
ii. Sampling decisions for consumer behaviour survey consists
of the following elements:
1. Population: All public and private sector organisations including
educational in-stitutions located in Calcutta.
2. Sampling Unit: It included the coverage of five typists and one
purchase/ ad-ministrative manager in each of the selected
organisations.
3. Sampling procedure: (a) The study had a-priori decided to include
an equal representation of public and private sector
organisations in the sample. The exact number chosen was
fifty each which was decided as per the sample size determina-
tion rule. (see Annexure-II for details)
b. The organisations were selected on a random basis after
preparing a master list of population on the basis of pooling
of customer list of the manufacturing companies.
c. In each organisation five typists were selected by following
systematic sampling procedure on the master list of secretarial
staff maintained by each organisation.
3. Data Analysis
1. The research objectives regarding the assessment of market
size, competitive structure, strengths and weaknesses of
different companies were analysed from the data gathered
through in-depth interviews with marketing personnel of
companies.
2. As per the convention of descriptive study it was essential to
formulate a few hypothesis pertaining to
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a. Purchase behaviour of organisations
b. Users perceptions about important features in a manual
typewriter
c. Users opinions on superiority of model(s) on specific feature
and
d. Possible association between typewriter model on which typists
learnt and models which are preferred now.
Hypothesis (1)
a. The private sector companies attach higher importance to the
typists opinion than the public sector/ units.
b. Price and terms of payment receive more importance in the
purchase-decision of public sector than in the private sector.
Hypothesis (2)
a. Lightness of touch is the most sought after quality in a manual
typewriter.
b. All available models of manual typewriter do not perform
equally well with regard to offering the lightness of touch.
3. As stated in the marketing research objectives, the study tried
to assess how purchase managers and users look at an electronic
typewriter. The data obtained through open end questions
about the merits and demerits of electronic typewriter were
subjectively analysed Likewise, opinions expressed on the given
list of merits/ demerits of electronic typewriter Were
summarised by pooling the data. Here the opinions of two
sets of respondents, purchase managers and users, were treated
separately to examine the contrasting views.
Findings
1. The market size (in units) for three types of typewriters
produced in India is as follows:
Portable : 7,000
Standard Manual : 1,10,000
Electronic : 15,000
2. Competitive Structure
a. Portable typewriter is manufactured by Remington Rand only
and it comes in three languages; English, Hindi and Gujarati.
The major users are professionals, journalists, students/
research scholars and small business owners. Interestingly,
government docs not buy this type of typewriter machine. It is
classified as a luxury item and pays 50% duties. It is a light
machine but suffers from low durability and uncertain servicing
facility. Smuggled portable typewriters also compete with
indigenous variety.
b. Standard manual typewriters arc widely used in offices. These
are available in different Indian languages and various ranges
of carriage sizes. Four major companies are supply-ing this
type of machines under different brand names (given below).
1. 2. 3. 4.
Company Brand Name
1. Remington Rand of India Ltd. Remington
2. Godrej & Boyce Pvt. Ltd. Godrej AD &
PB
3. Rayala Corporation Pvt. Ltd. Halda
4. Facit Asia Ltd. FACIT
c. Network, PCL, Godrej, Remington and Facit are the main
producers of electronic typewriters in India. This type of
typewriter is, by and large, assembled in India from CKD and
SKD complete/ semi-knocked down) kits. It still commands a
very high price, (min. Rs. 18,000) and high operating cost (Rs.1
per page compared to 2 to 3 paise per page for manual
typewriters).
3. Demand Trends

(a) Market trends for manual typewriters (no. of units)
from 1977 to 1982 is as follows:
1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
Remington 31330 33100 32700 29175 17539 334 26
Godrej 21250 26771 26210 27362 32261 37250
Halda 8982 11349 14743 13453 13920 14t90
Fadt 2196 13244 18864 24700 26100 31170
Total 63758 84464 92517 94690 89820 116036

Between 1983-87 the market demand remained between 1,10,000
to 1,20,000 units.
Growth Rates
10 years ago 30%
5 years ago Stagnant
Now No growth from 1986-87 figure
b. Regional Demand Pattern
Manual
Region %
West 30
North 30
South 20
East 20
40% of the demand originates from the Metro Cities.
In case of electronic machines, 90% of the market lies in metro
cities, with more or less same regional pattern of demand.
Godrej enjoys the highest share of public sector market.
Facit is comparatively more successful in South and found more
popular among private sector units.
Remington has a monopoly in typing school segment.
In manual typewriter market, Godrej adopts a somewhat liberal
credit (terms of payment) and
discount policy.
c. Market Share
Manual Typewriter Market Share in
1982(%) 1987(%)
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Godrej 29 40
Remington 32 30
Facit 27 25
Halda 12 5
Electronic Typewriter 1987 Market Share (%)
Network 33
PCL 25
Godrej 13
Facit 7
Remaining Companies 22
4. Strengths And Weakness of Different Companies
Remington
Strengths
1. Ruggedness and reliability
2. Services and maintenance requirement negligible
3. Durability (lasts for 20 years or so)
4. Automatic pull in market and
5. Monopoly in typing school segment.
Weaknesses
1. Obsolete model
2. Poor after sales service
3. Hard touch and
4. Lockout in 1982-83 led to some los:; of market.
Godrej
Strengths
1. Efficient after sales service
2. 10% lower price than others. This is probably the reason why it
is the market leader in public sector segment.
3. Good image as a supplier of different office equipment, furniture
etc.
Weaknesses
1. Gourejs AB model is perceived as of inferior quality and
machine requires hard touch.
2. PB model, though better, is yet to establish in the market.
Facit
Strengths
1. Captured fairly large market share despite somewhat new entrant
2. Easy to operate and light in touch
3. Efficient sales policy (tim1ely visit for repair and maintenance).
Weaknesses
Users of Remington machine initially find it difficult to operate.
Halda
Strength
First feather touch machine in India.
Weaknesses
1. Lacks innovative skill in marketing.
3. Could not withstand the competitive pressure and
3. Unable to generate large number of copies at a time.
5. Buying Behaviour In Publlc-vs-private Sector
a. Typists opinion is given more importance in private sector
than in public sector. (See annexure-III for detailed results of
the test of hypothesis).
b. Price and terms of payment are given a somewhat higher degree
of importance in public sector than in the private sector.
c. Reputation of the manufacturer and after sales services are
given equal importance in public and private sector.
6. Consumer Perception About Existing Brands
a. Lightness of touch is the most sought after quality ina
typewriter. (See annexure-V for details about testing of this
particular hypothesis)
b. Typists, by and large, felt that FACIT is the best available
typewriter machine on the lightness of touch quality. (See
annexure- V for details about the method of testing this
hypothesis)
c. Halda was also perceived as a light touch machine, but it fair~d
poorly on aftersales service.
d. Remington and Godrej were rated as harder typewriter
machines.
e. Analysis of the open-end question. Why a particular brand is
preferred, reveals that about 60% mentioned that they are
used to this machine previously (i.e. Familiarity).
f. An association between brand on which a typist learnt and
brand preerred today was tried to be established. The Chi-
square homogeneity test showed that there is some
positive relationship (See annexure- VI for details)
Buyer Profi1e of Three Leading Brands
Facit Buyers : Attach more importance to opinion of the l~pist,
after sales service, little importance to price and manufacturers
repm,;~ion. These consumers come mainly from private sector
companies.
Godrej Buyers:Highly satisfied with after sales service, price and
past performance.
Remington Buyers: Perceive their typewriter to be as high priced,
quality product with an established market image.
7. Imfressions About Electronic Typewriters
a. There is, by and large, still much hesitation to adopt electronic
typewriter in both public and private sectors. High price is
probably the biggest barrier for its immediate accep- tance.
b. Purchase/ administrative managers were, by and-large, of the
opinion that an electronic typewriter has the following merits:
i. Quality of print-outs
ii. Speed and
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iii. Memory.
In contrast, the typists were of the opinion that its merits arc:
i. Automatic correction facility
ii. Speed and
iii. Display.
c. Similarly, commenting on the demerits of electronic typewriter,
the two groups expressed the following opinions:
Reaction on The Possible Demerits
Managers Opinions .
(Decision Makers)
High costs of operation
Inability to use due to power failure
Poor reliability of electronic parts.
Typists Opinions
Poor reliability of electronic parts
Inability to use due to power failure
Special skill required
d. Open-end query about the merits/ demerits of electronic
typewriter showed.
Managers found it to be a prestige value item and hence, choose
to install it in the office of Chief Executive / Directors Office
only
Typists, by and large, expressed their unfamiliarity with this
new innovative machine as the sole reason for avoiding it and
thus, possibly apprehended poor reliability of electronic parts.
Annexure-l
Questionnaire-I
Target Respondent: Purchase Manager/ Administrative Officer
Dear Sir/ Madam
We are conducting a marketing research study on typewriters. Here
we sJ.tali put before you a few questions. We shall appreciate if
you please answer our questions. Thanking you for your coopera-
tion.
1. Name of Organisation
2. Type of Qrganisation ( ) Public Sector
( ) Private Sector
( ) Educational Institute
3. How many typewriters have your organisation purchased
during the last three years
Type
Year Manual Elecrornic
1987-88
1986-87
1985 -86
4. Who takes the decisions regarding the purchase of typewriters
in your organisation? (Name all the persons and their
designations)
(Instructions to the interview. If the answer to Q. 4 does not
include this person whom you have so long interviewed, then
terminate the interview and seek this persons help to meet any of
the persons who is involved in the purchase decision).
5. Here we have mentioned a few factors related with purchase of
typewriters. will you please assign your degree of importance
on a scale ranging from:
5. Very Important
4. Important
3. Neither important nor unimportant
2. Unimportant
1. Very unimportant
O. Cant comment
a. Price ( )
b. Past performance ( )
c. Typists opinion ( )
d. Manufacturers reputation ( )
e. After sales service ( )
f. Guarantee ( )
g. Discount offered ( )
h. Terms of payment ( )
6. Do you know a particular preference for any particular make of
typewriter?
( ) Yes( ) No
If yes, state the special reason( s).
7. When do you decide to replace/ dispose off an old typewriter?
8. a. Given the price of tqe manual typewriter is Rs. 6,000 will
you be willing to install an electronic typewriter?
( )Yes ( )No ( )Cant say
b What maximum price are you willing to pay for this
electronic typewriter Maximum price to be paid - Rs.
9. In your opinion what are the merits and demerits of an electronic
typewriter?
Merits
a. .
b. .............................................
c. .............................................
d. ................................................
e. ..
Demerits
a. ................................................
b. ................................................
c. ................................................
d. .....
e. .
10. From our experience we have found the below-mentioned
merits/ demerits in an electronic typewriter. State your possible
degree of agreement/ disagreement on a scale ranging from
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neither agree nor disagree
d. Disagree
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e. Strongly disagree
f. Cant comment
Possible Merits
i. Speed ( );
ii. Production capability ( );
iii. Memory ( );
iv. Editing feature ( );
v. Automatic correction ( );
vi. Display ( ); (vii) Quality of Printouts ( )
Possible Demerits
i. Cost of operations, ( );
ii. Special skill required ( );
iii. Poor reliability of electronic parts ( ); ,
iv. Likelihood of obsolescence ( );
v. Inability to use due to power failure ( );
vi. Inability of use due to non-availability of spares ( )
Thanks you very much for your support.
Questionnaire. II
Target Respondent : Typists/ any Secretarial Staff
1. What was the typewriter on which you learnt typing?
2. Which typewriter are you using now?
3: a. Which typewriter do you prefer most to work on?
b. What Ware probable reason(s)?
4. Here we have selected a few distinct features of a manual
typewriter namely,
a. Clarity of print
b. Lightness of touch
c. After sales service
d. Speed
e. Durability
Use A Rating Scale Such As
1. Very poor
2. Poor,
3. Average,
4. Good,
5. Very good
6. Cannot comment, and ,indicate your opinions about the
various brands of typewriters you have used on each of (he
above mentioned select features.
Brand/ Model Calrity of Ligthness After sales Speed Durability
Print Touch service
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. a. Have you ever used an electronic typewriter?
( )Yes ( ) No
If no, then terminate the interview.
(Q) What do you feel are the distinct merits/ demerits of an
electronic typewriter?
i. Merits ............................
............................
............................
...........................
............................
ii. Demerits ............................
............................
............................
............................
............................
6. From our experience we state below a few possible merits and
demerits of an electronic typewriter. If you are allowed to scale
labelled as (a) strongly agree (b) agree (c) neither agree nor disagree
(d) disagree (e) strongly disagree (f) cannot comment; indicate
your opinion on the below mentioned.
Possible Merits/ Demerits
i. Possible Merits ( ) Display ( )
Speed ( ) Automatic Display ( )
Memory ( ) Quality of Printouts
Editing features ( )
Reproduction capability ( )
ii. Possible Demerits ( )
High cost of operation ( )
Special skills required ( )
Poor reliability of electronic parts ( )
Likelihood of obsolescence ( )
Inability to use due to power failure ( )
Inability of use due to
non-availability of spares ( )
Thank you very much for your cooperation.
Annexure-II
Sample Size Determination
The exact sample size decision in a survey of this nature depends
upon
i. The average estimate of the response to a question asked
ii. The precision with which it is desired to estimate the parameter
iii. The confidence with which it is desired to achieve the level of
positive chosen.
Moreover, in this study the response to each of the questions
asked are either binary or five point multiple choice. For example,
in the; questionnaire we have asked whether the organisation has
an electronic typewriter or not; similarly, users views on different
purchase related dimensions are recorded on a five point scale.
Therefore, the optimal sample size will be the maximum of the
sim -ple size calculation for different response types.