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5 visualizzazioni5 pagineStrategic Human Resource

Jul 30, 2014

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Strategic Human Resource

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Strategic Human Resource

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- Self Efficacy and Stress Zajacova Lynch Espenshade Sept 2005.pdf
- Destructive Behavioural Leadership
- [Neil J. Salkind] Statistics for People Who (Think(B-ok.xyz)
- Factor Analysis - spss
- Managerial control stres.pdf
- Exploring the International Student Recruitment Throught Strategic Orientation Model
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- Self-perceived Changes in Oral Health-r...c Treatments- A Cohort Follow-up Study
- Jurnal 4
- Team Climate Inventory
- ch4sol.pdf
- 1
- HRDI

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So far we have looked at techniques of multiple regression where

we essentially check out the association between a dependent

variable and several independent variables. We now look at a

technique which also measure association but looks at relations

of interdependence. That is we now investigate relations of

interdependence where no one variable is dependent on another.

In this situation all variables are treated as independent variables.

In this and the next lesson we shall be introduced to Factor analysis.

Factor analysis is popular multivariate technique which measures

association between variables. The technique is highly complex

and makes use of sophisticated statistical techniques which are

beyond the scope of our course. Therefore our p[presentation of

this technique will focus on its intuitive rationale and applications.

Since most multivariate techniques are run by most statistical

packages easily our emphasis will be on providing the student

with exposure to relevant application s and how to interpret

computer output and to run a factor analysis on the computer.

By the end of this lesson you should be able to

Understand the analytical and intuitive concepts of Factor

analysis

Determine the types of applications for which we can use

factor analysis.

Analyze and interpret computer output generated for a

factor analysis.

What is Factor Analysis?

The main objective of Factor analysis is to summarize a large

number of underlying factors into a smaller number of variables

or factors which represent the basic factors underlying the data.

Factor analysis is used to uncover the latent structure (dimensions)

of a set of variables. It reduces attribute space from a larger number

of variables to a smaller number of factors and as such is a non-

dependent procedure (that is, it does not assume a dependent

variable is specified).

WE can best explain factor analysis with a non technical analogy:

A mother sees various bumps and shapes under a blanket at the

bottom of a bed. When one shape moves toward the top of the

bed, all the other bumps and shapes move toward the top also, so

the mother concludes that what is under the blanket is a single

thing, most likely her child. Similarly, factor analysis takes as input

a number of measures and tests which are analogous to the bumps

and shapes. Those that move together are considered a single

thing and are labeled a factor.

That is, in factor analysis the researcher is assuming that there is a

child out there in the form of an underlying factor, and he or

she takes simultaneous movement (correlation) as evidence of its

existence. If correlation is spurious for some reason, this inference

will be mistaken, of course, so it is important when conducting

factor analysis that possible variables which might introduce

spuriousness, such as anteceding causes, be included in the analysis.

Typical Problem Studied Using Factor

Analysis

Factor analysis is used to study a complex product or service to

identify the major characteristics considered important by

consumers.

The two major uses of factor analysis

1. To simplify a set of data by reducing a large number of measures

(which in some way may be interrelated and causing

multicollinearity) for a set of respondents to a smaller more

manageable set which are not interrelated and still retain most

of the original information .

2. To identify the underlying structure of the data in which a very

large number of variables may really be measuring a small

number of basic characteristics or constructs of our sample.

For e.g a survey may throw up bet 15-20 attributes which a

consumer considers when buying a product. However there is

a need to find out what are the key drivers.

Factor analysis identifies latent or underlying factors from an

array of seemingly imp variables.

Uses of Factor Analysis

To reduce a large number of variables to a smaller number of

factors for modeling purposes, where the large number of variables

precludes modeling all the measures individually. As such, factor

analysis is integrated in structural equation modeling (Sem),

helping create the latent variables modeled by Sem. However,

factor analysis can be and is often used on a stand-alone basis for

similar purposes.

To select a subset of variables from a larger set, based on which

original variables have the highest correlations with the principal

component factors.

To create a set of factors to be treated as uncorrelated variables

as one approach to handling multicollinearity in such procedures

as multiple regression

To validate a scale or index by demonstrating that its constituent

items load on the same factor, and to drop proposed scale

items which cross-load on more than one factor.

To establish that multiple tests measure the same factor, thereby

giving justification for administering fewer tests.

To identify clusters of cases and/ or outliers.

To determine network groups by determining which sets of

people cluster together (using Q-mode factor analysis, discussed

below)

Applications

The main applications of factor analysis are in marketing research.

Some of the application are as follows:

LESSON 33:

FACTOR ANALYSIS

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1. Developing perceptual maps;

Factor analysis is often used to determine the dimensions or

critieria by which consumers evaluate brands and how each

brand is seen on each dimension.

2. Determining the underlying dimensions of the data.:

A factor analysis of data on TV viewing indicates that there are

seven different types of programmes that are independent of

the network offering as perceived by the viewers: movies, adult

entertainment, westerns, family entertainment, adventure plots,

unrealistic events, sin

3. Identifying market segments; and positioning of products;

An example of this is a factor analysis of data on desires sought

on the last vacation taken by 1750 respondents revealed six

benefit segements for vacationers:

Those who vacation for the purpose of visiting friends

and relatives, and not sight seeing,

2, Visiting friends and relatives and plus sight seeing,

3, Sightseeing,

4, Outdoor vacations 5

Resort vacationing

6. Foreign Vacationing.

3. It can be used for condensing or simplifying data:

An example of this : In a study of consumer involvement

across a number of product categories, 19 items were reduced

to four factors of :

1. Perceived product importance/ perceived importance s of

negative consequences of a mispurchase

2. Subjective probability of a mispurchase

3. Pleasure of owing/ using product. The value of the product

as a cue to the type of person who owns it Each of these

factors was independent and there was no multicollinearity.

4. Testing of hypotheses about the structure of a data set.

Confirmatory factor analysis can be used to test whether the

variables in a data set come from a specifies number of factors.

Basic Principles of Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is part of the multiple general linear hypothesis

(MLGH) family of procedures and makes many of the same

assumptions as multiple regression:

Linear relationships,

Interval or near-interval data, ,

Proper specification (relevant variables included,

extraneous ones excluded),

Lack of high multicollinearity, and

Assumption of multivariate normality for purposes of

significance testing.

There are several different types of factor analysis, with the most

common being principal components analysis (PCA). However,

principal axis factoring (PAF), also called common factor analysis,

is preferred for purposes of confirmatory factory analysis.

Factor Analysis-The Theory

Factor analysis is a complex statistical technique which works on

the basis of consumer responses to identify similarities or

associations across factors. It analyzes correlations between

variables, reduces their numbers by grouping them in to fewer

factors.

How it Works

Factor analysis applies an advanced form of correlation analysis to

a no. of factors / statements or attributes. If several of the

statements are highly correlated, it is thought that these statements

measure some factor common to all of them.

A typical study will throw up many such factors. For each such the

researchers have to use their judgment to determine what a

particular factor represents. Factor analysis can only be applied to

continuous or intervally scaled variables.

Factor Analysis - The Process

We now take the case of a marketing research study where factor

analysis is most popularly used. We begin by administering a

questionnaire to all consumers. What factor analysis does is it

identifies two or more questions that result in responses that are

highly correlated. Thus it looks at interdependencies or

interrelationships among data.The analysis begins by observing

the correlation and determining whether there are significant

correlations between them.

Factor analysis is best illustrated with the help of an example:

Example

A two wheeler manufacturer is interested in determining which

variables his customers think of as being imp when they consider

his product. The respondents were asked indicate on a 7 pt scale

(1: completely agree, 7 : completely disgree) with a set of 10

statements relating to their perceptions and some attributes about

two wheelers. Factor analysis would then aim to reduce 10 factors

to a few core factors.

The statements are as:

1. I use a two-wheeler because its affordable.

2. It gives me a sense of freedom to own a two wheeler

3. Low maintenance costs make it very economical in long run

4. A two-wheeler is essentially a mans vehicle.

5. I feel very powerful when I am on my two-wheeler.

6. Some of my friends who dont have one are jealous of me.

7. I feel good whenever I see ads for my two wheeler on TV or

magazines

8. My vehicle gives me a comfortable ride.

9. I think two wheelers are a safe way to travel.

10.Three people should be allowed to travel on a 2 wheeler.

The answers given by 20 resp is inputed into the computer.

What the factor analysis does statistically is to group together

those variables whose responses are highly correlated. Then from

the groups of factors or statements we choose an overall factor

which appears to represent what all the factors in the group appear

to mean.

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Interpretation of Computer Output

Factor analysis identifies factors or attributes which are strongly

correlated with each other uncorrelated with other.

The Process of Identification is Complex and is Broadly as

Follows

Factor analysis selects one factor at a time which explains the

maximum variance in the standardized scores than any other factor

combination. Each additional factor selected is likely to explain

less of the than the first factor. The process continues till additional

factors do not reduce the unexplained variance in standardized

scores.

Before we turn to an actual computer output we need to

understand some terms which appear on the computer output

and represent critical stages in the analysis. Generally the analytical

procedure follows a series of steps to arrive at a solution.

The starting point is generating a correlation matrix of the original

data set where responses to each variable or statement is correlated

with others. We then construct new variables on the basis of

attributes or variables which are highly correlated with each other.

There are many different ways of extracting factors. Principal

Components analysis is the most frequently used approach. By

this method a set of variables is transformed into a new set of

factors that are uncorrelated with each other.

These factors are constructed by finding the best linear combination

of variables that accounts for the maximum possible variation in

the data. Each factor is defined as the best linear combination of

variables in terms of explaining the variance not accounted for by

the preceding factor. Additional factors maybe selected till all the

variance is accounted for . Usually the factor extraction process is

stopped after the unexplained variance is below a specified level.

Meaning of Key Terms Used in Factor Analysis

to understand and interpret a computer output of a factor analysis

we need to understand the meaning of certain terms.

1. Variance: A factor analysis is like a regression analysis and tries

to best fit factors to a scatter diagram of responses in such a

way that factors explain the variance associated with responses

to each statement. We aim to get factors such that we explain as

much variance associated with each statement in the study.

2. Standardized scores of an individuals response: Standardized

scores are used because responses to different questions can

use different scales (e.g. 5pt, 7 pt, etc) To allow for comparability

all responses are standardized. This is done by calculating an

Individuals standard score on a statement or a attribute

Standardized score = [actual response to statement]-[mean

response of all respondents to the statement]/ standard deviation

of all responses to the statement.

Thus each persons score is actually a measure of how many

standard deviations his response lies from the mean response

calculated across all respondents.

3. Correlation coefficients

We calculate the correlations coefficients associated with

standardized scores of responses to each pair of statements.

We give a simple example below for six pairs of statements.

The gives a correlation matrix for them is given below. For

simplicity we assume the correlation between two statements

is either one (perfect ) or zero.

St 1 2 3 4 5

1

2

3

4

5

1 1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0

1 0 0

1 1

1

As can be seen statements 1, 2, 3 are correlated with each other and

unrelated to 4, 5 which are correlated with each other. This suggests

all the underlying factors can be grouped into two core factors

which are unrelated to each other.

Computer Output

Table 1

Statement/

variables

F1 F2 F3

Communalities

1

2

3

4

5

.86 .12 .04

.84 .18 .1

.68 .24 .15

.1 .92 .06

.06 .94 .07

.76

.75

.54

.86

.89

Eigen

values

1.9 1.85 .83

Computer Output

We now turn to interpreting the computer output. We begin with

a part of the sample output which shows Above inn in table2 we

present a sample output of a factor analysis. On the horizontal

row we have the different factors. On the vertical column we have

the different variables. We have taken five variables and the data is

reduced to 3 possible factors.

We now explain some of the terms in output and what they

mean;

1. What is a Factor?

Each factor is a linear combination of its component factors. That

is the factor analysis aims to reduce each variable to a linear

combination of a set of actors. Thus is x1..x5 are are our original

variables and we have three factors , then factor analysis expresses

each variable as a linear combination of the three factors. The

parameters I11 I 12, etc are the factor loadings and e1 to e5 are the

error terms.

3 3 13 2 12 1 11 1

F X I X I F I X + + =

3 23 2 22 2 21 2

X I F I F I X + + =

The factor model isilar to the regression model there are a few

independent variables termed factors which help explain the

variation in the dependent variable or x. The factor loadings are

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therefore the correlation between the factors and the variable. The

error term consists of the variation in the factors which is not

explained by the factors.

2. Factor Loadings

These are the correlation bet the factor and the statement or

variables standardized response . For example F1 and x1 is .86.

Factor 1 is highly correlated to statement 1 and 2 and least to

statement 4.The loadings are derived using the principle of least

squares . The factor loadings are then placed in a correlation matrix

between the variables and the factors. As shown in table 2. A

factor is identified by those items that have a relatively high factor

loading on that factor and a relatively low factor loading on other

factors.

3. Naming Factors

4. The data shows F1 is a good fit on data from st1, 2, 3 but poor

for st4,5. Thus a researcher would look at the basic factor being

measured by these factors and club them together as

representing an overall factor.

5. Communalities+

How well a factor fits the data from all respondents for any given

statement? Communalities measure the percentage of total

variation in any variable or statement which is explained by all the

factors. The communality can be found by squaring the factor

loadings of a variable across all factors and then summing. For

each statement communalities indicate the proportion of variance

in responses to statements, which is explained by the three factors.

For example .89 of variance in response to statement 5 and only

.54 of variance of responses to statement 3 is explained by the

three factors. Communalities provide information on how well

the factors fit the data. Since in this case the three factors account

for most of the variance associated with each of the statements

we can say the 3 factors fit the data quite well.It can also be thought

of as a measure of the uniquenwss of a variable. A low

communality of figure indicates that the variable is statistically

independent and cannot be combined with other variables.

5. Eigen Values

Indicate how well any given factor fits the data from all the

respondents on all the statements. There is an Eigen value for

every factor. The higher is the Eigen value for a factor the higher is

the amount of variance explained by the factor. The most common

approach to determining the number of factors to retain is to

examine the Eigen values .

The Eigen values are defines as : the sum of the squared factor

loadings for that factor. Thus for example for factor 1 the Eigen

value is found by

Eigen value for factor 1= .(86)+ .84

2

+.68

2

+.1

2

+.06

2

= 1.91

All computer programmes provide the Eigen value or the

percentage of variance explained. Before extraction it is assumed

each of the original variables has a Eigen value of 1. We would

therefore expect any factor which is linear combination of some

of the original values to have an Eigen value greater than one.

Therefore we usually only retain factors which have an Eigen

value>1.

An alternative to the Eigen value is to look at the percentage of

variation in original variables accounted for by the jth factor.

Percentage of variation in original variables accounted for by the

jth facto

= Eigen value j/ Number of factors

6. Cumulative percentage of variation;/ proportion of variance

explained Most output give both cumulative percentage of

variation accounted for by a factor and the proportion of total

variation in the data accounted for by one factor. Since factor

analysis is designed to reduce the number of original variables

a key question is how many factors should be genrated? It is

possible to keep generating factors till they equal the number

of original variables. In which case the factors would be useless.

We usually rely on some rule of thumbs:

1. All factors included prior to rotation must explain atleast as

much variation as an average variable. If there are five variables

each variable should account for 20% of the variation in the

data. Therefore we should look at the percentage of variation

explained by a factor . In our example we can see that factor 1

explains 55% of the variation in the data; factor 2 35.5% of the

variation. However Factors 3, 4, 5, explain less than 10% of the

variantion in the data. Therefore we would probably drop these

factors. In our example we have dropped factors 3,4,5 and

retained 1,2.. The cumulative term in the putput essentially

explains the cumulative variance explained by the factors .The

two are essentially the same thing.

When interpreting output we look at cumulative percentage of

variation . We see cum pct is 80.3 for all 3 factors. Therefore we are

able to economize information contained in 10 original variables

to 3 factors losing only 20% of original information. Most

computer programmes also give the percentage of variance

explained as well as the Eigen values. Another rule of thumb

requires that we retain sufficient factors which explain a satisfactory

percentage of total variance( usually over 70%)

After deciding upon extracted factors in stage 1 the researcher has

to interpret and name

the factors. This is done by identifying which factor is associated

with which of the original variables, i.e

by looking at the factor loadings. If factor 1 has high loading with

variables 1,2,3. Then it is assumed it is a linear combination of

these vars and is given a suitable name representing these variables.

The original factor matrix is used for this purpose.

How Many Factors?

1. A related rule of thumb is to look for a large drop in variance

explained between two factors in the PCA solution. For

example if there is a variances explained by five factors ( before

rotation ) is 40%, 30%, 20% 6% and 4% there is a drop in

variance for the fourth factor which might signal a relatively

unimportant factor.

2. Eigenvalue criteria

An eigen value represents the amount of variance in the original

variables explained associated with afactor. Only factors with

Eigen values>1 are retained. The sum of the factor loadings

of each variable on a factor represent a Eigen value. Or the toal

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variance explained by the factor. A factor with an Eigen value<1

is worse than a single variable. And should be dropped.

3. Screen plot Criteria

This is a plot of the Eigen values against the number of

factors. In order of extraction. The plotusually has a distinct

brak between the steep slope of factors with large Eigen values

and a gradual trailing off associated with the rest of the factors.

This is referred to as the screen. Experience has shown that the

point at which the screen begins denotes the true number of

factors. This is shown in figure 21.3. We would choose three

factors. However as the third has a very low Eigen value we

would drop it.

4. Percentage of Variance Criteria

The number of factors extracted is determined so that the

cumulative percentage of variance extracted reaches a satisfactory

level usually at least 70%.

5. 5. Significance Test Criteria

We can also determine the statistical significance of separate

Eigen values and retain only those factors which are statistically

significant. The problem with this criteria is that in large sample

many factors may be statistically significant. Even though they

account for only a small proportion total. variation.

Factor Interpretation

How is the factor interpreted? Interpretations are based on factor

loadings which are correlations between the factors and the original

variables. The factor loadings are shown in table 21.1.for our study.

Thus correlation between factor 1 and x1 is .29. It therefore provides

an indicator of the extent to which the original variables are

correlated with each factor and the extent of correlation. This

correlation is then used as the basis for identifying factors and

labeling them. Thus for example variables3,4,5 combine to form

to define the first factor, possibly personal factor. Because these

variables stress the personal aspects of bank transactions. The

second factor is highly correlated with the first two variables. They

might be termed small bank factors. Because both these appear to

be linked to small bank factors.

Factor Rotation

Factor analysis can generate several solutions for any data set. Each

solution is termed a rotation. Each time the factors are rotated the

factor loadings change .and so does the interpretation of the factors.

Rotation involves moving the components or the axes to improve

the fit of the data. This will not change the total variation explained

by the retained factors but will shift the relative percentage explained

by each factor. Most computers automatically provide Varimax

scheme. Factor rotation is continued till the factors stabilize and

there is relatively little change .

There are many such programmes of rotation such as Varimax,

Promax, etc. \ In Varimax rotation the factors

Point to Ponder

Factor analysis is used to identify underlying dimensions in the

data by reducing the number of variables .

The input of factor analysis is asset of variables for each object

in the sample.

Ouptut: the most important outputs are the factor loadings,

factor scores and variance explained percentages eigen values.

Factor loadings are used to interpret the factors. Sometimes an

analyst picks on two factors which load heavily on a factor to

represent the factor as a whole. The percentage of variance

explained and eigen values help determine which factors to

retain.

Key assumption of this analysis is that the factors underlying

the variables is and the variables completely represented by the

factors. This means the list of variables should be complete.

1. Limitations:

Tends to be highly subjective process. The determination of

number of factors , their interpretation, and rotation all involve

considerable skill and judgement of the analyst.

Also factor analysis does not take to statistical testing , therefore

it id difficult to know if the results are merely accidental or

actually reflect something meaningful.

We can now examine how a factor analysis is conducted using an

example

I want to be known personally at my bank and to be

treated with special courtesy.

If a financial institution treated me in an impersonal or

uncaring way, I would never patronize that organization

again We assume that a pilot study was conducted using

15 -respondents. Table 2 shows the pilot study data and

the correlations among the variables. A factor analysis

program usually starts by calculating variable-by-variable

correlation matrix. This In fact, it is quite possible to

input.

Insert table 2

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