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STEAG Energy Services (India) Pvt. Ltd. Site Office: C/o GSEG, Opp: L&T, Hazira-Surat,Gujarat Corporate Office:
STEAG Energy Services (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Site Office: C/o GSEG, Opp: L&T, Hazira-Surat,Gujarat
Corporate Office: A – 29, Sector – 16, Noida – 201 301, India http://www.steag.in
Generator
Generator
What is Generator ?
What is Generator ?

Generators or A lternators are used to convert mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine to AC electric power .

Generators are the primary source of electrical energy we consume today.

Large AC power networks rely almost exclusively on generators.

Generator Parts details
Generator Parts details
Generator Parts details
Generator Parts details
Stator Core Cooler End Shield R o or t Bearing Shaft Seal Stator Terminal Bushing
Stator Core
Cooler
End Shield
R
o or
t
Bearing
Shaft Seal
Stator
Terminal Bushing

Oil Catcher

Insert

Cover

Wdg Overhang

Generator Parts details
Generator Parts details
Generator Bearings
Generator Bearings
Generator Parts details Generator Bearings G e n e r a t o r D E
Generator Parts details Generator Bearings G e n e r a t o r D E
Generator Parts details Generator Bearings G e n e r a t o r D E
Generator Parts details Generator Bearings G e n e r a t o r D E

Generator DE & NDE bearings with installed thermocouples

& NDE b ear i ngs w ith installed thermocouples Generator bearing assembled for dimensional checks

Generator bearing assembled for dimensional checks

Bearings in clean conditions

Need for Generator Protection Relay ? Need for Generator Protection Relay
Need for Generator Protection Relay ?
Need for Generator Protection Relay

Protection Relays are the Brain of the Electrical System A relay is automatic device which senses an abnormal condition of Generator circuit and closes its contacts.

Protection Relay make the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the faulty portion of the electrical circuit from rest of the healthy circuit.

Objective is to trip only the absolutely essential so that

Damage is Minimum.

Over speeding of the Turbine due to Sudden load Throw off is avoided.

Impact of Tripping of large set on the grid is Minimum’

Auxiliary if possible are kept energies and time to restart the unit is Minimum

Generator Monitoring system Generator monitoring system
Generator Monitoring system
Generator monitoring system
Bearing Vibration Shaft Vibration Winding Vibration Core Vibration Mechanical
Bearing Vibration Shaft Vibration
Winding Vibration Core Vibration
Mechanical
Condition Generator Monitoring System (GEMS)
Condition
Generator Monitoring
System (GEMS)
•Hydrogen Purity •Hydrogen Humidity •Air Humidity •Water Conductivity •Gas Condition
•Hydrogen Purity
•Hydrogen Humidity
•Air Humidity
•Water Conductivity
•Gas Condition
•Stator Winding Temp. •Stator Core Temp. •Water Temp. •Hydrogen Pressure •Water Flow •Make Up Hydrogen
•Stator Winding Temp.
•Stator Core Temp.
•Water Temp.
•Hydrogen Pressure
•Water Flow
•Make Up Hydrogen Flow
Electrical •MW, MVAr, V, A, Pf •Excitation V, A •AVR Indication •DIODE Monitoring •Shaft Voltage
Electrical
•MW, MVAr, V, A, Pf
•Excitation V, A
•AVR Indication
•DIODE Monitoring
•Shaft Voltage
•RE, PD
F
•Li
ne
au
lt
s
Generator Protection Function Group
Generator Protection Function Group
Generator Protection Function Group Generator Protection Main Generator Protection Backup 1.Generator Differential
Generator Protection Function Group
Generator Protection Main
Generator Protection Backup
1.Generator Differential Protection
2.Stator Earth Fault Protection 100 %
3.Stator Earth Fault Protection 95 %
4.Rotor Earth Fault Protection
5.Loss of Excitation Protection
12. Back up impedance protection
13.Dead Machine Protection
14.Over voltage Protection
15. Under Voltage Protection
16.Under Frequency Protection
6. Over excitation Protection
17.Over Frequency Protection
7. Reverse power Protection
8. Negative phase sequence protn
9. Pole Slip Protection
10. Generator Over load Protection
11. Generator Inter turn Fault Protn
Generator Protection – ANSI CODE
Generator Protection – ANSI CODE
 

GENERATOR PROTECTION ANSI CODE

Sr No

.

.

Protection

ANSI Code

1

Generator Differential

87G

2

Back up impedance Stg-1

21G1

3

Back up impedance Stg-2

21G2

4

Loss excitation with under voltage (UV)

40G1

5

Loss of excitation without under voltage (UV)

40G2

6

Generator over voltage Stg-1

59G1

7

Generator over voltage Stg-2

59G2

8

Reverse Power with Turbine Tri p

32G1

9

Reverse Power without Turbine Trip

32G2

10

Generator Low Forward power

37G

11

Generator Negative Phase Sequence Stg-1

46G1

12

Generator Negative Phase Sequence Stg-2

46G2

Generator Protection – ANSI CODE Sr. No. Protection ANSI Code 13 Rotor Earth Fault relay
Generator Protection – ANSI CODE
Sr. No.
Protection
ANSI Code
13
Rotor Earth Fault relay
64R
14
Rotor over load
49R
15
Generator overload
49S
16
Generator Over Freq Stg-1
81G1
17
Generator Over Freq Stg-2
81G2
18
Generator under Freq Stg-1
81G3
19
Generator under Freq Stg-2
81G4
20
Generator Over flux
99G
21
Generator CB LBB
50LBB
22
Pole slip
98G
23
Stator Earth Fault 95%
64G2
24
Stator Earth Fault 100%
64G1
25
Inter turn Protection With 64G2
95G
26
Dead machine Protection
50GDM
Generator Protection Function Allocation of Generator Protection Function
Generator Protection Function
Allocation of Generator Protection Function
Generator Protection Function Allocation of Generator Protection Function
Generator Protection Function -87G
Generator Protection Function -87G
Generator Differential Protection (87G)
Generator Differential Protection (87G)

Differential protection is a very reliable method of protecting generators.

In

a

differential

protection

Generator are compared.

scheme,

currents

on

both

sides

of

the

Under normal conditions, or for Ser a fault outside of the protected zone, current I 1 is equal to current I 2 .

Therefore the currents in the current transformers secondary are also equal, i.e. i 1 = i 2 and no current flows through the current relay.

If a fault develops inside of the protected zone, currents I 1 and I 2 are no longer equal, therefore i 1 and i 2 are not equal and there is a current flowing through the current relay.

Generator Protection Function-87G
Generator Protection Function-87G
Generator Differential Protection (87G)
Generator Differential Protection (87G)
Generator Protection Function-87G Generator Differential Protection (87G)
Generator Protection Function -64G1
Generator Protection Function -64G1
STATOR 100 % Earth Fault Protection (64G1)
STATOR 100 % Earth Fault Protection (64G1)

It is common practice to ground generator neutral through a resistor which limits maximum ground fault current to 5-10 A.

Ground fault protection function for detecting ground faults close to the star- point of a generator.

The scheme is based on the principle of displacing the potential generator star-point by injecting a coded low-frequency signal.

achieves detection of ground faults over 100 % of the winding. Compensation is provided for the influence of a second high-resistance grounded star-point in the zone of protection.

The injection signal is generated by the injection unit REX 010 and fed into the stator circuit by the injection transformer block REX 011.

The principle is based on the well-known offset method, using injection of a low frequency signal.

of the

Generator Protection Function -64G1
Generator Protection Function -64G1
STATOR 100 % Earth Fault Protection (64G1)
STATOR 100 % Earth Fault Protection (64G1)
Function -64G1 STATOR 100 % Earth Fault Protection (64G1) Parameters Settings RFs Alarm value 5k Ω
Function -64G1 STATOR 100 % Earth Fault Protection (64G1) Parameters Settings RFs Alarm value 5k Ω

Parameters

Settings

RFs Alarm value

5k

Alarm Delay

2s

RFs Trip value

0.5k

Trip delay

1s

Generator Protection Function -64G2
Generator Protection Function -64G2
STATOR 95% Earth Fault Protection (64G2)
STATOR 95% Earth Fault Protection (64G2)

The 95 % scheme uses the generator voltage and detects a ground fault on the basis of the displacement of the star-point voltage it causes.

Protection of 95 % Stator winding length against earth faults. The delay has to safeguard against any malfunction under transient conditions and during external earth faults.

This protection in conjunction with the voltage function 'Voltage', which covers 95 % of the winding.

Neutral voltage relay with harmonic restraint and time delay is used.

Normally set to operate at 5% of maximum neutral voltage with delay of 0.30 sec.

Generator Protection Function -64G2
Generator Protection Function -64G2
STATOR 95% Earth Fault Protection (64G2)
STATOR 95% Earth Fault Protection (64G2)
Generator Protection Function -64R
Generator Protection Function -64R
Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R)
Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R)

The field circuit of the generator is normally isolated from the earth.

With a single earth fault in the rotor circuit, it is possible to have continuous operation without generator damages.

There is however a risk of a second rotor earth fault .In such a case, there will be large current and risk of severe damages .

The requirement of fast fault clearance is moderate.

Rotor earth fault relay with AC Injection Unit function

Gives alarm for weakly developed faults and tripping for fully developed fault.

Insensitive to harmonics in the filed voltage and permits capacitance between field circuit and ground of up to 5µF.

Generator Protection Function -64R
Generator Protection Function -64R
Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R)
Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R)
Generator Protection Function -64R Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R)
Generator Protection Function -64R Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R)
Generator Protection Function - 40G
Generator Protection Function - 40G
Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)
Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)

There are limits for the under-excitation of a synchronous machine .

The machine may lose the synchronism and start to operate like an induction machine.

The under-excitation increase the generation of heat in the end region of the synchronous machine. The local heating may damage the insulation of the stator winding and even the iron core.

To prevent damages to the generator it should be tripped at under-excitation. Principle and operation

The Loss of excitation protection in Relay measures the apparent impedance seen out from the generator.

The measurement loop of apparent impedance can be chosen as the positive sequence loop or any one of the three phase-to-phase loops.

Generator Protection Function - 40G
Generator Protection Function - 40G
Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)
Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)
Generator Protection Function - 40G Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)
Generator Protection Function - 40G Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)
Generator Protection Function - 40G Loss of Excitation Protection (40G)
Generator Protection Function – 99G
Generator Protection Function – 99G
Over Excitation Protection (99G)
Over Excitation Protection (99G)

As long as generator Transformer unit is connected to the network, risk of over excitation is relatively small. However, when disconnected, there is risk of over excitation mainly during start-up and shutdown.

Over excitation results in excessive heating of core lamination and severe heating of unlaminated metallic parts.

Risk of the over excitation in large when frequency is below rated value and over voltage relay cannot be used here and therefore, a V/Hz relay is the right one .

Over excitation protects generator magnetic core against of overheating .

Specially critical during start up and shutdown.

Generator Protection Function – 99G
Generator Protection Function – 99G
Over Excitation Protection (99G)
Over Excitation Protection (99G)
Generator Protection Function – 99G Over Excitation Protection (99G)
Generator Protection Function – 99G Over Excitation Protection (99G)
Generator Protection Function – 99G Over Excitation Protection (99G)
Generator Protection Function – 32G
Generator Protection Function – 32G
Reverse Power Protection (32G)
Reverse Power Protection (32G)

The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available as a torque on a rotating to electric energy.

When generator works as motor small active current is combined with large reactive current as currents are balance ,single pole relay is sufficient .

For large turbo units ,reverse power is substantially less than 1 %.Hence ,low forward power relay can be used.

Used for the protection to prevent damage to the prime mover.

If driving torque becomes less than total losses, generator starts drawing active power from network .

In Steam turbine, reduction of steam flow reduces cooling effect and blades are over heated.

Generator Protection Function – 32G
Generator Protection Function – 32G
Reverse Power Protection (32G)
Reverse Power Protection (32G)
Generator Protection Function – 32G Reverse Power Protection (32G)
Generator Protection Function – 32G Reverse Power Protection (32G)
Generator Protection Function – 46G
Generator Protection Function – 46G
Negative Phase Sequence Protection (46G)
Negative Phase Sequence Protection (46G)

Negative phase sequence currents produce a reverse sequence rotating field in the machine .

This induces double frequency eddy currents in the rotor leading to overheating, primarily on surface of cylindrical rotors and damper winding of salient pole machines.

Causes of Negative phase sequence in Generator Unbalanced load Unbalanced system faults Open circuit One pole of CB or Isolator not closed.

Unbalance loading gives rise to double frequency eddy currents induced in rotor which may cause excessive overheating .

Generator Protection Function – 46G
Generator Protection Function – 46G
Negative Phase Sequence Protection (46G)
Negative Phase Sequence Protection (46G)
Generator Protection Function – 46G Negative Phase Sequence Protection (46G)
Generator Protection Function – 98G
Generator Protection Function – 98G
Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Pole Slip Protection (98G)

Large generator are more susceptible to loss of synchronism due to lower inertia, higher reactance and also if connected by relatively weak ties. if allowed to persist result in instability and widespread system disturbance.

Pole Slipping

In this state, plant is still in excited state and large fluctuations in stator voltage current and power output of the machine occur.

Protection Function operation and Measurement

If Generator is faster than the power system, the rotor movement in the impedance and voltage diagram is from right to left and generating is signaled. If the generator is slower than the power system, the rotor movement is from left to right and motoring is signaled. The movement in the impedance plain can be seen in figure, the transient behavior is described by the transient e.m.f’s EA and EB,and by Xd. XT and the transient system

impedance ZS.

Generator Protection Function – 98G
Generator Protection Function – 98G
Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Generator Protection Function – 98G Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Generator Protection Function – 98G Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Generator Protection Function – 98G Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Generator Protection Function – 98G Pole Slip Protection (98G)
Generator Protection Function – 49S
Generator Protection Function – 49S
Overload protection (49S)
Overload protection (49S)

If the tem erature of the damaged.

p

enerator reaches too hi h values the e ui ment mi ht be

g

g

q

p

g

As a consequence of this the risk of internal phase to phase or phase to earth faults will increase.

The

thermal

overload

protection

generator continuously.

estimates

the

internal

heat

content

of

the

The Protection measure maximum phase current (true RMS Measurement).

In this REG 670 Protection Relay Two warning levels are available .This enables actions in the power system to be done before dangerous temperature are reached. If the temperature continues to increase to the trip value ,the protection initiates trip of the protected generator

Generator Protection Function – 49S Overload protection (49S)
Generator Protection Function – 49S
Overload protection (49S)
Generator Protection Function – 49S Overload protection (49S)
Generator Protection Function – 49S Overload protection (49S)
Generator Protection Function – 95G/64W
Generator Protection Function – 95G/64W
Generator Inter turn Fault (95G or 64W)
Generator Inter turn Fault (95G or 64W)

Differential protection for stator does not provide protection against the inter-turn faults on the same phase winding of the stator.

The reason is that the current produced by the turn to turn fault flows in the local circuit between the turns involved and thus it does not create any difference between the current.

thus it does not create any difference between the current. 1. The protection interturn fault) criterion

1. The

protection

interturn fault)

criterion

(for

an

2. which the REU 610 evaluates is the neutral voltage of the phase-to-neutral voltages. The necessary sensitivity is achieved using a special input and digital filter algorithms.

Generator Protection Function – 95G/64W Generator Inter turn Fault (95G or 64W)
Generator Protection Function – 95G/64W
Generator Inter turn Fault (95G or 64W)
Generator Protection Function – 95G/64W Generator Inter turn Fault (95G or 64W)
Generator Protection Function – 21G
Generator Protection Function – 21G
Backup Impedance Protection (21G)
Backup Impedance Protection (21G)

Backup impedance protection for internal short circuit in the generator or the unit transformer .

Backup or main protection for fault at the bus bar where the plant is connected to the power system .

Backup impedance protection for line-faults at lines out from the power plant .

The numerical mho line distance protection is a three zone full scheme protection for back-up detection of short circuit and earth faults.

The three zones have fully independent measuring and setting which gives high flexibility for all types of lines.

The modern technical solution offers fast operating time down to ¾ cycles.

Generator Protection Function – 21G
Generator Protection Function – 21G
Backup Impedance Protection (21G)
Backup Impedance Protection (21G)
Generator Protection Function – 50GDM
Generator Protection Function – 50GDM
Dead Machine Protection (50GDM)
Dead Machine Protection (50GDM)

If a dead machine is accidentally energized (energized while on turning gear), it will start and behave as an induction motor.

During the period when the machine is accelerating, very high currents are induced in the rotor and the machine may be damaged very quickly. relays do detect the event, their time delays may be too great to avoid damage to the generator.

Because of these problems, dedicated dead machine protection is often advisable.

Protection relay must have a very short time delay in order to adequately protect the useful for system fault backup protection.

Protection against dead-machine energization can also be provided with a directional over current relay connected at the machine terminals and set to operate for currents flowing into the machine.

Generator Protection Function – 50GDM
Generator Protection Function – 50GDM
Dead Machine Protection (50GDM)
Dead Machine Protection (50GDM)
Generator Protection Function – 50GDM Dead Machine Protection (50GDM)
Generator Protection Function – 59G
Generator Protection Function – 59G
Over voltage Protection (59G)
Over voltage Protection (59G)

Generator overvoltage may occur during a load rejection or excitation control failure.

upon load rejection the generator may speed up and the voltage can reach high levels without necessarily exceeding the generator’s V/Hz limit.

The overvoltage relay (59) is used to protect the generator from this condition.

The over voltage protection is provided by two over voltage Function have two Step – one is the instantaneous relays which is set to pick up at 130 to 150% of the rated voltage. another Step is IDMT which is set to pick up at 110% of rated voltage.

Over voltage may occur due to the defective voltage regulator and also due to manual control errors.

Generator Protection Function – 59G Over voltage Protection (59G)
Generator Protection Function – 59G
Over voltage Protection (59G)
Generator Protection Function – 59G Over voltage Protection (59G)
Generator Protection Function – 59G Over voltage Protection (59G)
Generator Protection Function – 27G
Generator Protection Function – 27G
Under voltage Protection (27G)
Under voltage Protection (27G)

If more than one generators supply the load and due to some reason one generator is suddenly trip , then another generators try to supply the load. Each of these generators will experience a sudden increase in current and thus decreases the terminal voltage.

Automatic voltage regulator connected to the system try to restore the voltage.

And under voltage relay type-27 is also used for the under voltage protection.

This drop of under voltage not critical for the generator and transformer block .

Critical for the auxiliary equipment at plant (especially for turbo units).

This Protection function should be block when generator is not loaded .

Generator Protection Function – 81G
Generator Protection Function – 81G
Under frequency Protection (81G3)
Under frequency Protection (81G3)

Under Frequency occurs as a result of lock of generation in the Network .

Overloading of a generator, perhaps due to loss of system generation and insufficient load shedding, can lead to prolonged operation of the generator at reduced frequencies.

This can cause particular problems for gas or steam turbine generators, which are susceptible to damage from operation outside of their normal frequency band.

While load-shedding is the primary protection against generator overloading, under frequency relays (device 81U) should be used to provide additional protection.

The under frequency (TUF) function is used to detect low power system frequency ,the function can either have a definite time delay or a voltage magnitude depend the time delay .

Generator Protection Function – 81G3 Under frequency Protection (81G3)
Generator Protection Function – 81G3
Under frequency Protection (81G3)
Generator Protection Function – 81G3 Under frequency Protection (81G3)
Generator Protection Function – 81G1
Generator Protection Function – 81G1
Over frequency Protection (81G1)
Over frequency Protection (81G1)

Over frequency will occur at sudden load drops or shunt faults in the power network .

In some case close to generating part governor problem can also cause over frequency .

The protection function is provided with an undervoltage blocking ,the operation may be based on single phase, phase-to-phase or positive sequence voltage measurment .

The Over frequency (TOF) function is used to detect high power system frequency ,the function has a settable definite time delay.if the frequency remains above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay .

Generator Protection Function – 81G1 Over frequency Protection (81G1)
Generator Protection Function – 81G1
Over frequency Protection (81G1)
Generator Protection Function – 81G1 Over frequency Protection (81G1)
Generator Class of Tripping
Generator Class of Tripping
CLASS-A TRIPPING
CLASS-A TRIPPING

This is adopted for those Electrical Faults of Generator and Generator Transformer and unit Auxiliary Transformer for which tripping can not be delayed.

This leads to simultaneous tripping of

Generator Transformer HV Side CB

Field Circuit Breaker

LV side Incomer Breaker of UAT’s

Auto Changeover from unit to Station for unit Auxiliaries and tripping of turbine.

Generator Class of Tripping
Generator Class of Tripping
CLASS-B TRIPPING
CLASS-B TRIPPING

This is adopted for all turbine faults (Mechanical) and for some Electrical faults of Generator ,Generator Transformer and unit auxiliary Transformer for which it is safe to trip the turbine.

Subsequently the Generator is tripped through low forward power interlock.

Ensure that unit does not over speed due to trapped steam in the turbine during the shutdown and also the loss of power to the grid from the Generator is not sudden.

Generator Class of Tripping
Generator Class of Tripping
CLASS-C TRIPPING
CLASS-C TRIPPING

This is adopted for all faults beyond the Generator system which can be cleared by tripping of Generator transformer HV Side CB alone.

In this case the TG Set runs with HP-LP bypass system in operation and Generator continues to feed the unit auxiliary load through unit auxiliary Transformers.

Classification of Tripping Typical Classification of Tripping
Classification of Tripping
Typical Classification of Tripping

PROTECTIVE RELAY

TRIPPING MODE

REMARKS

Generator Differential Relay

Class ‘A’

   

Generator Transformer Differential Relay

Class ‘A’

   

Unit Overall Differential Relay

Class ‘A’

   

Generator Stator E/F Relay (100%)

Class ‘A’

   

Generator Stator E/F Relay (95%)

Class ‘A’

   

Generator Transformer Over fluxing Relay

Class ‘B

 

I stage alarm

Generator Under frequency Relay

Class ‘C’ After some time

(say

3

i

om ns)

II

t

s age

I stage alarm

Generator Rotor Earth Fault Relay

Class ‘B’ II stage

 

I stage alarm

Generator Pole slipping Relay

Class ‘C’

   
   

 

Generator Field Failure Relay

Class B

Without Under voltage

Generator Low Forward Power Relay

 

For interlock in Class ‘B” tripping

Classification of Tripping Typical Classification of Tripping
Classification of Tripping
Typical Classification of Tripping

PROTECTIVE RELAY

TRIPPING MODE

REMARKS

Generator Reverse Power Relay

Class ‘A’

 

Generator Distance Backup Impedance Relay

Class ‘C’

 

Generator Voltage Restrained Relay

Class ‘A’

 

Generator Transformer H.V. side Backup O/C relay

Class ‘C’

 

Generator Transformer H.V. side Backup E/F relay

Class ‘B’

 

Unit Auxiliary Transformer Differential Relay

Class ‘A’

 

Generator Negative Sequence Current Relay

Class ‘C’

I-stage alarm

Generator Definite time O/C Relay

 

For alarm

Unit Auxiliary Transformer H.V. side O/C Relays (Backup)

Class ‘A’

 

Generator Transformer Buchholz Relay

Class ‘A’ Il-stage

I-stage alarm

Generator Transformer Winding Temperature Device

Class ‘C’ Il-stage

I-stage alarm

Generator Transformer Oil Temperature Device

Class ‘C’ Il-stage

I-stage alarm

Generator Protection Matrix Generator Protection Matrix
Generator Protection Matrix
Generator Protection Matrix
Measurement Circuit for Generator Protection
Measurement Circuit for Generator Protection
Measurement Circuit for Generator Protection
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay - Requirement & Classification
Generator Protection Relay - Requirement & Classification

The

Protection

Relays

should

meet

following

requirements:

Reliability : ability to operate correctly. It has two component Dependability Security S p operating time to clear the fault Cost: maximum protection at lowest possible cost

eed: minimum

maximum protection at lowest possible cost eed: minimum The Protection Relays are classified by following

The Protection Relays are classified by following construction type:

Electromagnetic Solid state

Microprocessor Numerical Non-electric (thermal,

t

pressure, e c.,)

Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay Classification
Generator Protection Relay Classification
Protection Relay Generator Protection Relay Classification Electromagnetic Based relay construction Electromagnetic

Electromagnetic Based relay construction

Electromagnetic relays include attracted armature, moving coil, and induction disc induction cup type relays. Electromagnetic relays contain an electromagnet (or a permanent magnet) and a moving part. When the actuating quantity exceeds a certain predetermined value, an operating torque is developed which is applied on the moving part. This causes the moving part to travel and to finally close a contact to energise the trip- coil of the breaker.

Electromagnetic Type Relays
Electromagnetic Type Relays
Electromagnetic Type Relays Type-CDG 12 Inverse Time Earth Fault Typ e-CAG 17 ,37 Instantaneous Over current

Type-CDG 12 Inverse Time Earth Fault

Type-CAG 17,37 Instantaneous Over current

Earth Fault Typ e-CAG 17 ,37 Instantaneous Over current Type-CTNM 12 Negative Phase Sequence current relay
Earth Fault Typ e-CAG 17 ,37 Instantaneous Over current Type-CTNM 12 Negative Phase Sequence current relay

Type-CTNM 12

Negative Phase Sequence current relay

current Type-CTNM 12 Negative Phase Sequence current relay Type-CDV,22,62 Voltage controlled Over current Relay
current Type-CTNM 12 Negative Phase Sequence current relay Type-CDV,22,62 Voltage controlled Over current Relay

Type-CDV,22,62

Voltage controlled Over current Relay

Type-CTMM/CTMFM Motor Protection Relay

Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay Classification
Generator Protection Relay Classification
Protection Relay Generator Protection Relay Classification Solid state Based relay construction Static relays

Solid state Based relay construction

Relay Classification Solid state Based relay construction Static relays contain electronic circuit, which are

Static relays contain electronic circuit, which are transistors, ICs, diodes another electronic components. There is a comparator circuit in the relay, which compares two or more currents or voltages and gives the output, which is applied to either a slave relay or a thryristor circuit. The slave relay is an electromagnetic relay in a semi- static relay. A relay using a thryristor circuit is a wholly static relay. Static relay possess an advantage of having low burden on CT and PT, fast operation, absence of mechanical inertia, contact time, long life and less maintenance. Static relays have proved to be superior to electromagnetic relays

Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay Classification
Generator Protection Relay Classification
Protection Relay Generator Protection Relay Classification Microprocessor Based relay construction Numerical Based
Protection Relay Generator Protection Relay Classification Microprocessor Based relay construction Numerical Based

Microprocessor Based relay construction

Numerical Based relay construction

Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay – Numerical Relay Function
Generator Protection Relay – Numerical Relay Function

A numeric relay is a digital protective relay that uses a microprocessor with software based protection algorithms to analyze power system voltages and currents for the purpose of detection of faults in an electric power system.

Function:

Low voltage and low current signals (i.e., at the secondary of a voltage transformer and current transformer ) are brought into a low pass filter that removes frequency content above about 1/3 of the sampling frequency. AC signal is then sampled by the relay's analog to digital converter at anywhere from about 4 to 64 (varies by relay) samples per power system cycle. The sampled data is then passed through a low pass filter that numerically removes the frequency content that is above the fundamental frequency of interest (i.e., nominal system frequency), and uses Fourier transform algorithms to extract the fundamental frequency magnitude and angle.

Next the microprocessor passes the data into a set of protection algorithms, which are a set of logic equations in part designed by the protection engineer, and in part designed by the relay manufacturer, that monitor for abnormal conditions that indicate a fault. If a fault condition is detected, output contacts operate to trip the associated circuit breaker(s).

Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Architecture of numerical relays
Architecture of numerical relays

Microprocessor Memory module Input module Output module Communication module Application Software

Advantage of Numerical Relay

Reliability Multifunctionality Self Diagnosis Event and Disturbance Records Communication Capabilities Adaptive Protection

Diagnosis Event and Disturbance Records Co mm u ni cat io n Capab iliti es Adaptive
Diagnosis Event and Disturbance Records Co mm u ni cat io n Capab iliti es Adaptive

Sampled Waveform

Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Numerical relays Fourier transform algorithms
Numerical relays Fourier transform algorithms
Generator Protection Relay Numerical relays Fourier transform algorithms
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Architecture of numerical relays
Architecture of numerical relays
Generator Protection Relay Architecture of numerical relays
Generator Protection Relay- REG 670
Generator Protection Relay- REG 670
Generator Protection Relay – ABB make REG 670
Generator Protection Relay – ABB make REG 670
REG 670 Generator Protection Relay – ABB make REG 670 The REG 670 is used for

The REG 670 is used for protection ,control and monitoring of the generator and generator transformer blocks.

The IED has a comprehensive function covering the requirement for most generator application.

library,

The REG670 also enables valuable monitoring possibilities as many of the process values can be transferred to an operator HMI.

REG 670 inbuilt with 33 Protection function.

REG 670 inbuilt with 33 Protection function.

A/D module with one microsecond accuracy in time synchronization . New GPS clock module . Transformer input module with three metering CTs, four protection CTs and five VTs .

. New GPS clock module . Transformer input module with three metering CTs, four protection CTs
Generator Protection Relay REG 670
Generator Protection Relay REG 670
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay REG 670 Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay REG 670 Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Protection Relay – Function Monitoring
Protection Relay – Function Monitoring
Generator Protection Relay Protection Relay – Function Monitoring
Generator Protection Relay
Generator Protection Relay
Relay Communication
Relay Communication
Generator Protection Relay Relay Communication
Generator mechanical protection Generator Mechanical Protection Alarm Limit setting
Generator mechanical protection
Generator Mechanical Protection Alarm Limit setting

Sr. NO

Parameter

Operating Value

Alarm Value

Trip Value

1

Stator slot temparature (24 RTDs)

º

95 - 100

C

>100

 

2

Stator core Temperature

     
 

Turbine End

<

95 ºc

> 100 ºC

 
   

Excitor End

<

95 ºC

> 100 ºC

 

3

Cold gas temp after H2 coolers

     
 

AB (3 RTDs)

25

- 45 ºC

> 50 ºC

> 50 ºC

 

CD

(3RTDs)

25

- 45 ºC

> 50 ºC

> 50 ºC

4

Hot gas temp before H2 coolers

     
 

AB (2 RTDs)

45

- 70 ºC

> 75 ºC

 
 

CD

(2RTDs)

     

5

Cooling water Temp before H2 coolers

     
   

A

<

38 ºC

> 38 ºC

 
   

B

<

38 ºC

> 38 ºC

 

6

Cooling water Temp after H2 coolers

<

50 ºC

> 50 ºC

 

7

Generator Brg.Temp TE Side (2 RTDs)

<

90 ºC

> 90 ºC

 

8

Generator Brg.Temp EE Side (2 RTDs)

<

90 ºC

> 90 ºC

 

9

Generator Brg. Vibration TE

<

84 ºC

> 84 ºC

 

10

Generator Brg. Vibration EE

< 84 micron pk-pk

> 84 micron pk-pk

 
Generator Protection Setting Generator Protection setting – 230 MW Generator
Generator Protection Setting
Generator Protection setting – 230 MW Generator

Sr. No.

Protection Setting REG 670

 

Pickup Setting

Time Delay

1

Generator differential protection

0 2 IBASE

.

0

2

Gen Backup impedance Stage-1(21G1)

0.099 ohm/ph, 80 deg

1

s

3

Gen Backup impedance Stage-2 (21G2)

0.141 ohm/ph, 80 deg

1

s

4

Loss of Excitation with under voltage (40G1)

Zone-1 : Z1 offset: 10, Z1 diameter: 86.37 %,

0

s

UV:70% 1 S

 
 

,

   

Zone-2 : Z2 offset: 10, Z2 diameter: 86.37 %, UV:70%, 1 S

0

s

5

Loss of Excitation without under voltage (40G)2

Zone-1 : Z1 offset: 10, Z1 diameter: 86.37 % ,

0

s

   

Zone-2 : Z2 offset: 10, Z2 diameter: 86.37 %,

0

s

6

Over load protection Stage-1 (59G1)

110

IB%

3

s

7

Over voltage protection Stage-2 (59G2)

115

%UB

3

s

8

Reverse Power with turbine trip (32G1)

0.5% SB, 180 deg

3

s

9

Reverse Power with out turbine trip (32G2)

0.5% SB, 180 deg

3

s

10

Low forward protection (37 G)

0.5% SB, 180 deg

3

s

11

Negative Phase Sequence Stage-1 (46G1)

10% IB, 0, 120, 240 deg

2

s

12

Negative Phase Sequence Stage-2 (46G2)

10% IB, 0, 120, 240 deg

IEC – Extremely Inverse

Generator Protection Setting Generator Protection setting – 230 MW Generator
Generator Protection Setting
Generator Protection setting – 230 MW Generator

Sr. No.

Protection Setting REG 670

Pickup Setting

Time Delay

13

Rotor earth fault protection (64 R)

Alarm -10K

0 50 s

.

   

Trip – 1 K

0.50

s

14

Rotor Overload Protection (49 R)

110% Ibase

 

5

s

15

Generator Overload Protection (49 S)

105% Ibase

 

5

s

16

Over Frequency Protection (81 G1)

Alarm: 51.50 Hz

 

10 s

17

Over Frequency Protection (81 G2)

Trip: 52.50 Hz

 

1

s

18

Under Frequency Protection (81 G3)

Alarm: 48.50 Hz

 

5

s

19

Under Frequency Protection (81 G4)

Trip: 47.40 Hz

 

2

s

20

Over fluxing protection (99 G)

110 – 140 % V/Hz

 

0

s

21

Generator CB LBB Protection (50 LBB)

10% Ibase

 

0.2

s

22

Pole Slip protection (98G)

ZA = 13.55 %, 105-90 deg

 

0

s

   

ZB = 16.57 %, 105-90 deg

 

0

s

   

ZC = 15.34 %, 105-90 deg

 

0

s

23

Stator 1 00% earth fault protection (64 G1)

Alarm -1K

0.50

s

   

Trip - 1K

0.50

s

24

Stator 95 % earth fault protection (64 G2)

0.05 Un

 

0.5

s

25

INTERTURN fault protection (95 G1)

>5.0 Un

 

0.1

s

26

Dead machine Protection (50 GDM)

I >= 105 %, UV <= 70%

 

0

s

Sonntag, 12. August 2012 67
Sonntag, 12. August 2012 67