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Ligh t Zon e City

for Joke M.A. va n Hengstu m

Ligh t Zon e City

Light Plannin g in tli e Urban Context Christ a van Santen

Birkhauser - Publishers for Architecture Basel • Boston • Berlin

Content s
Content s

Foreword 6 The City as an Outsid e Interio r 8 Beautification o f th e City 24 Public Lightin g 34 Designing wit h Light 50 The Illuminatio n o f Building s 68 Case Studies 9 0

Brandenburger Tor, Berlin 92 / Somerset House, London 94 / Cathedral Basilica of Sint-Jan,'s-Hertogenbosch 96 / Colosseum, Rome 98 / Ostend 100/Bridge s 104/Us e of Colour n o

Light Pollutio n 114 Maintenance 124

Foreword
Foreword

Light i n th e city is necessar y for orientation . Lightin g make s it pos -

rule s hav e bee n devise d so a s t o avoid a n excess of suc h light .

sible t o distinguis h streets , path s an d parks , an d allows user s of publi c space s t o se e eac h other . Th e illuminatio n of buildings , th e lightin g

of objects an d of gree n spot s i n th e city ca n als o serv e t o beautif y th e

surroundings , providin g it i s don e well . Th e us e of th e incandescen t lam p i n th e publi c environmen t ha s

no w ha d it s day. Th e developmen t of ne w ligh t source s an d accom -

panyin g luminaire s ha s greatl y increase d ou r possibilities . Publi c lightin g nowaday s come s i n a numbe r of varieties , all supplie d wit h

cleverly designe d optics . Yet sometime s it seem s a s thoug h all exter-

io r light , no t only for advertising , bu t als o for th e illuminatio n of

building s an d eve n stree t lighting , ha s becom e a marketin g tool .

A fashio n ite m tha t mus t b e pu t o n display an d sold t o th e consumer .

A maste r pla n for th e lightin g of a certai n are a i s preferabl e t o

individua l design s tha t ar e aime d a t on e featur e withou t takin g th e surrounding s int o account . A goo d maste r pla n i s tailore d t o th e individua l characte r of th e environmen t an d create s coherenc e i n th e nighttim e appearanc e of th e place . Th e city at nigh t i s differen t fro m th e city durin g th e daytime . Th e daytim e atmospher e canno t

b e imitated . Th e nigh t ca n certainl y b e a littl e mor e 'mysterious ' an d hav e it s ow n ambience . Th e architectur e an d tow n plannin g of a locatio n shoul d serv e a s a guidelin e for a carefully designe d lightin g concept . I n man y cities , ther e ar e fine example s of building s tha t ar e illuminate d i n a way tha t show s understandin g of th e significanc e of th e architecture .

Coloure d ligh t is use d whethe r it is suitabl e or not . It i s suitabl e whe n

ou

t detractin g fro m th e othe r ligh t tha t i s present ; i t i s no t suitabl e

in

g an d enchantin g it ma y be , ligh t tha t ha s th e functio n of attractin g

Th

e themati c chapter s of thi s boo k thro w ligh t upo n th e functio n

a party atmospher e is require d o r wher e it plays a functiona l rol e with-

whe n it make s th e city resembl e theatrica l scenery . Howeve r charm -

of illuminatio n i n th e city. T o illustrat e this , a variet y of location s i n differen t citie s hav e bee n photographe d an d provide d wit h a com - mentary . Thes e snapshot s i n tim e hel p t o clarify th e possibilitie s

an d th e limitation s of illumination .

th

e attentio n t o advertisin g o r of accentuatin g decorativ e element s

doe s no t hel p t o mak e a spac e mor e easily navigable . I n man y places ,

Christ a

va n Santen , Februar y 200 6

Th e City as an Outsid e Interio r
Th e City as an
Outsid e Interio r

No two interior s ar e th e same ; eve n whe n a fashio n tren d i s bein g followed, ther e ar e still differences . A n interio r i s th e reflection of th e characte r an d th e circumstance s of a n individual . Muc h of wha t transpire s durin g th e desig n of a n interio r als o plays a rol e i n th e desig n of th e 'outsid e interior' , i n spit e of th e differences i n scale . A n

outsid e interio r i s stil l a n interior ; yo u ca n als o tal k i n term s of wall s

an d a floor i n thi s situation . Wha t make s th e outsid e interio r of tow n

A

differen t fro m tha t of tow n B, apar t fro m th e characteristi c accent s

of

th e skyline , whic h make s th e tow n recognisabl e fro m a distance ?

Th e tow n ma y li e o n th e sea , o n a river , ther e ma y b e canal s or ther e ma y b e n o wate r a t all. I t ma y b e o n a larg e scale o r o n a smal l scale :

wit h narro w street s or wide boulevards, smal l or large squares . I n short ,

th e outsid e interior , regardles s of scale , i s forme d by th e architectur e

of feature s includin g streets , squares , building s an d les s obviou s elements , suc h a s market s an d othe r functiona l constructions . Th e architectur e ca n b e cleverly employe d i n creatin g th e nightscape ,

an d th e architec t need s t o bea r thi s i n mind . Functionalit y an d eco- nom y ar e all par t of th e equation .

Th e streets , square s an d building s give shap e t o th e city. Experts

an d intereste d partie s recognis e th e urban-developmen t an d archi -

tectura l idea s underlyin g th e shap e of th e town : constructio n i n par - allel stree t layouts , i n circles aroun d a centre , an d so on . Street s hav e a

direction ; th e orientatio n of a squar e i s mor e complex. Whe n you com e

ou t of a street , a squar e offers a n elemen t of surprise : ther e ma y b e a

church , strikin g buildings , a market , o r somethin g specia l migh t b e happening . A squar e ha s a privat e character , whic h appUes t o a lesse r extent when , for example, it is situate d o n a wide thoroughfare . Square s give a feeling of a larg e scale, openness , or, alternatively, intimacy , wit h

man y degree s between . The y creat e a n overview an d provid e orienta - tio n i n th e area , allowing , for example , a view int o sid e street s o r of place s wher e road s meet . W e als o wan t t o benefi t fro m thes e day- tim e qualitie s an d characteristic s i n th e evening : th e identificatio n

of buildings , th e view int o sid e streets , th e cohesio n of th e whole . Th e

illuminatio n of water, park s an d gree n spaces i n th e tow n also deserves separat e attention , becaus e the y hav e thei r ow n demands . Th e char - acte r of th e tow n mus t no t b e los t throug h th e us e of artificial light .

Light i s subjec t t o fashion . New source s of ligh t provid e mor e opportunities , suc h a s th e us e of coloure d Ught, whic h ha s becom e

a fad. Th e tow n a s suc h need s t o b e harmonious , wit h a n accen t her e

an d there , no t a constan t disc o o r fairground , bu t i n itsel f it' s no t wron g t o us e coloure d light . Th e us e of coloure d ligh t i s acceptabl e an d festive whe n it come s t o specia l event s an d place s tha t yo u go for a nigh t out . Us e i s often mad e of coloure d ligh t for fountains , for

example , whic h make s yo u wonde r whethe r i t i s a ne w interpreta - tio n o r a fleeting fashion .

TO

, for example , whic h make s yo u wonde r whethe r i t
Th e Cit y as an Outsid e Interio r 1 Vincen t va n

Th e Cit y as an Outsid e Interio r

1

Vincen t va n Gogh , Cafi terrace on the Place du Forum, i88 8 Thi s is a picturesqu e illustratio n o f chanc e

element s comin g togethe r t o creat e war m an d welcomin g surroundings .

A singl e streetlam p light s th e terrace .

Th e ligh t fro m th e house s an d shop -

windows , wit h th e starr y sky above ,

contribute s t o th e invitin g natur e o f

thi s outdoo r spot .

2/ 3

Kromm e Waal , Amsterdam . By day

w e see th e surfac e o f th e water , th e

boat s an d th e lin e o f trees . A t night ,

w e see th e ligh t fro m th e streetlamps ,

th e ligh t fro m th e house s an d th e

reflection s i n th e water . Th e dom e

o f th e Churc h o f St . Nichola s i n th e background , whic h is scarcel y notice d durin g th e daytime , no w become s a landmar k feature .

Qua i d e Crenelle , Paris . On e elemen t

i n th e perceptio n o f th e city : anonym -

ou s residentia l towe r blocks . A t

night , thes e illuminate d object s hav e

a casua l coincidence .

5/ 6

Pla9a Reial , Barcelona , is a squar e wit h th e atmospher e o f a 'livin g

room' , wit h a fountain , pal m tree s

an d streetlamp s wit h man y branches .

Ther e is n o throug h traffic . Wher e there' s life , there' s light . This , togethe r wit h th e publi c lightin g an d th e pal e colou r o f th e wall s an d floo r o f th e square , determine s th e atmosphere .

n

1/ 2

For thi s elegan t square , Place Ven - d6m e i n Paris , effort s hav e bee n mad e t o achiev e unit y i n it s appear - anc e durin g th e day an d a t nigh t by

illuminatin g th e v\/alls i n a consisten t

way.

light s tha t ar e incorporate d int o th e publi c streetlamps . A n excess o f lamppost s has bee n use d t o creat e

th e desire d consistency . I t is inevit -

abl e tha t peopl e are bothere d by th e man y light s enterin g thei r fiel d o f

Th e illuminatio n come s fro m

3/ 4

Palai s d u Louvre , Cou r Napoleon , Paris . Th e pyrami d is th e centr e o f

thi s space , partl y determinin g th e

siz e an d scal e o f th e surroundings ,

bot h durin g th e daytim e an d a t night .

A ro w o f ol d streetlamp s alon g th e

facad e provide s ligh t a t pedestria n level . Ther e is sufficien t ligh t o n th e square , whic h mean s th e indicatio n o f pathway s i n th e for m o f lo w light - post s is superfluous . Thi s ca n als o be see n fro m th e phot o take n i n th e

evening , wher e on e lin e o f light s is

no t working .

5/6

Piazz a de l Popolo , Rome . Fro m thi s

elevate d position , th e shap e o f th e squar e wit h it s centra l colum n an d fountai n ca n clearl y be seen . I t is

a larg e recreationa l square , wit h

traffi c circulatin g aroun d th e outside .

A

wit h a numbe r o f light s provide s

ampl e ligh t fo r th e whol e area includ -

in g th e surroundin g walls . Th e reflec -

tion s i n th e we t floo r ad d som e extr a

relativel y lo w numbe r o f tal l post s

lif e t o th e scene . Th e wate r i n th e

fountai n is li t u p at night , providin g

a ne w foca l point .

post s lif e t o th e scene . Th e wate r i n
The City as an Outside Interior Light i s presen t i n th e

The City as an Outside Interior

Light i s presen t i n th e evenin g an d durin g th e daytime . I n th e evening , th e accen t falls o n th e ligh t an d it s effect. Vertical ligh t i s mos t successfu l a t makin g u s perceiv e space . Durin g th e daytim e v^e se e lamppost s a s par t of th e stree t furniture . Thei r shap e an d siz e ar e importan t i n relatio n t o th e environment ; the y ar e effective features , although , like any othe r 'furniture' , the y often spoil th e viev^. I n th e redesig n o r renovatio n of square s an d streets , attempt s ar e mad e t o combin e freestandin g element s suc h a s benches , litterbin s an d lampposts , v^ith th e intentio n of creatin g a harmoniou s atmos - phere . Designer s of stree t furnitur e nowaday s se e thi s a s par t of thei r task . Ther e ar e area s of town s tha t hav e thei r ow n desig n an d illuminatio n i n a n attemp t t o distinguis h themselve s fro m othe r residentia l areas . Th e materia l an d th e colou r of paving , of hous e front s an d othe r building s hav e a n influenc e o n th e light . A dar k floor tha t doe s no t reflect muc h ligh t i s no t goo d for visibility. Very shin y pavin g disori - entate s people , as ca n easily b e see n after a rainstorm . We t street s ca n look very picturesque , bu t the y creat e confusio n whe n th e ligh t fro m shop-windo w displays , advertisin g board s an d publi c lightin g reflects annoyingl y i n th e shin y paving . Th e pedestria n ca n hav e th e feelin g tha t the y ar e 'walkin g o n water' . Dark-coloure d walls do no t always hel p t o creat e a pleasan t atmo - sphere . But whe n all th e exterior walls of building s ar e lit up , it create s a n unrea l feeling of space , i n contras t t o th e dar k sky. A light-coloure d wall reflects a lo t of light , mor e tha n th e averag e bric k wall . Glas s facade s reflect th e ligh t source , whic h make s the m difficult t o illu- minate . We nee d t o realis e tha t illuminatio n i s somethin g extra : it i s 'mor e usual ' for th e facades t o serve a s walls for th e outsid e interior . Whe n a buildin g i s illuminated , th e colou r an d materia l of th e fagades hav e thei r ow n requirement s for th e type of ligh t source . Each lam p ha s a particula r colour , whic h i s wha t we perceive . The n there' s th e ability t o reproduc e a particula r colou r (or colours) , th e colou r rendering . Thi s mean s tha t yo u nee d t o kno w th e colou r spectru m of th e lamp . Ther e are , i t shoul d b e said , ligh t source s tha t reproduc e every colour , bu t som e ar e bette r tha n others . So, whe n illuminatin g buildings , yo u hav e t o conside r th e reflectanc e of th e variou s mater - ials , th e colou r an d th e textur e (mat t o r shiny) . Mor e ligh t is no t always th e solution . Th e colou r spectru m an d th e amoun t of ligh t ar e determinin g factor s i n th e choic e of a ligh t source .

13

1/2

Plaga Porta l de l Pau , Barcelona . A t th e intersectio n o f tw o road s (a t th e en d o f La Rambia ) stand s a tal l colum n wit h a statu e o f Columbus , whic h ca n be see n fro m a distance . Th e disjointe d surrounding s mea n tha t thi s area is no t perceive d as a square ; th e colum n is th e onl y poin t o f orientation . Th e statue s a t it s foo t ar e s o excessivel y illuminate d tha t th e res t o f i t ca n hardl y be discerned . You nee d t o be a loca l t o find you r wa y around .

3/ 4 Frankenplatz , Cologne . A n outsid e area bordere d by th e Kolne r Dom , th e river , th e railwa y lin e an d th e museum . Pedestrian s mak e a grea t dea l o f us e o f th e square ; i t is th e wa y fro m on e par t o f th e cit y t o th e other , o n eithe r sid e o f th e Rhine . Th e floo r an d th e pathwa y alongsid e th e railwa y lin e lin k u p th e individua l elements . Th e choic e o f lo w lightin g create s a fragmente d effec t i n th e evenin g an d break s u p th e coherenc e o f th e day - tim e appearanc e o f th e area . Th e tal l lamppost s alon g th e pat h kee p thi s rout e visible .

5/6

Piazza Navona , Rome , is an elongate d squar e wit h narro w entrances . Th e axis is marke d by thre e fountains , th e central , mos t monumenta l on e o f

whic h is by Bernini . Th e illuminatio n consist s o f ligh t fro m th e streetlamp s surroundin g th e centra l sectio n an d th e lightin g o f th e fountain s fro m

th e wate r basin . Bernini' s fountai n

th e mos t striking . Th e terrac e by th e

is

buildin g has it s ow n lightin g unde r th e sunshades . Thi s is an acceptabl e additio n a t pedestria n level .

7/8

Piazza dell a Repubblica , Rome . Th e fountai n i n thi s bus y squar e is th e centr e o f a traffi c roundabout . Th e buildin g i n th e backgroun d has th e appearanc e o f a close d fagad e durin g th e daytime . A t night , th e illuminatio n o f th e pier s place s th e emphasi s o n rhythm . Th e light s hav e gon e ou t i n places , whic h is conspicuou s i n thi s repetitiv e rhythm . Th e differen t colou r o f th e lights , cause d by agein g i n thi s typ e o f ligh t source , is als o noticeable .

H

. Th e differen t colou r o f th e lights , cause d by
The City as an Outside Interior 15

1/2

Place de s Terreau x i n th e hear t o f

Lyons , wit h th e fron t fac e o f th e tow n hall . A characteristi c featur e o f thi s squar e is th e fac t tha t ther e ar e n o lamppost s an d th e luminaire s fo r

th e illuminatio n o f th e building s are

mounte d o n th e facades . Th e centra l par t o f th e tow n hal l wit h th e towe r form s a n unbalance d elemen t i n th e otherwis e harmoniousl y illuminate d building .

A concep t has bee n develope d fo r th e

whol e square . Bartholdi' s fountai n is

th e

positione d off-centr e an d li t fro m wate r basin . A desig n o f spoutin g

wate r an d ligh t is incorporate d int o

th e floor .

Architect!design Christia n Drevet , Lyons , an d Danie l Buren , Paris Lighting technology Les Eclairagiste s Ass. , Lyon

3/ 4

Th e Mus6 e d'Orsay , Paris , ca n be

recognise d fro m mile s around , a landmar k featur e wit h it s illuminate d stri p an d tw o clocks , whic h ar e a legacy o f it s earlie r days as a station .

5/6

Th e Museumplein , Amsterdam , is

a larg e ope n gree n plai n i n th e city ,

betwee n a numbe r o f famou s build - ings : th e Van Gog h Museum , th e Rijksmuseum , th e Stedelij k Museu m

(no t visible ) an d th e Concertgebouw . I t is clearl y an attractiv e backdro p i n

th e dark , bu t form s an 'unassailable '

barrie r fo r pedestrians . Th e illumin -

ate d pathway s provid e a direction , bu t d o no t promot e recognition .

Th e coo l lightin g o f th e extensio n o f

th e Van Gog h Museu m an d th e war m

lightin g o f th e Rijksmuseum , create d by th e differen t material s an d th e selecte d ligh t sources , is a strikin g combination .

Landscape architect S.I . Andersson , Kopenhage n Architects Van Cogh Museum Rietvel d / Van Dille n / Van Trich t Van Cogh Museum extension K. Kurokawa , Toky o Riji<smuseum P.j.H . Cuyper s

d / Van Dille n / Van Trich t Van Cogh Museum extension K. Kurokawa ,
The City as an Outside Interior 17

1

Avenu e d e Breteuil , Paris . Thi s out -

sid e spac e is visuall y rounde d offb y

on e o f Paris ' famou s monuments : th e

D6m e de s Invalides . Th e perspectiv e

is emphasise d by th e publi c street -

lamp s t o th e lef t an d right .

2

I n th e Jardi n d u Luxembour g (south -

er n point) , Paris , a fountai n function s

as a partitio n i n th e park . I t is a n

individua l objec t wit h n o relatio n t o

th e surroundings , bu t nevertheles s

a landmark . Th e illuminate d sculp -

ture s an d th e jet s o f w/ater reflectin g

th e ligh t com e togethe r t o for m a n

imag e tha t is consisten t wit h th e daytim e appearanc e o f th e area .

3/

4

Th

e Eiffe l Tower, Paris , is an

ico n o f

th

e city , bot h i n th e daytim e

an d a t

night . Th e lightin g pla n fo r thi s towe r

is

an importan t elemen t o f advertis -

in

g campaign s an d it s variet y alway s

attract s attention . Lighting design Pierr e Bidea u

Page 20/2 1

Th e 'D u Colldge ' pedestria n bridge ,

Lyons , form s a connectin g rout e fo r

pedestrian s ove r th e River Rhone .

Th e (warm ) ligh t is incorporate d int o

th e railing s o f th e bridge , creatin g a

strikin g boundar y t o th e walkwa y withou t spoilin g th e vie w o f th e river . Lighting plan Technica l department , Lyons Cit y Counci l

e walkwa y withou t spoilin g th e vie w o f th e river
The City as an Outside Interior ""9

The City as an Outside Interior

""9

2 0
Th e Cit y as an Outsid e Interio r 2 1

Th e Cit y as an Outsid e Interio r

2 1

2 2
Th e City as an Outsid e Interior 1/2/3 Extension o f th e Palau

Th e City as an Outsid e Interior

1/2/3

Extension o f th e Palau de la Music a Catalana, Barcelona. Durin g th e day- time , the reflection o f the glass facade creates a boundary for th e square. At night, th e light withi n turn s th e interior into a componen t o f th e exterior space, makin g th e writin g on th e fa9ade mor e difficult t o read . Th e ceiling lights on th e upper floors behind th e glass fagade make a con- tributio n t o th e exterior perception o f th e buildin g at night. Architects Tusquets-Di'az Architects Studio

4/ 5 Pla^a Catalunya, Barcelona. A depart- men t store can be seen on thi s large- scale square, as a backdrop t o th e trees . At night, th e light fro m th e dis- play windows , th e carefully measured light fro m th e roof, th e well-placed illuminate d advertisement s and th e incidental light fro m th e openings in th e fagade make it into a boundary, in keeping wit h th e scale o f th e square.

23

Beautificatio n o f th e City
Beautificatio n
o f th e City

Visitor s t o Europea n citie s will experienc e mos t of the m a s a whole , no t a s a collectio n of separat e architectura l elements . Yet thes e old centre s ar e frequentl y a motle y selectio n of individua l building s tha t hav e bee n constructe d i n differen t ages . I n spit e of th e architectura l differences , durin g th e daytim e w e experienc e th e city a s a whole , becaus e th e dayligh t tha t i s presen t throughou t th e city unite s i t i n a natura l way. Th e ligh t i n th e city a t nigh t i s determine d by all kind s of factors . Man y of thes e ar e incidental : ligh t emissio n fro m sho p displays , lightin g o n terraces , ligh t fro m cafes, restaurants , house s an d othe r buildings , ligh t fro m th e traffic. It' s quit e a tal l orde r t o achiev e a sens e of unit y a t night , s o tha t th e layou t an d structur e of th e city i s still clea r an d recognisabl e i n spit e of all th e incidenta l factors . To d o this , i t i s necessar y t o brin g all th e ligh t int o harmony , a s far as possible . Publi c lightin g i s n o longe r exclusively functional , bu t shoul d als o b e pleasing . Th e illuminatio n of buildings , monu - ment s an d bridge s an d th e lightin g of fountain s an d othe r place s of interes t i s receivin g mor e attention . Man y citie s ar e bein g redeveloped , tidie d u p an d reorganised . The y ar e bein g mad e attractive , an d economi c interest s play a larg e rol e i n this . Th e ter m 'beautificatio n of th e city' i s often use d i n thi s contex t an d everyon e understand s wha t i t means : a city tha t ha s a n attractiv e an d invitin g appearance , eve n after dark . Thi s boost s th e entertainmen t scen e of th e city, no t only i n term s of visit s t o th e cinem a or th e theatre , bu t als o t o cafes, restaurant s an d shops . Th e basi c principl e lyin g behin d thi s is : ther e mus t b e somethin g t o d o an d t o see , th e city mus t b e 'liveable' . A feelin g of safety i s als o essential . Th e lightin g i n th e city i n th e evenin g an d a t nigh t mus t creat e a pleasan t atmosphere , bu t shoul d no t dominate . Whe n ther e aren' t man y peopl e o n th e streets , th e surrounding s mus t still b e agreeabl e an d no t threatening . Thi s hold s th e attentio n of tourist s an d othe r visitors for longer , so the y mak e mor e us e of th e city. Resident s shoul d b e please d becaus e th e Hghts hel p the m t o identify peopl e an d places . Mor e demand s ar e bein g mad e of publi c lightin g tha n te n or fif- tee n year s ago . Ther e i s mor e ligh t i n pedestria n zone s an d o n cycle paths . Traffic requirement s mea n tha t a grea t dea l of ligh t ha s becom e necessar y o n th e roads , partly becaus e th e traffic densit y ha s increased . I n part s of th e city an d i n socially deprive d area s tha t hav e poo r vis- ibility, peopl e expect a highe r degre e of lightin g tha n elsewhere . Mor e ligh t o n th e stree t i s ofte n transforme d int o a feehn g of safety. Th e atmospher e tha t ligh t create s canno t simpl y b e encapsulate d i n rules : every situatio n i s different . Th e situatio n a s a whol e i s com - plex, no t only involving costs , maintenance , energ y - however import - an t thes e factor s migh t b e - bu t als o architectural , aestheti c an d emotiona l values . Thi s demand s - an d thi s canno t b e emphasise d

- bu t als o architectural , aestheti c an d emotiona l values . Thi
1/2/3 Whe n th e citie s wishin g t o hol d th e

1/2/3

Whe n th e citie s wishin g t o hol d th e 2012 Olympi c Game s mad e thei r presentations , Pari s illuminate d embankments , bridge s an d s o on .

A s a display , thi s is see n as nove l

an d surprising , bu t as a permanen t illuminatio n i t come s ove r as a flash y

fu n fair .

4/

Thi s continuou s rov^ o f shop s o n

th e Kurfurstenda m i n Berli n has an

impressiv e appearanc e wit h n o grea t

contrasts , whic h create s a pleasan t impressio n fro m pedestria n leve l i n

5

th

e evening . Mor e shoul d be don e

fo

r orientation : wit h it s focuse d light -

ing , th e tal l building , whic h isn' t noticeabl e i n th e daytime , become s

a landmark . Th e publi c lightin g is

limite d t o th e pedestria n area , bu t

th e appearanc e o f th e stree t is als o

determine d by th e livelines s o f th e illuminate d displa y windows .

A

collectio n o f individua l initiatives ,

a

rando m effec t create d by advertising .

A

strikin g elemen t is th e buildin g i n

th

e background , wher e ligh t has

been incorporate d i n th e architecture . Th e rhyth m o f th e fagade s is create d by th e ligh t o n th e reveals .

often enoug h - th e involvemen t of designer s wit h a good overall view, knowledg e an d insight . Badly designe d lightin g plan s do har m t o th e city, bringin g abou t

a lack of clarity an d no t contributin g t o th e desire d attractiveness . If

the y ar e inefficient, the y deman d a grea t dea l of energ y an d mainten - ance . Whe n th e plan s ar e goo d an d i t i s possibl e t o tal k i n term s of

'beautificatio n of th e city' , thi s i s becaus e attentio n ha s bee n pai d t o

th e desig n an d finishing feature s of th e publi c space , so tha t th e ligh t

an d th e layou t wor k togethe r t o produc e a n interestin g look . Thi s is no t simpl y a matte r of design , bu t mor e a resul t of effective illumin - ation . Advance s i n lightin g technolog y hav e mad e i t possible , an d eve n simpl e nowadays , t o di m th e ligh t fro m gas-discharg e lamps . I n th e sam e way, (programmed ) change s i n th e colou r of th e ligh t ca n als o b e fully controlled . I n principle , thi s ha s nothin g t o do wit h th e

architectur e itself; it' s all abou t makin g temporar y changes , t o creat e

a moo d o r for a specia l occasion . Mos t Europea n citie s consis t of old an d ne w architectur e tha t combine s t o determin e th e characte r of th e city. Sometime s colou r ma y b e use d if a n unusua l effect o r a specia l concep t i s envisaged . Architectura l cohesio n require s balanc e i n a three-dimensional , con- structiona l sense , an d lightin g ca n hel p t o ensur e tha t th e harmon y of th e daytim e appearanc e of a sit e ma y als o b e experience d at night . Th e multi-coloure d illuminatio n tha t w e se e i n photo s fro m Chin a an d othe r Asia n countrie s i s often i n th e contex t of a moder n archi - tectura l settin g an d i s a particula r featur e of th e local culture .

often i n th e contex t of a moder n archi - tectura l settin
1/2/3 Durin g th e day thi s offic e distric t near Potsdame r

1/2/3

Durin g th e day thi s offic e distric t near Potsdame r Plat z i n Berli n is almos t borin g at pedestria n level . Th e fa9ades wor k lik e mirrors . It' s a grea t dea l livelie r i n th e evening , becaus e it' s possibl e t o see int o th e buildings . Th e changin g colour s o f th e lightin g o f th e Sony Cente r a t nigh t creat e a surprisin g effec t amongs t th e unli t buildings . Architect Helmu t Jahn Lighting design Yann Kersal ^

4/ 5 Pare d e la Villett e i n Paris demon - strate s tha t colou r an d a larg e amoun t o f light , combine d wit h a larg e scal e an d emptiness , d o no t hav e t o resul t i n siniste r o r disma l surroundings . Th e deserte d par k look s lik e an empt y film set . I n reality , it' s a popula r area fo r goin g ou t (an d als o a thorough - fare) . Colou r work s effectivel y her e an d make s i t livel y eve n whe n ther e are n o peopl e there .

1/2

Th e Mol l de l Dipdsit , a busy boulevar d alon g th e harbou r o f Barcelona , wit h th e Histor y Museu m o f Cataluny a a t th e end . Th e tex t o n th e fagade is mor e visibl e i n th e evenin g tha n durin g th e daytime . Th e appearanc e a t nigh t is attractiv e i n every way. Th e ligh t i n th e arcad e an d unde r th e parasol s create s a lin k betwee n th e insid e an d th e outside . Th e bright , livel y wal l an d th e head-heigh t column s o f ligh t provid e sufficien t illuminatio n an d d o no t imped e th e vie w o f th e boat s i n th e harbour .

3/ 4 Th e hig h positio n o f Fran ke n p i at z i n Cologne , a pedestria n area tha t form s th e lin k t o th e Rhine , give s a vie w o f th e rive r an d th e opposit e bank . Th e step s functio n as seatin g fo r event s (musi c an d othe r performances ) o n th e squar e below . Th e lo w lightin g doesn' t distur b th e vie w an d illumin - ates th e differenc e i n th e levels .

5/6

Plei n 199 2 is i n a ne w distric t i n th e tow n centr e o f Maastricht . I n additio n t o residentia l units , i t als o has a

numbe r o f publi c facilities : th e publi c library , shops , a theatr e an d restaur -

ants . Th e tal l streetlamp s for m

on e ro w wit h th e tree s an d hel p t o

defin e th e space s o n th e square . Thi s

provide s structure . Th e tal l posts , togethe r wit h th e ligh t give n of f by th e buildings , provid e sufficien t lighting . Design streetlamps Coenen/Franse n

h th e ligh t give n of f by th e buildings , provid e
Beautification o f the City 31

1

Th

e stree t lightin g o f Cors o Vittori o

Emanuel e i n Mila n consist s o f lumin - aire s i n th e arcades , supplemente d

by som e light s hig h u p o n th e walls .

Th e stree t end s wit h th e vie w o f th e

Duomo , fre e fro m lamppost s an d othe r illuminatio n tha t migh t distur b

th

e field o f vision .

2

Th

e layou t o f th e Spu i i n Amsterdam ,

a bus y thoroughfar e fo r pedestrian s

an

d cyclist s i n th e ol d centre , invite s

yo

u t o sta y fo r a whil e i n th e evenin g

as wel l as durin g th e daytime . Th e

ol d lamp s alon g th e wall s hav e bee n

retained . Ther e is indirec t lightin g a t th e divisio n betwee n th e cycl e pat h an d th e pedestria n area , whic h provide s clea r signpostin g i n th e evening . Ligh t has bee n installe d unde r th e benches , an accen t tha t contribute s t o th e anonymit y o f th e peopl e usin g thi s space .

Lighting design Departmen t o f Spatia l Plannin g (dRO) , Amsterda m

3

Th

e Weesperzijd e by th e Amste l i n

Amsterda m is designe d as a pedes -

tria n area . Th e ne w lightin g consist s o f a numbe r o f light s o n a post , whic h illuminat e th e ground . Abov e

th e benches , whic h are place d bac k

t o back , a lin e o f illuminatio n has bee n installed . A combinatio n o f th e

genera l an d th e specific . Th e us e o f

a numbe r o f light s o n on e pos t doe s

no t distur b th e vie w here , as ther e are a lo t o f the m an d the y ar e care - full y directed . Th e plai n natur e o f th e surrounding s make s th e sligh t con - trast s o n th e ligh t floor attractive . Lighting design Departmen t o f Spatia l Plannin g (dRo) , Amsterda m

- trast s o n th e ligh t floor attractive . Lighting design Departmen t
Beautification o f the City 33
Public Lightin g
Public Lightin g

Publi c lightin g ha s a histor y beginnin g i n th e sixteent h centur y wit h candleligh t an d th e oil lamp , whic h wer e supersede d at th e begin - nin g of th e nineteent h centur y by ga s lightin g an d subsequently , at th e beginnin g of th e twentiet h century , by th e ligh t bul b an d th e ar c lamp . After th e Firs t Worl d War, electric ligh t offered a solutio n t o th e coal shortage . Th e mos t importan t featur e of th e ligh t source s tha t hav e bee n develope d i n th e pas t twent y year s ha s bee n economica l efficiency: mor e ligh t for les s mone y an d a longe r life for th e bulb . On e year ha s 8,76 0 hours : publi c lightin g is o n for approximatel y 4,10 0 hour s of this , an d th e luminair e i s visibl e i n dayligh t for 4,66 0 hours . I n th e evening , attentio n i s focuse d o n th e effect of th e light ; durin g th e daytim e i t i s th e suppor t structur e (luminaire s an d posts ) tha t plays a par t i n determinin g th e appearanc e of th e city. Possibl e consideration s ar e whethe r ligh t i s necessary , wha t sor t of ligh t an d ho w much , whethe r th e illuminatio n shoul d b e evenly dis - tributed , direc t o r indirect , locate d o n th e building , directe d a t i t or a combinatio n of th e two . The n come s th e selectio n of th e ligh t sourc e an d th e accompanyin g luminaire . Light colour , colou r renderin g an d ligh t yield all play a rol e i n determinin g th e choice of lamp . Th e shap e an d materia l of th e reflecto r an d th e shieldin g of th e lam p ar e deter - minin g factor s i n ligh t emission . Th e following criteri a apply i n th e choic e of th e righ t illumination :

• i s ther e enoug h ligh t i n th e chose n place.^

• i s th e ligh t evenly distribute d (if that' s th e intention). ^

• i s an y inconvenienc e cause d t o th e peopl e wh o us e th e place.^

Whe n peopl e spea k of sufficient light , the y ar e i n fact referrin g t o th e luminance , th e reflected light . Th e reflectio n of th e ligh t depend s o n th e typ e of surface : ligh t o r dar k pavin g stones , asphalt , an d s o on . Dar k roa d surface s reflect les s ligh t tha n brightl y coloure d roa d surfaces . Th e effect come s fro m th e interactio n betwee n lam p an d luminair e o n th e on e han d an d colou r an d textur e of th e roa d surfac e o n th e other . Dependin g o n th e heigh t of th e luminair e an d th e distanc e betwee n th e lampposts , ther e mus t always b e a measur e of uniformit y i n traffic lighting , an d als o i n lightin g for cyclists an d pedestrians . Th e 'cones ' of ligh t mus t overla p wit h eac h other . Researc h ha s de- monstrate d tha t thi s i s a t leas t a s importan t a s th e amoun t of light . As a result , recommende d value s hav e bee n establishe d for th e aver- ag e luminanc e an d th e unifor m distributio n of ligh t o n traffic routes . For street s wit h les s traffic an d square s i n built-u p area s tha t hav e differen t type s of surface , the n a requiremen t for th e illuminanc e i s sufficient, dependin g o n th e situation . Th e requirement s for th e lightin g are :

• visibility of objects , t o ensur e safety an d orientation ;

• recognitio n of people ;

th e lightin g are : • visibility of objects , t o ensur e safety
1/2 Thre e type s o f publi c lightin g alon g Passeigd e

1/2

Thre e type s o f publi c lightin g alon g Passeigd e Graci a i n Barcelona :

'neutral ' stree t lighting , a streetlam p wit h fiv e branche s an d th e highl y imaginativ e desig n o f A . Gaudi .

In general , i n ol d tow n centre s i t is

har d t o mov e away fro m th e origina l luminaire s an d streetlamp s tha t hav e

bee n mad e ove r th e years fo r candles ,

oi l lamps , gas mantle s and , mor e

recently , th e incandescen t lamp . The y

are always adapte d as wel l as possible . No w tha t ligh t source s are becomin g ever brighter , an d th e requirement s

fo r publi c lightin g ar e define d mor e

precisely , i t is ofte n n o longe r possibl e

t

o adap t them . Th e additio n of'neut -

ral ' traffi c lightin g is understandabl e

i

n thi s case . As fa r as th e combinatio n

o f th e five-branched streetlam p an d Gaudi' s desig n is concerned , a bette r

choic e woul d be t o choos e on e o r th e other . Gaudi' s desig n provide s roa d lightin g

an d pedestria n lighting , combine d

wit h a bench . A strikin g an d charac - teristi c elemen t i n th e publi c space .

3

O

n th e Rambi a d e Sta Monic a i n

Barcelona , th e origina l streetlight s

wer e n o longe r satisfactory . 'New ' lightin g has bee n added , makin g th e

ol d lightin g superfluous . Th e lamp -

pos t her e doe s no t onl y suppor t th e ordinar y lighting , bu t als o th e accen t lighting . Th e lightin g her e consist s

o f a spotligh t wit h glas s spa r under - neat h i t (t o diffus e th e ligh t an d preven t glare) , whic h is no t a goo d choice , becaus e i t get s dirty .

4

A

lightin g elemen t as par t o f th e archi -

tectur e o f Pon t Alexandr e II I i n Paris .

I t is an ensembl e o f bridg e architec - ture , sculptur e an d lighting .

5/6

A vie w o f Pon t Alexandr e i i i i n th e

directio n o f Hote l des Invalide s an d

a dayligh t vie w i n th e directio n o f th e Gran d Palais . Th e historica l monu - men t has bee n treate d wit h care , s o tha t th e lightin g create s a coheren t

overal l picture .

1/2

Passei g Llui's Company s i n Barcelon a is a pedestria n area . Th e streetlight s are an elemen t o f th e elongate d spac e tha t is oriente d towar d th e Arc . Readers mak e frequen t us e o f th e benche s unde r th e lampposts , eve n afte r dark .

3/ 4 Tw o ol d decorativ e lamppost s for m th e centra l poin t o f thi s enclose d neighbourhoo d squar e i n th e distric t o f El Bor n (La Ribera) i n Barcelona , durin g th e daytim e an d a t night .

5/6

A n exampl e o f th e illuminatio n o f a square : Cou r Carri e a t th e Louvr e i n Paris . Th e wall s hav e bee n illuminate d by th e simpl e light s place d alon g them . Th e connectio n wit h th e followin g spacQ is accentuate d by tw o many - branche d streetlights . Th e footpat h lighting , a late r addition , doe s no t ad d anythin g t o th e situation .

7

Th e publi c lightin g o n Pon t d e Bir-Hakei m i n Pari s is incorporate d int o th e structur e o f th e bridge . Th e lin e o f illuminatio n is forme d by th e uppermos t par t o f th e bridge , wher e th e M^tr o runs , an d th e constructio n wit h th e luminaire s beneath , whic h provide s illuminatio n fo r th e passin g traffi c o n bot h sides . Thi s mean s tha t th e pavemen t alon g th e parapet s o f th e bridg e enjoy s an unimpede d vie w o f th e river .

. Thi s mean s tha t th e pavemen t alon g th e parapet
• comfor t an d well-being ; • th e ability to create three-dimensiona l

• comfor t an d well-being ;

• th e ability to create three-dimensiona l shape s (plasticity): no t only for th e recognitio n of people an d objects, bu t also for genera l comfort;

• i t i s importan t t o preven t glar e - th e brightnes s of th e ligh t mus t b e limite d or shielde d i n (almost ) horizonta l directions ;

• ligh t colour : th e visibl e colou r of th e ligh t mus t sui t th e surround - ings ;

colour rendering : doin g justic e t o colours plays a role i n social inter- action . Th e colou r of clothing , for example , mus t b e clearly identifi-

able i n pedestria n areas . From a security poin t of viev^, th e recognition of colour s i s als o important , for example , i n witnes s statement s t o th e police ;

• th e ligh t sourc e shoul d generall y no t b e visible .

However, whe n choosin g th e ligh t it mus t b e possibl e to have a certai n

degre e of flexibility t o deviat e fro m th e standar d mode l i n orde r t o achieve a mor e creative approach . Tow n planner s an d architect s hav e

th e tendenc y t o conside r th e shap e of luminaire s an d stree t lamp s

first, th e 'daytim e look' . Th e technicia n pays attentio n t o th e practica l issues : reHability, soundness , resistanc e t o vandalism , durability . Th e lightin g adviso r o r lightin g designe r consider s all aspects : func- tionalit y an d relate d issues , an d the n finally th e form . Th e adviso r ma y deviat e fro m th e traditiona l arrangemen t of post s wit h lumin - aires/lamps , for example , i n a pedestria n area , wher e th e require - ment s for th e unifor m distributio n of ligh t ar e no t a s stringen t a s for roads . Publi c lightin g i s no w so widely accepte d tha t it i s als o see n a s a way t o suppor t th e structur e of th e city. Th e city ha s specific space s

an d anonymou s spaces . If mor e ligh t ha s bee n allocate d t o th e spe -

cific space s (boulevards, entertainmen t areas) over th e cours e of time ,

th e contras t wit h th e anonymou s sid e street s i s to o great . I n som e

cities , lamppost s ar e n o longe r use d i n suc h situation s an d th e ligh t sourc e an d luminair e ar e changed . Th e differenc e betwee n mai n street s an d sid e streets , betwee n square s an d lon g avenues , betwee n shoppin g street s an d residentia l street s i s booste d no t only by mak -

in g a differenc e i n th e amoun t of light , bu t als o i n th e colou r of th e

light . Thi s differenc e ca n contribut e t o clarity, a s lon g a s ther e i s a balanc e an d a connectio n betwee n th e two . Publi c lightin g ca n creat e

a relationshi p betwee n th e ligh t of th e illuminate d building s an d

object s so that , i n spit e of all th e rando m factors i n th e illuminate d area s of a city, a compositio n ca n b e achieve d tha t make s it possibl e t o experienc e th e imag e of th e city at nigh t a s a pleasan t whole . Light i s a constructio n materia l an d that' s th e way it' s used .

Pedestria n areas , cycle path s an d road s quaUfy for pubUc light - ing . For all categories , ther e ar e recommendation s an d norms , whic h

ar e agree d internationall y an d sometime s adapte d t o nationa l condi -

tions . Th e recommendation s for pedestria n area s ar e differen t every- where , depending , for example , o n th e typ e of district . Th e focus i s always o n th e feelin g o f safety, wit h sufficient ligh t o n th e street , no t to o man y dar k area s an d a view of th e traffic. Wher e ther e i s a lo t of light , th e immediat e surrounding s ma y appea r darke r tha n the y ar e i n reality . Peopl e adap t t o th e ligh t tha t i s present . Ther e i s a sens e tha t th e ligh t is sufficient whe n ther e i s n o excess of ligh t i n th e sur - roundin g area . It' s abou t th e balanc e of brightness . A criterio n tha t i s currentl y applie d i s tha t peopl e shoul d b e abl e t o recognis e eac h othe r a t a distanc e of fou r metres . Key factor s i n thi s ar e safety for pedestrian s an d road-users . Ther e ar e als o rule s for cycle path s now , a s th e bik e i s suc h a popula r mean s of transport . Standard s hav e bee n se t u p for motor - ways, t o whic h peopl e hav e t o adhere . Th e numbe r of car s ha s gon e up , th e densit y of traffic o n th e road s ha s increase d an d th e spee d of th e traffic i s higher . Th e rule s ar e regularl y re-examine d an d teste d for roa d safety. Publi c lightin g i s autonomou s an d thos e responsibl e for i t don' t tak e int o accoun t all th e othe r ligh t tha t i s presen t i n th e city, fro m illuminate d building s an d all kind s of incidenta l situation s tha t pro - duc e light . I n differen t Europea n countrie s ther e ar e guideline s for publi c lighting . T o achiev e som e uniformity , a Europea n nor m ha s bee n established : EN 13201 'Stree t Lighting' . Give n th e wid e variet y of traffic situations , fou r classe s of lightin g ar e distinguished :

M

E

lightin g clas s Motorwa y Europ e

CE

lightin g clas s Conflic t (area ) Europ e

s

lightin g clas s Slo w (traffic )

Es

lightin g clas s E Semi-cylindrica l (facia l recognition )

Lightin g classe s CE an d s appl y i n thi s context . Th e CE clas s relate s t o th e lightin g of road s wit h moto r vehicle s an d othe r road-user s suc h a s cyclists, mope d rider s an d pedestrians , especiall y i n compli - cate d traffic situation s suc h a s shoppin g streets , complicate d cross - ings , traffic roundabout s an d area s wher e lot s of traffic jam s occur . Th e standard s ca n b e applie d t o lon g road s wit h mixe d traffic type s an d also for section s of roa d tha t ar e intende d only for pedestrian s an d cycHsts, suc h a s underpasses . Thi s tabl e show s th e CE-series lightin g classes . Th e meanin g of th e term s is a s follows:

^h

averag e horizonta l illuminance ;

^ h

horizonta l illuminanc e uniformity , whic h is th e rati o between th e lowes t an d th e average value .

Th e difference s betwee n th e classe s ar e linke d t o th e traffic condi - tions .

t an d th e average value . Th e difference s betwee n th e
1/2 Atota l concep t fo r bridg e an d illumina - tio n

1/2

Atota l concep t fo r bridg e an d illumina -

tio n by architec t H.P . Berlage . Th e

illuminatio n o f th e Berlagebru g i n

Amsterda m consist s o f luminaire s

suspende d fro m cable s fo r th e traffi c

an d lamppost s wit h lightin g fo r

pedestrian s an d cyclists . Th e origina l

incandescen t lamp s hav e bee n

replace d by compac t fluorescence .

3/ 4

Th e publi c lightin g o f Passei g d e

Colo n i n Barcelon a is elegan t an d

timeless , i n keepin g wit h th e archi -

tectur e an d th e publi c space . I t has

an impressive , stylis h appearanc e

bot h durin g th e daytim e an d i n th e

evening .

5

Champ s Elys^es , Paris : th e ol d light s

creat e th e atmospher e an d th e new,

tal l lamppost s ensur e tha t th e ligh t is

dispersed . Th e ol d light s n o longe r

hav e any logica l relationshi p t o th e

moder n surroundings .

6

I t is obviou s tha t publi c lightin g is

als o expecte d t o suppor t an d clarif y

th e structur e o f th e city, an d tha t mai n

traffi c arterie s shoul d receiv e mor e

ligh t tha n sid e street s an d space s

wher e ther e is littl e traffic . I n Lyons

a distinctio n is als o mad e i n th e

colou r o f ligh t use d i n publi c illu -

mination .

1

Avenu e C^ramiqu e i n Maastrich t is

a roa d throug h a newl y develope d

area o n a forme r industria l estat e i n

th e centr e o f th e city . Ther e are tal l

lamppost s fo r car s an d buses , wit h lowe r lightin g fixed o n th e sam e pos t

fo r cyclist s an d pedestrians . Th e

divisio n is emphasise d by th e us e

o f tw o differen t colour s o f light . Th e

ligh t sourc e i n th e illuminatio n

th e traffi c has a hig h ligh t yiel d an d

limite d colou r rendering . Th e lowe r ligh t sourc e has a lowe r ligh t yiel d

fo r

an

d bette r colou r rendering . Thi s

is

important , becaus e cyclist s an d

pedestrian s nee d t o be abl e t o recog - nis e each othe r easily.

Lighting design L i T E - Ch rist a va n

Santen/i r A.j . Hansen , Amsterda m

2/ 3

A doubl e wal l ligh t o n th e facad e

abov e th e pavemen t o n Passei g d e Graci a i n Barcelona . Th e ol d street - light , whic h has bee n give n a moder n ligh t source , is a reminde r o f th e ol d styl e o f th e street .

4/ 5

Th e narro w Carre r San t Frances c d e

Paula has wal l lamp s wit h a whit e ligh t source , as is ofte n th e case i n Barcelona . Th e war m ligh t fro m th e Palau d e la Music a combine s wit h i t t o creat e a pleasan t atmosphere .

6

Th e metropolita n natur e o f Rue d e la R^publiqu e i n Lyons is expresse d by th e hig h positionin g o f th e wal l

lights , whic h als o illuminat e par t o f

th e facade . Togethe r wit h th e light s

fro m th e displa y windows , thi s create s livelines s an d no t to o muc h contrast .

Th e groun d spotlight s ar e intende d

fo r th e trees . Thi s sor t o f lightin g is

onl y effectiv e whe n ther e ar e leaves

o n th e trees .

intende d fo r th e trees . Thi s sor t o f lightin g
Public Lighting CE lightin g classes Class (decreasin g complexit y o f traffic) CE

Public Lighting

CE lightin g classes

Class (decreasing complexit y o f traffic)

CE 1

CE 2

CE3

CE 4

CE5

Horizonta l illuminanc e

Eh I X

3

0

2 0

15

TO

7-5

Uhi x

0.

0.

0.

0.

0.

4

4

4

4

4

Th e s class applies to th e illuminatio n of footpaths an d cycle paths , har d shoulder s an d othe r section s of th e road , separat e fro m o r alongsid e th e traffic lane ; als o for street s i n residentia l areas , ca r parks , an d so on .

s lightin g classes

Horizonta l illuminanc e

Class Eh I X

S

S

1

2

S3

4

S

S5

s

S

7

6

15

l O

7.5

5

3

2

orientatio n lightin g

^min I X

5

3

1-5

1

0.

0.

-

6

6

^ h mi n I X

0.3

0.3

0.

0.

0.

2

2

2

0.3

-

Th e choic e t o us e a n s clas s depend s o n factor s tha t includ e th e numbe r of cyclists, th e nee d for recognitio n of faces (mainl y i n prob - le m areas) . Th e standar d for eac h of th e man y possibl e situation s need s t o b e consulted . Th e table s indicat e th e limit s withi n whic h th e requirement s lie . It goe s withou t sayin g tha t luminaire s ar e designe d t o direc t an d diffuse ligh t accordin g t o thes e standards .

Publi c lightin g i n pedestria n an d residentia l area s i s generall y o n all nigh t an d durin g th e dar k hour s of th e evening . I n a larg e numbe r of Europea n cities , dependin g o n th e area , hal f of th e publi c lightin g an d th e illuminatio n of mos t of th e building s i s switche d off after midnight , for example , i n orde r t o save energ y (an d sometime s for th e sak e of th e atmospher e a t night) . Th e uniformit y of th e publi c lightin g mus t stil l b e preserved , a s contrast s ar e undesirable , partl y becaus e of th e safety aspect . Th e luminaire s alon g road s i n built-u p area s often hav e a numbe r of ligh t sources , an d i t i s a simpl e matte r t o switc h off on e o r tw o of the m i n th e lat e evenin g whe n there' s a lul l i n th e traffic. Less Hght whe n there' s les s traffic an d mor e hgh t whe n there' s mor e traffic. A mor e dynami c approac h ha s already bee n adopte d i n som e places : whe n bus y traffic approaches , mor e ligh t come s o n automatically , an d whe n th e frequenc y of traffic decreases , i t goe s off again .

Now tha t man y gaseou s discharg e lamp s ca n b e dimmed , thi s i s on e of th e possibilities . Illuminatio n tha t i s varie d i n thi s way save s

43

energ y an d generall y increase s th e life of lamp s an d luminaires . Thi s i s a n approac h tha t demand s th e rapi d identificatio n of Hghting failure , whic h no w happen s via computer-controlle d systems .

Th e developmen t of luminaire s for publi c lightin g i s a steady process ;

it' s no t somethin g tha t is directly subject t o fashion. However, it is clear

tha t desig n i s becomin g ever mor e importan t i n thi s are a a s well . Stree t lightin g i s no w see n a s a n importan t par t of th e furnitur e tha t

adorn s th e publi c space . A well-thought-ou t optical syste m tha t direct s

th e ligh t i n a n effective way i s packe d int o a moder n design . I n addi -

tio n t o this , ther e ar e requirement s for resistanc e t o vandalism , pre - ventio n of dir t an d damp , etc . Th e desig n mus t b e abl e t o 'withstan d

a goo d bashing' . Th e require d dus t an d wate r resistanc e (1P65) mus t

b e satisfactor y for roughl y te n years . Th e illuminatio n of larg e road s i s currentl y i n development , becaus e ne w ligh t source s ar e comin g ont o th e market . The y hav e a practica l purpos e alongsid e th e road , rathe r tha n a n aestheti c one . Luminaire s alongsid e cycle path s ar e still muc h lik e th e illumina - tio n alongsid e larg e roads ; they'r e jus t somewha t mor e modes t i n siz e an d th e post s aren' t a s high . Illuminatio n of road s an d cycle

path s ma y b e combine d o n on e mast , wit h th e luminair e for th e cycle pat h positione d somewha t lower: thi s i s functiona l illumination . It' s a differen t stor y i n pedestria n areas . Ther e ar e variou s expectation s of

th e luminaire s a s far a s ligh t emissio n i s concerned , bu t th e appear -

anc e of th e pos t an d luminaire , a s visibl e i n dayligh t hours , i s als o of importance , whethe r it' s intende d t o b e unobtrusiv e or , conversely ,

t o b e a strikin g additio n t o th e othe r stree t furniture . I n th e evening ,

th e desig n i s scarcel y visibl e an d onl y th e ligh t i t emit s i s see n an d

judged . Th e old lamp s tha t wer e onc e designe d for ga s mantle s an d late r incandescen t lamp s ar e often stil l use d i n pedestria n zone s i n olde r area s of th e city. The y hav e t o b e adapte d t o accommodat e moder n gaseou s discharg e lamps . Thes e ligh t source s provid e a grea t dea l of

ligh t an d ar e often s o brigh t tha t the y becom e a nuisanc e o r ar e eve n dazzling . The y nee d t o b e shielded , for example , by placin g slat s over

th e ligh t source . I t i s als o possibl e t o replac e th e glas s wit h struc -

ture d plastic , whic h diffuses th e ligh t emitte d by th e lam p somewhat ,

o r by opaqu e plasti c (available i n variou s degree s of transparency) .

Opaqu e globe s ar e often used . Ther e i s n o objectio n t o th e for m a s

suc h - it' s jus t a coverin g of th e lam p wit h n o furthe r optica l devices , whic h mean s tha t th e glob e light s itsel f u p mor e tha n th e surround - ings . Th e globe s serv e mor e t o provid e orientatio n tha n a s effective illumination . However , yo u ca n expec t som e ligh t yield whe n ther e

ar e nearb y reflective surface s wit h a ligh t colour , for example , wall s

o r paving .

e ligh t yield whe n ther e ar e nearb y reflective surface s wit
1 Brigh t facade s o f ric h Spanis h archi - tectur e

1

Brigh t facade s o f ric h Spanis h archi -

tectur e o n Avingud a Diagona l i n Barcelona . Th e luminair e emit s ligh t

o n al l sides , lightin g u p th e footpat h

an d givin g a natura l looktothefa9ade . Th e high-positione d stree t lightin g (no t visibl e here ) cast s som e ligh t back, supplementin g th e existin g light .

2

O

n Rue Clotilde , behin d th e Pantheo n

i

n Paris , ther e ar e ol d streetlight s

tha t ligh t u p th e roa d an d th e foot - pat h fo r pedestrians . Light s fo r th e illuminatio n o f th e facade s opposit e hav e bee n incorporate d int o th e streetlights . Thi s is a goo d solution ,

bu t lot s o f streetlight s are neede d

i n orde r t o achiev e a unifor m distri -

butio n o f light .

3/4/ 5

Thi s footpat h i n Pare d e la Villett e i n Paris is marke d ou t by orientatio n lighting . Wher e lightin g is needed ,

a ligh t has bee n adde d t o th e origina l

luminaires , as ca n be see n fro m th e rhyth m o f ligh t an d dar k alon g th e path . Thi s combinatio n o f nev^ light s an d origina l lightin g give s th e impressio n o f a stopga p measure .

I n recen t years , indirec t illumination , wit h a ligh t shinin g upo n

th e surfac e mounte d above it , ha s becom e increasingl y common .

Th e diffusion of th e ligh t i s linke d t o th e way i n whic h thi s surfac e i s ben t o r shape d an d t o th e structur e of th e surface . A ligh t surfac e ha s th e disadvantag e tha t i t ma y becom e dirt y an d i s sometime s annoyingl y brigh t agains t a dar k sky. Solution s for thi s hav e als o bee n found . Thi s typ e of lightin g i s use d wher e ther e i s no t on e par -

ticula r spo t tha t need s t o b e illuminated , suc h a s i n park s ^

areas , alongsid e water , an d sometime s alon g boulevard s i n larg e

cities . I n narro w street s o r wher e ther e ar e lot s of obstacle s i n th e

street , luminaire s ar e hun g u p o n cable s strun g betwee n on e build -

in g or pos t an d th e next . Th e sam e requirement s exist for thes e

luminaire s a s for th e luminaire s tha t ar e mounte d directl y ont o

posts . I n situation s wher e i t i s preferabl e no t t o plac e lamppost s i n

th e street , wall-mounte d luminaire s offer a solution . Ther e ar e old

version s an d als o moder n designs . The y ar e addition s t o th e front- ag e of th e building ; the y mus t b e carefully positione d an d th e elec- tricit y suppl y mus t b e conceale d a s elegantl y a s possible . Several light s o n th e sam e pos t provid e variou s possibilities . The y ca n b e place d aroun d th e pos t an d ligh t u p th e surrounding s

i n different directions . I n som e case s it' s possibl e t o ligh t u p a n object,

a monumen t or a wall (section) fro m th e grou p of light s attache d t o

th e post .

Lights ar e originally functiona l objects an d ar e usuall y no t directly visible. Now tha t the y ar e increasingl y bein g use d i n th e publi c space , designer s ar e als o payin g attentio n t o th e way the y look - withou t impairin g thei r functionality .

gree n

, designer s ar e als o payin g attentio n t o th e way
1 Th e Grot e Circus , a n indoo r publi c spac e

1

Th e Grot e Circus , a n indoo r publi c spac e amongs t th e moder n residen - tia l constructio n o n Avenu e C^ramiqu e

i n Maastricht , contain s greener y tha t

is

intende d t o provid e atmospher e

fo r loca l resident s a t night . Th e instal - latio n o f indirec t lightin g tha t illumin - ates i n every directio n give s a clea r

vie w o f thi s park-lik e site .

Lighting design L i T E - Ch rist a va n

Santen/i r A.J. Hansen , Amsterda m

2

Th e desig n o f five light s i n a row , dis - tribute d ove r on e arm , is problematic .

So

as t o avoi d nuisance , the y mus t

be

directe d downwards . Wit h any

othe r direction , there' s a considerabl e ris k tha t the y wil l distur b passers-b y an d loca l residents . Lighting design Bet h Gali , Barcelon a

3

Lightin g suspende d o n cables betwee n opposit e facades , followin g th e move - men t o f th e street . Ther e is a goo d distributio n o f ligh t an d th e front s o f th e building s are draw n int o th e ligh t i n a natura l way.

4

Th e Wilhelminabru g i n 's-Hertogen - bosc h has tal l pylon s o n bot h sides , whic h mean s tha t th e bridg e function s as a gatewa y t o th e city . Th e pylon s

hav e ligh t a t th e to p an d th e bridg e railing s ar e equippe d wit h a lin e o f fluorescen t tubes . Th e distributio n o f th e ligh t ove r th e pavemen t is good , bu t th e shieldin g coul d hav e bee n

designe d better . Seen fro m a dis -

tance , th e illuminatio n is dazzling .

1/2

Th e somewha t grotesqu e lamppost s

o n th e Schouwburgplei n i n Rotterdam ,

whic h ca n adop t differen t position s

i n th e sam e wa y as hoistin g cranes ,

are a referenc e t o th e larg e scal e o f

th e port . Fluorescen t tube s ar e posi -

tione d her e an d ther e underneat h

th e perforate d meta l floo r tiles , con -

tributin g a degre e o f ligh t t o th e floor .

Thi s is an urba n layou t wit h a lo t

o f desig n an d th e ligh t is limite d t o

a fe w areas . Th e symbolis m o f th e

desig n is mor e importan t tha n th e

publi c lighting .

Design public space Adriaa n Geuze /

Wes t 8, Rotterda m

3

Th e illuminatio n o f th e Millenniu m

Bridg e ove r th e Thame s i n London ,

th e pedestria n lin k betwee n St. Paul' s

Cathedra l an d Tate Modern , is invis -

ibl e i n th e daytime . Th e strip s o n bot h

side s alon g th e aluminiu m bridg e

surfac e follo w th e footpat h an d pro -

vid e enoug h reflectio n fo r user s o f

th e bridg e t o be abl e t o see each other .

Th e lightin g consist s o f transparen t

syntheti c tube s wit h a reflectiv e

materia l o n th e insid e tha t is uni -

forml y illuminate d alon g th e whol e

lengt h by a projecto r wit h a singl e

lamp . Th e projector s are conceale d

i n th e dar k sections .

Bridge design architec t Si r Norma n

Foster, i n collaboratio n wit h Si r

Anthon y Caro .

4

LEDS as a ne w ligh t sourc e fo r pedes -

tria n route s are becomin g increasingl y

popula r wit h variou s lightin g design -

ers , partl y becaus e the y las t fo r s o

lon g {40,00 0 hours ) an d hav e suc h

smal l dimensions .

Us e has bee n mad e o f whit e an d

orang e LEDS, a combinatio n tha t gives

a warme r glow . Th e distributio n o f

th e tw o ligh t point s at a heigh t o f

aroun d 4.5 metre s is indicate d i n

illuminanc e (lux) .

Luminaire Equinox , Philip s

Nederlan d

5

Th e stree t lightin g i n Rue d u Tr^so r

i n Reim s consist s ofwal l lamps . I n

th e backgroun d is th e illuminate d

Notr e Dam e cathedral . Thi s is a

harmoniou s combinatio n o f tw o

diflFerent set s o f illumination . Was i t

coincidenta l o r intentional ? Suc h

harmoniou s sensitivit y is a rarit y i n

th e town .

illumination . Wa s i t coincidenta l o r intentional ? Suc h harmoniou s
Public Lighting 4 9

Public Lighting

4 9

Designin g wit h Light
Designin g
wit h Light

1

Frenc h Church , Cendarmenmarkt , Berlin . Limite d wal l surface s wit h

relativel y hig h luminance s appea r

to o bright . Th e illuminate d section s

behin d th e tympanu m contras t s o

strongl y wit h th e foregroun d tha t i t ca n hardl y be seen . Th e light s hav e probabl y been mounte d a t to o shor t a distanc e an d th e lamp s probabl y have

to

o hig h a wattage . Th e jump s fro m

1 t o 9, t o 2 6 cd/m^ , ar e to o large . Th e

figures

indicat e th e

level o f luminance .

2

I f yo u loo k alon g th e pat h o f th e

light , th e lack o f shado w mean s tha t

n o relie f effec t is created . Wit h a

detaile d facad e tha t is illuminate d

fro m

on e side , th e viewe r has t o loo k

fro m

th e opposit e standpoint .

3

Fagades o n th e wate r ofte n hav e beautifu l reflections . Whe n a facad e is illuminated , th e light s mus t be

place d clos e enoug h t o th e wal l tha t

th e ligh t doe s no t hi t th e wate r first,

makin g reflection s o f th e wate r appea r

o

n th e fagade .

4

A

n exampl e o f light-sourc e spectr a

as provide d by th e manufacturers . Thi s is a graphi c representatio n o f

th e colour s tha t occu r i n a lamp . I t clearl y show s tha t i f a colou r is absent ,

o r practicall y absent , fro m a lamp ,

the n i t wil l no t be possibl e fo r i t t o

distinguis h tha t colour . (Detail s fro m Osram )

5/6

Piazza de l Campidoglio , Rome ,

a combinatio n o f architectur e an d

sculpture . Durin g th e daytime , th e

statu e an d th e buildin g i n th e back - groun d are th e sam e colour . Th e choic e o f ligh t sourc e mean s tha t th e re d bric k an d pal e ston e ca n clearl y be distinguishe d a t night .

choic e o f ligh t sourc e mean s tha t th e re d
Designing with Light Dayligh t canno t b e imitated ; i t simpl y

Designing with Light

Daylight canno t b e imitated ; i t simpl y is . Th e amoun t of dayligh t ca n chang e fro m on e minut e t o th e next . Th e colou r of dayligh t change s fro m cool t o warm ; thi s so-called colou r temperatur e i s expresse d i n Kelvin (K). Solar altitud e canno t b e matched . To mak e surrounding s visibl e at night , artificial ligh t mus t b e employed . Lightin g i s a for m of design ; th e illuminatio n of buildings , monuments , fountain s an d park s demand s professionalism . Lightin g specialist s hav e t o tak e variou s element s int o account :

• th e effect tha t shoul d b e achieved an d wha t need s t o b e mad e visible;

• th e desire d level of ligh t (which allows th e numbe r of lamp s an d luminaire s t o b e determined) ;

• wha t sor t of lam p is mos t suitable ;

• wher e th e light s ca n b e placed .

Wha t peopl e perceiv e i s no t th e ligh t faUing o n a surface , bu t th e ligh t reflected bac k fro m it: th e luminance . To mak e a tall buildin g appea r relatively unifor m whe n see n fro m th e standpoin t of a person , it i s necessar y t o illuminat e th e highes t par t mor e intensivel y tha n th e bottom . So th e aspect s fro m whic h a buildin g i s see n mus t always b e take n int o account . Th e light s mus t no t b e place d at tha t height , becaus e ther e ar e n o shadow s i n situation s wher e peopl e ar e lookin g directly alon g th e pat h of th e light . Only th e combinatio n of ligh t an d dar k section s allows form s t o b e show n t o thei r bes t advantage . Large contrast s i n ligh t o n a n exterior wall, however, resul t i n a n unpleasan t appearance : keepin g withi n a rati o of i:i o i s recommended . A certai n uniformit y i n th e object tha t i s t o b e illuminate d is generally desirable , a s to o grea t contrast s fragmen t th e architecture . Th e furthe r th e light s ar e place d fro m th e wall, th e mor e unifor m th e effect. However , thi s also ha s drawbacks : th e wall become s 'flatter' an d th e furthe r th e ligh t source s ar e place d fro m th e wall th e greate r th e likelihoo d tha t th e surrounding s will b e disturbed . Flat walls of building s withou t projectin g or recesse d part s ca n b e li t i n a n interestin g way. No shadow s ca n b e created . Th e only for m o f plasticit y an d variatio n i s t o b e achieve d throug h a differenc e i n brightness , for example , by a n asymmetrica l arrangemen t of flood- lights , o r sometime s by a smal l difference i n th e colou r of th e light . At night , you look at building s throug h eyes tha t ar e adapte d t o th e dark , so th e differences i n brightnes s do no t hav e t o b e larg e t o b e perceived, a s lon g a s th e contras t wit h th e surrounding s i s sufficient . A detaile d facade wit h man y recesse d an d projectin g section s sometime s result s i n stron g shadows . To avoid this , th e shadov ^ area s ca n b e softene d wit h additiona l direc t ligh t fro m anothe r angle .

Th e amoun t of ligh t an d its distributio n over th e object, determine d by th e positio n of th e light s an d th e choic e of ligh t source , is th e mos t

53

importan t factor i n achievin g th e desire d result . As fa r a s th e posi - tionin g i s concerned , a combinatio n ca n b e mad e of th e following options :

• o n th e buildin g

• o n th e groun d i n fron t of th e facade

• o n mast s o r pole s

• o n building s i n th e are a (whe n thi s i s unavoidable )

Reflective fagades produc e specific problems . Peopl e wan t t o experi -

enc e th e reflection, bu t a t th e sam e tim e no t b e blinde d by it . If light s

ar e positione d above eye level, ther e is a risk tha t people will b e dazzled. Lightin g from below produce s reflection s fro m th e viewin g angle . Lights ar e often reflected i n th e shin y surface whe n the y hav e no t bee n arrange d properly . Lighting from above is preferabl e i n thi s situation . For facades tha t ris e u p ou t of wate r o r stan d clos e t o th e water ,

th e light s mus t b e place d a s clos e a s possibl e t o th e facade t o avoid

the m bein g reflecte d i n th e wate r an d creatin g ripplin g circle s o f ligh t o n th e facade, s o disturbin g th e excitin g reflectio n of th e archi - tectur e i n th e water .

Recommendation s for th e illuminatio n of building s ar e usuall y give n i n luminanc e values , whic h ar e relate d t o th e reflecte d light . Th e require d illuminanc e i s connecte d t o th e brightness , ligh t or dark,

of th e surfac e (the reflectance) an d t o th e ligh t levels i n th e surround -

in g area . I n dar k surrounding s a lowe r illuminanc e i s necessar y tha n

i n ligh t surroundings . A freestandin g buildin g tha t stand s ou t agains t

a dar k sky need s muc h les s ligh t tha n a fagade i n a brightl y lit street . Th e relationshi p betwee n luminance , reflectance an d illuminanc e i s expresse d i n th e followin g formula :

L=EX P

o r

E = JIX L

L

luminanc e (candela/m^ )

E

illuminanc e (lux )

P

reflectanc e

Assumin g a particula r valu e for th e luminanc e an d wher e th e reflect- anc e of th e surfac e t o b e illuminate d i s known , the n thi s formul a ca n b e use d t o wor k ou t wha t th e illuminanc e shoul d be . Recommende d luminances :

Situatio n freestandin g buildin g o r statu e

L (cd/m^ ) 3.2-6. 5

buildin g i n

a stree t o r o n a squar e

i n dar k surrounding s

6.5-1 0

i n well-li t surrounding s

10-1 3

g i n a stree t o r o n a squar e i n dar
Designin g wit h Ligh t 1/2/3/ 4 IN G House , Amsterdam . Th

Designin g wit h Ligh t

1/2/3/ 4 IN G House , Amsterdam . Th e archi -

tectur e catche s th e eye becaus e o f it s shap e an d th e combinatio n o f volum e an d glass . A characteristi c featur e o f

th e desig n is tha t durin g th e daytim e

i t is possibl e t o see insid e th e build - ing . Thi s qualit y shoul d als o be retaine d a t night . Th e close d bul k o f th e buildin g is illuminate d an d th e transparen t par t is mad e visibl e with - ou t losin g th e shap e o f th e whole . Th e illuminatio n a t nigh t provide s a n intriguin g vie w int o th e interior , wit h it s indoo r garden s an d stairwells . Lighting design Lit e - Christ a va n Santen , Amsterda m Architects Meye r e n Van Schooten , Amsterda m

55

A dar k wall absorb s mor e ligh t tha n a wall wit h a ligh t colour , wit h

a numbe r of variant s i n between . So, ther e i s n o poin t i n lightin g

a dar k wall . Th e reflectanc e of mos t buildin g material s i s known . I n orde r t o achiev e som e sor t of effect, thi s mus t b e equa l t o o r greate r tha n O.2.

materia l

conditio n

reflectance

yello w bric k

ne

w

0.3-0. 4

re d bric k

ne

w

0.15-0.2 5

bric k

dirt y

0.05-0. 1

whit e marbl e

clea

n

0.6-0.6 5

granit e

clea

n

0.1-0.1 5

concret e

ligh t

0.4-0. 5

concret e

dar

k

0.2-0. 3

concret e

dirt

y

0.05-0. 1

plasterwor k (pal e yellow )

ne w

0.35-0.5 5

Thi s informatio n make s it possibl e t o wor k ou t wha t illuminanc e i s necessar y i n orde r t o produc e th e desire d luminance . Her e ar e som e example s fro m th e luminanc e table , base d o n th e lowes t values :

Illuminanc e E (lux) for a buildin g i n a stree t o r o n a square :

 

dar k surroun d ngs

ligh t surrounding s

whit e marbl e

35

55

ligh t concret e

5

0

8

0

yello w bric k (new )

7

0

105

dar k concret e

10

0

16

0

granit e (clean )

20

0

310

Th e numbe r an d typ e of luminaire s i s determine d by thes e figures

an d th e selecte d lamp . To wor k thi s out , yo u nee d th e documentatio n

wit h th e technica l specifications of th e luminaires . I n additio n t o this , you have t o kno w at wha t angl e an d fro m wha t distanc e th e surfac e i s bein g lit. Every lightin g manufacture r supplie s software for thes e cal- culations , whic h designer s ca n use . Whateve r th e circumstances , whe n positionin g th e luminaires , car e mus t b e take n t o ensur e tha t

th e desire d effect i s achieve d an d tha t n o glar e i s produced . Th e ai m

i s t o kee p th e light s ou t of th e field of vision ; the y mus t preferably b e arrange d s o a s t o b e visibl e a s littl e a s possible . Th e choic e of th e typ e of lamp s depend s o n th e colou r an d struc - tur e of th e object tha t i s illuminated . Th e variet y of th e sam e typ e of lam p ha s increasingl y expande d i n recen t years . Th e two factors deter- minin g th e choic e ar e th e colou r of th e light , whic h mus t fit i n wit h

th e ligh t of th e surroundings , an d th e colou r rendering , whic h mus t

produc e th e bes t possibl e appearanc e for th e illuminate d surface s

an d details . Good colou r renderin g i n th e ligh t i s primaril y of import - anc e whe n colour s i n th e facade nee d t o stan d out . Th e following lamp s ar e available for illumination :

• high-pressur e sodiu m lamp s

• meta l halid e lamp s

• fluorescent an d compac t fluorescent lamp s

: • high-pressur e sodiu m lamp s • meta l halid e lamp s •
Designin g wit h Ligh t 1/2 Sectio n o f th e Banqu e

Designin g wit h Ligh t

1/2

Sectio n o f th e Banqu e d e Lyon , Lyons , whic h change s wit h illumina - tion . Th e buildin g originall y has a horizonta l alignment . Th e illumina - tio n o f th e pier s add s a vertica l component , givin g th e architectur e a differen t look . Th e positio n o f th e compan y nam e i n blu e is hig h enoug h no t t o b e disturbing .

3/4/ 5 Avingud a d e la Reina Mari a Cristina , Barcelona . A recurrin g programm e o f water , ligh t an d soun d form s an evenin g spectacl e tha t attract s man y visitors . Th e computer-controlle d coloure d light s creat e a varie d an d fascinatin g event .

57

• haloge n lamp s

• high-pressur e mercur y lamp s ar e still o n th e market , bu t ar e no t use d muc h no w becaus e of environmenta l concern s

High-pressur e sodiu m lamps , wit h a colou r of ligh t rangin g throug h man y variant s fro m golde n yellow t o whitish , ar e often use d i n th e illuminatio n of monument s mad e of brick , ston e or stucco . Th e amoun t of ligh t produce d i s greate r tha n tha t of othe r ligh t sources . Meta l halid e lamp s - every mak e ha s it s ow n codin g - ar e abl e t o rende r red , yellow, gree n an d blue . They ar e often use d i n mor e mod - er n settings . Wit h age , discoloratio n of th e ligh t ca n occur , a technica l proble m tha t still ha s no t bee n completel y solved. Thi s i s particu - larl y noticeabl e whe n th e lamp s ar e i n view. Like high-pressur e sodiu m lamps , the y hav e a lon g averag e life of 8,000-10,00 0 hour s an d a hig h degre e of luminou s efficiency. Bot h ligh t source s ca n b e use d for luminaire s wit h wid e an d narro w beams . Th e larg e variety of fluorescent an d compac t fluorescent lamp s make s i t possibl e t o selec t a particula r ligh t colou r an d colou r ren - dering . Fluorescen t lamp s ar e often see n i n stree t lightin g as well as i n th e illuminatio n of buildings , close to th e facade or inside . Thei r shap e mean s tha t thes e lamp s canno t b e use d i n floodlights, bu t compac t fluorescent lamp s can , because , a s th e nam e suggests , the y hav e a mor e compac t form . The y als o hav e a n averag e life of 8,00 0 hours . Haloge n lamp s ar e mentione d las t because , compare d wit h th e othe r ligh t sources , the y ar e th e leas t energ y efficient, a s the y hav e a shorte r life; dependin g o n th e make , the y las t for a n averag e of 2,000-5,00 0 hours . However , ne w development s mea n tha t manu - facturer s ca n no w suppl y haloge n lamp s wit h a life of 10,00 0 hours . Th e colou r renderin g of haloge n lamp s i s very goo d for all colour s an d th e colou r of th e ligh t remain s constant , eve n whe n the y becom e older . Wit h th e righ t choic e of luminaire s the y ca n b e use d effectively for th e accentuatio n of feature s of facades an d sculptures . Thes e qual- itie s mea n tha t haloge n lamp s ar e often employe d i n museums . Wit h th e exception of th e haloge n lamp , whic h render s all colour s well, i t i s necessar y t o kno w th e spectru m (th e spectra l composition ) i n orde r t o mak e th e correc t choice , i.e . whic h ligh t sourc e make s th e colou r an d textur e of th e objec t loo k th e best . Supplier s kno w th e colou r spectru m of every lamp .

s th e colou r an d textur e of th e objec t loo k
1/2 Foru m Romanum , Rome . A n exhibi - tio n o f

1/2

Foru m Romanum , Rome . A n exhibi -

tio n o f individua l remain s fro m dif - feren t period s o f architectura l history . Durin g th e day the y appea r t o for m

a coheren t whole . Th e imbalance d

illuminatio n mean s tha t thi s coher - enc e is los t a t night , wit h th e object s themselve s appearin g 'deformed' .

3/ 4

Sectio n o f th e Colosseum , Rome . For m an d plasticit y are clearl y

emphasise d throug h th e us e o f light . Th e close d recesse d uppe r par t has

a whit e shad e o f light . Th e ope n

arcade s an d th e backgroun d hav e

a warme r ligh t colour . Th e thir d

dimensio n is clearl y mad e visibl e by thi s illumination , lookin g as i t doe s

naturall y durin g dayligh t hours .

5/6/7/8

Th e illuminate d Oper a Gamier , Paris ,

ma y be see n fro m afar, primaril y becaus e o f th e excess o f light . Thi s mean s tha t th e colou r difference s i n

th e fagad e ar e los t t o a certai n extent .

Th e gol d ca n scarcel y be discerned . Floodlight s creat e a n imbalanc e i n

th e illumination , particularl y i n th e

uppe r part . Th e sculptur e o n th e roo f receive s mor e ligh t o n th e lef t tha n

o n th e right , whic h is th e faul t o f th e

floodlights . A positiv e poin t is th e fac t tha t the y ar e place d so hig h tha t the y don' t distur b peopl e a t stree t level . Th e figures indicat e th e leve l o f luminance .

Page 60/6 1

Pont e Vittori o Emanuel e II , Rome . Cit y bridge s ar e architectoni c ele - ment s tha t ar e ofte n illuminated .

A bridg e is a three-dimensiona l ele -

men t tha t is determine d by th e pass -

in g traffic , goin g ove r i t an d unde r it .

Th e emphasi s her e lie s o n th e traffi c

ove r th e bridge , furthe r accentuate d

by th e statues , whic h are onl y illumin - ate d o n th e roa d side . Goin g ove r th e bridge , yo u n o longe r see th e water .

Th e traffi c upo n th e wate r goes it s

ow n way.

6 o
Designin g wit h Ligh t 6 1

Designin g wit h Ligh t

61

Illuminatio n of a buildin g i n mos t case s implies : lightin g fro m with - ou t an d within . Illuminatio n take s plac e fro m outside . Lightin g from withi n usuall y mean s tha t som e of th e existin g Hghtin g i s left on . Sometime s emergenc y lightin g alread y shine s ou t sufficient ligh t or specia l arrangement s ar e made . It i s obviou s tha t ligh t fro m outsid e an d insid e th e buildin g need s t o b e brough t int o harmony . Light shinin g ou t of a buildin g i s a n extra , th e finishing touc h of goo d illumination . Th e ai m i s t o creat e a sens e of openness ; architectur e i s all abou t space, ligh t from insid e ca n also help . A lack of opennes s come s about , for example , whe n variou s colour s of ligh t ar e use d withou t an y though t t o thei r combination . A disjointe d architectura l imag e ca n als o b e create d whe n incidenta l feature s ar e illuminate d detai l by detail . For example , whe n pier s ar e lit u p for n o reason , th e illumina - tio n break s u p th e architecture . However , whe n a pie r contain s a specia l sculpture , i t i s appropriat e tha t it b e illuminate d so tha t i t receive s attention . Fountain s ar e pleasan t addition s t o th e cityscape . An illuminate d building , howeve r beautifull y i t ma y b e li t fro m withi n an d without , i s a stati c image . Stretche s of wate r an d fountain s creat e livelines s an d mak e th e surrounding s loo k particularl y cheerful . Illuminate d fountain s look bes t agains t a backdro p tha t i s a s dar k a s possible , particularl y whe n coloure d ligh t i s used . Large square s o r wid e boule - vard s ar e suitabl e surroundings . Jet s of wate r an d vapou r act a s

diffusers , absorbin g an d dispersin g th e ligh t tha t i s directe d at them . It i s bes t t o positio n luminaire s unde r th e wate r surface ; jus t a singl e ligh t sourc e unde r a je t of wate r produce s a n attractiv e effect. For wide r screen s of water, mor e lamp s ar e needed . External ligh t weaken s th e effect of th e alread y 'weaker ' fountai n illumination . Th e illuminatio n of tow n park s demand s specia l attention . I n park s tha t ar e stil l ope n after sunset , th e visito r need s t o kno w wha t happen s where . Ther e mus t b e a goo d view of th e pathways , an d tha t also applie s t o an y cycle paths . Th e feelin g of safety i s als o a fac- tor . Th e transitio n fro m th e well-lit stree t t o th e par k mus t no t b e abrup t as far a s ligh t i s concerned , bu t naturall y tune d t o th e adapta -

tio n of th e huma n eye.

I n orde r t o creat e a peacefu l atmosphere , tree s an d bushe s ar e often illuminated . I n a par k o r a grass y are a wit h tree s an d bushes , th e choic e of th e righ t lam p i s precis e work . Deciduou s tree s nee d a differen t ligh t sourc e fro m conifers , for example . Quit e a lo t of ligh t i s los t i n th e illuminatio n of tree s an d woode d areas . I t i s also tru e her e tha t no t everythin g ha s t o b e illuminated . O n th e contrary , tree s wit h interestin g shape s ca n jus t a s wel l b e left i n th e dar k an d b e use d as a silhouette , creatin g a feeling of dept h an d makin g th e whol e scen e mor e lively.

e dar k an d b e use d as a silhouette , creatin g a
1 Th e Loui s Philipp e bridg e ove r th e Sein e

1

Th e Loui s Philipp e bridg e ove r th e

Sein e i n Paris . Th e direction s o f th e traffi c o n an d unde r th e bridg e ar e

mad e clea r by th e us e o f light . Thi s

three-dimensiona l presenc e has a harmoniou s appearance , wit h suc - cessfu l illuminatio n o f th e whol e bridg e an d o f th e vie w throug h th e bridge .

2/ 3

Th e Pon t Neuf , Paris , consist s o f tw o sections , connectin g bot h riverbank s

vi a th e li e d e la C\t6. Th e Pon t Neu f

has a recognisabl e shape , whic h ca n be see n wel l bot h fro m a distanc e

an d fro m clos e up . A specia l featur e

o f th e Paris bridge s is tha t traffi c als o passe s unde r the m alon g th e bank s

o f th e Seine .

4/ 5

Th e Blauwbru g ove r th e Amste l i n Amsterda m wit h it s sculptur e wor k an d doubl e streetlamps , whic h ar e

par t o f th e tota l design . Th e sculptur e wor k is illuminated ; th e passagewa y

o n th e wate r is missin g fro m th e illumination .

1/2

Mager e Brug , Amsterdam . A typica l

featur e o f th e illuminatio n o f Amster -

da m bridge s is th e emphasi s o f th e

contou r wit h a strin g o f smal l lamps . Thi s is no t three-dimensiona l illumina -

tion . Th e structur e o f thi s lif t bridg e

is mad e clea r by th e outlining . Th e

passagewa y underneat h doe s no t appea r t o hav e any volume , bu t fit s

int o th e structur e lik e a drawin g o n

a plan e surface .

Herengracht , Amsterdam . Unifor m illuminatio n alon g a canalsid e wal l mad e u p o f differen t hous e fronts . I t is unavoidabl e tha t contrast s ar e create d by thi s unifor m lightin g an d

th e difference s betwee n th e architec -

tur e o f th e variou s houses . I f th e

ligh t shine s ou t fro m insid e th e building , a natura l appearanc e is cre -

ated ; however , whe n th e illuminatio n

fro m outsid e light s u p th e interior ,

thi s create s a 'ghostly ' effect . A

degre e o f nuanc e fo r eac h hous e fron t woul d be appropriat e here .

Hohenzoller n Brijcke , Cologne . Railway lin e wit h a pedestria n bridg e

ove r th e Rhine . A grea t dea l o f us e is mad e o f thi s connectin g rout e betwee n th e tw o part s o f th e city . Th e strong , robus t for m o f th e large-scal e

constructio n is mor e tha n a matc h forth e uneve n illumination , s o i t doe s n o harm .

Lighting design Philip s Lighting ,

Harr y Holland s (th e Netherlands ) an d Rene va n Ratinge n (Germany )

Th e fagad e o f th e Konzerthaus , Gen - darmenmark t i n Berlin , present s a varie d imag e o f lightin g fro m withou t an d within , fro m i n fron t t o behind ,

fro m insid e t o outside . Th e sculptur e

i n th e foregroun d is li t s o strongl y i n compariso n t o it s plint h tha t i t appear s t o be floating . Th e wal l behin d th e foremos t tympanu m is illuminate d to o strongly , whic h

disturb s th e balance , becaus e th e eye is automaticall y draw n t o th e brightes t poin t i n th e field o f vision . Th e figures indicat e th e leve l o f luminance .

Th e carefu l illuminatio n o f th e BrandenburgerTor , Berlin , wit h som e luminanc e values . Ther e is a differ - enc e betwee n th e to p an d th e botto m o f th e columns , cause d by th e floor spotlights , whic h is acceptabl e her e becaus e o f th e larg e distance . I n th e sid e section s (t o th e lef t an d right) , th e luminaire s i n th e ceilin g ar e so clos e t o th e wal l tha t a contras t ha s bee n create d betwee n th e uppe r an d lowe r part s o f th e wall . Lighting design Kardorf f Ingenieure , Berli n

n create d betwee n th e uppe r an d lowe r part s o
Designing with Light 6 5

Designing with Light

65

66
1 Casa Mil ^ by A . Gaudi , Barcelona . Th e scen e

1

Casa Mil ^ by

A . Gaudi , Barcelona .

Th e scen e i n th e evenin g is ver y simila r t o it s daytim e appearance .

A t night , th e facad e is li t v^it h a flood -

ligh t an d th e balconie s catc h ligh t fro m below , whic h ca n be see n i n

th e differenc e i n luminances . Th e

recesse d uppe r par t is li t to o brightl y

i n som e part s an d no t brightl y

enoug h i n others . Th e figures indic -

at

e th e leve l o f luminance .

2

Dom e de s Invalides , Paris . A unifor m appearanc e has bee n create d i n th e centra l sectio n becaus e mor e ligh t

fall s o n th e to p o f th e buildin g tha n

o n th e bottom . Ther e is som e differ -

enc e a t th e sides , bu t tha t doe s no t distur b th e imag e o f uniformity . Th e

figures indicat e th e leve l o f lumin - ance .

3

Passei g d e Gracia , Barcelona . A n 'unhappily ' illuminate d corne r prop - erty . Th e shor t distanc e betwee n th e lamp s an d th e fagad e mean s tha t

ther e is s o muc h contras t i n th e illu - minatio n o f th e column s tha t distor - tio n has occurred . Th e sam e applie s t o th e tw o dormers , whic h are 'float - ing ' abov e th e eaves . Ther e is n o coherenc e withi n th e buildin g itsel f

o

r wit h th e surroundings .

4

Palai s d e la Bourse , Lyons . Differ -

enc e i n volume s an d constructio n materials . Th e pal e ston e facad e has

a warme r appearanc e tha n th e dar k

slat e roo f Th e us e o f differen t ligh t

source s has create d clea r differentia - tion . Unfortunately , contrast s hav e com e abou t becaus e o f th e excessiv e amoun t o f light . Th e differenc e i n

colou r is i n itsel f a n interestin g ide a whe n i t work s as a whole . However ,

th e contrast s her e mea n tha t i t fall s

shor t o f it s goal .

The uminatio n o f Building s
The uminatio n
o f Building s

Even befor e th e inventio n of artificial light , building s v^ere lit u p a t night , a s i s illustrate d by historica l pictures . Thi s usuall y happene d durin g festive events , wit h th e ligh t comin g fro m candles , oil pots , torche s o r ga s flames. Th e adven t of th e ligh t bul b offered wonderfu l opportunitie s for enhancin g specia l occasion s throug h th e illumina - tio n of buildings . Initially , ligh t bulb s wer e use d only t o emphasis e th e outline s of th e buildings , an d th e architectur e itsel f an d it s sur - rounding s wer e no t lit up . Fro m th e 1920s , building s wer e mainl y illuminate d for advertisin g purposes , a metho d tha t i s still use d - an d abuse d - t o mak e peopl e awar e of th e presenc e of information . Even i n thos e days , som e peopl e pointe d ou t tha t i t wa s importan t t o instal l illuminatio n wit h sympath y for th e aesthetic s of th e architecture , whethe r th e ai m wa s t o advertis e or t o dra w attentio n t o th e splend - ou r of th e building . Sinc e then , ther e hav e always bee n architect s who , whe n choosin g th e materia l for th e facade of a building , hav e kep t i n min d th e way tha t thei r buildin g i s goin g t o look after dark . We hav e becom e accustome d t o illuminate d buildings . Th e phe - nomeno n ma y b e see n i n man y importan t city centres . Th e illu- minatio n an d spotlightin g o f monuments , object s an d othe r place s of interes t i s a fixed par t of th e urba n scene ; i t liven s thing s up . Illu- minatio n als o help s peopl e t o find thei r bearings . Designer s of illumination s kno w tha t th e architectur e of every buildin g i s differen t an d s o canno t b e treate d i n th e sam e way. Build- ing s ar e no t theatrica l scenery . Every buildin g tell s it s ow n stor y an d th e purpos e of architectur e ca n b e expresse d throug h goo d an d well- considere d illuminatio n tha t doe s justic e t o th e constructio n mater - ials . If it' s don e well, th e whol e buildin g ca n b e brough t int o harmon y wit h th e immediat e environment . Fo r thi s t o happen , th e illumina - tio n mus t b e evenly distributed , withou t becomin g boring . Althoug h som e contras t i s desirabl e - it' s surprising , stimulating , i t grab s th e attentio n - th e illuminatio n of th e adjoinin g area s an d object s mus t no t b e overdone , bu t applie d wit h skill an d understanding . Balanc e an d harmon y ar e connecte d wit h th e volum e o f ligh t an d colou r tha t i s aime d a t a buildin g o r a n object; wit h th e direction , colou r an d th e colou r renderin g of th e ligh t source ; an d wit h th e reflectio n an d th e colou r of th e illuminate d surface , suc h a s wood, brick , glass , syntheti c sheets , an d so on . All thi s affects wha t w e perceive . It i s generall y undesirabl e t o us e floodlights an d plac e a buildin g completely i n direct light . Thi s draws all of th e viewer's attentio n t o on e object an d th e stron g contras t mean s tha t th e prospec t of th e imme - diat e surrounding s i s lost . Also, placin g th e floodlights a lon g way away inevitably flattens th e whol e image . Any three-dimensionalit y i s los t becaus e of th e lack of shadows . Th e coherenc e tha t i s experience d i n dayligh t mus t als o b e presen t i n th e evening . Whe n illuminatin g a building , i t i s sometime s enoug h t o high -

t mus t als o b e presen t i n th e evening . Whe
Illuminate d hous e an d tower . Munt - toren , Amsterda m (1938)

Illuminate d hous e an d tower . Munt - toren , Amsterda m (1938)

Illuminate d tow n hall , Rotterda m

(1913)

DeVolhardinginTh e Hagu e (1928) , by Jan Buys (Buy s an d LiJrsen) is a n

earl y desig n tha t coul d be referre d t o as 'nigh t architecture' . Th e buildin g wa s designe d as a n advertisemen t

fo r De Volharding , a cooperativ e

society . Th e us e o f glas s block s an d opa l glas s wal l section s (no w replace d by syntheti c section s wit h

th e sam e effect ) mad e i t possibl e t o

ligh t u p advert s o n th e fron t th e

buildin g fro m behind . Th e ligh t shin -

in g ou t fro m insid e th e buildin g wa s

a strikin g advertisemen t fo r th e

clien t an d fo r th e architectur e itsel f Thi s building , designe d i n th e styl e

o f NieuweZakelijkhei d (Ne w Object -

ivity) , is als o wort h visitin g durin g

th e daytime . De Volhardin g has bee n

restore d afte r a perio d o f neglect .

4/5/6

Friedrichstadt-Passagen , Berlin -

Mitte . Thi s ne w cit y bloc k consist s o f

on e buildin g wit h shop s o n th e

groun d floor an d office s above . Th e architect s an d lightin g designer s

cam e u p wit h concept s fo r th e day an d fo r th e evenin g tha t woul d eac h creat e a distinc t image . Th e entrance s occup y tw o floors, whic h stan d ou t durin g th e day becaus e o f

th

e differenc e i n scale , whils t durin g

th

e evenin g the y functio n as illumin -

ate d accent s makin g u p par t o f th e

horizonta l an d vertica l interpla y o f line s i n th e tota l architectura l con - cept . Behin d th e opa l plate s ar e fluorescent tube s tha t ca n be adjuste d t o giv e differen t amount s o f light . I t is a decorativ e approac h t o

th e fagad e tha t doe s no t say anythin g

abou t th e architectur e itsel f Architects Ted Mushow , Pei Cob b Freed an d Partner s Lighting design Paul Maranz , Chicag o an d Anto n Hansen , Guus t d e Jong , Wolfgan g Kunkel , Philip s Lighting , German y

ligh t a singl e element . Historica l building s often hav e a cornic e or a sculpte d tympanu m as th e finishing featur e of th e facade, somethin g

tha t yo u don' t normall y registe r durin g th e daytime , bu t whic h light- in g ca n dra w attentio n t o whe n it' s dark . Thi s illuminatio n shoul d no t

b e distracting , an d suc h a detai l mus t fit i n wit h th e surrounding s i n

a natura l way. Whateve r for m of illuminatio n is used , th e characte r of

th e architectur e need s t o remai n intact . Deliberat e effects suc h a s th e projection of stripes , circles an d th e like ont o th e facade ar e taboo .

Discretio n is neede d whe n selectin g whic h building s t o illumin -

ate . Illuminatio n ca n hav e a commercia l significance , bu t i t ca n als o

b e of social importanc e o r interestin g fro m a historica l poin t of view.

It i s no t necessar y t o includ e every buildin g i n th e illumination , jus t

a s it i s no t necessar y t o ligh t u p every selecte d object i n it s entirety . Th e city become s attractiv e whe n ligh t shine s (in a natura l way) from withi n house s an d buildings . Light shinin g ou t from th e inside , i n combinatio n wit h a n illuminate d exterior , i s sometime s enoug h t o reveal a grea t dea l abou t th e architecture , certainl y i n a three-dimen - siona l sense . Architectur e i s all abou t space . If i t i s visible , th e spac e behin d th e fagade form s th e thir d dimensio n for th e exterio r desig n features . Interio r ligh t become s exterio r light .

Som e architect s le t thei r building s functio n a s 'bearer s of light' . For example , the y choos e t o us e glas s block s i n combinatio n wit h lamp s an d ligh t fittings i n corridors , stairway s an d halls . If som e of tha t lightin g remain s o n after office hours , i t ca n give a good impres - sio n of th e architecture . Sometime s thi s is even possibl e wit h jus t th e emergenc y lighting . A n unusua l windo w ca n b e see n fro m outsid e as a surprisin g featur e whe n i t i s illuminate d by artificial ligh t fro m th e roo m behind .

I n shoppin g centres , illuminate d display window s ca n b e a n asset , if the y don' t radiat e to o muc h light . Th e roll-dow n shutter s tha t ar e use d t o preven t vandalis m hav e increase d th e sens e of insecurit y becaus e the y don' t allow an y ligh t through . It woul d represen t a n improvemen t i n publi c space s if thes e shutter s wer e somewha t transparen t an d th e ligh t behin d - howeve r spars e it ma y b e - coul d mak e th e displa y window s visibl e again .

I n n o way shoul d th e illuminatio n hav e a disturbin g effect o n th e

surrounding s o r strik e an y false notes . A relationshi p wit h publi c stree t lightin g mus t b e strive d for, s o tha t a balance d compositio n of th e tota l ligh t ca n b e achieved . Thi s i s no t simple , becaus e muc h of th e night-tim e appearanc e of a n are a i s determine d by rando m cir- cumstance s tha t canno t b e controlle d or organised . Whe n publi c lightin g an d illuminate d building s an d object s ar e brough t int o lin e wit h eac h other , a relationshi p betwee n streets , road s an d square s

s an d object s ar e brough t int o lin e wit h eac
Th e Illuminatio n o f Building s 1 Opera , Budapest . Unit y

Th e Illuminatio n o f Building s

1

Opera , Budapest . Unit y betwee n th e illuminatio n an d th e lamp s o n an d i n

fron t o f th e building . Th e illuminatio n an d spotlight s permi t a fin e vie w o f

th e architecture , th e porches , th e

loggia s an d th e staggere d structur e

o f th e buildin g an d th e roo f

Th e Agnell i Ar t Galler y i n Turin , by

Renz o Piano , is a fre e standin g build -

in g wit h strikin g architecture . Th e

lightin g come s fro m withi n an d fro m

th e surfac e o f th e buildin g itsel f Th e

roo f constructio n is illuminate d by floodlight s tha t are distribute d

a t interval s ove r th e close d vertica l

surfaces . Th e undersid e o f th e roo f

structur e is illuminate d fro m

o f th e groun d floor . Wit h th e ligh t

comin g fro m th e rooms , i t al l form s on e composition . Lighting design Pier o Castiglion i

th e to p

TheSintjanskathedraa l i n 's-Hertogen - bosc h an d it s interio r an d exterio r lighting . A t stree t level , th e ligh t

insid e th e buildin g show s th e window s

i n al l thei r glory . Th e illuminatio n i n

th e 'peppe r pots ' o f th e towe r is th e

crownin g featur e o f a large-scal e buildin g tha t is situate d i n a cit y centr e an d so canno t be seen i n it s entiret y fro m clos e up . Lighting design LIT E - Christ a va n Santen/i r A.J. Hansen , Amsterda m

Th e hig h standpoin t make s i t possibl e

t o sho w th e plasticit y an d coherenc e

o f th e illuminatio n o f th e Koopmans -

beurs , Amsterda m (H.P . Berlage , 1903) . Th e lon g facad e o n th e Dam -

rak is no t illuminated , becaus e i t receive s sufficien t ligh t fro m it s sur - roundings . Th e entrance s hav e thei r ow n luminaire s an d are marke d by a wal l lamp . Attentio n has bee n pai d

t o th e thir d dimensio n i n orde r t o

emphasis e th e plasticit y o f th e solid - lookin g building . Ther e is ligh t i n th e louvre d openings , th e loggi a an d th e atrium . Th e shor t side s o f th e build - in g are gentl y illuminated . Durin g exhibitions , ligh t come s ou t o f th e larg e hal l o f th e building . Lighting design LIT E - Christ a va n Santen/i r A.J. Hansen , Amsterda m

Th e exterio r wall s o f th e II Fior e offic e comple x i n Maastrich t ar e almos t invisibl e a t night . Th e lightin g trans - form s th e interior , wit h it s differentl y furnishe d showrooms , int o th e exter - ior . Th e companie s ultimatel y wan t

t o have a presenc e tha t is als o visibl e fro m outside .

Architect Herma n Hertzberger , Amsterda m

73

ca n develo p an d hav e a positiv e effect o n th e continuit y withi n th e tov^n. Ther e ar e example s wher e th e two kind s of lightin g for m a harmoni c whole . Th e optima l effect i s achieve d whe n a tota l desig n for a n area , a so-called maste r plan , i s draw n up , i n whic h publi c lightin g an d illu- minatio n ca n b e tune d t o eac h othe r i n a creativ e manner . I n suc h instances , th e 'uppe r limit ' of th e ligh t levels mus t b e controlle d mor e strictl y tha n ha s previousl y bee n th e case . On e illuminatio n shoul d no t b e allowed t o overwhel m another . It is possibl e t o imagin e situa - tion s wher e ther e i s mor e stree t lightin g whe n th e buildin g illu- mination s ar e no t switche d on , an d vice versa . It shoul d b e remarke d her e tha t illuminatio n canno t replac e publi c lighting . Th e relation - shi p betwee n th e tw o mus t b e assesse d o n a n individua l basis .

I t i s of cours e a challeng e t o instal l an d distribut e th e differen t type s of ligh t s o tha t th e city als o ha s a stor y t o tel l at night , abou t it s structure , abou t it s construction , abou t it s mos t importan t places . Artificial ligh t mus t b e manipulated . Expertis e i n th e field of light - in g i s vital i f yo u wan t t o pu t togethe r a n aestheticall y responsibl e illuminatio n programme . Supplier s of ligh t fitting s ar e often see n a s lightin g specialists . Thi s i s usuall y incorrect . It i s th e lightin g design - e r wh o ha s a visio n of th e connectio n betwee n th e illuminatio n an d th e continuit y of th e exterio r desig n features . Usin g a few genera l principle s a s a sor t of manua l i s no t sufficient ; every situatio n i s uniqu e an d make s i t ow n demands . Ther e ar e always severa l pos - sibl e solutions . Th e resul t i s a choice .

We only nee d a littl e ligh t t o se e eac h other , at leas t whe n all th e ligh t source s ar e i n harmony . It i s often possibl e t o do mor e wit h les s ligh t - mor e ligh t i s no t always better , particularl y whe n i t increase s contrasts . An d illuminatio n i s no t necessar y everywhere ; after all, th e ide a is tha t w e shoul d stil l b e abl e t o se e th e star s i n th e sky.

necessar y everywhere ; after all, th e ide a is tha t w e shoul
1 Caste l Sant'Angelo , Rome . A n inter - estin g ensemble :

1

Caste l Sant'Angelo , Rome . A n inter - estin g ensemble : th e castl e wit h th e bridg e an d it s reflectio n i n th e water . Th e for m an d compositio n are sup - porte d by th e consisten t natur e o f th e lightin g an d th e colour .

2/ 3

Th e facad e o f th e Sull y win g is dis - playe d a t it s best . I t is on e o f th e

fagade s o f th e Louvr e i n Paris tha t

ar e illuminate d by light s incorpor - ate d int o th e fron t o f th e building . Th e three-dimensionalit y o f th e whol e is maintained . Thi s make s a peacefu l impression , whic h corres - pond s mos t closel y t o it s dayligh t

appearance . Th e fac t tha t som e o f th e illuminatio n has stoppe d work - in g is a defec t tha t immediatel y attract s attention .

Lighting

design E D F (Electricit y d e

France)

4

Th e restoratio n projec t fo r Somerse t House , London , is apparentl y straightforward . A close r loo k draw s ou r attentio n t o th e diversity : th e loggi a o n th e first an d secon d floors, th e illuminatio n o f th e tympanu m an d th e dome . Th e over-illuminatio n mean s tha t th e tympanu m practic - all y disappears , whic h disturb s th e image .

Lighting design Phoeni x Large/light - matters .

5/6

Th e illuminatio n o f Casa Mil4 , Barce - lon a (architect : A . Gaudi) , is a desig n wit h n o pretensions . Th e consisten t lightin g doe s justic e t o th e architec - ture , whic h is mor e o r les s i n lin e wit h it s daytim e appearance . Th e incidenta l ligh t fro m th e buildin g is a n addition . Th e recedin g roofto p uni t ca n clearl y be seen , bu t stand s ou t becaus e o f it s irregularity .

7/8

Th e Konzerthau s o n th e Gendarmen - mark t i n Berli n durin g th e daytime . Onl y th e fron t fagad e is li t a t night , whic h mean s tha t th e res t become s invisible . Th e porc h behin d th e pil - lar s o f th e entranc e is illuminate d an d th e recesse d par t wit h th e tym - panu m is als o lit , whic h make s th e dept h visible . Th e excess o f ligh t make s th e tympanu m abov e th e pil - lar s disappear .

Page 76/7 7

Paris

lik e diamond s sprinkle d ove r th e city .

Fro m thi s positio n th e Eiffe l towe r an d th e Hote l de s Invalide s ca n be seen .

at night . Th e monument s ar e

76
Th e Illuminatio n o f Building s 77

Summary

• Th e point s of a buildin g tha t deserv e attention , th e characteristi c

feature s of th e architecture , mus t b e illuminated .

• Th e totalit y mus t b e preserved ; n o distractio n shoul d b e cause d by th e illuminatio n of details .

• Three-dimensionalit y (includin g protrudin g an d recesse d elements )

ma y b e accentuate d (this depend s o n th e shadov^s; looking i n th e sam e

directio n a s th e bea m of ligh t result s i n a n absenc e of shadows) .

• Architectur e i s spac e an d mass , so no t onl y th e fagade shoul d b e

illuminated , bu t th e dept h shoul d als o b e accentuated .

• If a buildin g i s sufficiently transparen t durin g th e daytime , the n i t shoul d als o b e th e sam e at night . A controlle d amoun t of artificial ligh t i s .necessar y for this .

• I n general , th e lightin g of building s mus t b e moderate , o r th e rela - tionshi p wit h th e environmen t i s disturbed .

• Lightin g u p man y detail s make s informatio n unclea r an d impos - sibl e t o 'decode' .

• If th e us e of different coloure d light s i s overdone , th e lightin g effect itself become s th e aim , instea d of th e accentuatio n of th e architecture .

• Th e additio n of decorativ e pattern s suc h a s lines , spot s o r dashe s i s no t appropriat e i n a n architectura l context .

• If possible , ligh t fittings nee d t o b e installe d wher e they can' t b e seen ; th e operatio n of th e ligh t shoul d neve r b e distracting .

• Constructio n material s ar e only show n t o thei r bes t advantag e whe n

th e ligh t sourc e optimise s thei r colou r (suc h a s brick , concrete , wood , metal ) throug h goo d colou r rendering .

• Th e illuminatio n of whit e materia l offers a grea t deal of possibilities .

) throug h goo d colou r rendering . • Th e illuminatio n of whit
1/2 D6mede s Invalides , Paris . Man y monument s i n Paris hav

1/2

D6mede s Invalides , Paris . Man y

monument s i n Paris hav e a dome .

Durin g th e daytim e the y resembl e

eac h other , bu t at nigh t th e differ - ence s are discernable . Th e metho d o f lightin g th e dom e an d th e ligh t a t th e to p mak e thi s ver y well-know n monumen t recog - nisabl e fro m afa r a t night . Th e entrance , standin g outsid e o f th e illumination , disturb s th e otherwis e harmoniou s image .

3/ 4 Durin g th e

Paris fits int o th e scen e as fa r as it s

scal e an d colou r are concerned . A t night , th e consistent , sof t lightin g ensure s tha t th e building , includin g th e dome , present s an imag e o f unity .

daytime , th e Pantheo n i n

5/6

Colleg e d e France , Consei l d'Etat , Paris . Th e illuminate d dom e has

bee n treate d lik e a 'lid ' o n th e build - ing . Som e element s ar e missin g

fro m th e illuminatio n o f th e lef t

wing . Thi s illustrate s tha t mainten -

anc e is necessar y i f th e desire d imag e is t o be preserved .

1/2

Th e imposin g architectur e o f th e Vit - tori o Emanuei e I I monumen t i n Rom e als o make s it s presenc e ver y muc h fel t at night . Close r observa - tio n reveal s tha t th e abundanc e an d th e unevennes s o f th e lightin g has le d t o contrasts . Th e ide a o f creatin g differenc e i n th e three-dimensiona l effec t is i n itsel f a soun d principle . Unfortunately , thi s effec t has t o a certai n exten t bee n lost .

3

On e o f th e fountain s o f th e Vittori o Emanuei e II monumen t o n Piazz a Venezia , Rome . Th e reflectio n o f th e surfac e o f th e v\/ater o n th e undersid e o f th e basi n an d o n th e rear wal l is

cause d by th e light s i n th e water basin . Wit h it s combinatio n o f ligh t an d water , thi s is a plac e tha t stimul - ates th e imagination .

4

A t clos e quarters , i t ca n be see n ho w larg e th e contrast s are i n th e entranc e porch , wit h shadow s an d inconsisten t lighting . Th e tympanu m is los t becaus e o f th e contras t betwee n th e porc h an d th e tower .

5

Th e Neu e Wach e is on e o f th e man y edifice s i n Berli n designe d by th e importan t architec t Karl Friedric h Schinke l (1781-1841). Th e buildin g is no w a memoria l t o th e victim s o f th e Firs t an d Secon d Worl d Wars . Al l th e illuminatio n is directe d a t th e mean - in g o f th e interio r space , wher e ther e is a statu e by Kath e Kollwitz . Th e dif - feren t colour s an d ligh t level s achiev e a n atmospher e tha t is appro - priat e fo r thi s monument . Lighting design LichtKunstLicht , Bonn .

6/7

Th e Franzosische r Do m o n th e Gen - darmenmark t i n Berlin . O f th e whol e complex , onl y th e entranc e porc h an d th e towe r are illuminated , alon g wit h limite d illuminatio n o f th e dome . Directin g th e sam e lightin g ont o different-coloure d constructio n material s has create d a contrast . Th e atmospher e o f th e squar e (a t stree t level ) is no t affecte d by thi s contrast .

create d a contrast . Th e atmospher e o f th e squar e (a
Th e Illuminatio n o f Building s 8 i
8 2
1/2 Th e large-scal e churc h facad e o f th e Basilic a

1/2

Th e large-scal e churc h facad e o f th e Basilic a d i San Giovann i i n Laterano , Rome , is i n th e first instanc e see n fro m a distance . Th e tw o lamp s i n th e foregroun d ar e s o dazzlin g tha t th e facad e appear s no t t o be illumin - ated . However , a close r loo k show s tha t i t is i n fac t li t up , althoug h onl y gently . I n contrast , ther e is a lo t o f ligh t i n th e galler y o n th e first floor, whic h make s th e unli t groun d floor appea r incongruous .

3/ 4 I n th e larg e basilic a o f Sant a Mari a Maggiore , Rome , th e illuminatio n o f th e entranc e porc h an d th e ric h mosai c i n th e loggi a offer s a respons e t o th e architectur e o f th e doubl e facade . Th e frontag e fits i n wit h th e lin e o f buildings . Th e towe r doe s no t contribut e t o th e night-tim e scene .

Par t o f th e Latera n Basilica . Thi s is als o gentl y illuminated , wit h ligh t i n th e galler y upstair s an d o n th e groun d floor. Th e wall-light s hav e th e unintentiona l effec t o f creatin g atmospheri c surrounding s a t eye level.

6/7

Th e Arc h ofConstantin e (312) i n Rom e stand s lik e a museu m piec e i n it s surroundings . I t is on e o f th e

remain s fro m th e past , as underline d by th e illumination . Th e unit y is no t

disturbe d by th e shadow s o f th e

reliefs . O n th e contrary , thi s make s the m easie r t o see .

8/9

Th e triumpha l arc h fo r th e Worl d Exhibitio n i n Barcelon a (i888) , a large-scal e red-bric k structure , func - tion s as a gatewa y betwee n th e cit y an d th e park . A strikin g featur e i s tha t th e plasticit y o f th e arc h i s cleare r at nigh t tha n durin g th e day. Th e column s loo k thei r bes t a t tha t time .

84
Th e Illuminatio n o f Building s 1/2/3/4/ 5 Th e BrandenburgerTo r has

Th e Illuminatio n o f Building s

1/2/3/4/ 5 Th e BrandenburgerTo r has becom e th e symbo l o f th e reunificatio n o f Germany . Thi s buildin g by Carl Lang - hau s wa s buil t completel y i n sand - ston e i n 1791 an d wa s restore d i n 2002 . On e sid e o f th e gat e wa s designe d t o fac e th e country ; th e othe r face s th e city . Th e cit y sid e (Parise r Platz ) has bee n incorpor - ate d int o a developmen t aroun d a

square ; o n th e othe r sid e i t is clearl y

an entranc e gat e t o th e city . Bot h

side s o f th e structur e radiat e a grea t sens e o f harmon y a t night . Th e ligh t make s th e dimension s visible . Th e three-dimensionalit y o f th e buildin g an d th e colou r o f th e sandston e hav e

bee n take n int o accoun t durin g th e

illumination . Th e quadrig a o n th e to p is li t i n suc h a wa y tha t n o dis - ruptiv e shadow s ar e visible . Al l th e illuminatio n has bee n installe d directl y o n o r nea r th e structure , wit h th e exceptio n o f tw o lamppost s o n bot h side s o f th e gat e o n th e countr y side . Becaus e th e origina l constructio n mean t tha t th e

ligh t fittings i n th e structure s t o th e

lef t an d righ t o f th e gat e wer e t o

clos e o n th e walls , th e uppe r side s o f

thes e ar e illuminate d to o brightly . I n th e ope n interio r spac e o f th e gat e building s o n th e countr y side , th e origina l pendan t fitting hav e bee n retaine d an d adapted . Thi s emphas - ises th e sens e o f scal e an d th e elegance .

Th e column s o f th e gat e ar e onl y par -

tiall y li t by ground-leve l recesse d

spotlights , whic h emphasise s th e

fac t tha t th e column s are clearl y

standin g o n th e ground . Lighting design Kardorf f Ingenieure , Berli n

A maste r pla n fo r th e illuminatio n

fro m th e Brandenburge r Tor t o th e Schlossbruck e wa s th e ai m o f a con - tes t organise d by th e cit y developer s i n Berlin . Th e winnin g desig n cam e fro m Kardorf f Ingenieur e lightdesig n

office , who , i n additio n t o th e pla n

fo r th e stree t lightingo f Unte r de n

Linden , als o di d th e illuminatio n fo r

th e BrandenburgerTor , th e Hum -

bold t Universita t an d th e Deutsch e Staatsoper . Th e lightin g o f th e remainin g building s wa s carrie d ou t by variou s lightin g designers , follow -

in g th e principle s o f th e maste r plan .

Thi s is a successfu l exampl e o f th e integratio n o f publi c lightin g an d th e illuminatio n o f buildings .

85

86
1/2 Th e Reichstag , Berlin , th e symbo l o f popula r

1/2

Th e Reichstag , Berlin , th e symbo l o f popula r representatio n i n th e ne w Germany . Th e glas s dome , wit h whic h architec t Norma n Foste r opene d u p th e Reichstag , is visibl e a t nigh t becaus e o f it s illumination . Th e ligh t stream s ou t o f th e larg e assem - bly roo m int o th e hal l an d th e dome . Th e facade s t o th e lef t an d th e righ t are illuminate d fro m clos e up . Lighting design Claud e Engle , Chevy Chas e a.o .

3

Th e bank s o f th e Rhin e i n Cologn e wit h th e cathedra l an d Groi ^ St . Martin . Th e cathedra l stand s ou t becaus e o f it s detailed , coo l illumina - tio n (4200K) . Th e coo l impressio n is th e resul t o f th e material , sand-lim e brick , an d th e colou r o f th e light . I n spit e o f th e fac t tha t every detai l is illuminated , th e buildin g as a whol e stil l remain s intact . Th e contras t wit h th e war m illuminatio n o f Gro £ St . Marti n create s a strikin g impression . Lighting design Ren^va n Ratingen , Philip s Lighting , Germany , wit h Gerhar d Kleiker , CE W Cologne .

4/ 5 Fro m Place Bellecour , a larg e rectan - gula r piazza , th e Basiliqu e d e Four - vi^r e ca n be seen o n a hil l i n ol d Lyons . Durin g th e day th e churc h stand s agains t th e backgroun d o f a gree n hill . A t nigh t th e churc h is over-illuminated , s o i t seem s t o floa t i n th e air. I t draw s al l th e attentio n toward s it . Lighting design Arc h itect u re Lumi^re , Lyons

1/2

Durin g th e daytime , Gaudi' s fairytal e Casa Batti o is par t o f th e ro w o f fagade s alon g th e Passei g d e Gracia , Barcelona . A t night , th e filigree facad e stand s ou t becaus e o f th e over-illuminatio n o f details , th e floodlightin g an d th e inconsisten t reflectio n fro m th e differentl y col -

oure d

almos t unrecognisable .

tile s o f th e facade . I t become s

3/ 4 Commercia l illuminatio n i n variou s shade s o f ligh t o n th e Place d u Lux- embourg , Rue d e Rivol i i n Paris . Th e excess ligh t block s ou t th e illumina - tio n o f th e galler y o n th e groun d floor , i n spit e o f th e sho p lighting . To preven t to o muc h ligh t i n th e hote l rooms , itv^a s decide d t o illuminat e th e piers . Th e amoun t an d colou r o f ligh t hav e turne d th e building s int o piece s o f scenery , i n contras t t o th e gentl y illuminate d buildin g i n th e background .

5

Thi s offic e buildin g o n Domkloster ,

Cologne , wit h shop s o n th e groun d floor , wa s buil t i n 1952 fo r 4711 (Eau d e Cologne) . Th e decorativ e illumination , no t intende d as an

additio n bu t as par t o f th e desig n o f

th e facade , is a surprisin g feature , as is it s colour . Architect Wilhel m Koe p

par t o f th e desig n o f th e facade , is a
The Illumination o f Buildings 89
Case Studie s
Case Studie s

BrandenburgerTor, Berlin Somerset House , London Cathedral Basilica o f Sint-Jan, 's-Hertogenbosc h Colosseum, Rome Ostend Bridges Use o f Colour

BrandenburgerTor, Berlin

Th e Brandenburge r Tor , o r Brandenbur g Gate , whic h unti l th e Wall cam e dow n wa s situate d o n th e borde r betwee n East an d Wes t Ber- lin , wa s thoroughl y restore d betwee n 200 0 an d 2002 . Th e fron t of thi s histori c gat e datin g bac k t o 1788 i s o n Parise r Plat z an d th e rea r sid e i s o n th e edg e of th e Tiergarte n city park . It i s a symmetrica l comple x tha t serve s a s a passagewa y an d form s a spatia l uni t wit h th e adjoinin g building s o n Parise r Platz . Thi s squar e run s int o Unte r de n Linden , wit h it s famou s building s suc h a s th e Humbold t University , th e Neu e Wache , th e Staatsope r an d a numbe r of embas - sies . A competitio n wa s organise d for th e allocatio n of th e contrac t t o illuminat e th e Brandenburge r Tor , wit h Kardorff Ingenieur e Lichtplanun g winnin g th e contrac t t o develo p th e propose d lightin g pla n int o a maste r pla n for th e whol e area .

Th e lightin g pla n i s conservativ e an d elegan t an d make s it easie r

t o recognis e th e feature s of th e square . Importan t characteristic s of th e pla n are :

• th e dept h of th e gat e i s mad e visible ;

• th e colou r of th e ligh t i s uniform , whic h ensure s tha t th e sand -

ston e of th e gat e i s displaye d at it s bes t advantag e an d tha t th e com - plex i s perceive d a s a whole ;

• th e us e of existin g luminair e position s t o avoid damagin g th e monument .

Th e illuminatio n of th e Brandenburge r To r ca n b e see n fro m man y angles . Th e lightin g i s subdued ; ther e ar e n o bank s of light s se t u p at a distance . Nearly all of th e 25 0 luminaire s ar e buil t into , o r fixed

e n o bank s of light s se t u p at a distance .

closely to , th e building , wit h th e exceptio n of th e light s mounte d o n two post s o n th e Tiergarte n sid e of th e gate . Ther e is a differenc e i n th e lightin g of th e fron t an d th e bac k of th e monument . Th e quadrig a faces Parise r Plat z an d i s illuminate d i n a sophisticate d an d professiona l way, wit h light s tha t ar e situate d unde r an d alongsid e th e horse s an d insid e th e chariot . Fro m stree t level, nothin g ca n b e see n of thes e luminaires . See n fro m th e Tier- garten , th e quadrig a i s dark , an d th e sculptur e i s only visibl e a s a silhouette . Th e passageway s throug h an d th e interio r space s of th e three-par t gateway ca n b e clearly see n at night . Th e lightin g a s a whol e ha s bee n brough t int o equilibrium : th e floodlighting of th e columns , th e illuminatio n of th e wall s i n th e mai n passagewa y an d th e archway s an d th e lightin g of th e architrave . Th e lin e of lightin g aroun d th e to p of th e gat e at th e fron t an d th e bac k consist s of 35w/ m fluorescent tubes . Th e othe r ligh t source s

ar e all meta l halid e (HI T wit h cerami c burner ) wit h a war m colou r becaus e of th e colou r renderin g of th e pale-beig e sandstone . A cool versio n wa s selecte d for th e quadriga . It i s usua l for a mock-u p t o b e mad e for a lightin g design , so tha t th e positionin g of light s ca n still b e change d o r mor e o r les s ligh t ca n b e used . Th e restoratio n of th e gat e mean t tha t thi s wa s no t pos - sibl e i n thi s case , s o a 3D mode l wa s developed , whic h accuratel y portraye d th e propose d plan . Th e ligh t fro m eac h luminair e wa s simulate d t o asses s th e combine d effect of th e differen t ligh t posi - tions . Whe n th e pla n wa s implemented , th e simulatio n mode l prove d t o b e i n lin e wit h th e actua l situation , so n o adjustment s wer e required .

Lighting design Kardorff Ingenieur e Lichtplanung , Berli n Photo Linu s Lintne r

s wer e required . Lighting design Kardorff Ingenieur e Lichtplanung , Berli n Photo Linu

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Somerset House , London

Somerse t Hous e i n London , buil t (1776-1801) by Willia m Cham - ber s an d recentl y completel y restored , house s variou s museu m col- lections , a s well as a restauran t an d a cafe wit h a terrace . Th e lightin g pla n for th e comple x was designe d by th e Londo n fir m Lightmatters . Th e mai n ai m of th e desig n wa s t o recreat e th e historica l lightin g tha t wa s discovere d i n painting s an d print s of th e perio d an d i n account s of th e construction . Man y origina l fitting s wer e refur- bishe d o r remade . I n additio n t o this , architectura l was h lightin g

wa s applie d t o eac h elevatio n wit h a n adde d layer of lightin g t o high - ligh t architectura l detail s a t a highe r brightnes s level. For th e River Terrac e o n th e Thame s sid e of th e building , th e existin g lightin g wa s retained . Th e fountai n desig n for th e courtyar d ha s bee n imple - mented . Th e U-shaped courtyar d of Somerse t Hous e i s very suitabl e a s a backdro p for concerts , opera s an d othe r events . On e of th e require - ment s wa s tha t th e light s shoul d no t b e visible . It wa s possibl e t o

r events . On e of th e require - ment s wa s tha t

concea l th e variou s light s by usin g th e wall opposit e th e expose d basement . Th e basemen t ha s th e heigh t of a full store y an d th e light s tha t ar e attache d o n th e opposit e inne r wall ar e positione d a t suc h a heigh t tha t the y d o no t caus e an y disruption . A grea t dea l of attentio n wa s pai d t o th e fountain s an d thei r col- oure d lighting . Th e fountain s ha d t o for m a uni t wit h th e u-shape d rea r wall . I n th e floor of th e courtyard , lai d ou t i n a rectangula r pat- tern , ther e ar e 55 computer-controlle d spouts , at a distanc e of thre e metre s fro m eac h other , wit h jet s of wate r varyin g i n heigh t fro m 0.5 t o 5 metres . Th e illuminatio n of th e fountain s i s don e wit h glas s

Th e illuminatio n of th e fountain s i s don e wit h glas

Case Studie s

optica l fibres, supporte d by projector s buil t int o floor well s wit h a 150 w HQi ligh t source . Th e spoutin g of th e wate r jet s an d th e chang - in g of th e colour s ar e synchronise d an d hav e n o regula r repetition . Th e illuminatio n of th e facades an d th e fountain s i s a complet e sur - pris e for anyon e lookin g throug h th e gat e o n th e Stran d int o th e courtyard . Th e fountain s ad d t o th e feelin g of a secre t oasi s of cal m withi n th e hustl e an d bustl e of London .

Lighting design Lightmatters , Londo n Graha m Phoenix/Sharo n Stammer s

n th e hustl e an d bustl e of London . Lighting design Lightmatters ,

95

Cathedral Basilica o f Sint-Jan, 's-Hertogenbosc h

Th e cathedra l i s th e centra l poin t of thi s lively provincia l Dutc h city. Th e resident s of 's-Hertogenbosc h ar e very involved v^ith 'their ' Sint-Jan . Any change s ar e viewed critically. Thi s lightin g desig n wa s base d o n a conservativ e approac h t o th e building , whic h too k int o accoun t it s usag e an d position . Th e lightin g desig n wa s base d o n th e following principles :

• reinforcin g th e unit y of thi s comple x building ;

• retainin g th e sens e of intimac y tha t come s fro m it s locatio n i n th e

old tow n centre ;

• makin g it possibl e t o enjoy bot h th e interio r an d th e exterio r of th e church ;

• optimisin g th e profile of th e buildin g so tha t it coul d b e recog- nise d fro m a considerabl e distance . Th e architectur e of Sint-Ja n i s complex , wit h differen t atmosphere s create d by th e differen t period s of construction . Th e complexit y of th e exterio r require d illuminatio n tha t woul d reinforc e thi s unity , whils t retainin g th e differen t atmospheres . Th e lengt h an d heigh t of th e cathedra l ha d t o remai n visibl e at night , a s di d reference s t o th e interior , suc h a s windows . Th e illuminatio n of th e centra l nav e make s th e heigh t of th e churc h visibl e fro m outside . Th e perceptio n of th e architectur e a s a whol e i s supporte d by th e illuminatio n of th e window s of th e sid e

Th e perceptio n of th e architectur e a s a whol e i s

aisle s an d th e illuminatio n of th e choi r aisl e fro m within , whic h wa s don e by adaptin g th e existin g luminaires . A n absenc e of luminaire s i n th e transep t mean t tha t it s window s ha d t o b e directl y lit wit h floodlights, whic h wer e installe d a s unobtrusivel y a s possible . Whe n yo u ar e approachin g 's-Hertogenbosch , yo u ca n se e th e outlin e of Sint-Ja n an d it s towers , a n importan t symbo l of th e city. Th e wes t tower , althoug h mayb e no t th e mos t interestin g par t fro m a n architectura l poin t of view, require s particula r attentio n an d no w ha s externa l illuminatio n o n all sides . Th e space s i n th e spir e ar e li t fro m inside , a s ar e th e five 'peppe r pots ' of th e centra l tower . Th e usua l entranc e i s o n th e wester n sid e unde r th e tower , whic h ha s bee n th e propert y of th e tow n counci l sinc e tim e imme - morial . Thi s entranc e ha s a n informa l characte r an d i s very welcom -

in g for visitor s an d peopl e comin g t o pray . At night , two simpl e lamp s mounte d o n th e fence ar e th e only point s of interes t at groun d level. Th e illuminatio n from outsid e consist s of 6 2 light s wit h a metal - halid e ligh t sourc e (HI T war m white) . I n th e choir , ther e ar e five

light s of 150 w; th e sid e aisle s hav e 4 6 light s of 25 0 w; an d th e towe r

ha s I I light s of 40 0 w.

Lighting design LITE, Amsterda m Christava n Santen/i r A.J. Hanse n

r ha s I I light s o f 40 0 w. Lighting design LITE, Amsterda

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Colosseum, Rome

Th e official nam e of th e Colosseu m i n Rom e i s th e Amphitheatru m Flavium . Thi s enormou s oval constructio n ha d eight y entrance s an d coul d accommodat e 50,00 0 peopl e fro m all walk s of life. Par t of th e Colosseum , whic h wa s inaugurate d i n AD 80 , ha s bee n preserved . Togethe r wit h th e Arc h of Constantin e (in th e background ) an d th e Foru m Romanum , it make s a tri p to thi s par t of Rom e mos t enjoyable bot h durin g th e daytim e an d i n th e evening . Th e 'white ' ligh t unde r th e arche s an d alon g th e highes t section , wit h it s travertin e marbl e cladding , come s fro m metal-halid e lamp s (300 0 K). I n total , 140 CDM-T35 Wat t an d 6 7 CDM-T70 Wat t Schrede r Coru s spot s hav e bee n used , all emittin g ligh t asymmetrically . Extra

ligh t ma y b e adde d for specia l events : 32 HPI- T 200 0 Wat t (470 0 K) lamp s i n a n Olimpi a 3 luminair e from Schreder . See n fro m below , thes e narro w beam s com e fro m th e thir d ro w of arches . I n th e background , th e war m ligh t of high-pressur e sodiu m from a n earlie r illuminatio n pla n ca n b e seen . Th e combinatio n of thes e two type s of ligh t make s th e buildin g stan d ou t an d reinforce s it s character .

Lighting design Rem o Guerrini , Stefano Santia , Daniel e Cicco (ACEA Spa, Rome)

t an d reinforce s it s character . Lighting design Rem o Guerrini , Stefano
Case Studie s 9 9

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Ostend

Increasin g touris m frequentl y result s i n th e improvemen t an d beau - tificatio n of place s tha t receive a lo t of visitors . Ostend , often referre d t o a s Quee n a s th e Bathin g Resort s an d on e of th e fev^ larg e tov^ns o n th e Nort h Sea, ha s lon g bee n a popula r destination , wit h it s sea- v^all, th e boulevard s an d th e harbou r area . Th e Alber t i Promenad e fro m th e Casin o t o th e Venetia n an d Royal Galleries , v^here th e Therma e Palace Hote l is situated , an d th e seav^all i n th e Mariakerk e are a of tov^n hav e nov^ bee n redesigned . As par t of thi s redesign , th e illuminatio n ha s also bee n renovated . Th e first part , as far a s th e gal- leries , wa s complete d i n 1998 , followed by th e harbou r area , wit h th e nex t ste p bein g th e sectio n fro m th e pie r t o th e Casino . I n th e sectio n tha t ha s no t yet bee n modernise d accordin g t o th e ne w design , ther e i s a singl e ro w of concret e post s tha t hav e two arm s wit h lumi - naire s givin g off evenly distribute d hgh t fro m a heigh t of 12-14 metres . Thi s provide s sufficien t ligh t i n th e pedestria n zone , th e neighbourin g building s ar e li t u p t o th e thir d store y an d muc h of th e beac h ca n b e seen . Wit h th e waves i n th e background , thi s make s th e beac h a n invitin g plac e t o visi t eve n i n th e evening .

Th e desig n for th e sectio n tha t ha s alread y bee n complete d con- sist s of a carefully constructe d serie s of roun d an d straigh t wall sec- tion s wit h a ro w of four-metre-hig h ligh t pipe s runnin g dow n th e middl e (Vigo desig n by Hes s wit h a 70W metal-halid e lamp) . Blue compact-fluorescen t groun d spots , whic h d o no t attrac t an y atten - tio n i n daylight , hav e bee n installe d i n th e edge s of th e ston e sur - rounds . Th e streetlamps , togethe r wit h th e light s positione d hig h u p o n th e facades of th e apartments , whic h hav e asymmetri c optic s an d a 400W high-pressur e sodiu m lamp , provid e sufficient illumina - tio n t o ligh t th e way an d t o allow peopl e t o se e eac h othe r clearly o n th e promenade . Floodlight s wit h a 150W metal-halid e lam p fixed o n

th e uprigh t wall of th e promenad e ar e use d for th e illuminatio n of th e sand . Th e combine d reac h of thi s ligh t i s comparabl e wit h tha t of th e old streetlamp s i n th e sectio n tha t ha s no t yet bee n redone . Thre e type s of ligh t hav e bee n necessar y i n th e ne w desig n t o matc h th e amoun t of ligh t provide d by th e old streetlamps : light s o n th e apartment s for illuminatin g th e boulevard , light s o n th e uprigh t wall of th e promenad e t o illuminat e th e beac h an d ligh t pipe s runnin g alon g th e lengt h of th e boulevard/promenade . Th e decorativ e sur - round s wit h th e inbuil t blu e light s ar e n o mor e tha n a n additiona l feature , bu t it mus t b e sai d tha t th e ne w desig n create s a livelier atmospher e tha n th e tall concret e lampposts , whic h give goo d visib- ility, bu t illuminat e th e are a i n a comparativel y unexcitin g way. Th e position s of th e illuminatio n devices ar e give n t o scal e i n th e two blu e cross-sectio n sketches . Th e lightin g pla n for th e whol e of th e seawal l includin g th e har - bou r are a i s by Atelie r Rolan d Jeol (Lyons, France) , i n collaboratio n wit h Fili p }.M. Vanhaverbeke , proces s an d projec t directo r for th e modernisatio n of Ostend .

collaboratio n wit h Fili p }.M. Vanhaverbeke , proces s an d projec t directo
collaboratio n wit h Fili p }.M. Vanhaverbeke , proces s an d projec t directo

TOO

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10 2
Case Studie s 103

Bridges

Bridges ar e functiona l construction s mad e

metal , sometime s constructe d entirel y of woo d o r of a combinatio n of material s tha t gives characte r t o th e design . City bridge s provid e route s over river s an d canals , over railv^ay yard s an d valleys, often servin g a s point s of orientatio n for peopl e i n th e surroundin g areas . I n th e evenin g an d a t night , stree t lightin g i s generall y use d t o guid e pedestrian s an d othe r traffic over th e bridge . I n cases v^here th e bridg e goes over water , shippin g traffic always need s t o b e take n int o accoun t i n th e plan s for illumination . Glar e ma y b e no t caused , at quit e a distanc e from th e bridg e an d th e route s underneat h th e bridg e mus t b e easily visible . Illuminatio n plays a rol e i n two directions : over th e bridg e an d underneat h it . Desig n an d illuminatio n ca n wor k agains t eac h other . City resident s ca n se e for themselve s tha t ther e ar e dif- feren t opinion s o n thi s subject .

of stone , brick , concret e or

Below i s a selectio n of som e type s of bridge s tha t ar e use d (mainly) by pedestrians .

Th e bridge s over th e Sein e i n Pari s for m a n importan t elemen t of th e City of Light, a s Pari s i s often called . A maste r pla n base d o n a numbe r of interestin g principle s ha s bee n formulate d for th e bridge s over th e Seine . Th e categorie s are :

• ston e bridges : th e materia l an d detail s ar e accentuate d by th e light ;

• iro n bridges : th e structur e is mad e visible by ligh t v^t h a cool colour;

• histori c bridges : th e ligh t serve s t o emphasis e histori c an d cultura l aspects ;

• centra l bridge s (links betwee n riverbank s at importan t points) : thes e

hav e mor e illuminatio n tha n th e othe r bridges , bot h o n thei r surfac e an d o n th e details .

Pont Neuf , Paris

Th e Pon t Neu f i n Paris , th e oldes t bridg e over th e Seine , i s illuminate d by compac t fluorescence, fluorescent tube s an d a lin e of xeno n lamps . Th e detail s an d th e surfac e of th e bridg e ar e illuminate d by compact-fluor - escen t lightin g wit h a colou r temperatur e of 270 0 K. Th e balustrade s ar e illuminate d by a

lin e of xeno n lamps . Th e arche s ar e li t by th e 300 0 K fluorescent tube s positione d a t th e to p of th e pilasters . All of th e ligh t source s ar e covere d by a scree n (in th e sam e colou r a s th e stone s of th e bridge) , so tha t ther e i s n o dazzl e t o dis - tur b th e traffic o n th e rive r o r th e pedestrian s

o n th e banks . Th e lamppost s for publi c stree t lightin g tha t v^ere late r adde d t o th e bridg e constitut e par t of it s architectur e durin g th e daytime . I n th e evenin g an d a t night , th e lamppost s blen d int o th e sur - rounding s an d ar e n o longe r noticed .

g an d a t night , th e lamppost s blen d int o th

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105

Amsterda m

I n Amsterdam , th e arche s of th e bridge s ar e simpl y accentuate d by a circula r ro w of bulb s of 7.5 w an d 30 v tha t operat e o n undervoltage , house d i n a specially designe d vandal-resistan t cover. Thi s lightin g ha s nothin g t o d o wit h th e thir d dimensio n of th e bridge , wit h it s architectur e an d depth . It i s a two-dimen - siona l addition , whic h i s see n by th e man y tourist s a s characteristi c of th e city.

. It i s a two-dimen - siona l addition , whic h i s see

Millenniu m Bridge , Londo n

Th e Millenniu m Bridg e over th e Thame s i n Londo n link s th e City (St Paul' s Cathedral ) wit h Tat e Modern . Th e competitio n for th e desig n of th e bridg e wa s wo n by architec t Norma n Foste r an d sculpto r Anthon y Caro . It i s a pedestria n bridge , 32 0 metre s i n length , a n apparentl y simpl e aluminiu m constructio n wit h a four-metre-wid e walk- way. Th e railings , balustrade s an d louvre s ar e mad e of rustproo f steel . Th e ai m of th e

designer s wa s t o allow a s unobstructe d a view a s possibl e over th e rive r i n all direc - tions . Th e ligh t mark s ou t th e breadt h of th e walkway an d run s th e lengt h of th e bridge . Th e low positionin g of th e ligh t mean s th e view i s undisturbed . Th e illuminatio n i s create d by th e spot s fitted int o th e dar k section s of th e bridge . Thes e ligh t u p th e reflective materia l o n th e inne r sid e of th e tubes , turnin g the m int o a n

evenly distribute d ligh t sourc e wit h n o visible lamps . Thi s i s a goo d solutio n for a bridg e tha t moves .

Th e publi c reacte d s o enthusiasticall y t o thi s ne w bridg e tha t th e constructio n wa s seriously pu t t o th e tes t by th e masse s of visitors . Furthe r wor k wa s undertake n o n th e bridg e for safety reason s an d th e official openin g too k plac e i n 2002 .

undertake n o n th e bridg e for safety reason s an d th e
undertake n o n th e bridg e for safety reason s an d th e

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Hoge Brug, Maastricht

Th e Hog e Bru g i n Maastricht , a bridg e for pedestrian s an d cydists , Hnks th e ne w dis - tric t of Ceramiqu e wit h th e old tow n centre . Thi s bridg e over th e Maa s i s 164 metre s lon g an d aroun d 7 metre s wide . Compac t fluorescent lamp s hav e bee n discreetl y fitted int o th e railing s o n eithe r sid e of th e bridge ,

providin g sufficient ligh t for th e pedestria n an d cycle paths . A nic e detai l i s th e fact tha t th e ligh t ca n b e see n o n th e oute r side s of bot h railing s throug h smal l roun d opening s by th e ligh t source . Th e bridg e ca n b e reache d fro m eithe r riverban k by a lift o r by a long , low flight of so-called 'lazy ' stairs . Th e

view over th e Maa s i s unimpeded , a s th e bridg e i s aroun d te n metre s above th e wate r whe n th e rive r i s a t it s norma l level. Th e bridg e i s use d a lo t i n th e evenin g a s well.

Bridge design architec t Ren e Greisch , Burea u d'etude s Greisch , Liege, Belgiu m

i n th e evenin g a s well. Bridge design architec t Ren e Greisch
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Use o f Colour

Th e us e of computer-controlle d 'colou r wheels ' (colour filters) an d th e constan t advance s i n LED technolog y tha t allow all sort s of differ- en t shade s t o b e create d hav e produce d man y ne w possibilitie s for programmin g coloure d light . Thes e possibilitie s ar e als o accompan - ie d by challenge s tha t ar e no t limite d only t o advertisin g purposes . Th e us e of blue , red , green , yellow, etc . for th e lightin g an d illumina - tio n of building s i n th e publi c spac e i s approachin g levels tha t use d t o b e commo n only i n advertisements . Ther e i s n o objectio n i n prin - cipl e t o th e us e of colou r for temporary , festive, specia l events , no r i s ther e i n case s wher e a materia l i s show n t o it s bes t advantag e i n a particula r ligh t source . Sometimes , i n unexcitin g environment s suc h as tunnels , th e us e of coloured lamp s help s to create a sens e of security.

Excesses of coloure d ligh t will hav e t o b e rule d ou t o r restricte d i n th e lon g term , jus t as advertisement s tha t give off to o muc h whit e o r coloure d ligh t ar e no w subjec t t o regulatio n i n man y cities . Th e us e of coloure d ligh t i n th e publi c spac e als o demand s specia l provi- sion s a s far a s damag e an d maintenanc e ar e concerned .

Thi s penchan t for colour , often prompte d by commercia l interests , disturb s th e neutralit y an d anonymit y of th e evenin g atmosphere . Reputabl e designer s hav e demonstrate d sensitiv e us e of th e variou s options . Blue, for example , i s a colou r tha t clearly inspire s people . It i s a colou r of peac e an d calm ; i t gives a feelin g of detachmen t an d depth , i n contras t wit h th e active colour s of re d an d yellow. Design -

a feelin g o f detachmen t an d depth , i n contras t wit

n o

er s often refe r t o blu e as a dream y colour ; it create s a certai n cool- nes s i n th e atmosphere . Som e residentia l district s an d area s by th e water , suc h a s har - bours , ar e place d i n a blu e light . Th e use r of th e spac e only notice s tha t all th e surrounding s ar e illuminate d wit h thi s colou r whe n ther e i s a contras t wit h anothe r colou r (for example , wit h ligh t comin g fro m a window) . A wealt h of choic e i s always interesting , bu t th e maste r i s reveale d by a sens e for restraint .

Th e illuminate d Venetia n an d Royal Gallerie s i n Osten d for m par t of th e lightin g pla n for th e seawall . Th e bul k of th e hote l sectio n above th e Therma e Palac e Gallery i s illuminate d i n blue . Th e blu e ca n easily b e see n i n thi s settin g an d th e colou r i n itsel f generall y doe s no t caus e an y irritation . Thi s lightin g i s par t of th e maste r pla n

for th e city of Ostend , whic h i s designe d t o dra w additiona l attentio n t o th e buildings .

It i s no t (as yet) particularl y commo n for publi c building s tha t ar e no t theatre s o r othe r entertainmen t venue s t o b e illuminate d wit h coloure d light . Th e colourfu l combinatio n of light s at th e railway statio n i n Eindhove n make s th e buildin g look attractive . Th e colou r of th e clocks goe s fro m gree n t o blue , t o red , the n yellow an d white . Blue wa s selecte d for th e canop y an d thi s i s reflecte d i n th e glas s wall below . Th e view insid e th e building , wher e th e relevan t light s ar e located , gives a very lively look t o th e statio n a s a whole .

Lighting design Raymond e de n Uyl, Freestyle , Eindhove n

lively look t o th e statio n a s a whole . Lighting design Raymond

Case Studie s

m

chapel , Nijmege n

Thi s chape l i n th e centr e of Nijmegen , whic h date s fro m aroun d 1431, i s no w use d a s a centr e for meditatio n an d cultura l events . Lights wit h coloure d LEDS, whic h ar e regulate d by a compute r program , illumi - nat e th e chape l wall s wit h a n alternatin g

cycle of green , blu e an d purpl e light . Th e groun d spot s tha t ar e responsibl e for creat - in g th e differen t colour s ar e installe d a t th e bas e of th e chapel . Thes e change s i n colou r

nullify th e sacre d atmospher e of th e origina l Prim o Exposures , Hillego m chapel , an d undermin e th e architectur e itself.

makin g thi s old buildin g a foreig n bod y i n it s surroundings .

Lighting design Marc o d e Boer Lighting ,

makin g thi s old buildin g a foreig n bod y i n it s
Case Studie s 1 1 3
Ligh t Pollutio n
Ligh t Pollutio n

Rapid development s i n th e field of ne w ligh t source s ar e see n a s positive , yet at th e sam e tim e we ar e sometime s overwhelme d by a n excess of hght . Th e increasin g ligh t efficiency of mos t lamp s i s recog- nise d as a usefu l development , an d ther e i s no w also a wide r rang e of use s for thi s technology. Unfortunately , however, we us e th e improve d ligh t source s i n a careles s manner . Badly utilise d lightin g create s annoyance . A consideratio n of professiona l us e of th e technolog y woul d appea r t o b e necessary . Th e ter m 'ligh t pollution ' i s use d t o describ e a n excess of ligh t and/o r ligh t tha t i s no t directe d accurately . An annoyin g excess of ligh t occur s with :

• greenhouse s givin g off light ;

• illuminate d advertisin g an d displa y windows ;

• over-illuminate d buildings ;

• excessive roa d lighting ;

• sport s lightin g tha t extend s over to o larg e a n area .

It ha s lon g bee n know n tha t th e grov^ h of plant s i n greenhouse s i s encourage d by th e ligh t of a nearb y streetlamp . Bright , moder n light s i n greenhouse s o n farm s an d i n marke t garden s mak e th e plant s grow, bu t ca n also b e detrimenta l t o th e surroundings . Greenhouse s ar e sit- uate d outsid e built-u p area s an d thei r Kghts often mak e the m visibl e fro m quit e a distance . Th e nuisanc e create d by thi s ne w metho d of cultivatio n ha s le d t o a n organise d response . Certai n requirement s have bee n stipulate d following complaint s abou t ligh t pollutio n from greenhouses . Damag e t o thir d partie s ca n resul t i n costs ; becaus e mone y was involved, measure s wer e introduce d relatively quickl y i n thi s area . I n nature , inappropriat e ligh t ha s a n influenc e o n th e rhyth m of animals ' lives; i t ma y caus e change s i n behaviour , for example , wit h animal s bein g active for to o lon g o r to o early i n th e morning . Exces- sive ligh t als o ha s a n impac t o n scientifi c research : disruptin g tele - scop e observations , for example . I n a n urba n environment , ther e ar e situation s tha t requir e th e introductio n of standard s for lighting , particularl y for illuminate d advertising , display window s an d buildings . Thes e standard s ca n also relat e t o th e safety or t o th e aestheti c aspec t of th e illumination . Excess ligh t create s a stron g contras t wit h th e surroundings . Th e excess of ligh t comin g from th e advertisin g hoarding , th e display windo w or th e over-illuminate d buildin g make s th e surrounding s look eve n darke r tha n the y actuall y are . Sometime s publi c stree t lightin g ca n scarcely compet e wit h all th e othe r lights . Th e degre e t o whic h a n advertisin g boar d cause s a nuisanc e i n dar k surrounding s i s determine d by th e following factors :

• th e luminanc e of th e ligh t source ;

e i n dar k surrounding s i s determine d by th e followin g
1 Ligh t pollutio n is a wast e o f light , causin g

1

Ligh t pollutio n is a wast e o f light , causin g annoyanc e fo r user s o f publi c space s an d fo r resident s i n th e immediat e surroundings . Spotlight s se t int o th e groun d are no t alway s use d appropriately . O n thi s statio n square , the y are no t directe d at a specifi c object , s o the y 'prick ' th e eye unpleasantly . Thes e spotlight s requir e a lo t o f carefu l maintenanc e an d ar e vulnerabl e t o vandals . Tw o o f aroun d thirt y light s ar e working ; the y don' t see m t o be

missed .

2

Badly adjuste d o r incorrectl y selecte d floodlight s direc t mor e ligh t int o th e sky tha n a t th e object . Thi s is a wast e o f ligh t an d disrupt s th e darkness .

3

Th e ligh t source s i n thi s stree t lightin g are reflecte d i n th e shin y polished-granit e floor surface . Thi s make s walkin g rathe r trick y becaus e o f th e apparen t slipperines s an d th e dazzle .

4

Incorrectl y applie d lightin g t o indic - at e th e differenc e i n heigh t o f steps . Anyon e climbin g th e stair s is dazzled . Th e lightin g doe s wor k whe n descendin g th e stairs .

5

Badly shielde d lightin g i n th e railing s

o f thi s bridg e is crossing . Fro m

n o longe r see th e water .

a nuisanc e fo r anyon e thi s position , yo u ca n

• th e luminanc e of th e surroundings ;

• th e soHd angl e fro m whic h th e ligh t sourc e ma y b e seen ;

• th e positio n of th e ligh t sourc e relativ e t o th e directio n fro m whic h th e observe r i s looking , know n a s th e 'positio n factor' .

It i s interestin g t o not e tha t change s i n lightin g (on-off-on-off) ca n b e though t a lot mor e annoyin g tha n continuou s ligh t an d tha t coloure d ligh t (from illuminate d advertising ) appear s t o b e mor e of a nuisanc e tha n th e sam e level of whit e light . Th e Commissio n International e d e FEclairage (CIE; Internationa l Commissio n o n Illumination ) ha s no w establishe d recommendation s an d standard s t o regulat e th e excess of ligh t at a n internationa l level. Individua l Europea n countrie s ar e als o dealin g wit h th e proble m of ligh t i n thei r ow n way an d hav e introduce d rule s for thi s purpose . T o stat e jus t a few o f these :

• ligh t emitte d shoul d b e reduced , wher e necessary ;

• n o publi c lightin g shoul d shin e int o houses , or th e othe r way round ;

• glar e shoul d b e avoided . Furthe r condition s ar e tha t th e nigh t sky shoul d remai n visible , a s shoul d th e natura l surroundings .

Guideline s hav e bee n create d for th e desig n of advertisin g hoarding s wit h regar d t o th e rati o betwee n maximu m an d minimu m luminanc e values . I n general , ther e ar e larg e contrast s o n advertisin g hoardings , for example , betwee n th e letter s an d th e background . Thi s ha s th e

resul t tha t i t i s difficult, i f no t impossible , t o determin e th e averag e luminance . It wa s therefor e decide d tha t th e recommendation s shoul d indicat e limit s for th e maximu m luminance , dependin g o n th e surrounding s an d th e surfac e of th e hoarding . Thes e ar e limite d t o dar k surroundings , i.e . completel y free of illumination , an d sur - rounding s tha t a t leas t hav e norma l publi c lighting . It appear s that , for example , a larg e hoardin g wit h a particula r maximu m luminanc e an d a smal l hoardin g wit h th e sam e maximu m luminanc e ca n hav e a

effect, dependin g o n th e siz e an d colour of th e notice . A mes -

different

sage ca n b e i n whit e o n a blac k backgroun d o r i n blac k o n white .

Number s an d calculation s only begi n t o play a par t whe n a n illu- minate d adver t stand s ou t i n dar k surroundings , causin g a nuisanc e t o local residents , motorist s an d othe r passers-by . I n a light , bus y environment , siz e an d luminanc e nee d t o b e kep t i n check .

Excessive ligh t ca n b e annoyin g i n a numbe r of ways . Local resid - ent s migh t b e trouble d by th e ligh t falling o n thei r exterio r wall s o r window s fro m illuminate d buildings , diffused ligh t fro m floodlights o r a n object withi n thei r field of visio n tha t i s to o brightl y lit . For floodlights an d object s tha t ar e to o brightl y lit , th e limit s relat e t o brightnes s an d t o luminance . Th e eye adjust s an d determine s th e

o brightl y lit , th e limit s relat e t o brightnes s an
Ligh t Pollutio n 1 Atax i ran k wit h s o muc h

Ligh t Pollutio n

1

Atax i ran k wit h so muc h unshielded , low-positione d ligh t dazzle s th e driver s an d drown s th e surroundings .

2

A

pathwa y acros s a courtyar d i n a

residentia l building . Th e walkwa y is wel l lit , bu t th e low-positioned , unshielde d fluorescen t tube s dazzl e

an d bloc k th e vie w o f th e surround -

ings , als o compromisin g safety.

3

Light s o n a pos t directe d a t th e sur -

fac e o f thi s rathe r narro w roa d dazzl e

th e road-users . Motorist s fin d i t

impossibl e t o adjus t becaus e o f th e

shor t distanc e betwee n th e post s

an

d th e spee d o f th e cars .

4

A

shoppin g arcad e o n tw o levels ,

whic h bot h hav e an excess o f visibl e publi c lighting , advertisin g board s

an d illuminate d displa y windows , s o

tha t yo u 'ca n n o longe r see th e woo d

fo r th e

an annoyin g excess o f light .

trees' . Thi s is a n exampl e o f

^^9

1

A hous e i n a quie t residentia l area . Excess o f ligh t an d colou r d o no t

d o justic e t o th e architecture . Th e advertisin g boar d i n th e foregroun d

is to o bright , makin g i t a glowin g

foca l poin t fo r th e whol e area .

2

Commercia l propertie s o n a lon g

residentia l stree t alongsid e a park .

Th e illuminatio n is incongruou s an d

dazzling . I t make s th e well-li t stree t

appea r relativel y dark .

3

Ther e is a tendenc y t o ligh t al l

propertie s i n th e sam e way. Thi s sometime s doesn' t work , as is demonstrate d by th e exaggerate d

illuminatio n o f th e whit e facade . Thi s facad e receive s unwarrante d

attention , detractin g fro m th e othe r

illuminatio n an d disturbin g th e neighbours .

4

Building s li t fro m insid e ca n hel p t o mak e th e surrounding s mor e attrac -

tiv e i n th e evenin g an d a t night . A

pleasan t effec t ca n be achieve d whe n

th e interio r is mad e int o th e exterior .

I n thi s larg e building , par t o f a hospi -

ta l complex , onl y th e badl y shielde d

lamp s ca n be seen . Thi s disrupt s th e

whol e area , als o makin g i t appea r darker .

5

Th

e advertisin g board s ar e hig h up ,

so th e extremel y hig h luminance s d o

no t actuall y distur b th e pedestrian .

Fro m a distance , though , i t is clea r

tha t th e larg e surfac e area an d th e

hig h luminance s mak e thi s spo t to o muc h o f an 'eye-catcher' . Th e con - trast s ar e s o grea t tha t th e facad e behin d ca n n o longe r be seen , unles s

th e light s ar e o n insid e th e rooms .

Th e lowes t boar d is th e mos t un -

pleasant , wit h a valu e o f 30 0 cd/m^ .

s ar e o n insid e th e rooms . Th e lowes t boar
Ligh t Pollutio n tolerabl e amount , dependin g o n th e ligh

Ligh t Pollutio n

tolerabl e amount , dependin g o n th e ligh t i n th e surroundin g area . Th e following table s serv e a s a guidelin e for lightin g designers .

Surroundin g zon e

Parameters

Condition s

El

E2

E3

E4

 

Natura l area

Rural area

Urba n area

City centr e

 

industria l area

illuminance

daytim e t o

2 lu x

5

lu x

TO lu x

25

lu x

Ev on th e

lat e evenin g

 

facade

07.0

0 - 23.0 0

Nigh t

1 lu x

1

lu

x

2 lu x

5 lu x

23.00-07.0 0

 

luminou

s

daytim e t o

250 0 c d

750 0 c d

looooc d