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Presentation

on
Environmentally Sound Management of
E-waste and Practices of Recycling/
Recovery of Valuables from E-waste
by
N.K. Verma
Sustainable development concerns
Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) is fastest growing waste
streams in the world
Increasing market penetration
Replacement market
High obsolence rate (1,46,180 Tonnes for year 2005)
As per Environmental Policy (NEP), there is a need to facilitate
recovery and/or reuse of materials from waste generated from a
process and or/ from the use of any material, thereby reducing the
waste destined for final disposal and to ensure the environmentally
sound management of all materials.
The NEP also encourages giving legal recognition and strengthening
the informal sectors system for collection and recycling of various
materials.
VariousregulationsthatcoverdifferentaspectsofEwasteare:
1. TheHazardousWastes(Management,HandlingandTransboundary
Movement)Rules,2008.
RegistrationmandatoryforallEwasterecyclersaslistedin
ScheduleIVoftheRule
Transboundarymovement(exportandimport)ofEwaste
regulatedinaccordancewiththeBaselConventionandwaste
categoriesincludedinScheduleIIIoftheaboveRule.
2. TheMunicipalSolidWaste(Management&Handling)Rules,2000
forallnontoxiccontents.
LegislationsGoverningEWaste
Composition of E-Waste
Very diverse compositions and differs in products across different
categories.
More than 1000 different substances, under hazardous and non-
hazardous categories
Consists of ferrous (50%) and non-ferrous metals (13%), plastics (21%),
glass, wood & plywood, printed circuit boards, concrete and ceramics,
rubber and other items.
Non-ferrous metals consist of metals like Copper, Aluminium and precious
metals e.g. Silver, Gold, Platinum, Palladium etc.
Presence of Lead, Mercury, Arsenic, Cadmium, Selenium, and hexavalent
Chromium and Brominated flame retardants beyond threshold quantities in
E-waste makes it hazardous waste.
CompositionofEwaste
Contd.
Appliances Average
weight
(Kg.)
Fe
%
Weight
Non Fe-
metal
% weight
Glass
%
weight
Plastic
%
weight
Refrigerator
s/freezers
48 64 6 1.4 13
Personal
computers
30 35 9 15 23
TV sets 36 5 5 62 23
Fluorescent
tubes
0.2 0.6 1.4 94 -
Table:AverageWeightandCompositionofSelectedAppliances
Categorisation ofEWaste
Components which are Building Blocks of EWaste and easily
identifiable and removable are metal, motor/compressor, cooling
plant, plastic, insulation material, glass, LCD, rubber, electrical wiring,
concrete, transformer, magnetron, textile, circuit board, fluorescent lamp,
incandescent lamp, heating element, thermostat, BFRplastic, batteries,
CFC/HCFC/HFC/HC,externalelectriccablesetc
Large Household
Appliances
Refrigerators, Washing Machines, Microwaves etc
IT & Telecom Appliances
Personal Computers, Monitors, Laptops, Mobile
Phones, etc
Consumer Appliances
Television, DVD, Play Stations etc
Threemaincategories
Components
PossibleHazardousSubstancesinComponents
Component Possible Hazardous Content
Cooling ODS
Plastic Phthalate plasticizer, BFR
Insulation Insulation ODS in foam, asbestos,
refractory ceramic fiber
CRT Lead, Antimony, Mercury, Phosphors
LCD Mercury
Rubber Phthalate plasticizer, BFR
Wiring / Electrical Phthalate plasticizer, Lead, BFR
Circuit Board Lead, Beryllium, Antimony, BFR
Fluorescent Lamp Mercury, Phosphorus, Flame Retardants
Thermostat Mercury
BFR containing
plastic
BFRs
Batteries Lead, Lithium, Cadmium, Mercury
CFC, HCFC, HFC,
HC
Ozone depleting substances
External electric
cables
BFRs, plasticizers
Electrolyte
Capacitors
Glycol
The substances of most concern
are the heavy metals such as
lead, mercury, cadmium and
chromium (VI), halogenated
substances (e.g. CFCs),
polychlorinated biphenyls,
plastics and circuit boards that
contain brominated flame
retardants (BFRs). BFR can give
risetodioxinsandfuransduring
incineration.
1st level treatment
2nd level treatment
3rd level treatment
All the three levels of e-waste treatment are based on material flow. The material flows
from 1st level to 3rd level treatment. Each level treatment consists of unit operations,
where e-waste is treated and out put of 1st level treatment serves as input to 2nd level
treatment. After the third level treatment, the residues are disposed of either in TSDF or
incinerated. The efficiency of operations at first and second level determines the
quantity of residues going to TSDF or incineration.
Input e-waste
Output i.e. recovered
materials
Disposal
1
st
level
Treatment
2
nd
level
Treatment
3
rd
level
Treatment
Disposal
The first step towards
environmentally sound
management of E-Waste is
to remove hazardous
substances as well as
recyclable components.
Environmentally Sound E-waste Management and Treatment
The second step involves
unit operations such as
hammering, shredding and
process of separation using
various techniques.
First Level Treatment
Input: E-waste items like TV, refrigerator and Personal Computers (PC)
Unit Operations: There are three units operations at first level of E-waste treatment
Decontamination : Removal of all liquids and Gases
Dismantling -Manual/Mechanized Breaking
Segregation
All the three unit operations are dry processes, which do not require usage of water.
Decontamination
The first treatment step is to decontaminate e-waste and render it non-hazardous. This
involves removal of all types of liquids and gases (if any) under negative pressure, their
recovery and storage.
Dismantling
The decontaminated e-waste or the e-waste requiring no decontamination are dismantled
to remove the components from the used equipments. The dismantling process could be
manual or mechanized.
Segregation
After dismantling the components are segregated into hazardous and non-hazardous
components of E-waste fractions to be sent for 2
nd
level treatment.
Output of First Level Treatment
Segregated hazardous wastes like CFC, Hg Switches, batteries and capacitors
Decontaminated E-waste consisting of segregated non-hazardous E-waste like plastic, CRT, circuit
board and cables
Input: Decontaminated E-waste consisting of
segregated non hazardous wastes like plastic,
CRT, Circuit Board and Cables
Unit Operations: There are three unit operations at
second level of E-waste treatment
Hammering
Shredding
Special treatment processes comprising of
CRT treatment consisting of separation of
funnels and screen glass.
Electromagnetic separation
Eddy current separation
Density separation using water
Second Level Treatment
Process flow of Non CRT based E-waste treatment
Hammering and Shredding unit operation - Reduces size
Electromagnetic and eddy current separation
Utilizes properties like electrical conductivity, magnetic properties and density to separate ferrous, non ferrous
metal and precious metal fractions.
Plastic fractions consisting of sorted plastic after 1st level treatment, plastic mixture and plastic with
flame retardants after second level treatment, glass and lead are separated during this treatment.
The efficiency of this treatment determines the recovery rate of metal
Pre- comminuting for a rough liberation
Magnetic & eddy current separation of
ferrous and nonferrous metals
Liberation of Non Ferrous Metals
Classifying for unproved separation
Subsequent comminution
(Pulverization) of unliberated materials
Electrostatic separation of metal fraction
Dust Extraction Optional gravity or eddy
current separation of coarse metal fraction
Separation of Cu, Al, Au,
Ag and other precious
metal
Fractions (Cu, Al, Au,,
Ag and other precious
metal)
Separation of Fe & non -
Fe (Cu, Al, Au, Ag and
other precious metal)
Cyclone
Plastic
E-Waste
Pre- comminuting for a rough liberation
Magnetic & eddy current separation of
ferrous and nonferrous metals
Liberation of Non Ferrous Metals
Classifying for unproved separation
Subsequent comminution
(Pulverization) of unliberated materials
Electrostatic separation of metal fraction
Dust Extraction Optional gravity or eddy
current separation of coarse metal fraction
Separation of Cu, Al, Au,
Ag and other precious
metal
Fractions (Cu, Al, Au,,
Ag and other precious
metal)
Separation of Fe & non -
Fe (Cu, Al, Au, Ag and
other precious metal)
Cyclone
Plastic
Pre - comminuting for a rough liberation
Magnetic & eddy current separation of
ferrous and nonferrous metals
Liberation of Non Ferrous Metals
Classifying for unproved separation
Subsequent comminution
(Pulverization) of unliberated materials
Electrostatic separation of metal fraction
Dust Extraction Optional gravity or eddy
current separation of coarse metal fraction
Separation of Cu, Al, Au,
Ag and other precious
metal
Fractions (Cu, Al, Au,,
Ag and other precious
metal)
Separation of Fe & non -
Fe (Cu, Al, Au, Ag and
other precious metal)
Cyclone
Plastic
E-Waste
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Treatment
CRT has to be removed manually from plastic/ wooden casing .
The phosphor coating in the CRT has to be removed i.e. the fluorescent part
(CRTs are mainly used either in computer monitors or televisions as picture
tubes). The CRT cutting would typically include enclosure of the process to
prevent flying glass entering the working area.
The front portion of the CRT glass is clamped and cut with the help of nickel
chromium hot wire, laser or cutting disc with diamond tip followed by removal
of the phosphor coating under vacuum with the help of brush.
The white phosphor portion which may contain Cd and Barium oxide,
irrespective of its level of specific gravity and radio active nature should be
stored in appropriate labelled containers and then disposed in TSDF after
stabilization and on confirmation of TCLP tests.
Similarly lead containing broken glass pieces of funnel portion of CRT shall
also be appropriately labelled and disposed off.
The quantity of lead and its compounds in CRT (front, funnel and frit portion
taken together) has been reported as high as 5200mg/Kg against a permissible
concentration of 5000mg/Kg as per Schedule-II of the new Rules
Treatment of Gas Discharge lamps
Gas discharge lamps are defined as lamps in which light
is produced by an electrical discharge through a gas.
The discharge can either be through gases (such as
xenon, neon and carbon dioxide) or through metal vapour
such as mercury or sodium.
The treatment process for fluorescent lamps involves
shredding followed by separation into glass, metal and
powder (which contains mercury). The separation
process should be designed to prevent fugitive
emissions of mercury vapour or dust.
Third Level Treatment
Carried out mainly to recover ferrous, non-ferrous metals including precious metals,
plastics and other items of economic value
Input/ Output and Unit Operations in 3
rd
Level Treatment
Input/ E-waste residues Unit Operation/ Disposal/ Recycling
Technique
Output
Sorted Plastic Recycling Plastic Product
Plastic Mixture Energy Recovery/ Incineration Energy Recovery
Plastic Mixture with FR Incineration Energy Recovery
CRT Breaking/ Recycling Glass Cullet
Lead Smelting Secondary Lead Smelter Lead
Ferrous metal scrap Secondary steel/ iron recycling Iron
Non Ferrous metal Scrap Secondary copper and aluminum smelting Copper/ Aluminum
Precious Metals Au/ Ag separation (refining) Gold/ Silver/ Platinum and
Palladium
Batteries (Lead Acid/ Ni MH and Li
ION)
Lead recovery and smelting
Remelting and separation
Lead
CFC Recovery/ Reuse and Incineration CFC/ Energy recovery
Oil Recovery/ Reuse and Incineration Oil recovery/ energy
Capacitors Incineration Energy recovery
Mercury Separation and Distillation Mercury
Plastic Recycling
Three different types of plastic recycling options
Chemical recycling
Mechanical recycling
Thermal recycling.
New raw materials
Pelletized and new
products
Alternative fuel
Mixed plastics
Chemical recycling Mechanical recycling
Thermal recycling/
re-use
Refinery or metal
smelter
Shredding,
identification
and separation
Power generator or
cement kiln
The two major types of plastic
resins
Thermosets
Thermosets are shredded
because they cannot be re-
melted and formed into new
products
Thermoplastics
Thermoplastics can be re-
melted and formed into new
products
Thermal Recycling/
Re - use Process
In thermal recycling process,
plastics are used as fuel for energy
recovery. Since plastics have high
calorific value, which is equivalent
to or greater than coal, they can be
combusted to produce heat energy
in cement kilns.
Chemical Recycling Process
The different steps in this process are given below.
Mixed plastics
waste
Depolymerization
< 400
0
c
Hydrogenation 2 (Gas
phase)
Hydrogenation 1
(liquid phase)
Petrochemical
processes
HCL
Condensation
H
2
< 100 bar
Hydrogenation
bitumen
<450
0
C
Metals
Synerude oil Gas
Mixed plastic waste is first de-
polymerized at about 350-400C and
dehalogenated (Br and Cl). This step also
includes removal of metals.
In hydrogenation unit 1, the remaining
polymer chains from depolymerized unit
are cracked at temperatures between 350-
400 C and hydrogenated at pressure
greater than 100 bar. After hydrogenation,
the liquid product is subjected to
distillation and left over inert material is
collected in the bottom of distillation
column as residue, hydrogenation
bitumen.
In hydrogenation unit 2, high quality
products like off gas and syncrude are
obtained by hydro-treatment, which are
sent to petrochemical process.
De-polymerization of plastics and conversion processes
Mechanical Recycling Process
Sorting
Shredder
(Size reduction)
Magnetic separation
Eddy current separation
Air separation
Resin identification
Extrusion
Pelletizing
Metals, fluff, fines
Ferrous metals
Nonferrous metals
Labels, films
Sorting
Shredder
(Size reduction)
Magnetic separation
Eddy current separation
Air separation
Resin identification
Extrusion
Pelletizing
Sorting
Shredder
(Size reduction)
Magnetic separation
Eddy current separation
Air separation
Resin identification
Extrusion
Pelletizing
Metals, fluff, fines
Ferrous metals
Nonferrous metals
Labels, films
Process flow diagram for the
mechanical recycling of post
consumer plastics
Shear-shredder and hammer mills - for size reduction and
liberation of metals (coarse fraction)
Magnetic separators for ferrous metals separation,
Eddy current separators for non ferrous metals separation.
Air separation system for separation of light fractions such
as paper, labels and films.
Resin identification
Hydro cyclones separation technique
Plastic fractions are separated using density
separation technique, which is made more effective by
enhancing material wettability.
Turboelectric separation technique
Plastic resins are separated on the basis of surface
charge transfer phenomena. This technique has been
found to be most effective for materials with a particle
size between 2-4 mm.
High accelerator separation technique
For de-lamination of shredded plastic waste, which is
further separated by air classification, sieve and
electrostatics.
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
For identifying heavy metals as well as flame-
retardants.
After identification and sorting of different resins, they are
extruded and palletized.
Lead Recovery
Reverberatory furnace and blast furnace are used to recover lead from e-waste fraction.
Metals Recycling
Non Ferrous Metals (Out put of 2
nd
Level Treatment) are recovered in metal recovery facilities.
Processes flow for secondary lead recovery
Pretreatment
Reverberatory
furnace
Blast furnace
Relining
Hard Pb
Reductant
Soft Pb
(99.98% Pb)
75-85% Pb
Reductant Slag
Reverberatory furnace is charged
with lead containing materials and
reductants. In this furnace, the
reduction of lead compounds is
carried out to produce lead bullion
and slag. Lead bullion is 99.9%
while slag contains 60-70% lead.
Lead is recovered from the slag by
charging it in blast furnace along
with other lead containing
materials and fluxing agents like
iron and limestone
Hard lead is recovered from the
blast furnace, which contains 75-
85 wt. % Pb and 15-25 wt. % Sb.
Slag contains 1-3% lead. Slag
contains CaO, SiO2 and FeO.
Copper Recovery
Electrolytic Refinery
Pretreatment
Blast furnace
Converter
Anode Furnace
Reductant
Anode Cu: - 98.5 wt% Cu
Reductant
Black Cu: 70 85 wt% Cu
Low grade scrap (10-40 wt% Cu)
Blister Cu: 95 wt% Cu
Precious Metals
Cathode Cu: 99.99 wt% Cu
E-waste fraction containing Cu is fed into a blast furnace,
which are reduced by scrap iron and plastics to produce
black copper . Black copper contains 70-85 wt. % copper.
Sn, Pb and Zn are also reduced as gas fumes.
The black copper is fed into converter and oxidized using air
or enriched oxygen to produce blister copper having 95 wt. %
purity. Sn, Pb and Zn are removed, while Fe is removed as
slag.
Blister copper and scrap Cu are melted and reduced by coke
or wood or waste plastic in anode furnace. Other less noble
metal are oxidized and removed from blister copper. Sulfur is
also removed from the anode furnace.
Recovered anode copper is further purified in electrolytic
process where it is dissolved in H
2
SO
4
electrolyte with other
elements such as Ni, Zn and Fe. The pure copper 99.99 wt. %
is deposited on the cathodes.
The by-products of copper recovery process and slag are
reused for roof shingles, sand blasting and ballasts for
railroads. The anode slime from electrolytic process is used
for precious metal recovery. The entire secondary recovery of
Cu uses only one-sixth of the energy that would be required
to produce Cu from ore.
Precious Metals Recovery
Copper anode slime
Leach
Smelter
Silver
Gold, Platinum,
Palladium
Anode slime
Silver electrolytic refining
The anode slime from copper electrolytic process is used
for precious metal recovery.
Anode slime is leached by pressure.
The leached residue is then dried and, after the
addition of fluxes, smelted in a precious metals
furnace. Selenium is recovered during smelting.
The remaining material from smelter is caste into
anode and undergoes electrolysis to form high-purity
silver cathode and anode gold slime.
The anode gold slime is further leached and high purity
gold, palladium and platinum are recovered.
State
E-Waste(Tonnes) (2004-05)
MAHARASHTRA 20271
TAMIL NADU 13486
Andhra Pradesh 12780
Uttar Pradesh 10381
West Bengal 10059
Delhi 9729
Karnataka 9119
Gujarat 8994
Madhya Pradesh 7800
Punjab 6958
Total 1,09, 577
MajorE WasteGeneratorStates
EwasteFacilities
Uttaranchal
Jharkhand
Chattisgarh
01
01
02
04
02
01
01
Registered E-Waste Recyclers
S.No.
Name Registered Capacity
(Tonnes)
01. M/s Attero Recycling Pvt. Ltd., Roorkee, Uttrakhand 12,000 MTA
02. M/s Eco Recycling Pvt. Ltd. Andheri(East), Mumbai 3,600 MTA
03. M/s Earth Sense Recycle Pvt.Ltd. Hyderabad, Andhra
Pradesh
1,800 MTA
04. M/s Earth Sense Recycling Pvt. Ltd. Gurgaon 1,200 MTA
05. M/s K. G. Nandini, near Bangalore Karnataka 7,200 MTA
06. M/s E-Parisara Pvt.Ltd.,Bangalore Karnataka 1,800 MTA
07 M/s Earth Sense Recycling Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai 360 MTA
08 M/s TIC Ltd, Noida 1,000 MTA
09 M/s Ash Recyclers, Bangalore Karnataka 120 MTA
10 M/s Trishiraya Recyclers, Ltd, Chennai 740 MTA
11 M/s Tess Amm Ltd, Chennai 30, 000 MTA
12 M/s NewPort Computer Services (India) Private Limited,
Bangalore
500 MTA
Total 60,320
23
Recycling Practices Adopted
S.No.
Name of the unit Description
01. M/s Attero Recycling Pvt. Ltd., Roorkee, Uttrakhand Manual dismantling, automated
segregation and metal recovery
through electrolytic process.
02. M/s Eco Recycling Pvt. Ltd. Andheri(East), Mumbai Automated dismantling and
segregation. No CRT cutting
03. M/s Earth Sense Recycle Pvt.Ltd. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Manual dismantling and CRT cutting
04. M/s Earth Sense Recycling Pvt. Ltd. Gurgaon Manual dismantling and CRT cutting
05. M/s K. G. Nandini, near Bangalore Karnataka Automated dismantling and
segregation
06. M/s E-Parisara Pvt.Ltd.,Bangalore Karnataka Manual dismantling and CRT cutting
07 M/s Earth Sense Recycling Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai Manual dismantling and CRT cutting
08 M/s TIC Ltd, Noida Manual dismantling, CRT cutting and
mechanized CRT crusher
09 M/s Ash Recyclers, Bangalore Karnataka Manual dismantling and re-furbishing
10 M/s Trishiraya Recyclers, Ltd, Chennai Manual dismantling, segregation and
CRT cutting
11 M/s Tess Amm Ltd, Chennai Automated dismantling and
segregation
12 M/s NewPort Computer Services (India) Private Limited, Bangalore Manual dismantling and segregation
24
MATERIAL RECEIVING
SEGREGATION
DISMANTLING
SEGREGATION
Separation of Metals-
Steel,Copper,
Aluminium, Mild Steel.
Separation
of Plastics-
Grade-I,
Grade-II &
Grade-III
Separation
of Printed
Circuit
Boards
Separation of
CRT
Separation
of Batteries
Packing
Storing
Recycling
Shredding
Recycling
of Plastics
Packing
Fugitive dust separation
by pulse jet bag filter and
cyclones
Separation of
Hazardous like
tungsten, electron
gun, Dust
Storing
Forwarding
for Precious
Metal
Extraction
Sending
to TSDF
Storing
Forwarding to
TSDF for
Disposal
Separation
of Funnel
glass
Storing
Separation
of front
Glass
Removal of
Phosphorus
Removal of
Tie
Glass
recycling
Forwarding to the
CRT Manufacturers
for recycling
A TYPICAL PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR RECYCLING
OF E-WASTE
Disposal by TSDF
Storing
Recycling
Thank You!