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M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

SNGCE/ME/MEL/LM/M 807

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LABORATORY MANUAL
M 807 MECHANICAL MEASURMENTS LABORATORY

CREDITS 0:0:3

Name
Prepared by

Mr. Pradeepmon T.G.

Checked by

Prof. Koshy Varghese

Approved by

Dr. T.P.Lukose

Signature

Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering


Kadayirippu, Kolenchery - 682 311
2008

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sl.
No.

Description of experiment

Page No.

Calibration of Pressure Transducer

Measurement of Speed Using Stroboscope

Calibration of Rotameter And Water Meter

Calibration of Force Cell Using Force Transducer

Calibration of Vibration Using Vibration Set Up

Determination
Psychrometer

Measurement of Gear Tooth Parameters And Screw Thread


Parameters Using Profile Projector

14

Tool Makers Microscope

17

Measurement With The Help of Combination Set And Bevel


Protractor

20

10

Angle Measurement Using Sine Bar And Slip Gauges

23

of

Psychometric

Properties

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

Using

Sling

11

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 1
CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
OBJECTIVE:To calibrate the pressure transducer and to plot the graph Applied Pressure Vs Indicated
reading
APPARATUS:1. Pressure Transducer
2. Pressure indicator, and
3. Pressure Source (Foot pump with pressure gauge).
BASIC PRINCIPLES:Pressure is represented as force per unit area. Pressure transducer is flat diaphragm type
which is made by stainless steel and foil type strain gauges are bonded on the surface of the
diagram in the form of bridge and Force/pressure will be applied on the other side of the
diaphragm. Excitation voltage to the bridge is supplied from instrument. Defection in the
diaphragm causes change in O/P signal of the bridge. This O/P signal is fed to the highly
sophisticated amplifier. This amplified signal is given to the A/D converts the analogs signal
to Digital. This O/P is fed to the 31/2 digit Digital panel Meter (D.P.M) to read the pressure
directly in kg/cm2.
PROCEDURE:1. Connect the mains chord to the 230 V/50 Hz Ac supply.
2. Connect the sensor to the sensor socket provided at the front panel.
3. Switch on the instrument.
4. Put the READ/CAL switch in READ position and set the ZERO point to 00.00(i.e.,
Balance the Bridge)
5. Put the READ/CAL switch in CAL position and check calibration point i.e. ., 10.00 if not
adjust that to 10.00 with help of CAL pot.
6. Again put the READ/CAL switch in READ position and apply the pressure.
7. Now the indicator shows the reading in 3 digit seven segment display.
8. Plot a graph for Applied Pressure v/s Indicator Reading.
OBSERVATIONS:Sl. No.

Applied pressure in Kg/cm2

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Indicated Readings in Kg/cm2

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

RESULTS:-

INFERENCE:-

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 2.
MEASUREMENT OF SPEED USING STROBOSCOPE
OBJECTIVE:To study the working principle of a stroboscope and plot the calibration curve.
APPARATUS:1. Tachometer

2 .Stroboscope and

3. Rotating object

SPECIFICATIONS:Stroboscope:Type

model DT-2239

Range

100-10000 flashes per min

Display :

0.4 LCD, 4 digits

BASIC PRINCIPLE:The digital stroboscope is a microprocessor circuit designed, high accuracy, digital readout,
light duty, i.e., ideal for inspecting and measuring speed of moving gears, fans, centrifuge,
pumps and
motors. Modern stroboscope operates on a controllable intense flashing light
source. Repeated short duration, light flashes of adjustable frequency are separated by a light
source. The frequency controlled by an internal oscillator, is varied to correspond to the
cyclic motion being studied.
PROCEDURE:1. Switch on the rotating object.
2. Switch on stroboscope and focus on to the rotating element
3. Select the high flashing rate by pressing range switch down position and keep the flash
control knob in extreme clockwise position, go on reducing the flash rate. Multiple
images of marking on the revolving object will be obtained. Further reduce the flashing
rate till the single stationery image mark is obtained. The first single image occurs, when
the flashing rate is equal to the rpm of the revolving object. This can be read on dial
which is calibrated in terms of rpm.
4. In case single image is not obtained in the higher range, then reduce the range switch to
upper position and obtain the single image.
5. Take the rpm read on the digital display as F1
6. Slowly reduce the range until the motion is frozen once more, Note this rpm as F2.
7. If the stroboscope flashes at an integral submultiples of the speed of the rotating object
(such as , 1/3, .1/n), the object appears to be stationery, showing the single image
just as in case of the fundamental speed. Then calculate the actual speed of the object N=
F1F2/(F1-F2), in there is n number of observations then actual speed of object is calculated
as F1Fn(n-1)/(F1-Fn)
8. Multiple images are obtained if the stroboscope flashes at an integral multiple of speed of
the rotating object (such as 1, 2, 3 n).
9. The above reading can be compared to the tachometer reading which is taken
simultaneously with the stroboscope reading

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M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

OBSERVATIONS:Sl. No.

F1

F2

F3

F4

N=
F1xF2/(F1-F2)

N=
F1Fn(n-1)/(F1-Fn)

Tachometer
reading

RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 3.
CALIBRATION OF ROTAMETER AND WATER METER
OBJECTIVE:To calibrate the given rotameter and water meter against the given collecting tank and draw
the calibration curves.
BASIC PRINCIPLE:A calibrated rotameter and also water meter are connect to a self priming centrifugal pump
with the use of powder coated GI pipe line in such a way that one of it can be operated at a
time. The pump is mounted on one end and the collecting tank is mounted on the other end of
the fiber coated MS sump tank. Both the devices are provided with control valves and also a
by-pass valve to regulate the flow. A glass tube and a wooden scale are mounted on one of the
side of the collecting tank to view the water level inside.
SPECIFICATION:Pump

HP self priming centrifugal pump

Rota meter

Range 40-400 lph

L 1000xW500 x H300 mm (MS sheet of 2 mm thick)

Water meter:Sump

Collecting tank :

L 300 x W 300 x H 500 mm

PROCEDURE (Rotameter):1. Fill up the water to the sump up to the marked level.
2. Close the water meter control valve fully and open the by-pass valve.
3. Plug the mains chord to the 230 V AC mains
4. Switch ON the pump
5. Now close the by-pass valve slightly and simultaneously open the Rotameter control
valve and set the flow for some flow rate (say 300 lph)
6. Now close the collecting tank drain valve so that the water starts collecting.
7. Note down the time taken for 10 cm raise in the water level.
8. Calculate the amount of water collected in the tank per time taken in seconds
9. Open the collecting tank drain valve and repeat the same experiment for two times and
take the average value.
10. Now switch OFF the pump.
OBSERVATIONS:SlNo
Lph

Time for 10 cm rise of water (T sec)

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M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

PROCEDURE (Water meter):1. Fill up the water to the sump upto the marked level
2. Close the rota meter control valve fully and open the by-pass valve.
3. Plug the mains chord to the 230 V AC mains
4. Switch ON the pump
5. Now close the by-pass valve slightly and simultaneously open the water meter control
valve and set the flow for some flow rate (say 300 lph)
6. Note down the time taken for one revolution of the needle.
7. Now close the collecting tank drain valve so that the water starts collecting.
8. Note down the time taken for 10 cm raise in the water level.
9. Calculate the amount of water collected in the tank per time taken in seconds
10. Open the collecting tank drain valve and repeat the same experiment for two times and
take the average value.
11. Now switch OFF the pump.
OBSERVATIONS:Sl
No. of
No.
revolutions

Time taken for


revolutions

Time taken for 10 cm rise of water (T


sec)

RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

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SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 4.
CALIBRATION OF FORCE CELL USING FORCE TRANSDUCER
OBJECTIVE:To calibrate the force cell and to measure the load using it
APPARATUS:Force cell, force indicator and weights
SPECIFICATION:Type

Tension

Material

Stainless steel

Bridge resistance

350 1`%

Gauge factor (g)

Maximum Load

1Kg

Max. Over Load

150 %

BASIC PRINCIPLE:A load cell uses an elastic member as a primary transducer and strain gauges as secondary
transducer. The elastic member converts the quantity to be measured to deflection or strain. A
bridge using four active gauges is used for utilizing maximum sensitivity and also providing a
complete compensation. This arrangement uses four strain gauges each of mounted at 90 o to
each other.
The elastic members used in load cells are links, beams, rings, and shear webs. Strain gauges
are
bonded on the fabricated specimen and the compression or tension load is applied to
the specimen, the material gets elongated or compressed due to the force applied. I.e. the
material gets strained. The strain incurred by the specimen depends on the material used and
its elastic module. This strain is transferred to the strain gauges bonded on the material
resulting in change in the resistance of the gauge. Since the strain gauges are connected in the
form of Whetstones Bridge, any changes in resistance will imbalance the bridge. The
imbalance in the bridge will intern gives out the output in mV proportional to the change in
resistance of the strain gauge.
PROCEDURE:1. Connect the three pin mains of the instrument to the AC mains 230 V /50 Hz supply.
2. Connect the sensor to the sensor socket provided at the front panel.
3. Check the connections made and switch ON the instrument.
4. Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 min for initial warm up.
5. Put the READ / CAL switch in READ position and set the ZERO pot to 00.00(i.e.,
Balance the bridge)
6. Put the READ / CAL switch in CAL position and check the calibration point i.e., 10.00 if
not adjust that to 10.00 with the help of CAL pot.
7. Again put the READ/CAL switch in READ position and apply the load on the sensor.
8. Add weight to the weight pan and note the indicator reading.

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9. Plot the graph applied force Vs indicated force and check the proportionality.
OBSERVATIONS:Sl No:

Applied Load in kg

Indicated Reading in kg

Calibration equations:a) For getting the best fit and calibrated equation, y = mx + c
m
where x
y

x y n xy
x n x
2

and c

x m y
n

= actual load
= measured load

m = slope
c

= y intercept of best fit line

b) Linearity
% Linearity

Max. Error x 100 Max( yi - y )

x100
Max. Load
Max.Load

c) Hysteresis
% Hysteresis
Actual
load
(x) in
gm

Max. Deviation in Load when load applied and when load removed x 100
Max. Load
Measured load
Increasing Decreasing
load
load

Mean
(y)

Deviation

xy

x2

Yi = mxi
+c

Error
Yi-Y

RESULT:The given Load cell is calibrated and the calibration equation is obtained as
y = mx + c =
INFERENCE:-

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 5.
CALIBRATION OF VIBRATION USING VIBRATION SET UP
OBJECTIVE:To study the theory and to perform test on vibration transducer
APPARATUS:1. Oscillator
2. Power amplifier
3. Vibration exciter
4. Vibration analyzer
BASIC PRINCIPLE:Vibration exciter is an electrodynamics type of device. It consists of powerful magnet placed
central surrounding which is suspended the exciter coil. This assembly is enclosed by a high
permeability magnetic circuit for optimum performance and design has been observed to
show leakage magnetic flux at the top of the vibration table.
When an electric current is passed through the excited coil a magnetic field is excreted
around the coil, this field interacts with the field due to central permanent magnet and this
will result in the upward or downward movement of current flow in the coil. If an alternating
current is injected in the coil it moves up and down continuously. Thus the controlling the
frequency of the coil current, the frequency of vibration, is controlled. By controlling the
amount of current the amplitude of vibration is also controlled.
Power amplifier is the controlling unit to the exciter. This unit consists of a tunable sine wave
oscillator, a power amplifier to inject the current into exciter coil and protection circuit. The
power amplifier uses silicon transistors for stable and trouble free operations.
Vibration pickups are used for measuring the vibration variables like velocity, acceleration
and displacement of various machine elements. Transducer is used for converting vibration
variables to carry electric signal. Transducer can be piezoelectric type or LVDT.
Vibration variables of interest are displacement, velocity, and acceleration of selected points
on the structure or machine. In a particular application, one of these variables may be more
significant than the others, so seismic pickups are available for each of the three. The
frequency range of the vibration also influences the choice of the instrument since high
frequency vibrations has small (perhaps immeasurable) Displacement and large acceleration.
While low frequency vibration has large displacement but very small acceleration.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VIBRATION SET UP:-

Vibration Pick up

Power
Amplifier

Vibration Exciter

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Vibration
Analyzer

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

PROCEDURE:1. Connect power amplifiers o/p to the vibration excites.


2. Allow the machine remain ON 10 minutes for initial warm up.
3. Select parameter to be measured Displacement, velocity and acceleration.
4. Apply force (dynamic) sensor. It will show parameter selected depending on the
frequency of force and force applied.
5. By mounting sensor on a vibrating body any parameter can be measured.
OBSERVATIONS:Sl No:

Frequency

Displacement
Microns

Velocity (mm/s)

Acceleration(mm/s2)

RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

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M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 6.
DETERMINE PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES USING SLING
PSYCHROMETER
OBJECTIVE:To determine various psychometric properties using sling psychrometer and psychometric
chart and compare the same with those obtained from the theory.
APPARATUS:1. Sling psychrometer,
2. psychometric chart,
3. blower,
4. air conditioning rig
BASIC PRINCIPLE:Psychrometry is the study of properties of mixture of air and water vapour. This subject is
important in actual practices because atmospheric air is not completely dry, but a mixture of
air and water vapour. The properties of air water mixture are known as psychometric
properties.
Sling psychrometer is a device used for measuring dry bulb and wet bulb temperature. In
consists of two thermometer mounted on a base plate. The thermometer with wic is the wet
bulb thermometer. Wet bulb exist below the dry bulb and it is done intentionally and that
which can be socked in water without weting dry bulb. The handle provided on psychrometer
helps in rotating it and thereby producing the necessary air circulation. When the air flows
around the wick, evaporation of water from the wick takes place and results in lowering of
wet bulb temperature. The amount of water vapour evaporated depends on the moisture
content of the air. Dry air will have high wet bulb temperature. The psychrometric properties
are calculated using the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature and psychrometric chart.
PROCEDURE:1. Sock the wick in water.
2. Rotate the sling psychrometer.
3. Note down the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature.
4. Take 3 sets of reading and find the average.
5. Using psychrometric chart find out the following psychrometric properties.
a. Relative humidity
b. Dew point temperature
c. Humidity ratio
d. Enthalpy of the mixture per kg of dry air
The above mentioned properties can be calculated theoretically as follows.
For calculating partial pressure of water vapour in air

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where Pv

= Partial pressure of water vapour

Pvswb = Partial pressure of water vapour when air is fully saturated.


Pt

= Total pressure of air

Tdb

= Dry bulb temperature in oC

Twb

= wet bulb temperature in oC

For calculating specific humidity


w=0.622Pv/(Pt-Pv)
For calculating degree of saturation
=W/Ws = [Pv/Pvs][(1-Pvs/Pt)/(1-Pv/Pt)]
For calculating relative humidity
= Pv/Pvs
Dew point temperature Tdp is the temperature corresponding to the partial pressure of vapour
obtained from the steam tables.
For determining the enthalpy of the mixture per kg of dry air
h= Cp x Tdb+w(Hg+1.88(Tdb-Tdp))
where Hg is the specific enthalpy corresponding to dry bulb temperature obtained from steam
table.
Room
Condition

Condition
Dry bulb
temperature
Wet bulb
temperature

Blower

Air condition test rig


Input
Output

1
2
3
Avg.
1
2
3
Avg.

Properties

Chart

Calculation

Chart

Calculation

Chart

Calculation

Chart

Calculation

Relative Humidity
(%)
Humidity Ratio w
(kg/kg of air)
Dew point
temperature Tdp (oC)
Degree of saturation
(%)
Enthalpy h
(KJ/kg of dry air)

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RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

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M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 7.
MEASUREMENT OF GEAR TOOTH PARAMETERS AND SCREW
THREAD PARAMETERS USING PROFILE PROJECTOR
OBJECTIVES:To determine the gear tooth parameter of a spur gear and screw thread parameter using profile
projector
APPARATUS:1. Profile projector
2. Specimens
3. Spur gear
4. Screw
BASIC PRINCIPLE:Profile projector is a precision, inspection and measuring optical device which is used to
check profile of components having machine formed surface such as gears, screws and those
objects having regular or irregular profile. It is ideal for rapid inspection of linear and angular
measurements of small to medium size components. It consists of a halogen /high intensity
24 V and 150 W. the light source is placed at the principal focus of the collimating lens. The
projection lens is a combination of lenses and forms a real image of the object placed
between it and collimating lens. The work stage is mounted on ball bearing and it is rotatable
form 0-360o. The two micrometers are attached to provide motion in x and y axes directions.
The range of magnification ranges from 10X to 20X. The screen is of 300 mm diameter and
rotatable from 0-360o.
Gear Parameters
Pitch circle diameter (d):It is the diameter of the circle which by pure rolling action would produce same motion on
the toothed gear wheel.
d=T x Outer dia./(T+2)
where T is the number of teeth
Module (m):It is defined as the length of pitch circle diameter per unit tooth and expressed in mm.
m = d/T
Circular pitch (pc):It is the distance measured around the pitch circle from the flank of the tooth to the similar
flank in the next tooth.
pc=d/T =m
Diametral pitch (dp):dp= 1/m
Addendum:It is the radial distance from the pitch circle to the tip of the tooth.
Addendum = 1m
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Addendum circle diameter = d + 2 x addendum


Deddendum:It is the radial distance from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth.
Deddendum = addendum + clearance.
Clearance:It is the radial distance from tip of the tooth to the bottom of the mating tooth.
Clearance = 0.25 mm
Tooth thickness
it is the thickness of the tooth measured on the pitch circle.
Tooth thickness = 1.5708m
The tooth nomenclature and thread nomenclature are shown in figure 1 and figure 2
respectively.
Figure1 Gear Parameters

PROCEDURE:The job is placed on the work table. Its profile is viewed on the screen and is measured with
the help of micrometer attached by shifting the image on the screen.

Gear parameter
Outer dia

From calculation

From measurement

Pitcj circle dia


Module
Circular pitch
Diametral pitch
Addendum
Clearance
Tooth thickness

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Screw Thread Parameters:-

Figure2 Thread Parameters

RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

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Ex. No. 8.
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
OBJECTIVE:To Measure tool angles and thread parameters using toolmakers microscope
BASIC PRINCIPLE:The Tool Makers Microscope is an optical measuring machine equipped for external and
internal length measurements as well as measurements on screw threads, profiles, curvatures
and angles.
A. MEASUREMENT OF TOOL ANGLES:-

Figure1 Tool Nomenclature


PROCEDURE:1. Place the tool bit on the glass table so as to obtain a clear image on which angular
measurement are done.
2. Focus the microscope to get a real image.
3. Rotate the protractor so as to bring one side of the angle to coincide with reference line
and note the reading in protractor as initial reading.
4. Now rotate the protractor so as to bring the other side of the angle to coincide with
reference line and note the reading in protractor as final reading.
5. The difference between two readings will give corresponding angles.
OBSERVATION:Tool Angle

Initial Reading Final Reading Difference in 0

Back Rake angle


Wedge or Lip angle
End Relief angle
Side cutting edge angle
End cutting edge angle
Side Rake angle
Side relief angle

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RESULT:INFERENCE:B. MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETERS:-

Figure 2 Thread Nomenclature


PROCEDURE:a. Measurement of pitch of the screw.
1. Mount the threaded work piece on the table.
2. Focus the microscope by adjusting the optical head, until a sharp image of the projected
contour of the thread is seen on the ground glass screen. The contour is so set that some
point on it coincides with the cross line on the screen. Note down the reading on the
micrometer.
3. Move the table by the micrometer screw until a corresponding point on the contour of the
next thread coincides with the cross line. Note down the reading of the micrometer again.
4. The difference in the above two readings gives the pitch of the screw.
b. Measurement of thread angle
1. Rotate the protractor until a line on the screen coincides with one flank of the thread
profile. Note the angle on the angular scale.
2. Rotate the protractor further till the same line coincides with the other flank of thread.
Note the reading again.
3. The difference between the above two readings gives the angle of the thread.
CALCULATIONS:a. Measurement of pitch of the screw.
Initial micrometer reading =
Final micrometer reading

Pitch of the screw

= Final micrometer reading- Initial micrometer reading =

b. Measurement of thread angle


Initial angular scale reading =
Final angular scale reading =
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Thread angle

= Final angular scale reading - Initial angular scale reading =

RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

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SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

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Ex. No. 9.
MEASUREMENT WITH THE HELP OF COMBINATION SET AND
BEVEL PROTRACTOR
OBJECTIVE:Measurement with the help of combination set band Bevel Protractor
APPARATUS:1. Combination Set (300 mm scale)
2. Square head (Attachment of combination set)
3. Centre head (Attached with combination Set)
4. Vernier Bevel Protractor
5. Jobs
1. COMBINATION SET
BASIC PRINCIPLE:Combination set is versatile but non precision instrument. It is used to measure angles, to
check the squareness to mark the centre and to measure the depth where high accuracy is not
desire. It consists of the following parts
a. Steel rule
b. Square head
c. Centre head
d. Protractor head
PROCEDURE:For Measuring Linear Distance
1. Find the sliding square in the groove of the steel rule.
2. Face the gauging square of the sliding square on the reference surface and the scale is
lowered until it contacts the top surface of the extend part of the job.
3. Tight the clamp screw and remove the combination set and take the reading of the scale
by counting the division which closely matches with the reference line marked on the
sliding square.
For Measuring Angles
1. Fix the protractor head on scale.
2. Place the scale on one side of the angle measured.
3. Adjust the protractor by rotating, so that work surface should touch the adjacent side of
the angle to be measured.
4. Lock the protractor in this position.
5. Read the angle on the scale.

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For Making Centre Job


1. Fix the centre head on scale.
2. Hold the bar stock beneath the scale.
3. Ensure that sides of the centre head are touching the bar stock.
4. Scribe a line along the scale in each position and rotate the bar stock in three position.
5. The intersection of marked lines will be the centre of the job.
OBSERVATIONS:Sl No:

A in mm

in degrees

1
2
3
4
Precautions:1. The surface to be checked must be free from dust and dirt.
2. The edge of the scale should be straight.
3. While using square head, the spirit level attached with square head must be checked.
4. Before measuring angles, check zero error of protractor.

2. VERNIER BEVEL PROTRACTOR


BASIC PRINCIPLE:The angle between two faces of a component can be simply measured by means of a
protractor. As showing in the protractor has two blades (viz, fixed measuring blade and
rotatable or movable blade) which can be set along the faces containing the angle. Its body
contains a circular scale which is extended to form one of the blades. The second blade
(rotatable blade) is sliding and can be locked in any position along its length to a rotating
turret mounted on the body. Either the body or the turret carries the divided circular scale,
while the other member carries a Vernier on an index mark.
PROCEDURE:1. Incorporate adjustable blade in the slot of the body and clamp it with the help of knob in
the convenient position.
2. Measurement of angle of lathe center.
3. Place the working edge of the shock on one surface of the job and rotate the turret holding
the blade. So that working edge of blade coincides with another surface of the job. The
correct positions of bevel protractor of job-1 &job-2 are shown in respectively.
4. Count the main circular scale reading and observe which division of Vernier scale
coincides exactly with main scale division. The calculate the final values as follows:Total reading = Main scale (M.S) reading + (Least count x Vernier scale reading)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

21

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

OBSERVATIONS: Jobs-1, in degrees


Main
Vernier
Total
Sl.
scale
scale
reading =
No
(M.S)
reading
(M.S) +(L.C
reading
(V.S)
x V.S)
1

Least count (L.C.) =.mm


Job-2, in degrees
Main
Vernier
Total
scale
scale
reading =
(M.S)
reading
(M.S) +(L.C
reading
(V.S)
x V.S)

2
3
4
Precautions:1. The surface to be measured should be free from dust and dirt.
2. While holding the instrument on surface, the blade and stock should be exactly parallel to
the surface of the job.
3. Before starting the experiment the zero error must be checked.

RESULT:-

INFERENCE:-

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

22

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

Ex. No. 10.


ANGLE MEASUREMENT USING SINE BAR AND SLIP GAUGES
OBJECTIVE:Angle measurement by the use of sine bar and slip gauges.
APPARATUS:1. Sine bar
2. Surface plate
3. A set of slip gauge
4. Dial gauge
5. Angle plate
6. Height gauge
BASIC PRINCIPLE:Sine bar is a tool used for accurate setting out of angles by arranging to convert angular
measurement to linear ones. If we wish to set out an angle , we could do so (Fig: 21) by
setting off a horizontal
line AB, next scribing an arc CD with a measured radius R and
then setting out a vertical dimension EF, made so that EF=R sin . This is quite easily done
by means of the sine bar.
Sine bars used in conjunction with slip gauges constitutes a very good device for the precise
measurement of angles. Sine bars are used either to measure angles accurately or for locating
any work to a given angle within very close limit.
PROCEDURE:1. Before setting the sine bar make sure that the surface place must be free from dust and
dirt.
2. Now place the sine bar on the job with the help of combination of slip gauges (resting on
the surface plate).
3. The combination of slip gauges should be so adjusted that the upper surface of the
component is truly parallel with the surface plate (to be checked with dial gauge).
4. Notes the heights h1 and h2 obtained by slip gauges. The distance between the rollers is
constant for particular sine bar (l).
5. Taper angle = sin -1((h1-h2)/L).
OBSERVATIONS: Sl. No.

h1

L = .mm
h2

= sin -1((h1-h2)/L)

1
2
3
RESULT:INFERENCE:-

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

23

M 807 - MEASUREMENT LABORATORY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRUPPU

24