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Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## MicroStation 3D Graphics User Training

### Training Guide

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## 3D Space Consideration

When we work in 2D, we are drawing in a flat area, which only have X and Y coordinate to define the position of an element in the design plane.

In 3D environment, it is not a single plane anymore. Depth is being introduced as the third dimension and it can be imagine as a design cube. It is what we called the Z coordinate.

## The global origin

The global origin is defined in a position of the design cube that all the coordinates of X, Y and Z are equal to ZERO. This means they all have equal range of positive and negative coordinates in the three dimensions.

The global origin,all
the coordinatesare zero

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## The Drawing Coordinate System

The drawing coordinate system of our model are said to be Absolute which are related to the pre-set Global Origin and do not change when changing view. In other words, drawing coordinates are NOT dependent on the view that you are working in. They are global coordinate system.

This is the 3D design cube of the seed file - seed3d.dgn. The direction of the axis illustrates the direction of the drawing coordinate system.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## View Coordinate Systems

View Coordinate Systems is view dependent and it is always be X to the right, Y up the screen and Z out of the screen. It is different to the drawing coordinate system because they are based on different axis.

In top view, the view coordinate and the drawing coordinate are coincided. In view coordinate, the values keyed in are relative to a known existing point.

Right-Hand Coordinate System to illustrate Drawing Coordinate System and View Coordinate System.

Exercise - Relative View Coordinate

A 3d line has one endpoint of XY=10,10,10. You are now working on the right view of the design file. You entered DX=5,10,15. What are the actual drawing coordinates of the second endpoint?

10

10

10

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## 3D Seed Files

There are numerous 3D seed files that you can use. When create a new design file in the Create Design File Dialog box, you should pick the select button and select a 3D seed file before you can start drawing.

In

MicroStation/J,

the

directory

of

the

\Bentley\WorkSpace\system\seed

seed

file

is

seed3d.dgn

This is the seed file you seen in the previous exercise. It has a

3D cube to help you to start drawing in three-dimensional space. You can turn the label off in the View Attributes dialog box by uncheck the Construction.

3dm.dgn

This is exactly the same as the seed3d.dgn except this file is

setup to handle metric units.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## 3D view controls

The 3D view control toolbox helps you to change the view of 3D files.

You can find the 3D view control under the main pull-down menu TOOLS> VIEW CONTROL > 3D

The 3D view control toolbox helps

 you to view 3D files in MicroStation. It consists of tools that allows you to Zoom in/Out,

Change the Perspective view of

it

later

on.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## Zoom In / Out

It allows you to Zoom in / out of a certain part of your design file.

Exercise – Zoom In/Out

• 1. Entering Zoom center point

• 2. Defining the volume of interest

• 3. Defining the new volume in Front View

• 4. You should see the new display in front view as a result of zooming in

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## Change View Perspective

When a view window displays one of the standard isometric views, it follows the convention of having parallel surfaces remaining parallel. The parts of the object that are father away from the viewer’s eye don’t seem smaller. These tools allow you to change the view into a true prospective rather than pictorial one.

Previous
View

Exercise – Change Perspective

• 1. Select the change perspective tool

• 2. Select a view (in this case, the isometric view), the data point that select a view will be specified as the point that you want to move your eye from.

• 3. Define another data point, which you want to move your eye to.

In MicroStation/J, the new Dynamic display helps you to view the perspective change instantaneously. To enable the Dynamic Display, check the Dynamic Display box in the Change View Perspective dialog box.

In some case, you might set the perspective on a view by mistake. To eliminate the perspective you can:

• 1. Select the Previous View Button on the view windows toolbar or

• 2. You need to use the Change View Prospective tool. The 1 st point should be near the edge of the view and the 2 nd point should be near the center of the view.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## View Volume and display depth

Display depth

Control the display of elements by their depth in the model in the viewing directions

Front Clipping Plane

Front of which elements do not display

Back Clipping Plane

Beyond which no element appears.

View Volume

Display depth and Window Area combined to be a view volume.

Front Clipping
Display
Plane
Depth
Back Clipping
Plane

Display depth is equal to the distance between two clipping plane. Clipping Planes are set to be perpendicular to a particular view. It is useful when we want to zoom into a complex model and only like to look at a certain VIEW Volume.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

Exercise - Set the display depth

• 1. Select the set display depth tool from the 3D view control tool box.

• 2. Data point on the top view

• 3. Define the front clipping plane as promoted in the Front View, by data pointing above the cube top. The front clipping plane will display in the isometric view. It will appear dynamically

• 4. Define the Back clipping plane by data pointing below the top face of the cube. You will also see the black clipping plane in the isometric view as well.

First data
point
Second data
point

To set Display depth of a view, find another view, which is 90 degree to it to define the Front Clopping Plane and Back Clipping Plane.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## Active Depth

In each view, we know that the view coordinate is x is positive to the right and Y is positive up the screen. This should be enough when we draw in 2D. But in 3D, we need to know that XY plane located in where on the Z-axis. The location of that XY plane on the Z-axis defines the depth for a view.

You can set an active depth in a view so that when you draw, elements would fall onto that defined depth of the Z-axis.

Front Clipping
Plane
Active Depth
Back Clipping
Plane

The active depth of a design file should fall between the front clipping plane and the back clipping plane.

In Conclusion,

• 1. Different views can have their own Active Depth individually

• 2. Snapping or Keyin can override the current Active Depth

• 3. You can define a new active depth or display depth whenever you want.

• 4. To reset the active depth, do a Fit View with Center Active Depth Checked

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

Exercise - Active Depth

• 1. Create a new design file using the seed3d.dgn as seed file and name it as activedepth.dgn

• 2. Access to the view attribute dialog box from the pull-down menu SETTING > VIEW ATTRIBUTE or by pressing CTRL+B.

• 3. Turn off the “constructions” so as to turn the display of axis and labels off.

• 4. Change the Level to 2 and Line Weight to 5

• 5. Change the Snapping mode to Center and Snap to the cube on the front view.

• 6. Select the Place Active Point Tool and place a data point there. You should see the data point we place is located in the bottom of the cube where the active depth is equal to zero.

• 7. Now, select the set Active Depth tool from the 3D view toolbar

• 8. Place a data point on the top view

• 9. Set the new active depth in the middle of the cube on front view

• 10. Repeat Step 6 to place more Active point in the design cube.

• 11. You should notice that those points are place on different depth inside the cube.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## View Rotation

The depth in 3D environment cannot correctly be seen on a 2D screen. MicroStation allows you to rotate your view so that you can look at the 3D object in any direction. Both tools do not rotate the actual object. It just likes moving yourself around it.

There are two different methods for rotating view and they are totally different:

• 1. Change View Rotation

• 2. Rotate View

### Change View Rotation

In 3D View Control Tool box, you can find the change view rotation command. When you click on the View Rotation Dialog box with a cube there represents your 3D object.

The cube here
showing the
current view
rotation
 Click to change the rotation. Hold to do a speed rotation Step increment for degree to rotate View means rotation is according to the view coordinate system Drawing means rotation is based on drawing coordinate system
Standard View
option. You can
change the view
rotation here
View that you
are working on.
You can change
at any time
Apply to make
changes

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

### Rotate View

The rotate view tool shown up on each view. It resides on the window view control tool bar where Update view, Zoom in and Zoom out are there as well. A Simple rotate view dialog box.

All you need to do is to choose the Method of rotation and then select the view you want the rotation to be.

EXERCISE

• 1. Select the rotate view tools, pick the method of rotation

• 2. Select a view that you want to rotate.

When after the rotation, you cannot see the entire object. Just do a Fit View with Expand Clipping Planes ON.

Dynamic Display

As seen from the previous exercise, the view rotation tool only gives you an outline of a cube for rotation and sometimes it is pretty hard to see how the real object look like. The Dynamic Display is being introduced in MicroStation/J to allow user to Dynamically rotate the object real time in the screen.

To turn the Dynamic Display on, just checked the box “Dynamic Display” in the Rotate View dialog box. You are only rotating the view (ie. How the object is display). The actual object is never moved.

Introduction to MicroStation 3D

Chapter 1

## Questions

• Å Sketch a three-orthographic-view layout as shown and include the following:

• a) The Xd-Yd-Zd positive drawing axis orientation in ALL three views.

• b) The Xfs-Yfs-Zfs positive screen axis for and in the Front View

• c) The Xls-Yls-Zls for the positive screen axis for and in the Left View.

Then also sketch an isometric cube as shown, and label those 3 X-Y-Z positive axes on the isometric cube.

T

L

F

T
L
F
• Ç If you are working in the Right view of an object and you start a line with the key-in of :XY=3,20,0 and then key-in the endpoint of the line as :DX=5,10,15, what will the drawing coordinates of that endpoint be? Include a sketch with the axis and values used to determine the endpoint.

• É If you are working in the Front view of an object and you start a line with the key-in of :XY=5,32,17 and then key-in the other endpoint of the line as :DX=30,–12,15, what will the drawing coordinates of that endpoint be? Include a sketch with the axis and values used to determine the endpoint.

• Ñ If you are working in the Front view of an object and you start a line with the key-in of :XY=5,32,17 and then key-in the other endpoint of the line as :DL=30,–12,15, what will the drawing coordinates of that endpoint be? Include a sketch with the axis and values used to determine the endpoint.

• Ö Explain the difference between the Active Depth and the Display Depth. Use a sketch if needed.

• Ü What is the setting in Fit View that helps you see all of the 3D graphics easily?

• á When you’re using the Change View Rotation tool in the 3D View Control tool box, what is the benefit of this area?

• à What is a visual cue to the 3D View Control tools that will show you information but don’t actually change any settings?

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## What is Auxiliary Coordinate System?

Auxiliary Coordinate System (ACS) is another way of controlling the coordinate used in MicroStation drawing design. ACS allows you to have more control over the orientation and location of the coordinate system. It lets you define the origin’s position and axis orientation.

We can enter the coordinates according to the active ACS and MicroStation will be able to translate the entered coordinate to the drawing coordinate system. Unlike the view coordinate system, you can redefine it at any time you want.

There are three types of ACS coordinate system: Rectangular, Cylindrical and Spherical.

The 3D cube inside the seed3d.dgn file helps you to identify the orientation of your X,Y and Z drawing coordinate. The ACS Triad functions like the cube in the 3D seed file.

When you are working on a design where you have ACS defined, you can

turn this setting on to

see

the

X,Y

and

X

location.

It

can

be

turn

on

by

checking the box of “ACS Triad” in the View Attribute dialog box.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## Use of ACS

You can use ACS in a numbers of ways and it is especially useful when you are trying to start your drawing in 3D.

For example, when you want to draw a line on an inclined plane. It is very difficult to use drawing coordinate or view coordinate to define. It is where ACS comes handy in this situation.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## ACS Key-in

There are two keyin that are based on the ACS

Absolute Coordinate = AX Relative Coordinate = AD

ACS origin. It’s
ACS coordinate
is (0,0,0)

## ACS Tools and Utilities

There is an ACS toolbox where you can find it in the main menu pull-down TOOLS > AUXILIARY COORDINATES

You can find more information in the ACS dialog box where you can access from UTILITIES > AUXILIARY COORDINATES. This menu offers a pull-down menu, which is easier to read then the icon in the toolbar.

Access the ACS
tools in this pull-
down

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## ACS Plan Lock and Snap

When dealing with ACS tools, you will often see ACS Plane Lock and ACS Plan Snap in the dialog box.

You can see only these two options when you are working in 3D design file. It affect the placement of data point placement and snapping.

ACS Plane Lock, when on, all the data point are forced to lie on the XY Plane of the ACS and it makes the Z coordinate in the ACS be zero.

ACS Plane Snap, when on, it will try to find a tentative point where it is only the XY Plane of the ACS. It will NOT prevent the snapping of other elements.

A Data Point
is being place here.

The XY Plane
of the ACS is here.

It is how the ACS Plane Lock works. When on, the data point being place in will automatically be falls into the XY Plane of the ACS coordinates.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## Define ACS

Define by Element

Defining the ACS from an existing element in the drawing is doing this. The data point identify the element will be determined as the origin of the ACS. i.e. The ACS coordinate (0,0,0)

• 1. Identify an element in design file to define ACS

• 2. Snap on a tentative point on the element where you want it to be the origin of the ACS coordinate

• 3. Place a data point to confirm

• 4. Place another point to accept the selected element.

The origin in the above ACS dialog box is where the ACS origin location in the drawing coordinate system.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

### Define by Point

This is another useful method of defining the ACS. It got more control of how the ACS will be.

There are three steps to define the ACS by points

• 1. Define the origin of the ACS

• 2. Define the positive X axis of the ACS

• 3. Define the positive Y axis of the ACS

3
1
2

### Define by View

This is being use to set the ACS plane back to the same as the drawing plane.

It is being done by :

• 1. Select the define by view ACS tool

• 2. Data point on the Top view of the drawing to confirm that you want it to align with the view

The ACS is now oriented to the drawing plane but the coordinate is not at (0,0,0) of the drawing coordinate. You can set the ACS origin to it by using the ACS dialog box and change the number in the origin to (0,0,0).

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

### Saving an ACS

You can save the origin of ACS so that you can use it later on. It is being done in the ACS dialog box.

You can have
one or more
ACS saved

After you have defined an ACS, type a name and a description in the ACS dialog box and click on the save button. It will then save your ACS origin so that you can reuse it later on in the drawing.

• 1. The Name of the ACS should not more than 6 characters.

• 2. Even if an ACS is defined, you can still draw using the drawing coordinate and as well the view coordinate.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## AccuDraw in 3D

In previous example, we saw how ACS is being use. Now AccuDraw provides you a more accuracy and precision. AccuDraw has its own coordinate system and when AccuDraw is active data points are constrained on the AccuDraw XY Plane.

In 3D environment, AccuDraw is more powerful because of its drawing plane can easily be rotate and reoriented to suit your needs. It can easily be oriented to the View coordinate System. The good thing is, no matter which view you are working on, you can always be set to align with a specific view coordinate.

For Example, if you are working on the isometric view, you can ask AccuDraw to align to the top view so that the things being drawing are aligned.

• 1. The AccuDraw compass give you a visual cue as to its drawing plane’s origin and orientation

• 2. The values in the AccuDraw compass are based on the AccuDraw Drawing Plane and its origin.

• 3. For AccuDraw shortcut to work correctly, the focus should be in the AccuDraw dialog.

• 4. The Change from a Polar Coordinate to Rectangular Coordinate, press the <SPACEBAR>

## Coordinate System Rotation: VIEW

You can align to whatever view you are working on by pressing the <V> shortcut. It will allow you to rotate the compass to the current position.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

### Coordinate System Rotation: TOP, FRONT AND SIDE

The above are an example of how AccuDraw works in 3D environment. We are drawing in the isometric view of the design file with a place line command.

AccuDraw helps on the rotation of the drawing plane with that specific view. It can be TOP view, FRONT view and SIDE view.

To align the compass, you can use change it in the AccuDraw setting dialog box in the SETTING>ACCUDRAW

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

## AccuDraw and ACS

AccuDraw also has shortcut to save and recall the ACS. This allows you to use AccuDraw and its shortcut to get the AccuDraw coordinate system in the orientation required and then save it as an ACS.

### Rotate ACS

The <R><A> shortcut in AccuDraw can

let

you

define

the

AccuDraw

coordinate system in the same method used in Define By Point for a

Rectangular Type of ACS.

• 1. Define the Origin

• 2. Define the X-axis

• 3. Define the Y-axis

After you have done all the steps in the above. You should find that the coordinate system in AccuDraw setting should now change to Auxiliary. You can see the new ACS by turn on the ACS triad.

### Write ACS

You can use AccuDraw to help you to save an ACS setting as well. It is just the same as you use the ACS dialog box but provide a more convenient way to save your current ACS coordinate.

<W><A> is the shortcut to save the ACS in AccuDraw

### Get ACS

You can also get your ACS coordinate that saved into the design file from accessing the shortcut <G><A> in AccuDraw. But one of thing that you should know before you use this shortcut is that, the name of the saved ACS.

• 1. If Origin is turn off. The AccuDraw origin will not be move to match the ACS.

• 2. If the Rotation is turn on. The AccuDraw drawing plane will be align to match the ACS

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

### Exercise – ACS

Place the fist side triangle

• 1. Create a new design file using the seed file seed3d.dgn

• 2. Activate AccuDraw

• 3. Select the Place SmartLine, enter a point in the right view

• 4. Move the pointer up and to the right, change the compress to Polar mode by pressing the <SPACEBAR>

• 5. Keyin 1 in the AccuDraw distance field and 70 to the angle. Switch the field by using the <TAB> key.

• 6. Press <S> to rotate the AccuDraw to side rotation, move the pointer directly downwards and make sure it is indexed to the y-axis., press <ENTER> to lock the axis.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

• 7. Snap to the starting point of the first side. Accept to define the length of the second side.

• 8. Snap a second time at the starting point to accept.

• 9. Accept, Reset.

Place the second side

• 1. Select the Copy Element tool, identify the triangle in the Right isometric view with a data point

• 2. Press <T> for a Top rotation, moves the pointer index to X-axis to the right of the AccuDraw origin.

• 3. Input 1 in the Distance field and Accept, Reset.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

Define an ACS on the model

• 1. Change the focus to AccuDraw, use the shortcut <R><A>

• 2. The first point is to define the x-axis origin. Snapping to the leftmost vertex in the triangle (Right isometric view), Accept a data point.

• 3. Define the x-axis direction by placing a second data point in the corresponding corner on the other triangle.

• 4. Define the y-axis direction by Snapping to the top vertex of a triangle, accept the data point.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

• 5. You now have the ACS defined and It’s origin is now on the leftmost vertex in triangle.

Placing a block on the model

• 1. Select the place block tool, use the isometric view to snap a corner of the lower front vertex of one triangle, data point on that.

• 2. Select the upper front corner of another triangle and place a data point there.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

Saving the Drawing Plan Coordinate System by Name

• 1. With AccuDraw shortcut <W><A>

• 2. Keyin a Name for the ACS, then click OK.

• 3. Now, use the AccuDraw shortcut <F> for a Front View rotation.

• 4. Use <G><A> shortcut and keyin the name of your previously saved Name for an ACS.

• 5. Start to place the element again and you will notice that the element will now be placed on the ACS plane.

Auxiliary Coordinate Systems and AccuDraw in 3D

Chapter 2

Questions

• Å What is an Auxiliary Coordinate System? What is its abbreviation?

• Ç Name the 3 different methods discussed for defining an Auxiliary Coordinate System.

• É Name the key-in that uses the absolute Auxiliary Coordinate System.

• Ñ Name the key-in that uses the relative Auxiliary Coordinate System.

• Ö How do you define the origin of the ACS based on an element?

• Ü How many points are involved in a By Points (Rectangular Type) ACS definition? Name and describe them in order.

• á In the Auxiliary Coordinate Systems dialog box there are three fields that give the values for the Origin of the ACS. What coordinate system do these numbers refer to?

• à What is this called? How do you get it to be displayed in a view?

• â Name the AccuDraw shortcuts that would result in the following compass orientation while you’re working in the Right Isometric view:

A

B

C

• ä What does the AccuDraw shortcut <G><A> do? Explain some specific advantages and disadvantages of using this shortcut.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## What is SmartSolid?

Apart from the new productivity tools found in MicroStation/J, the main enchantment in 3D is the change from the Surface modeling to Solid modeling. It uses SmartSolid to represent three-dimensional objects. Previous version of MicroStation only had surface modeling capabilities. True solid modeling is found only in the add-on product of MicroStation Modeler.

Functions such as Boolean Operation, extrusions and projections, some part of the basic modeling tools, are included in MicroStation/J.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## Basic Rendering Mode

 Wiremesh display Hidden Line display Filled Hidden Line display Constant shading

Wiremesh display

Similar to wireframe display — all elements are transparent and do not obscure other elements. Hidden lines are not removed. Curved surfaces are represented by a polygonal mesh — this can increase the realism of curved surfaces, although it may also increase the amount of clutter as more lines are displayed for surfaces that would normally be hidden.

Hidden Line display

Only parts of elements that would actually be visible are displayed — lines hidden behind objects are removed. Also called “polygon” display. Each element is decomposed into polygons. Hidden line removal takes much longer than wireframe or wiremesh display. In fact, the display time is about the same as other, more realistic, rendering methods.

Filled Hidden Line display

Similar to Hidden Line display, except the polygons are filled with the element color, creating a cartoon-like effect that may be useful in some circumstances, especially with hardware that displays a limited number of colors. Also called “filled polygon” display.

Surfaces are displayed as one or more polygons, each filled with a single (constant) color. The color is determined by the material definition of the surface and the lighting applied. The color for each polygon is calculated from the element color, material definitions, and lighting. Curved surfaces are decomposed into a mesh of polygons, and appear tiled. The color for each polygon is calculated from the element color and lighting. Curved surfaces are broken down into a mesh of polygons, and appear tiled.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## Some settings that affect SmartSolid

Several settings control the way in which SmartSolids and SmartSurfaces are treated. These control both the display and the method for selecting SmartSolids and SmartSurfaces, as well how they are treated when exported as visible edges.

SmartSolids The SmartSolid Settings dialog box (Element menu > SmartSolids) controls the default display of SmartSolid elements.

Display By default, SmartSolids and SmartSurfaces are displayed in Wireframe display mode. This is the more efficient mode for working with SmartSolids and SmartSurfaces in a design session. Surfaces display mode should be used only where the design is to be rendered with an earlier version of MicroStation (pre MicroStation/J).

Surface Rule Lines In Wireframe (and Surfaces) display mode, curved surfaces are represented both by their edge lines and a defined number of rule lines. Surface rule lines provide a visual indication of a surface's curvature. With the default setting of 4, for example, a full cylindrical solid is displayed with 4 surface rule lines, while the same solid cut in half displays with 2 surface rule lines. Planar surfaces, which do not have curvature, are represented by their edge boundaries only.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## 3D Main Toolbox

The 3D Main Toolbox is location in the pull-down menu TOOLS> 3D MAIN

It consists of four toolboxes that are used with SmartSolids. They are:

• 1. 3D construct

• 2. 3D Modify

• 3. 3D Primitivies

• 4. 3D Utility.

1
3
2
4

### 3D Primitives

There are six basic SmartSolid primitives:

Slab, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, Torus and Wedge

There are the basic building blocks of your any model. A 3D object can be creating by using these building blocks and some of the operations such as union, difference and intersection.

### Common Settings

Most of the tools placing the primitives have some common settings.

Type The default type is solid. The other option is surface. When we selected the surface type, the model created will not be a “soild” model. You are recommended to leave it as default. The Orthogonal check box should also be checked before we go further.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## Axis

The Axis setting can usually be through of the “height” of the primitive. The axis setting determines which axis of the three-dimensional coordinates system will be use to corresponding to the primitive’s axis.

It is very important for the primitive because it actually controls how it will be oriented.

The default Axis is usually Points. If AccuDraw is running then you will see the axis set to Points (AccuDraw). Although it is a bit complicated when using these two settings. Using AccuDraw in 3D certainly has its advantage.

There are a lot of choices for the Axis setting. These are all related to 3D space coordinates and either Drawing Coordinate or Screen Coordinate.

It should be easier to understand and draw if you use the drawing X,Y,Z.

If you draw using the Drawing Z as the axis:

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Place Slab

To place a slab, you have to follow these steps

• 1. Select the Place Slab tool.

• 2. Enter a data point to define the origin. When Axis is set to Points, a side of the slab is parallel to the view in which this data point is entered.

• 3. Enter a data point to define the length and rotation angle. If Length is on, this data point defines the rotation angle.

• 4. Enter a data point to define the width. If Width is on, this data point accepts the width.

• 5. Enter a third data point to define the height.

Place Sphere

• 1. Select the Place Sphere tool.

• 2. Enter a data point to define the sphere's center.

• 3. If Radius is off, enter a data point to define the radius. If Radius is on, this data point accepts the sphere.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Place Cylinder

• 1. Select the Place Cylinder tool.

• 2. Enter a data point to define the center of the base.

• 3. Enter a data point to define the radius. If Radius is on, this data point accepts the base.

• 4. Enter a data point to define the height. If Height is on, this data point accepts the cylinder.

Place Cone

• 1. Select the Place Cone tool.

• 2. Enter a data point to define the center of the base.

• 3. Enter a data point to define the base's radius. If Base Radius is on, this data point accepts the base.

• 4. Enter a data point to define the height and the top's center. If Height is on, this data point defines the top's center only. If Orthogonal is also on, this data point accepts only. If Orthogonal is on, this data point defines the height only.

• 5. Enter a data point to define the top radius. If Top Radius is on, this data point defines the height only.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Place Tours

A torus involves a circular cross-section that is then revolved about an axis.

• 1. Select the Place Torus tool.

• 2. Enter a data point to define the start point.

• 3. Enter a data point.

 Primary Radius: This data point defines: Off Center, primary radius, and start angle. On Just the center and start angle.
• 4. Enter a data point to complete the torus, as follows:

If these are on:
This data point defines:
None
Angle
Sweep angle.
Secondary Radius and Angle Direction of the sweep angle rotation.

If the Primary Radius you specify is smaller than the Secondary Radius, the constrained value will be changed to Primary Radius so that the form of the torus can maintain.

Angle will be swept in a positive direction

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Place Wedge

The Place wedge primitive is also based on a cross-section that is revolved about an axis.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Exercise – 3D primitives

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## Boolean Operation

Construct Union

Using this command will join two objects into one solid. Please make sure that the Keep Original should be set to NONE.

 Tool Setting Effect Determines whether or not the original solids are retained after constructing the solid. None — If set, none of the original solids are retained. Keep All — If set, all of the original solids are retained. Originals First — If set, the first original solid identified is retained. Last — If set, the last original solid identified is retained.

To construct a union between overlapping solids

• 1. Use the Element Selection tool to select the solids.

• 2. Select the Construct Union tool. The solids are united into a single solid.

A Slab and A cylinder. There are two objects.

After the operation, there is only one solid object.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Construct Difference

Used to construct a solid that is the intersection of two or more overlapping solids. Typically, you can use this tool to create a solid from the projected front and side elevations of an object.

 Tool Setting Effect Determines whether or not the original solids are retained after constructing the solid. None — If set, none of the original solids are retained. Keep Originals All — If set, all of the original solids are retained. First — If set, the first original solid identified is retained. Last — If set, the last original solid identified is retained.

### To construct a solid at the intersection of overlapping solids

• 1. Use the Element Selection tool to select the solids.

• 2. Select the Construct Intersection tool.

A Slab and A cylinder. There are two objects.

After the operation, only the intersection, the cylinder inside

the cube

is left

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Construct Difference

Used to subtract the volume of one or more overlapping solids from another solid.

 Tool Setting Effect Determines whether or not the original solids are retained after constructing the solid. None — If set, none of the original solids are retained. Keep Originals All — If set, all of the original solids are retained. First — If set, the first original solid identified is retained. Last — If set, the last original solid identified is retained.

### To construct a solid that is the difference between one solid and one or more overlapping solids

• 1. Select the Construct Difference tool.

• 2. Identify the solid from which the other solid(s) will be subtracted.

• 3. Identify the solid to subtract.

• 4. Accept to subtract the second solid from the first. or Identify further solids to subtract.

• 5. Accept to subtract the latter solids from the First.

A Slab and A cylinder. There are two objects.

First select the cylinder and then the slab will result this

First element is slab then cylinder will result in a hollow slab

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

## Export

Visible Edges Design Files You can create a visible edges design file — a 2D or 3D design file that contains the edges visible in a 3D view (that is, with those edges that would be hidden, removed).

### To export a visible edges design file

• 1. From the File menu's Export sub-menu, choose Visible Edges. The Export Visible Edges dialog box opens.

• 2. On the General tab, choose the view from the View option menu.

• 3. On the General tab, choose Exact from the Method option menu.

• 4. (Usually recommended) To create a visible edges design file, on the Output tab, turn Store in Active Design off. or To place the visible edges in the active design file, turn Store in Active Design on.

• 5. If the visible edges are to be saved in a separate file (that is, Store in Active Design is off), on the Output tab, set File Dimension to choose if the visible edges design file will be 2D or 3D.

• 6. Adjust other settings as desired.

• 7. Click the Export button. The Save Visible Edges Design File As dialog box opens. By default, the visible edges file is given the same filename as the active design file but with the suffix “.hln.”

• 8. (Optional) Change the filename and/or choose a different directory.

• 9. Click OK.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Options

There are four choices here:

 Trace Edge Exact Fast

SmartSolids

Include hidden edges in the export

This is the result of

“include hidden

edges”

You can customize the level, color, and line style and line weight of the export file.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Here we can specify the file dimension of the output hidden line design file.

You can export the isometric view of a 3D file to a 2D hidden line file

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Exercise – 3D model using 3D primitives

Try to draw this model using Basic Primitives of Slab, Cone, Cylinder, Torus, Wedge and Sphere and Boolean Operations of Union, Difference and Intersection.

3D Modeling

Chapter 3

Questions

• Å State the four tool boxes that are included in the 3D Main toolbox.

• Ç Explain in your own words the difference between a SmartSolid and a

surface.

• É What primitive looks like a bagel? Give an example of what it could be

used for (other than a donut).

• Ñ Give the specific settings required to get a pointed Cone primitive.

• Ö What is the direction that the Angle setting of a Wedge is swept through— clockwise or counterclockwise?

• Ü Sketch the proportional front, top and right side orthographic views that would result from this Place Slab setting. Label the Length, Width and Height values.

• á What is the benefit of Hidden Line File? How do you access its dialog box?

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

## Profile in 3D Construct

Using a unique profile in conjunction with modeling tool such as Extrude and Revolve can often do more complex models quicker and easier. These tools found in 3D Construct toolbox require a closed shape for a profile.

Thicken to
Solid
Extrude
Shell Solid
Construct
Extrude
Revolution
along path

## Closed Shape Profile

A closed shape profile is needed for the profile

that

is

to be extruded or

revolved. Using SmartLine and being sure that both settings of Join Elements and Close Element are checked on is the easiest way to get this closed shape.

3D Construct Toolbox

This toolbox is found in the upper right corner of the 3D main toolbox.

TOOLS> 3D MAIN > 3D CONSTRUCT

Chapter 4

### Extrude

The extrude tool takes the profile and projects it in a straight line perpendicular to the profile.

 Tool Setting Effect Type Can be Surface (not capped) or Solid (capped). Orthogonal If on, the profile element is extruded orthogonally. If unchecked, the extrusion will be at an angle to the profile. Distance If on, sets the distance, in working units, the element is extruded. Spin Angle If on, sets the spin angle. An extrusion will be twisted about the point where you select the profile. X Scale If on, sets the scale factor in the x-direction. Y Scale If on, sets the scale factor in the y-direction. Keep If on, the original profile element is kept in the design. Profile

### To extrude a surface or solid

 1 Use the Element Selection tool to select the profile element. 2 Select the Extrude tool. 3 4 Enter a data point to define the start point. 5 Enter a second data point.
 Distance Defines extrusion's Off Distance On Direction

Chapter 4

Exercise – Extrude

Using the design file “extrude.dgn” and try to use the extrude tool on the following profile. The profile was drawn in Right view.

Try to change the distance to 1 Try to change the Spin Angle to 30 Try to change the X-Scale to 2 Try to change the Y-Scale to 2

### Construct Revolution

The construct revolution tool also uses a closed shape to construct the solid. The profile is revolved around an axis so that you get a radically symmetric object. The orientation of the axis is very important since it determines the final object.

 Tool Setting Effect Type Can be Surface (not capped) or Solid (capped). Axis Sets the direction of the axis of revolution. It could be Points, Drawing and View. Angle Sets the rotation angle. Goes in Positive direction Keep If on, the original profile element is kept in the design. Profile

### To construct a solid or surface of revolution

• 1. Select the Construct Revolution tool.

• 2. Identify the profile element.

• 3. Enter a data point If Axis is set to Points, this data point defines one point on the axis of revolution. Otherwise, this data point defines the axis of revolution.

• 4. If Axis is set to Points, enter a second data point to define another point on the axis of revolution.

• 5. Reset to finish. or Return to step 3 to revolve the same profile element again.

Chapter 4

Exercise – Revolution

Using the design file “revolve.dgn” and try to use the extrude tool on the following profile. The profile was drawn in Right view.

• 1. Type to Soild

• 2. Axis to Drawing Y

• 3. Angle equal to 360

• 4. Uncheck Keep Profile

• 1. Type to Soild

• 2. Axis to Drawing Y

• 3. Angle equal to 360

• 4. Uncheck Keep Profile

When you define the axis of revolution, you are defining the distance that the axis is away from the profile. This is the radius of revolution. It is a good practice that you snap on a specific point in the profile.

Chapter 4

### Extrude along path

The extrude along path use a line string to define a path for the cross- section to be extrude along. This is very useful to laying out pipes.

It can use a closed profile or you can use Circular setting, which lets you constrain the outside and inside radii.

 Tool Setting Effect Type Can be Surface (not capped) or Solid (capped). Circular — A tube with a circular cross-section is generated. Defined Profile — Surface is constructed by extruding one By element (the profile) along another element (the path). Orientation of the profile is continually changed to follow the orientation of the path. Inside Radius If on and Defined By is set to Circular, sets the inside radius. Outside Radius If on and Define By is set to Circular, sets the outside radius.

### To extrude a circular tube along a path

• 1. Select the Extrude Along Path tool.

• 2. In the Tool Settings window, set Defined By to Circular.

• 3. Identify the path element.

• 4. Accept the path element.

• 5. If Outside Radius is off, enter a data point to define the outside radius. or If Outside Radius is on, accept the outside radius.

• 6. If Insde Radius is off, enter a data point to define the inside radius. or If Inside Radius is on, accept the inside radius. The extrusion appears.

• 7. Accept to complete the extrusion.

Chapter 4

Exercise – Extrude along path

Use the file “extrude_path.dgn”

Define by circular

• 1. Select the Extrude along path tool

• 2. Define by set to: Circular

• 3. Inside Radius to: 0.3

• 4. Outside Radius to : 0.5

Define by Profile

• 1. Select the Extrude along path tool

• 2. Define by set to: Profile

• 3. Select the Path

• 4. Select the Rectangular Profile

• 5. Data point to accept change

Chapter 4

### Shell Solid

Used to create a hollowed out solid having faces of a defined thickness. One or more selected faces also may be removed to create an opening. After selecting, the solid, as you move the screen pointer over the solid the face nearest the pointer highlights. A data point selects the highlighted face, which remains highlighted. You can enter a Reset to deselect an incorrect face. Where a number of faces have been selected, consecutive Resets will deselect them in the reverse order (that is, the last face selected is the first face deselected).

 Tool Setting Effect Shell If on, material is added to the outside; the original solid Outward defines the inside of the walls. Shell Thickness Sets the wall thickness for the remaining faces.

### To construct a shell solid with no faces removed

• 1. Select the Shell Solid tool.

• 2. In the Shell Thickness field, key in the desired thickness value.

• 3. If required, turn on Shell Outward.

• 4. Identify the solid. The solid highlights. Simultaneously, the face nearest the screen pointer location highlights also.

• 5. Accept, away from the solid, to create the hollowed out shell solid.

Exercise – Shell Solid

Use the file “shell_solid.dgn”.

 Select the shell solid tool Set Shell Thickness to 0.1 Uncheck Shell Outward

Chapter 4

### Thicken to Solid

Used to add thickness to an existing surface to create a solid. On identifying the solid, an arrow displays showing the distance and direction of the thickening that will be added. If Add To Both Sides is on, arrows display in both directions. If Thickness is not turned on, then thickening is added graphically, with the amount of thickening defined by the screen pointer.

 Tool Setting Effect Add To Both Sides If on, the thickness value is added to both sides of the surface. Thickness Sets the thickness value that is added to the surface.

### To add thickness to a surface to create a solid

• 1. Select the Thicken to Solid tool.

• 2. Turn on Thickness.

• 3. In the Thickness field, enter the value for the thickening.

• 4. If necessary, turn on Add To Both Sides.

• 5. Identify the surface. The surface highlights. An arrow(s) displays, showing the distance and to which side(s) the thickness will be added.

• 6. If Add To Both Sides is off, move the pointer, using the arrows as a guide, to select the side for thickening.

• 7. Accept.

Exercise – Thicken Solid

Use the “thicken_solid.dgn” file

 Select the thicken solid tool Snap on the triangular profile in Select “Add to both sides” Thickness set to 0.05 Accept data point

Chapter 4

### 3D Modify Toolbox

These
tools
allow
you
to
modify or
remove faces, cut the model or create
basic
fillets
and
chamfers
on
your
model.

### Modify Solid

Used to relocate a face of a solid inwards (negative) or outwards (positive) relative to the center of the solid. Direction of movement is normal to the selected face.

 Tool Setting Effect Distance If on, sets the distance that the face is to be modified (moved) relative to the center of the solid.

### To modify a face of a solid

• 1. Select the Modify Solid tool.

• 2. Turn on Distance.

• 3. In the Distance field, key in the desired value.

• 4. Identify the solid. The solid highlights. Simultaneously, the face nearest the screen pointer location highlights also.

• 5. Identify the face to modify. The face highlights. An arrow displays the direction and distance of the modification, normal to the face.

• 6. Move the pointer, using the arrow as a guide to define the direction of the modification. If Distance is off, the pointer defines both the direction and the distance of the modification.

• 7. Accept to modify the face.

Chapter 4

Exercise – Modify Solid

Use the file “Modify_tool.dgn”

• 1. Select the modify solid tool

• 2. Pick a face on the solid to modify

• 3. Identify the Distance

• 1. If the distance is unchecked, a single data point will define both the distance and the direction.

• 2. If it is checked, a single data point is needed for defining the direction

### Remove Face and Heal

 Used to remove an existing face(s) or a feature from a solid and then heal (close) the opening. Additionally, the

Remove Logical Faces toggle lets you remove all faces associated with a

feature by identifying any one of the feature's surfaces.

For example, with Remove Logical Faces turned on, you can remove all faces that are associated with:

 a cut a solid that has been added to or subtracted from the original a shell solid (returning the solid to its original form with no hollowing out) a fillet or chamfer

by identifying any one face of the feature. After identifying the solid, as you move the screen pointer over it, the face nearest the pointer highlights. A data point selects the highlighted face, which remains highlighted.

You can enter a Reset to deselect an incorrect face.

 Tool Setting Effect Defines how faces are selected for removal: Method Logical Groups — All associated faces are processed. For example, a feature such as a cut can be removed by selecting any one face of the feature. Faces — Only selected faces are processed.

Chapter 4

### To remove one or more faces from a solid

• 1. Select the Remove Faces and Heal tool.

• 2. From the Method option menu, choose Faces.

• 3. Identify the solid. The solid highlights. Simultaneously, the face nearest the screen pointer location highlights.

• 4. Identify the face to remove. The face remains highlighted.

• 5. Accept to remove the face. or Identify further faces to remove.

• 6. Accept to remove the selected faces.

Exercise – Remove Faces and Heal

Use the design file “modify_tool2.dgn”

• 1. Select the remove face and heal tools

• 2. Select the sliding face of the triangular block

Chapter 4

### Cut Solid

Used to place a cut in a solid, using a cutting profile. Cutting profiles may be open or closed elements. Open elements must extend to the edge of the solid. When an open element is the cutting profile, the identification point for the solid determines the portion of it that is retained. If Split Solid is on then no material is removed, the solid is split at the cutting profile.

 Tool Setting Effect Sets the direction of the cut, relative to the cutting profile's Surface Normal. Cut Both — Both directions from the profile's plane. Direction Forward — Forward from the profile's plane. Back — Back from the profile's plane. Sets the limits of the cut. Cut Mode Through — Cuts through all faces of the solid. Define Depth — Cuts into the solid a defined distance. Cut Depth (Cut Mode set to Define Depth only) Sets the cut's projection distance. Split Solid If on, no material is removed from the solid; it is split into two or more segments. Keep Profile If on, the original cutting profile remains in the design.

### To create a cut in a solid using an element as the profile

• 1. Select the Cut Solid tool.

• 2. (Optional) To retain the cut portion, turn on Split Solid.

• 3. Identify the solid to cut.

• 4. Identify the cutting element. An arrow(s) indicates the direction of the cut.

• 5. Accept to complete the cut.

Chapter 4

Exercise – Cut Solid

Use the file “modify_tool3.dgn”

Cut Mode – Through

• 1. Select the cut solid tool

• 2. Cut Mode to through

• 3. Select the solid

• 4. Select the hexagon

• 5. Point downwards to accept.

Cut Mode – Define Depth

• 1. Select the cut solid tool

• 2. Cut Mode to Define depth

• 3. In the Cut Depth, type 0.05

• 4. Uncheck Split Solid and Keep Profile.

Exercise - Logical Groups settings of Cut and Heal Solid

Use the finished file in the previous exercise.

• 1. Select the Cut and Heal Solid tool

• 2. Change the method to Logical Groups

• 3. Data point on the hexagon

When identify a single face. All the face associated with the hexagon will be selected because of the “Logical Groups” setting. If the Method is set to face, you have to select each face one by one.

Chapter 4

### Fillet Edges

Used to fillet, or round, one or more edges of a solid, projected surface, or a surface of revolution.

After identifying the solid, as you move the screen pointer over the solid the edge nearest the pointer highlights. A data point selects the highlighted edge, which remains highlighted. You can enter a Reset to deselect an incorrect edge. Where a number of edges have been selected, consecutive Resets will deselect them in the reverse order (that is, the last edge selected is the first edge deselected). Alternatively, you can deselect any highlighted edge by selecting it again.

 Tool Setting Effect Radius Defines the radius of the fillet Select Tangent Edges If on, edges that are tangentially continuous are selected and rounded in one operation.

### To fillet one or more edges of a solid or projected surface

• 1. Select the Fillet Edges tool.

• 3. If required, turn on Select Tangent Edges.

• 4. Identify an edge to fillet. The solid highlights, with the selected edge highlighted.

• 5. Accept to fillet the edge. or Identify further edges to be filleted.

• 6. Accept to fillet the edges.

Exercise – Fillet Edges

Use the file “fillet.dgn”

• 1. Select the Fillet Edge tool

• 2. Select the three corner as illustrated

• 3. Accept

Exercise – Tangent Edges

Use the file “tanget.dgn”

Chapter 4

Chamfer Edges

Used to chamfer one or more edges of a solid, projected surface, or a surface of revolution.

 After selecting, the solid, as you move the screen pointer over the solid the edge nearest the pointer highlights. A data point selects the highlighted edge, which remains highlighted. You can enter a Reset to deselect an incorrect edge. Where a number of edges have been selected, consecutive Resets will deselect them in the reverse order (that is, the last edge selected is the first edge deselected). Alternatively, you can deselect any highlighted edge by selecting it again.
 Tool Setting Effect Distance Sets the distances to trim back the faces. If the Lock control 1/Distance 2 is on, they are constrained to the same value. If on (closed) Distance 1 and Distance 2 are the same Lock control values. If off (open) Distance 1 and Distance 2 can be different. Select Tangent Edges If on, edges that are tangentially continuous are selected and rounded in one operation. Flip Direction Where Distance 1 and Distance 2 are different, reverses the direction of the chamfer and the values that the faces are trimmed.

### To chamfer one or more edges of a solid

• 1. Select the Chamfer Edges tool.

• 2. In the Distance 1 and Distance 2 fields, enter the required values.

• 3. If required, turn on Select Tangent Edges.

• 4. Identify an edge to chamfer. The solid highlights, with the selected edge highlighted.

• 5. Accept to chamfer the edge. or Identify further edges to be chamfered.

• 6. Accept to chamfer the edges.

Chapter 4

Exercise – Chamfer Edges

Use the file “chamfer.dgn”

• 1. Use the settings as illustrated in the dialog box.

• 2. Select the highlighted corner

• 3. Accept a data point

Flip Direction

• 1. Undo the previously completed chamfer.

• 2. Checked the Flip Direction

• 3. Select the highlighted corner

• 4. Accept a data point

Chapter 4

### Surface Modeling

Construct Surface by Section or Network

Used to construct a B-spline surface that is transformed between section elements, or elements of a network. All section elements must be in the same direction to avoid the resulting surface from being “twisted”. Before using Construct Surface by Section or Network, use the Change Element Direction tool in the Modify Curves tool box to change the sections' directions and start points so they are in a similar position to each other. As a final check, visual aids display each element's direction as it is selected.

 Tool Setting Effect Sets how the surface is constructed. Define By Section — Transformed between sections (lines, line strings, arcs, ellipses, complex chains, complex shapes, or B-spline curves). The order in the u-direction is 4. The order in the v-direction is determined by the sections. Network — A Gordon surface is constructed, interpolating a network of elements. Each element in the network's u- direction should intersect all elements in its v-direction, and vice-versa. Apply If off, the continuities of the constructed surface are those of the input cross-sections. If on, each input cross-section is approximated by a smooth B- Smoothing spline curve within the specified Tolerance value, and the surface is created from the approximation curves.

To construct a B-spline surface by cross-sections

• 1. Select the Construct Surface by Section or Network tool.

• 2. In the Tool Settings window, set Define By to Section.

• 3. Identify the sections in the order that the transformation is to follow. (You can Reset to reject a section.)

• 4. Accept to display the B-spline surface.

• 5. Accept the B-spline surface.

Chapter 4

Exercise - Construct Surface by Section

Use the file “surface1.dgn” and turn on ONLY level 1

1.

Select the Construct Surface by Section tool

2.

Select the line string network

3.

Accept until the last one

4.

Accept to display the Surface

5.

Accept to Finish

### Construct Skin Surface

Tool Setting

Effect

Type

Can be Surface (not capped) or Solid (capped).

Orthogonal

If on, each section is rotated to be perpendicular to the trace.

### To construct a B-spline surface by skin

1.

Place the section elements in their correct position (orientation and location) on the trace element.

2.

Select the Construct Skin Surface tool.

3.

Identify the trace.

4.

Identify the first section.

5.

Identify the second section.

6.

Enter a data point to display the B-spline surface.

7.

Accept the surface.

Exercise - Construct Skin Surface

Use the file “surface1.dgn”, turn on only LEVEL 3

1.

Select the construct skin surface tool

2.

Select the path

3.

Select the first element (circle)

4.

Select the second element (rectangle)

5.

Accept Data point

Used to construct a B-spline surface by transforming two elements (sections) along another element (the trace). The sections and trace can be lines, line strings, arcs, ellipses, complex chains, complex shapes, or B-spline curves.

Chapter 4

### Construct Helical Surface

Used to construct a helical-shaped B-spline surface by sweeping a section profile curve along a pre-defined helix curve. The section profile curve needs to be placed at one end of the helix curve. Before using this tool, you must also place a line that represents the axis direction of the helix curve; only the direction of the line matters.

 Tool Setting Effect Scale Sets the factor by which the section profile curve is scaled as it sweeps Section in along the helix curve in the direction from the starting point of the helix X curve to its center point — that is, the radius direction. Scale Sets the factor by which the section profile curve is scaled as it sweeps Section in along the helix curve in the direction of the helix axis — that is, the Y height direction. Spin Sets the angle at which the profile is spun as it sweeps along the helix Angle curve.

### To construct a helical-shaped B-spline surface

• 1. Select the Construct Helical Surface tool.

• 2. Identify the trace helix curve.

• 3. Identify the section profile curve.

• 4. Identify the line that represents the axis direction of the helix curve.

• 5. Accept. The surface is generated and displayed.

• 6. Accept the surface.

Exercise – Construct Helical Surface

Use the file “surface1.dgn” and turn only Level 5 on

• 1. Select the construct Helical surface

• 2. Select the Helix

• 3. Select the rectangular profile

• 4. Select the axis line

• 5. Accept

Chapter 4

### Fillet Surfaces

Used to create a 3D fillet between two surfaces (shapes, cones, extruded surfaces, surfaces of revolution, or B-spline surfaces) by sweeping an arc of constant radius along the common intersection curve — commonly referred to as a constant radius rolling ball fillet. The fillet is created in the area pointed to by the surface normals of both surfaces.

 Tool Setting Effect Defines which surface(s) are to be truncated: Both — Both surfaces are trimmed. Truncate Single — The first surface identified is trimmed. None — Neither surface is trimmed. Radius Sets the fillet's radius.

### To place a fillet between two surfaces

• 1. (Optional) Use the Change Normal Direction tool to set the normal directions for both surfaces.

• 2. Select the Fillet Surfaces tool.

• 3. From the Truncate option menu, choose a truncating option.

• 5. Identify the first surface. The surface normal orientation displays.

• 6. Identify the second surface. The surface normal orientation displays.

• 7. Accept to view the fillet. The fillet displays.

• 8. Accept to create the fillet.

Exercise – Fillet Surface

Use the file “surface1.dgn” and turn on level 6 on

• 1. Select the fillet surface command

• 2. Identify first cylinder

• 3. Identify second cylinder

• 4. Accept to finish

Chapter 4

Questions

• Å Sketch the results of the four different Boolean operations listed below and applied to these Slab and Cylinder solid parametric primitives:

• a) Union

• b) Difference (slab selected first)

• c) Difference (cylinder selected first)

• d) Intersection

• Ç What happens if you choose All for the Keep Profile

setting when performing a Boolean operation?

• É What type of element works well for the profile needed to construct a Parametric Revolution or Projection?

• Ñ Given this Front view profile, sketch a pictorial that would illustrate the following free-form solids:

• a) Projection in the Drawing Y-direction

• b) Revolution about the Z-axis

• c) Revolution about the X-axis

• Ö Explain why there is a Flip direction setting for the Chamfer Edges tool and use a sketch to illustrate your answer.

• Ü Explain the difference between an Extrude and a Revolution.

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

## Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

## What is Drawing Composition?

Drawing Composition automates the creation of drawing sheets, which is familiar to the draftsperson who draws on paper, except that instead of

redrawing the model's geometry for each view, you attach views of the model as reference files.

 Sheet view— The electronic drawing sheet. Attached view — A reference file attachment to the sheet view.

Although drawing sheets can be created with reference file attachment and manipulation tools, the Drawing Composition dialog box simplifies the process in a number of ways:

An attached view in a sheet view can be any standard (Top, Bottom, Right, Left, Front, Back, Isometric, or Right Isometric), fitted view or any saved view of the model. Standard views can be clipped or set to display only certain levels.

An attached view of the model can be attached in any position at any scale. Related attached views can be grouped. A group of attached views can be moved, scaled, or detached, as one. Attached views can be added to or removed from a group.

A

view can

be

attached by

folding an attached view about an

orthogonal axis or a line defined by two data points. A folded view is

automatically aligned and grouped with the attached view from which it is folded.

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

### General Procedure — To compose a sheet view

The steps for using Drawing Composition in conjunction with a 3D model are similar to those used with 2D design file.

Since all standard views including Top, Back, Right Isometric etc. You don’t have to get to those steps and saving these views.

• 1. Create the model.

• 2. Open a sheet view.

• 3. Attach an existing file to use as a border (optional)

• 4. Attach views of model

• 5. Add text or dimensions

• 6. Print the sheet view.

Drawing Composition Dialog box

The Drawing Composition Dialog box can be found in the pull-down menu FILE > DRAWING COMPOSITION.

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

Sheet View

Drawing Composition needs a sheet view before you can attach views. When a sheet view is opened, its special characteristics will be based on the Sheet Parameters that have been set in the Drawing Composition Box.

Open Sheet View

• 1. From the Sheet Location option menu in the Drawing Composition dialog box, choose Sheet View.

• 2. Designate a view as a sheet view as follows by choosing Open Sheet View from the Tools menu in the Drawing Composition dialog box.

• 3. A dialog box will prompt and ask if you want to turn those levels off other then sheet view

Levels reserved for dimensions and text in sheet views

To ensure that dimensions, text, and so on in the drawing are displayed only

in the sheet views, two levels must be reserved for them. The levels used for text and dimensions in the sheet view are set with the following controls in the Drawing Composition dialog box.

 Sheet Dimension Level — Sets the level used for dimensions and text that is to be displayed only in one sheet view (63 by default). Sheet Annotation Level — Sets the level that is used for any annotations to be displayed in the drawing sheet (62 by default).

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Levels reserved for the model in the sheet view

Choosing Model Levels from the Settings menu opens the Model Levels dialog box. When a view is attached to the drawing sheet, the levels designated in this dialog box (plus the sheet dimension level) are on in the sheet view and off in all other views. By default, all levels except the sheet dimension and annotation levels (1-61) are designated as model levels.

Attach Border

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

### View Parameters

If you want to scale
the sheet you or
down from the real
size element
To Process the 3D
objects with Hidden
Line Method

### To attach a standard, fitted view of the model

• 1. Choose the view (Top, Bottom, Left, Right, Front, Back, Isometric, or Right Isometric) from the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu's Attach Standard sub-menu.

• 2. Enter a data point to position the view and attach it to the sheet view.

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### To attach a saved view

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Attach Saved View. The Select Saved View dialog box opens, displaying a list of the saved views in the model.

• 2. Choose the saved view to attach by selecting its name and clicking OK. The Select Saved View dialog box closes and an outline of the saved view displays.

• 3. Enter a data point to position the saved view and attach it to the sheet view.

### To attach a view by folding it orthogonally

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Attach Folded > Orthogonal.

• 2. Identify an element in an attached view from which to fold the new attached view.

• 3. Identify the edge of the attached view about which the new attached view is to be folded.

• 4. Enter a data point to position and attach the view.

• 5. Go back to step 3 to fold another attached view from the same existing attached view. or Reset to finish.

### To attach a view by folding it from an attached view

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Attach Folded > About Line.

• 2. Identify an element in the attached view from which to fold the new attached view.

• 3. Enter a data point to define one endpoint of the line about which the new attached view will be folded.

• 4. Enter a data point to define the other endpoint of the line and attach the view.

• 5. Return to step 3 to attach another view. or Reset to finish.

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

## Modification of existing attached views

### To detach an attached view

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Detach > Single.

• 2. Identify an element in the attached view that is to be detached.

• 3. Accept the detachment.

### To detach a group of attached views

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Detach > Group.

• 2. Identify an element in an attached view within the group to be detached. All members of the group are outlined.

• 3. Accept the detachment.

### To detach all views attached to the sheet view

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Detach > All. An alert box asks you to confirm that all reference files are to be detached.

• 2. Click OK.

### To move an attached view

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Move > Single.

• 2. Identify an element in the attached view to be moved.

• 3. Accept the attached view.

• 4. Enter a data point to define the origin of the move.

• 5. Enter a data point to define the destination.

### To move a group of attached views

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Move > Group.

• 2. Identify an element in an attached view within the group to be moved. This data point also defines the origin of the move.

• 3. Enter a data point to define the destination.

### To move all views attached to the sheet view

• 1. From the Drawing Composition dialog box's Tools menu, choose Move > All.

• 2. Enter a data point to define the origin of the move.

• 3. Enter a data point to define the destination.

Drawing Composition and Section Generation

Chapter 5

## Generate Section Dialog box

Output File

Will default to the active design. If you want a different file then you’ll need to use the File pull-down menu.

Flatten Section

This leaves the section boundary created parallel to the cutting plane. If on, the section geometry is flattened to two dimensions along an axis perpendicular to the section plane. This is useful when using a fence to define a section. The section created by a fence is a 3D replica of the elements lying within the fence.

Interactive Positioning

The section boundary elements will automatically be located at the position of the cutting plane – “within” the model

Assemble Segments

The elements that make up the section will be joined together as a complex shape.

Tools > Section by View

Section by View > Horizontal Selects the Construct Section by View Horizontal tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect a horizontal plane perpendicular to the screen that extends through the view depth along the z-axis. Key-in: CONSTRUCT VIEW HORIZONTAL

Section by View > Vertical

Selects the Construct Section by View Vertical tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect a vertical plane perpendicular to the screen.

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The plane is perpendicular to the screen, and it intersects the data point. The plane extends throughout the view depth (along the z-axis). It is as tall as the view window. This tool is the equivalent of drawing a line vertically across the view and using it with the Construct Section by Projected Element tool. Key-in: CONSTRUCT SECTION VIEW VERTICAL

Section by View > Depth

Selects the Construct Section by View Depth tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect a plane parallel to the screen at a depth determined by a data point.

Section by Element Selects the Construct Section by Element tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect a closed planar element (shape, ellipse, or complex shape) or 3D element (cone, surface, solid, or B- spline surface). Key-in: CONSTRUCT SECTION ELEMENT

Section by Fence Selects the Construct Section by Fence tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect or are enclosed by a fence — useful to “cut out” a section to provide a view of the model's interior. The fence contents are always clipped; the Fence (Selection) Mode is ignored. Key-in: CONSTRUCT SECTION FENCE

Section by Plane Selects the Construct Section by Plane tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that a plane defined by three data points. Key-in: CONSTRUCT SECTION PLANE

Section by Projection > Element Selects the Construct Section by Projected Element tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect the projection of an element through the view volume along the z-axis. Key-in: CONSTRUCT SECTION PROJECT ELEMENT

Section by Projection > Line String Selects the Construct Section by Projected Line String tool, which is used to generate section geometry for all elements that intersect the projection of a line string. Key-in: CONSTRUCT SECTION PROJECT LINESTRING

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Questions

• Å Explain the relationship between Reference Files and Drawing Composition.

• Ç With Drawing Composition, what Modeler Hidden Line setting can now be controlled independently in attached views?

• É When attaching a border, what drawing plane should its elements be drawn in?

• Ñ Explain the Margin% View Parameters setting and when its value may need to be adjusted.

• Ö List the three different Hidden Line Removal options, and give a brief explanation of each.

• Ü Explain the recommended order of view attachments for a 3D model that will result in the standard conventions of orthographic views. Why is it recommended?

• á Name the specific method of view attachment to use for placing auxiliary views.

• à What would cause the inability to snap to elements when dimensioning on attached views in a sheet view layout? State how to correct this problem.

• â A front view of a model was attached with the Drawing Composition View Parameters set as shown. Answer the following questions.

• a) What would be the scale size of the attached front view?

• b) Assume Scale Factor = 1. If the actual width of the model was 8 inches, what would be the width’s dimensioned value shown in the front view?

• ä Explain how to open up the Saved Views dialog box.

E:\TEMP\EX22_01.DGN 12/28/00 11:47:59 PM
E:\TEMP\EX22_02.DGN 12/28/00 11:46:56 PM

Rendering and Visualization

Chapter 6

## Rendering and Visualization

Rendering and Visualization

Chapter 6

## Rendering

Rendering is the process of depicting a 3D model through the display of shaded surfaces. Rendered views are most effective with a system capable of displaying 256 or more colors, especially true-color displays.

### More Rendering Mode

Phong shading differs from Constant shading and Smooth (Gouraud) shading in that the color of each pixel is individually computed — useful when high quality is more important than speed.

 Phong shading can be used to display, Bump maps, and Distance Cueing in the rendered images. Phong shading renders more realistic lighting effects than either the Constant or Smooth shading methods, particularly if the light source is close to the object (for example, to see a spotlight on a wall).

The complexity of computations slows display time considerably. Where Phong-shaded images are very similar to Smooth-shaded images (that is, there are no shadows or bump maps) it may not be worth the extra rendering time.

Ray Tracing

Ray tracing is a photo-realistic rendering method in which an image is generated by simulating the reflections of light rays in a 3D scene. In the real world, light rays are emitted by one or many light sources and reflect off objects until they finally reach the eye.

On a computer, it is often more efficient to trace rays from the eye rather than from the light sources. This can save a significant amount of time by not following rays from lights to surfaces that are never seen.

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Chapter 6

“Radiosity,” as defined in the literature of physics, is the total power leaving a point on a surface, per unit area on the surface. In the context of rendering, “power” is light energy.

Radiosity solving is a sophisticated technique that calculates the light that is reflected between diffuse surfaces. It can be used to demonstrate effects such as color bleeding (where one colored surface lends a tint to another nearby surface) and light dispersion (the reflection of indirect light onto other surfaces in a scene). In comparison, ray tracing simulates the specular reflection of rays of light in a scene.

Radiosity solving, unlike Ray Tracing, is not a rendering technique on its own — it merely generates a lighting solution that in turn can be rendered. In fact, radiosity solving and ray tracing capabilities can be used together to produce realistic images with the best qualities of both methods. Radiosity solving operates as a rendering pre-process that computes the global, view- independent (diffuse) lighting solution. Ray tracing uses this radiosity solution to render a view-dependent image, adding specular highlights and reflections.

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When rendering a view, you can choose from Normal, Antialias and Stereo shading types.

Normal

Antialias

Reduces the jagged edges (jaggies) that are particularly noticeable on low- resolution displays. The additional time required for antialiasing is especially worthwhile when saving images for presentation, publication, or animated sequences.

Antialias
Normal

Stereo

Renders a view with a stereo effect that is visible when viewed with 3D (Red/Blue) glasses. Stereo Phong shading takes twice as long as Phong because two images, one each from the perspective of the right and left eyes, are rendered and combined into one “color coded” image.

Rendering and Visualization

Chapter 6

### Saving Rendered Image

Used to save the contents of a rendered or wireframe view to a file. Opens when Utilities > Image > Save… is chosen.

View

Sets the source view.

Format

A list of supported file format

Compression

Sets the degree of compression for an image file format. For example, compression options for a JPEG Format image file are from Minimum Loss to High Loss. Greater compression is achieved as image quality is sacrificed: Minimum Loss yields the highest image quality and least compression; High Loss yields the poorest image quality and the greatest compression.

Mode

Sets the number of colors in the image file's color palette. The available options depend upon which Format is chosen. For example, Intergraph RGB supports only 24-bit color, while PICT supports 24-bit color, 256 colors, and grey scale.

Sets the rendering method — Wireframe, Hidden Line, Filled Hidden Line, Constant, Smooth (Gouraud), Phong, RayTrace or Radiosity.

Sets the shading type — Normal, Antialiased (see Phong Antialiased shading), or Stereo.

Resolution X Y

Sets the resolution, in pixels, at which to save the image. When you set the X or Y resolution, Y or X is automatically adjusted to match the view aspect ratio.

Gamma Correction

Sets the brightness of the image in the file. The default value is 1; the valid range is 0.1 to 3.0. Increasing the Gamma Correction setting lightens the image; decreasing it darkens the image.

Save…

Opens the Save Image As dialog box, which is used to save the image file.

Cancel

Closes the dialog box without creating an image file.

Banded Rendering Contains controls that are used to break up the target rendering subject into a series of user- defined bands. Each band is then processed as an individual image within the computer system's memory and written to disk. On completion of the last band, the rendering operation combines all of the bands into the finished image.

Rendering and Visualization

Chapter 6