Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

1

LESSON GUIDE 4

LESSON 4: SPEECH TECHNIQUES


April 27, 2004 – SpeechPower (Cubao)
English Conversation Fluency (ECF 3)
6:00-8:00 PM

Learning to Speak Correctly, Properly and Sensibly:


The Different Speech Techniques

SO: I want to speak correctly, properly and sensibly!

AS:
I Am A Good Speaker
I am a good speaker! I can make my voice go up and down
in the right places – in phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
If I am feeling extreme joy or grief or just calling somebody
I assume a very high pitch voice.
In cases of solemnity, reverence and extreme awe,
I can assume a very low pitch.
If I feel that I have to speak in a normal way,
I assume an unimpassioned speaking way.
If I am questioned and may answer in a YES or NO, my voice went up.
In cases of long answers in queries, my voice goes down.

Being a good speaker, I always put emphasis


where it is needed – in words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives and interrogatives
are usually stressed. While articles, prepositions, personal pronouns,
possessive adjectives, conjunctions, relative pronouns and helping
verbs are normally unstressed.

Accents too are an important part of speech. A good speaker puts


stress and gives meaning to the accent mark (`) on a syllable or word
in a sentence. I raise my voice and pause a little to get it right.

In speaking, I give meaning to every phrase. I convey a thought.


I pause when it is required and blend two words
or syllables as if they were one.

Most importantly, I think before I speak so as to make sure that


I speak sensibly, never to intentionally hurt but to
speak what is right and true and what comes from the heart
to be of service and to protect the rights of others.
2

I am a good speaker and I am all of these, and so it is!

LA1: Practicing Good Speech with Dialogues

Exercise 1: Form groups of two’s (A,B). Practice this dialogue with your partner.
(With partner and then with group)

A – Hi. My name’s ________. I’m enrolled in this course.


B – I’m glad to meet you. My name’s _________. I’m in this class too.
Is this your first time at Speechpower?
A – Yes, I’ve just come to know this center. Do you work in one of the
commercial banks around?
B – No. I’m an/a __________________ in _____________. What about
you?
A – I WORK at the ____________________________________.

Exercise 2: Pick-your-Situation Activity

In a bowl, pick a slip of paper bearing the situation that you should act out with a
partner. Use these situations in writing your dialogues. Then practice with your
partner. Be ready for an oral presentation with your partner in front.

LA 2: The Speech Techniques

Exercise1: Introduce the five speech techniques by the affirmation


I Am A Good Speaker (use OHP)

Read Aloud (individual, as class)

What do you think are the five speech techniques? Refer to the affirmation.

• Inflection or intonation
• Emphasis
• Accentuation
• Blending
• Phrasing

In your own words, can you explain each speech techniques?

LA 3: Inflection or Intonation

Exercise 1: Focus on Inflection or Intonation


3

Inflection or intonation is the movement of the voice up or down along the line of
sound. The focus is more on the “pitch” of your voice. Pitch is one of the
elements of voice along with volume/loudness, rate/duration and quality/timbre.
Pitch refers to the elevation/depression of the voice or simply the highness or
lowness of a sound. Very much the same with intonation. This is where you’re
ability to intone comes from, if you practice varying pitch in your speech.

When you speak, don’t be monotonous. Take a step and glide.

STEP – an abrupt change


GLIDE – gradual change

Different pitch levels:

a. Very high pitch – extreme of joy and grief, and in calling


b. High pitch – exultation, joy, etc.
(gives the impression of immaturity, nervousness or lack of poise)
c. Middle (Normal) pitch – unimpassioned speaking
d. Low pitch – solemnity, awe, etc.
(shows calmness, decisiveness, control, etc)
e. Very low pitch – solemnity, reverence, dread, extreme awe

Kinds of inflection are:

a. The rising intonation ( ) for questions answerable by a YES or a


NO.

Examples:

• Are you in love?


• Can she see us from here?
• Will you call me later?
(Give questions answerable by YES or NO and intone.)

b. The falling intonation ( ) for questions that can’t be answered by


yes or no. Start your questions with:

Who What Where When


Whom Which Why How

• How are you getting along with your new friends?


• Which of these courses are you interested in?
(Give questions that can’t be answered by YES or NO and intone.)

LA 4: Inflection and Intonation Practices


4

Exercise 1: Questions answerable by YES or NO


(Refer to ECF3 module p. 24)

Exercise 2: With the proper intonation, ask questions beginning with:

• Will . . . . . . . . . . . . . .?
• Am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .?
• Was . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
• Were . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
• Has . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
• Have . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?

Exercise 3: Questions that can’t be answered by YES or NO


(Refer to ECF3 module p.24-25)

Exercise 4: With the proper intonation, ask questions beginning with:

• Which . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
• Who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
• Whom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?
• Whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?

Exercise 5: Intonation Contours


(Practice the dialogue in ECF3 module p. 25)

Exercise 6: Repetition Exercise


(Practice dialogue in ECF3 module pp. 25-26)

Exercise 7: Supply your own answer after the instructor has given out the question.
(ECF3 module p. 26)

LA 5: Emphasis

Exercise 1: Focus on EMPHASIS

Emphasis is giving prominence to certain words (word-emphasis) or group of


words (sentence-emphasis) in a sentence.

Example: “I’ll see you tomorrow”

Which words should be stressed in the following sentences?

• I am glad to meet you


• We are all interested in enlarging our vocabulary.
• Great progress is made daily.
5

Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives and interrogatives


are usually stressed. These words are content words, that is, they have a meaning
of their own. Articles, prepositions, personal pronouns, possessive adjectives,
conjunctions, relative pronouns and helping verbs are normally unstressed
because as function words, they little or no meaning other than the grammatical
idea they express.

Exercise 2: Underline the words that should be stressed and read the sentences
accordingly. (ECF3 module p.27)

LA 6: Accentuation

Exercise 1: Focus on Accentuation

Accentuation is putting a stress (as shown in an accent mark `) on a syllable or


word in a sentence.

Two things a speaker should remember when sounding the accented syllable:

a. Raise your voice


b. Pause a little

Exercise 2: Words Accented on the First Syllable


(Refer to ECF3 module p. 28)

Exercise 3: Words Accented on the Second Syllable


(ECF3 module p. 28)

Exercise 4: Pronounce these pairs of words. Note the shift in stresses and the vowels
in unstressed syllables. (Refer to ECF3 module pp. 28-29)

Additional pairs:

1. master – mustard
2. crumble – crumple
3. fodder – father
4. divorce – divulge
5. exuberant – exorbitant
6. generous – genesis
7. fewer – furor
8. burger – burglar
9. sever – severe
10. lesson – listen
11. allude – elude
12. acrid – arid
6

13. memorize – mesmerize


14. feature – future
15. eager – eagle
16. dabble – double
17. autocrat – autograph
18. mental – menthol
19. impetus – impetuous
20. benign – be kind

Exercise 5: A large group of words in English may be used either as nouns or verbs
depending on which syllable is stressed. Those used as nouns are stressed
on the first syllable; those used as verbs are stressed on the second
syllable. (Refer to ECF3 module p.29)

Exercise 6: Read the following sentences. Make sure you give the correct stress for
the underlined words. (ECF3 module p.29)

Exercise 7: Pronounce these words carefully. Note that words with similar pattern of
stress are grouped together. Each group should be repeated rhythmically.
(ECF3 module p. 30)

Exercise 8: Do I hit the right syllable?

1. circuitous ________
2. indefatigable _________
3. concentrate __________
4. characterize __________
5. adolescence __________
6. incriminating __________
7. inevitable ____________
8. dynamism ____________
9. recognize ____________
10. negotiate ___________
11. forfeiture ____________
12. condolence ____________
13. Catholicism ___________
14. lamentable ____________
15. archives ____________
16. reconcile _____________
17. destined _____________
18. distinguished ___________
19. hazardous ____________
20. determined ___________

LA 7: Phrasing
7

Exercise 1: Focus on Phrasing

Phrasing is the grouping together of words that conveys a thought. A thought


group is a portion of a sentence set off from the rest by a pause, indicated here by
a diagonal line. Phrasing is very important in conveying meaning. Read these
lines. Observe the pauses.
(Samples are at ECF3 module pp. 30-31)

Exercise 2: Phrasing in relation to rate/duration

Rate, as one element of voice, applies to the speed of your speech discerned
through: the length of sounds (phrasing) and the length of pauses between phrases
(juncture)

Rate is influenced by the complexity of thought or feeling you present. Therefore,


the rate of utterance depends largely upon the sentiment or emotion to be
expressed.

Very quick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . violent passions


Quick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . animated descriptions
Moderate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . simple descriptions
Slow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tender feelings
Very slow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . solemn thoughts

Exercise 3: Analyze the following selections:

a. Should rate be fast or slow? Why?


b. Mark the phrasing, grouping words that reveal one thought and read until
length of phrase is timed with your breathing habit.
c. Underline the phrases which are more important than the rest and
therefore should be read slower.

(Selection still to be typed, from Effective Speech and Oral Communication, pp. 17-18)

LA 8: Blending

Exercise 1: Focus on Blending

Blending is pronouncing two or more syllables or words as if they were one. The
first word usually ends in a consonant sound and the following word begins with a
vowel sound, or vice versa. Practice blending the words that are tied together in
the following sentences:
(ECF3 module p. 31)
8

Exercise 2: Read the following passage. Note carefully the phrasing and the blending
of words and phrases. (Refer to ECF3 module p. 32)

Exercise 3: Choose from the selection. Read and mark the phrasing. Be ready for an
oral presentation (individual)

CAS: Read again and with conviction: I Am A Good Speaker

END OF LESSON 4
9

I Am A Good Speaker

I am a good speaker! I can make my voice go up and down


in the right places – in phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
If I am feeling extreme joy or grief or just calling somebody
I assume a very high pitch voice.
In cases of solemnity, reverence and extreme awe,
I can assume a very low pitch.
If I feel that I have to speak in a normal way,
I assume an unimpassioned speaking way.
If I am questioned and may answer in a YES or NO, my voice went up.
In cases of long answers in queries, my voice goes down.

Being a good speaker, I always put emphasis


where it is needed – in words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs.
Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives and interrogatives
are usually stressed. While articles, prepositions, personal pronouns,
possessive adjectives, conjunctions, relative pronouns and helping
verbs are normally unstressed.

Accents too are an important part of speech. A good speaker puts


stress and gives meaning to the accent mark (`) on a syllable or word
in a sentence. I raise my voice and pause a little to get it right.

In speaking, I give meaning to every phrase. I convey a thought.


I pause when it is required and blend two words
or syllables as if they were one.

Most importantly, I think before I speak so as to make sure that


I speak sensibly, never to intentionally hurt but to
speak what is right and true and what comes from the heart
to be of service and to protect the rights of others.

I am a good speaker and I am all of these, and so it is!