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Chapter 23

Harvesting of Banana

Introduction

• Bananas are harvested at various stages of its maturity depending


upon the purpose for which it is cultivated, such as culinary, table
purpose etc., and distance to the market (3/4 full maturity in
Robusta for distant markets, while full maturity for local market
etc.).
• The assessment of the harvesting maturity is itself is a skilled job.
The harvesting in India is usually done by visual judging. The
duration of flowering to maturation in days can also be taken as a
guide to harvest index.
• In many of the perennial plantations, depending upon the time of
setting of followers, the age of follower sucker at the time of
setting it, cultural practices like manuring, irrigation followed will
determine the time of harvest, and most often a continuous
harvest all throughout the year can be obtained.
• After harvesting, the pseudostems should be cut leaving a stump
of about 0.6 m height. This practice is called muttocking.
• Experimental evidence showed that the left over stump with its
stored food material continues to nourish the daughter sucker
(follower) till it withers and dries up
• The cultivars like "Poovan', 'Monthan', 'Rasthali' and Dwarf
Cavendish are ready for harvest in 11 to 12 months from date of
planting.
• Dwarf Cavendish (Basrai) takes 14 months in Maharashtra. Some
cultivars like Nendran in Kerala takes only 10 months for harvest.
Yields are highly variable.

The following are the yield figures of major cultivars

Dwarf cavendish in Tamil Nadu and


30 to 40 t/ha
Maharashtra
Poovan perennial plantations 15 to 20 t/ha
Wetland or gardenland 20 to 25 t/ha
Hill bananas (perennial) 15 -17.5 t/ha
Ripening

• Bananas are not usually allowed to ripen on the tree as it takes


long time. Moreover, the fruit-peel splits, fruit ripens unevenly and

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 1


fails to develop good colour and aroma, hence the marketable
quality deteriorates. Therefore, banana needs to be ripened
artificially.
• On arrival at the destination, the banana bunches are immediately
sold to wholesale dealers who store the fruits in loose heaps in
godowns and ripen them in lots as per the need of the retail
dealers.
• In tropical conditions, fruits for local consumption are harvested
and ripened by hanging the bunches in a shady place.
• Some considered four enzymes as catalysts, which increased with
ripening particularly at temperature below 300 C.
• The predominant carbohydrate of green banana was found to be
starch which hydrolysed to sucrose, glucose and fructose on
ripening.
• The starch hydrolysis did not commence until respiration had
increased to the two-thirds of the climacteric peak and at about
the peak of ethylene production.
• The starch degradation is accompained by an increase in sucrose
content followed by glucose and fructose formation during
ripening.
• Some reported that during ripening, arginine, serine, valine,
leucine and histidine contents increased whereas aspartic acid and
glutamic acid content declined.
• Smoke treatment is the commonest method to induce ripening in
Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Smoking is done with straw, leaves
and cowdung in a closed chamber with bunches arranged in a
heap for 18-24 hours in summer and 48 hours in winter.
• After taking the bunches from the chamber they are placed in a
well-ventilated room for development of colour.
• Smoke treatment causes ripening of the bunches within 3 days.
Ripening is also done by keeping the bunches covered with gunny
sacks.
• Ethrel, ethylene and temperature promoted respiration can cause
ripening of the fruits.
• High concentration (1000 ppm) and/or a prolonged treatment with
ethrel (5 min) and ethylene (48 hours) caused intensive
respiration.
• Ethylene at a concentration of 1 part per thousand also helps to
initiate ripening of banana.
• In commercial trade, ripening is initiated by using various chemical
substances. Growth regulating chemicals, such as 2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T,
IAA and TBZ have been tried to hasten ripening.
• 2, 4-D is the cheapest chemical for inducing artificial ripening, and
1000 ppm of 2, 4-D for 30 seconds was optimum.
• A post-harvest dip of banana fruits in ABA and IAA solution also

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 2


hastened ripening. Use of acetylene gas generated from CaC2 for
ripening banana was started as early as 1932. Since then CaC2 is
used on a large scale in case of ripening mature green bananas.

• Ethrel application at or above 500 ppm accelerated ripening by 2


days, resulting in optimum eating quality by 4 days after
treatment.
Storage

• Banana can be stored at a temperature slightly above 550 F (130


C) and a relative humidity of 85 to 95 per cent for about three
weeks, and is ripened in a week or two at 62-700 F (16.5-210 C).
• Banana fruit becomes blackened at lower temperatures and
should not be placed in a refrigerator. Internally, the banana is
carried either by rail or by road in unrefrigerated carriage.
• On the other hand, the produce for overseas trade is carried in
refrigerated ships, the banana being kept in a cool air circulation
at about 52-560 F (11-13.50 C). Premature ripening is probably the
biggest single cause of loss during storage.
• Keeping the fruit in relatively high concentration of CO 2 and low
concentration of O2 can prolong storage life.
• Dipping of bananas at 200 ppm TBZ has been approved and
recommended as a post-harvest treatment.

• A double coating of 12% wax emulsion prolonged the storage life


of Dwarf Cavendish banana by 10-12 days at 580 F (14.50 C).

Packing And Transport

• The banana bunches harvested at apt age


of maturity are wrapped with dried banana
levels before packing into in lorries or
railways wagons for long distance transport.
This practice is in vogue in commercial
orchards of Maharashtra, Bihar, etc.

• At destination the bunches of Dwarf cavendish, poovan etc. are


dehanded and sold in retail outlets, whereas in the markets whole
bunches as such are marketed.
• In Tamil Nadu, Hill banana 'Virupakshi' is dehanded in the
plantation itself and are packed in small lots of 500 fruits each and
marketed in Madras and Dindigul.

• In Kerala, the Nendran bunches are marketed as whole bunches

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 3


itself. Often male buds are not even removed to give a better
show for the whole bunch during festive seasons.

Post Harvest operations

• Post-harvest operations are assuming importance due to higher


yields and increased cropping intensity. Due to introduction of
modern technology, yield levels have substantially increased
resulting in a marketable surplus which has to be stored till prices
are favourable for sale. With increase in irrigation facilities and
easy availability of fertilizers, intensive cropping is being
practiced.
• Harvesting assumes considerable importance because the crop
has to be harvested as early as possible to make way for another
crop. Sometimes, harvesting time may also coincide with heavy
rainfall or severe cyclone and floods. In view of these situations
suitable technology is, therefore, necessary for reducing the
harvesting time and safe storage at farm level. The post-harvest
losses are estimated to be about 25 per cent.
• A recent estimate by the Ministry of Food and Civil supplies put
the total preventable post-harvest losses of food grains at about
20 million tons a year, which was nearly 10 per cent of the total
production. The principal adviser, planning commission stated that
food grains wasted during post-harvest period could have fed up
117 million people for a year.

• The important operations carried out after harvesting of the crop


are threshing, drying, storage and processing.
Infrastructure

• Out of the total food grain production, more than 70 percent is


with the farmer and rest is stored by governmental organizations
like central warehousing corporation and Food corporation of India
and traders. The godowns are the most common structures for
above ground bag storage.
• The godowns have all the facilities for fumigation, providing
aeration and rat proof. Each of the godown can hold 5000 tonnes
of bagged food grains. Grain is also stored in bulk using large silos.
• For want of required storage space in godowns food grains are
also stored in the open and this method of storage is known as
CAP storage. Cap stands for cover and plinth. Open spaces in
warehouses and elsewhere are used for storing produce. Crates
are placed on floor, mats are spread on the crates and finally bags

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 4


are placed over the crates.

• The stacks are built in the form of domes. As protection against


rain and sun the stacks are covered with thick (600 to 1000
guage) black polythene sheets and the cover is tied to the stack
with the help of plastic ropes.
Storage

• Harvesting of crop is seasonal, but consumption of food grain is


continuous. The market value of the produce is generally low at
harvesting time. So the grower need storage facility to hold a
portion of produce to meet the feed and seed requirements in
addition of selling surplus produce when the marketing price is
favourable.
• Traders and Co-operatives at market centres need storage
structures to hold grains when the transport facility is inadequate.
• The government also needs storage structures to maintain buffer
reserves to offset the effects produced by the vagaries of nature.
Hence, there is necessity to store the produce for different periods
primarily for commercial reasons. The growers, processors,
transporters and warehouse men have to develop storage facilities
for proper storage of food grains, oilseeds, commercial crops like
Chillies, vegetables and fruits etc., and seeds intended for sowing
in the following seasons.

An ideal storage facility should satisfy the following


requirements

• It should provide maximum possible protection from ground


moisture, rains, insect pests, moulds, rodents, birds, fire, etc.,
• It should provide the necessary facility for inspection, disinfection,
loading, unloading, cleaning and reconditioning.
• It should protect grain from excessive moisture and temperature
favourable to both insect and mould development.

•It should be economical and suitable for a particular situation.


Types of Storage

• Holding grain in bulk in underground is an age old method of rural


storage. Wheat, Paddy, Sorghum, Fingermillet, etc., can be stored
underground for a period of 2 years. These structures are simple
underground dig-outs upto a depth of 5 m varying in sizes to hold
from a small quantity upto 50 tonnes.
• The pits are lined with brick or concrete so that moisture from
walls and bottom does not damage the grain. At the time of filling
a layer of straw is placed on all sides.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 5


• After the pit is filled, straw is spread over the grain and then
topped with a layer of soil. Insect infestation is less in the under
ground storage and it is cheaper over above ground storage
structures.
• This underground structure is not suitable for high rainfall and
high water-table areas. Further the grain stored underground have
poor appearance and musty smell.

Several types of above ground storage structures mentioned


below are also in use in our country,

Mud Bins

• The mud bins are made of unburnt clay mixed with straw with 1 to
3 inch thick wall and are oval, rectangular or circular. A small hole
is provided at the base for taking out the grain and a larger hole is
provided at the top for filling it with grain. Both the inlet and outlet
holes are plugged while grain is stored.

Straw Bins

• For storing paddy in humid zones dried plants are used for making
temporary structures, which after being filled with grain are
further reinforced from outside by winding paddy straw ropes
around the whole structure. Each structure holds 2 to 6 quintals of
grain.

Bukhari Bins

• This is a cylindrical structure and is made of mud and split


bamboo's. The bin is always placed on a wooden or a massonary
plat form to prevent its contact with the ground. The capacity may
vary from 3 to 10 tonnes.

Kothar Type Bins

• These bins are very much similar to a timber box placed on a


raised plat form, which is generally supported on pillars. Both the
floor and walls are made of wooden planks, where the tiled or
thatched roof is placed over it as a protection against sun and
rains. The capacity may vary from 9 to 35 tonnes.

Metal Bins

• Bins made of steel, alluminium R.C.C are used for storage of grains
outside the house. These bins are fire and moisture proof. The bins

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 6


have long durability and produced on commercial scale. The
capacity ranges from 1 to 10 tonnes. Silos are huge bins made
with either steel, alluminium or concrete. Usually steel and
alluminium bins are circular in shape. The capacity of silo ranges
from 500 to 4000 tonnes. A silo has facilities for loading and
unloading grains.

•The storage structures in rural areas are not ideal from scientific-
storage point of view, as substantial losses occur during storage of
grain from insect pests, moulds, rodents, etc. ; keeping the
requirements of the farmers in view the Indian grain storage
institute (IGSI), Hapur with its branch at Ludhiana and Hyderabad
have developed several metal bins of different capacities for
scientific storage of grain in rural areas.
Methods of Storage

• The grains are stored at three different levels, viz., at the


producer's level (rural storage) trader's level and urban
organizational storage. The urban organization uses modern
facilities and structures like silos, warehouses and also undertaken
periodical inspection, processing and treatment of grains for
ensuring their quality during storage.
• Generally, there are two ways of storing grains i.e.
• Storage in bags and Loose or bulk storage.
• In the tropical regions, the grain is stored in bags. Storage in bags
requires considerable labour, but the minimum investment is
enough on permanent structures and equipment. The storage in
bags has the advantage of being short-term storage. Bag storage
can be done under a roof of Galvanized Iron sheets, a plastic
covering where grain is intended for very early onward movement.
Usually no control measures against insects is needed for short-
term storage. If bag storage produce is intended for long time, the
control measures have to be taken against insect pests.

• The bulk storage has an advantage of greater storage capacity per


unit volume of space. Less labour is involved in loading and
unloading and there is no need of investment in purchasing gunny
bags. In bulk storage the insect infestation is also lower over bag
storage. The grain can be kept for several years in bulk storage.
Transportation

• When once the grain is threshed and dried it will be transported


from the field to store houses by bullock carts, or tractors by the
growers. Sometimes if the market price is favourable the produce
is disposed to the traders soon after drying.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 7


• The disposal of the produce, either at the village or at the market
yard is, however often closely connected with financial needs of
the growers and sometimes indebtedness. The traders on
purchasing, transport the produce to go-down, or shops for sale to
the consumers.

•This transport mainly uses trucks i.e., lorries. Government


agencies like Food Corporation of India etc., transport the produce
from one place to another place either by road or rail (waggons)
for long term storage and sometimes to export to other countries
by sea (cargo). If the produce is not properly bagged and handled
there will be some loss during transport.
Marketing

• In general most of the producers sell the grains at their door steps
in villages, to avoid transport. At village level defective measures
and weights are used by traders and also the prices paid to
farmers are much lower than regulated market rates. Now-a-days
farmers are encouraged to sell their produce in near by regulated
markets, though some labour is involved in transport.
• In regulated markets some amenities are provided for sellers and
the growers can secure maximum value for their produce. In
market yards several methods like cover system, open system and
auction system are adopted depending on the type of produce
sold. Since the rural banking system is improved the farmers to a
large extent they are out of clutches of greedy private money
lenders who exert pressure to dispose produce for lower price.
• At present in some places the cold storage facilities are also
available. Farmers can utilize these cold storage facilities for
stocking their produce on payment of rent and the produce can be
disposed when there is remunerative price in the market.
• Though several measures are taken by government the marketing
of agricultural produce is facing problems and growers are not
getting the reasonable price for their produce. If production
exceeds demand, price declines until the market is cleared. Prices
raise when production fell short. Responses to lower or higher
prices occur in the next production cycle.

• Therefore, the acreage for a particular crop based on demand and


the supporting prices for each commodity need to be monitored
by the rulers based on demand and supply studies. The
government has to bring buyers and sellers together, develop
price information systems, establish consistent grades and
product quality standards for better marketing of agricultural
produce at all times.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 8


Harvesting Corn

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Of all the vegetables grown, corn is the one most often


harvested too late. With corn, it is essential to pick it at the right time
to get the best quality and flavor. Corn also starts to lose its quality
quickly after it is harvested. Within 24 hours after being picked, most
corn loses more than half its natural sugars by converting them to
starch. Ideally, you should harvest your corn at the time you are ready
to cook it. Have that water boiling!

How sweet your corn will actaully be depends on the variety,


temperature and amount of sunlight during the day when the ears are
forming. The natural sugars develop best on cool, sunny days. Too
much heat slows down the sugar-making process. Early fall, with long
cool sunny days, produces the sweetest corn.

Check sweet corn for ripeness when the the silks have turned
brown but are still damp to the touch. Pull back the husk partially and
puncture a kernel. If a clear liquid spurts out, the corn isn`t ready. If a
milky liquid spurts out, it is ready and should be picked immediately! If
no liquid emerges, the corn is past its prime.

Beware, however, that though pulling back the husks is a reliable


method of checking for ripeness, it does have a major disadvantage if
the corn is still immature when you do the checking. Once you open an
immature ear, it becomes susceptible to insect and other pests, as it
continues to ripen. Attack by birds also becomes more likely. With a
little experience and practice, you'll be able to judge the ripeness of

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 9


corn fairly accurately, just by feeling the ends of the ears and not have
to worry about that problem.
Understanding the Sweetness of Corn (source National Gardening
Association)
"Because sweetness is so important in corn, it might help to
understand what makes corn sweet and why timing is so important in
your harvest. The plant manufactures natural sugars when the kernels
are filling out. These kernels are seeds that each contain a natural
food-storage compartment as well as the corn embryo. A seed can't
store sugars, but it can live on stored starches throughout the winter
months and in its early stages of growth the following season. As soon
as the kernels are full of sugar, the plant begins to convert it into
starch. Therefore, for best flavor, harvest the corn before this change
can take place"

Harvest
• Coconuts are harvested from a tree at varying intervals in a year.
• The frequency differs in different localities.
• In the West Coast, nuts are generally harvested from six to
twelve times a year.
• In a good well-maintained garden, bunches are regularly
produced, and harvesting is done once every month when the
nuts are mature.
• In the poor soils of the laterite type, there may be only six
harvests.
• In the coconut tracts of Bombay, generally four to six pickings
are taken in the year while in Bengal, Orissa and Assam,
harvesting is usually done twice a year.
• It is a good practice to harvest coconuts only when they are fully
mature, unless for special markets less mature nuts are required.
• Tender coconuts are picked as and when required.
• Coconuts become mature in about twelve months after the
opening of the inflorescence or flower bunches.
• In a regularly and heavy bearing tree, bunches appear and
mature normally at intervals of about thirty days and a picking
can be taken every month.
• When the interval between two harvests is long, two or three
bunches (twelve, eleven, and ten months old) are sometimes
harvested from a tree at a time.
• This is especially common in the West Coast where green husks
are in great demand for the manufacture of coir.
• The husks of fully mature nuts become dry in a short period after
harvest and dry husks are not generally used for the
manufacture of coir as they give inferior fibre as compared to the
fibre obtained from less mature or green nuts, i.e., nuts which
are eleven and ten months old.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 10


• Harvest of nuts which are less than eleven months old has been
found to be definitely uneconomic for the production of copra
and oil, as there is considerable loss in the quality and quantity
of these products in the less mature nuts.
• Nuts which are only eleven months old give fibre of good quality
and can be harvested in the tracts were green husks are
required for the manufacture of coir fibre.
• The slight reduction in the quantity of copra and oil will be easily
compensated by the additional income from the fibre.

Method of harvest
• Harvesting of coconuts is commonly done by climbing the tree
with the help of a rope ring round the feet or ankles of the
climber or by using a ladder.
• On reaching the top, the climber taps the nut in the lowermost
bunch with its harvesting knife to test its maturity.
• If he is satisfied, he cuts the bunch at the base of the stalk when
it drops down to the ground.
• If the ground is very hard or if tender nuts are to be harvested,
the bunches are lowered by using a rope. The climber also cleans
the crown and removes the dry leaves, sheaths and spathes.
• In the West Coast and certain other tracts where coconut leaves
are required for thatching houses, one or two lowermost leaves
are also cut down at the time of harvest.
• The cutting down of green leaves is considered undesirable as it
affects the yield of trees to some extent.
• In some places where the trees are not tall, harvesting is done by
cutting the bunches with a knife, attached to a long bamboo
pole.
• Nuts which are to be stored for making ball copra are not
harvested till they are completely ripe and dry.
Storage

• In India, the harvested nuts, particularly those that are to be


converted into copra are stored for some time in shade in
specially constructed coconut stores.
• If, however, the husks are required for retting, the nuts are
husked soon after harvest.
• In Ceylon, the nuts are kept heaped in the open garden till they
are disposed off.
• A few nuts in these heaps are often found to germinate or rot.

From the point of time of view of making copra a limited period


of storage of unhusked nuts is found to be beneficial in the
following ways

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 11


• Husking is made easier as fresh green nuts are more difficult to
husk.
• Shelling is cleaner and easier since the kernel detaches quicker
from the shell.

• The resulting shells are dry hard and burn well without smoke.
Yield

• Under favourable conditions, coconut palms commence to flower


in about five to six years after planting.
• In loamy soils, it may be in seven to ten years and in poor soils it
may be as late as fifteen to twenty years after planting.
• In about five years after the commencement of the flowering, the
trees begin to yield normally.
• Proper manuring, intercultivation and irrigation are known to
induce early flowering and bearing.
• The yield of nuts from a tree varies considerably, depending
upon a number of factors such as the soil, rainfall and seasonal
conditions, the variety planted, the age of the trees, manuring,
intercultivation and the effect of pests and diseases.

• Properly maintained and regularly cultivated and manured


gardens in loamy soils under unirrigated conditions yield about
sixty to hundred nuts per tree per year, while it would be
definitely more in the rich alluvial soils. In poor soils and in
neglected gardens, the yield may be twenty nuts or less per tree
per year.
Post Harvest operations

• Post-harvest operations are assuming importance due to higher


yields and increased cropping intensity. Due to introduction of
modern technology, yield levels have substantially increased
resulting in a marketable surplus which has to be stored till
prices are favourable for sale. With increase in irrigation facilities
and easy availability of fertilizers, intensive cropping is being
practiced.
• Harvesting assumes considerable importance because the crop
has to be harvested as early as possible to make way for another
crop. Sometimes, harvesting time may also coincide with heavy
rainfall or severe cyclone and floods. In view of these situations
suitable technology is, therefore, necessary for reducing the
harvesting time and safe storage at farm level. The post-harvest
losses are estimated to be about 25 per cent.
• A recent estimate by the Ministry of Food and Civil supplies put
the total preventable post-harvest losses of food grains at about

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 12


20 million tons a year, which was nearly 10 per cent of the total
production. The principal adviser, planning commission stated
that food grains wasted during post-harvest period could have
fed up 117 million people for a year.

• The important operations carried out after harvesting of the crop


are threshing, drying, storage and processing.
Infrastructure

• Out of the total food grain production, more than 70 percent is


with the farmer and rest is stored by governmental organizations
like central warehousing corporation and Food corporation of
India and traders. The godowns are the most common structures
for above ground bag storage.
• The godowns have all the facilities for fumigation, providing
aeration and rat proof. Each of the godown can hold 5000 tonnes
of bagged food grains. Grain is also stored in bulk using large
silos.
• For want of required storage space in godowns food grains are
also stored in the open and this method of storage is known as
CAP storage. Cap stands for cover and plinth. Open spaces in
warehouses and elsewhere are used for storing produce. Crates
are placed on floor, mats are spread on the crates and finally
bags are placed over the crates.

• The stacks are built in the form of domes. As protection against


rain and sun the stacks are covered with thick (600 to 1000
guage) black polythene sheets and the cover is tied to the stack
with the help of plastic ropes.
Storage

• Harvesting of crop is seasonal, but consumption of food grain is


continuous. The market value of the produce is generally low at
harvesting time. So the grower need storage facility to hold a
portion of produce to meet the feed and seed requirements in
addition of selling surplus produce when the marketing price is
favourable.
• Traders and Co-operatives at market centres need storage
structures to hold grains when the transport facility is
inadequate.
• The government also needs storage structures to maintain buffer
reserves to offset the effects produced by the vagaries of nature.
Hence, there is necessity to store the produce for different
periods primarily for commercial reasons. The growers,
processors, transporters and warehouse men have to develop
storage facilities for proper storage of food grains, oilseeds,

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 13


commercial crops like Chillies, vegetables and fruits etc., and
seeds intended for sowing in the following seasons.

An ideal storage facility should satisfy the following


requirements

• It should provide maximum possible protection from ground


moisture, rains, insect pests, moulds, rodents, birds, fire, etc.,
• It should provide the necessary facility for inspection,
disinfection, loading, unloading, cleaning and reconditioning.
• It should protect grain from excessive moisture and temperature
favourable to both insect and mould development.

•It should be economical and suitable for a particular situation.


Types of Storage

• Holding grain in bulk in underground is an age old method of


rural storage. Wheat, Paddy, Sorghum, Fingermillet, etc., can be
stored underground for a period of 2 years. These structures are
simple underground dig-outs upto a depth of 5 m varying in sizes
to hold from a small quantity upto 50 tonnes.
• The pits are lined with brick or concrete so that moisture from
walls and bottom does not damage the grain. At the time of
filling a layer of straw is placed on all sides.
• After the pit is filled, straw is spread over the grain and then
topped with a layer of soil. Insect infestation is less in the under
ground storage and it is cheaper over above ground storage
structures.
• This underground structure is not suitable for high rainfall and
high water-table areas. Further the grain stored underground
have poor appearance and musty smell.

Several types of above ground storage structures mentioned


below are also in use in our country,

Mud Bins

• The mud bins are made of unburnt clay mixed with straw with 1
to 3 inch thick wall and are oval, rectangular or circular. A small
hole is provided at the base for taking out the grain and a larger
hole is provided at the top for filling it with grain. Both the inlet
and outlet holes are plugged while grain is stored.

Straw Bins

• For storing paddy in humid zones dried plants are used for

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 14


making temporary structures, which after being filled with grain
are further reinforced from outside by winding paddy straw ropes
around the whole structure. Each structure holds 2 to 6 quintals
of grain.

Bukhari Bins

• This is a cylindrical structure and is made of mud and split


bamboo's. The bin is always placed on a wooden or a massonary
plat form to prevent its contact with the ground. The capacity
may vary from 3 to 10 tonnes.

Kothar Type Bins

• These bins are very much similar to a timber box placed on a


raised plat form, which is generally supported on pillars. Both the
floor and walls are made of wooden planks, where the tiled or
thatched roof is placed over it as a protection against sun and
rains. The capacity may vary from 9 to 35 tonnes.

Metal Bins

• Bins made of steel, alluminium R.C.C are used for storage of


grains outside the house. These bins are fire and moisture proof.
The bins have long durability and produced on commercial scale.
The capacity ranges from 1 to 10 tonnes. Silos are huge bins
made with either steel, alluminium or concrete. Usually steel and
alluminium bins are circular in shape. The capacity of silo ranges
from 500 to 4000 tonnes. A silo has facilities for loading and
unloading grains.

•The storage structures in rural areas are not ideal from scientific-
storage point of view, as substantial losses occur during storage
of grain from insect pests, moulds, rodents, etc. ; keeping the
requirements of the farmers in view the Indian grain storage
institute (IGSI), Hapur with its branch at Ludhiana and Hyderabad
have developed several metal bins of different capacities for
scientific storage of grain in rural areas.
Methods of Storage

• The grains are stored at three different levels, viz., at the


producer's level (rural storage) trader's level and urban
organizational storage. The urban organization uses modern
facilities and structures like silos, warehouses and also
undertaken periodical inspection, processing and treatment of

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 15


grains for ensuring their quality during storage.
• Generally, there are two ways of storing grains i.e.
• Storage in bags and Loose or bulk storage.
• In the tropical regions, the grain is stored in bags. Storage in
bags requires considerable labour, but the minimum investment
is enough on permanent structures and equipment. The storage
in bags has the advantage of being short-term storage. Bag
storage can be done under a roof of Galvanized Iron sheets, a
plastic covering where grain is intended for very early onward
movement. Usually no control measures against insects is
needed for short-term storage. If bag storage produce is
intended for long time, the control measures have to be taken
against insect pests.

• The bulk storage has an advantage of greater storage capacity


per unit volume of space. Less labour is involved in loading and
unloading and there is no need of investment in purchasing
gunny bags. In bulk storage the insect infestation is also lower
over bag storage. The grain can be kept for several years in bulk
storage.
Transportation

• When once the grain is threshed and dried it will be transported


from the field to store houses by bullock carts, or tractors by the
growers. Sometimes if the market price is favourable the
produce is disposed to the traders soon after drying.
• The disposal of the produce, either at the village or at the market
yard is, however often closely connected with financial needs of
the growers and sometimes indebtedness. The traders on
purchasing, transport the produce to go-down, or shops for sale
to the consumers.

•This transport mainly uses trucks i.e., lorries. Government


agencies like Food Corporation of India etc., transport the
produce from one place to another place either by road or rail
(waggons) for long term storage and sometimes to export to
other countries by sea (cargo). If the produce is not properly
bagged and handled there will be some loss during transport.
Marketing

• In general most of the producers sell the grains at their door


steps in villages, to avoid transport. At village level defective
measures and weights are used by traders and also the prices
paid to farmers are much lower than regulated market rates.
Now-a-days farmers are encouraged to sell their produce in near

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 16


by regulated markets, though some labour is involved in
transport.
• In regulated markets some amenities are provided for sellers and
the growers can secure maximum value for their produce. In
market yards several methods like cover system, open system
and auction system are adopted depending on the type of
produce sold. Since the rural banking system is improved the
farmers to a large extent they are out of clutches of greedy
private money lenders who exert pressure to dispose produce for
lower price.
• At present in some places the cold storage facilities are also
available. Farmers can utilize these cold storage facilities for
stocking their produce on payment of rent and the produce can
be disposed when there is remunerative price in the market.
• Though several measures are taken by government the
marketing of agricultural produce is facing problems and growers
are not getting the reasonable price for their produce. If
production exceeds demand, price declines until the market is
cleared. Prices raise when production fell short. Responses to
lower or higher prices occur in the next production cycle.

• Therefore, the acreage for a particular crop based on demand


and the supporting prices for each commodity need to be
monitored by the rulers based on demand and supply studies.
The government has to bring buyers and sellers together,
develop price information systems, establish consistent grades
and product quality standards for better marketing of agricultural
produce at all times.
Introduction

Ten factors that govern storage life of Potatoes

• Prevailing climatic conditions


• Variety and maturity of tubers
• Incidence of infection at the time of harvesting
• Extent of damage to tubers prior to storage
• Time interval between harvesting and storage
• Storage temperature and humidity
• Air circulation in storage chamber
• Co2 concentration in chamber
• Sanitary conditions in cold storage

• Treatment of tubers before storage.


Physio-chemical changes in tubers during storage

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 17


Sprouting of Tubers

• Sprouting is unwanted germination of tubers. It starts at


temperatures more than 50 deg F in storage.
• If more light falls on tubers at 40 deg F, it also starts growing in
tubers. It reduces

1. Storage life
2. Level of vitamin C
3. Quality of cooking, processing and germination
4. It also changes chemical composition.

Greening of Tubers

• Greening in potatoes is being induced when they are exposed to


light continuously for sometime.
• The colour becomes green and taste bitter. The growing occurs:

1. Glycoalboloid
2. Solenine
3. Chaconine

It deteriorates the quality of cooking and changes chemical


composition of Tubers also.

Sweetening of Tubers

• When potatoes are stored at temperature below 35 deg F, the


starch starts converting into sugar by which tubers become
sweet.
• The accumulation of sugar changes the peeled tubers to brown
and chips become black. If respiration rate is low, sweetening will
be high. This changes flavor and quality of potatoes.

Rotting of Tubers

• The rotting of tubers is caused by micro-organisms entered in


peeled, cut, bruised and contaminated tubers in presence of
favorable conditions available for their survival. It results

1. Odour becomes foul


2. Eyes become black
3. When they are pressed, leak water

• Black heart is caused due to abnormal rate of respiration in poor

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 18


ventilation and fungus causing blight grows in tubers which are
stored at low temperature for 10-15 days. Any bruise on tubers
may cause infection by leak fungus.
Factors Governing Safe Storage of Potatoes

Potato Conditions

Tuber Variety

• The autumn crop can resist a wide range of temperature and


withstand low humidity.
• While crop is not capable of tolerating higher temperatures.
• Kufri sheetman can tolerate frost and low temperatures, while
Kufri Sandhuri higher temperatures.

Tuber Maturity

• Mature tubers can be stored for long period under safe storage
conditions while immature tubers are easily affected by
fluctuations in environmental conditions and infected by micro-
organisms.

Tuber Health

The potatoes free from mechanical injuries like cuts, bruises and
scraping as well as from biological injuries like

• Disease Infection
• Insect Attack
• Rotten Condition
• Sprouting

Can be stored for longer periods as compared to unhealthy tubers

Handling Conditions

Careful Handling

• During harvesting, grading, plucking and stacking, the potatoes


should be handled carefully so that there may be no damage to
outer peel through cutting, bruising and cracking etc.

Suitable Farm Practices

• Before harvesting the potato crop should be undergone efficient

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 19


and suitable farm practices like earthing, irrigation, fertilization
and pesticide application so that the tubers may achieve proper
health and strengths before harvesting.

Sanitary Conditions In Storage

• The storage walls, ceiling, filling boxes and equipment should be


free from insects and disease organisms. The air circulation and
water distribution should be free from contamination.

Environmental Conditions

Temperature

• The best storage temperature for potatoes are reported to be 40-


45 deg F.
• The lower and higher temperature cause some changes in
cooking, processing and germination qualities, increase storage
losses and also reduce storage life of potatoes.

At lower temperature below 40 deg F

• The tubers start converting starch into sugars and tubers


become sweet.
• The peeled tubers turn brown and colour of chips become black
• Seed potatoes become less affective for germination as their
dormancy breaking capacity decreases rapidly
• There is rapid loss of vitamin C
• It causes infection of blight, blank heart mahogany diseases
• The wound healing and skin hardening capacity decrease rapidly.

At high temperature above 60 deg F

• The respiration rate increases while reduces storage life.


• There is moisture loss and cause shrinkage, writhing and
sponginess in tubers.
• Cause sprouting which reduces storage life and quality of
germination.

Humidity

• The best relative humidity for storage of potatoes is 80-85 per


cent at which there occurs minimum shrinkage and best
physiological processes can be maintained.
• If relative humidity is lowered below 70%, the loss of moisture by

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 20


transportation becomes faster than the loss of solids by
respiration, while results in decrease in specific gravity and
tubers become light and spongy.
• The specific gravity is the index of eating and cooking quality of
tubers.
• The temperature and ventilation are the controlling agencies of
humidity.
• The control of humidity in storage poses problems of
condensation on walls and ceiling.
• The condensed moisture dripping on the tubers may cause
rotting and other excessive losses.
• When moisture is added to the storage atmosphere, all water
droplets should completely vaporize into air before coming in
contact with tubers.

Ventilation

• Ventilation affects the quality of potatoes in storage because of


its relation to temperature and humidity of the storage
atmosphere.
• Ventilation usually may imply the introduction of outside air or
merely the circulation of air within the storage.
• The introduction of outside air is frequently a quick means to
change temperature and humidity in the storage with motor
operated thermostatically controlled ventilation.
• Ventilation usually tends to lower the relative humidity
surrounding the tubers unless the incoming air or recirculated air
reaches to saturation condition.
• Storage operations should be aware of the influence of
ventilation on the humidity in air surrounding the tubers as well
as in providing a more uniformity desirable temperature.
• Hence Ventilation can have a considerable effect on the quality
of potatoes.
• The optimum air velocity for storage Ventilation is about 250-300
ft / min

Light

• Tuber exposed to light either natural or artificial gradually


develops chlorophyll and Solanine formation in their tissues and
become green in colour.
• The green tuber have bitter taste and slowly develop undesirable
quality due to green colour.
• If the tubers are exposed to light a continuously long period,
photosynthesis occurs frequently which brings some physio –
chemical changes in the tubers. and hence affects the chemical

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 21


composition of tubers.
• The transportation losses of moisture also occur rapidly in
presence of light.
• Photeolytic enzymes become active during light and cause early
ripening of tubers.

• Further activity of these enzymes may cause rotting of tubers.


Five basic requirements for safe storage of potatoes

1. To provide satisfactory environmental conditions


2. To control disease causing organisms, enzymes and insects
3. To control sprouting in tubers during storage
4. To maintain potato firmness to prevent black spot

• Gupta, R.R. 1978. Evaluation of storage characteristics of


potatoes with evaporative cooling system.
• Master of technology PAU Ludhiana thesis.
• In Punjab, Seed tubers are stored in bags in cold stores at 4 deg
– 5 deg C and 90-95% relative humidity.
• The seed material should be kept in cold store by 15 March as
the delay affects the productivity of seed tubers.
• High temperature leads to increased rate of respiration and
water loss in tubers which affect their metabolic balance during
storage.
• Compared to ordinary store, the weight losses and rotting of
tubers are negligible in cold stores.
• Tubers moth, which is a serious problem before the advent of
cold stores, has almost disappeared.

• The only disadvantage of cold storage is that the leaf-roll virus is


preserved with the seed tubers at low temperature.
Storage Designs

1. Scientifically the most suitable shape is a sphere but the most


practical shape is cube. The economical shape depends on the
balance in cost between two opposing factors, viz., (a) narrower
span reduces cost and (b) the shortest length of walls is provided
by square shaped building.
2. Increase in height of building, as much as possible, reduces cost
per unit material stored
3. Exterior surfaces should be protected against wind and rain.
They must be water proof but not impermeable to the passage of
water vapour from inside. Oil tempered hard wood is resistant to
moisture and could be used as cladding material for both
external and internal applications.
4. Solar radiation falling on internal surface may raise its

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 22


temperature as much as 15.6 deg C above that of the
atmosphere. Part of the heat is dissipated but part is transmitted
through walls and roof. Heat gains through walls at 20 deg N
latitude are lower on the south than on the east and west. South-
East and South- West orientation occupies intermediate position.
Heat gains through roofs are the lowest in the case of plaster
ceiling with roof space alone, provided with tiles on board and
felt.
5. Good insulation is important not only for refrigerated types of
stores but also with the others where ventilation with the outside
air is the only means of controlling store temperature. Extruded
expanded polystyrene appears to be most suitable insulation
material as it can be used without a vapour barrier which is
essential with other materials such as insulation boards, glass
fiber that absorbs moisture affecting their insulating property.
Strawbale is considered expensive as it has the shorter life as
compared with commercial insulants.
6. High relative humidity in stores reduces evaporation losses from
potatoes but may lead to condensation on inside faces of walls
and roofs. This can be avoided by a surface covering of straw to
absorb condensation unless better insulation keeps up air
temperature in the store roof space above or store air is
recirculated whenever necessary.
7. Ventilation is necessary to dissipate the metabolic heat produced
by potatoes through respiration. In an unventilated store,
temperature may increase by 2 deg C / m storage depth.

The amount of ventilation and fan capacity can be calculated


on the basis of 4 factors

1. Average outside temperature and its range.


2. Heat gains from potato respiration
3. Solar radiation and thermal transmittance of the building.

4. Heat gains from equipment.


Cooling Systems and Equipment

• Duncan (1955) designed an evaporative cooling system using


spray water as cooling agent.
• A pump recirculates water at a rate greatly in excess of the
evaporation.

The essential requirements for better operation of this system


are as under

• Uniform distribution of air across the spray chamber.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 23


• Suitable air velocity of about 300-700 fpm in washer chamber
• An adequate amount of spray water broken into fine droplets
• Good spray distribution across the air stream
• Sufficient length of travel through the spray and wetted surfaces
• Elimination of free moisture from the outgoing air.
• Wilson (1971) designed a forced evaporative humidifier. He
concluded that the rate of evaporation of water is limited by the
following factors:
• Water surface area exposed to air
• Rate of air flow in the chamber
• Mixing motion of air with water
• Temperature of water in circulation.
• Fergin (1974) studied various combinations of heat recovery and
evaporative cooling.
• In a simple evaporative cooling system, Outside air is cooled by
water spray to the desired supply air conditions.
• The second part consists of spray nozzles or cooling pads.
Entering that side, air is cooled by water spray.
• The cooled air then absorbs heat from a second outside air
stream via heat recovery unit.
• This second air stream is then further cooled by a second water
spray and then introduced into the control chamber.
• Subramanium (1970) studied about of thermal insulation for cold
stores.
• He used different insulation materials of different thickness for
comparative performance.

• He recommended paddy husk for walls and rock wool or


thermocol for ceiling and other parts of the storage structure for
better performance.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 24


Uses of Potatoes in Indian Kitchens

• Potato is used in Indian kitchens in one way or the other and no


meal is considered perfect without potatoes.
• It is mixed in large number of dishes and hoped that these dishes
whether exclusively potatoes or not, will form either a part of the
basic diet or shall be used for special occasions, etc.

Item Ingradients QuantityRemarks


Grate boiled
potatoes
Beast in the
butter when
cold.
Chopped craft
cheese and a
10 number
little mint
Medium sized (500 gm)5
coriander
cooked potato,table
Potato- chutney
Butter, Mint,spoonful10
Cheese Shape the
Coriander table
crispies mixture into
chutney, spoonful100
small balls,
Craft cheese
toss them
gm
lightly and
fresh
breadcrumb
and deep-fry
them in ghee
oil until golden
brown.
Bake the
washed
potatoes until
Medium
they feel soft
Sized
when pinched
PotatoesCottag 850 gm4
or forked. Split
Potato e Table
each potato
Cheese or Craft spoonful4-5
into halves,
Splits CheeseTomato Table
place a cheese
sauce orspoonful
slice, little
Mango
chutney and ½
relishButter
teaspoonful (2-
3 g) butter or
as per taste.
Banana Banana per1As per Peel bananas.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 25


personCrushed Brush with a
potato thick coating
Wafers of the jam.
your taste
(crisps)Whippe Coat with
As
d potato crisps.
Split per your
cream to Pipe cream on
taste As per
decorate the each banana
your taste
bananasApple in a simple
/ Apricot or line. Serve
any Jam immediately.
Peel and cut
potatoes into
very thin long
strips.
Immerse them
in a solution of
ice water and
salt for about
½ hour. Drain
Large
42 Table and dry them
PotatoesSaltIce
Potato spoonful200 on a piece of
Straws mlAs percloth. Heat oil
WaterOil or
need and deep-fry
Ghee for frying
the potato
straws until
crisp and
golden brown.
Serve them
sprinkled in
the salt and
pepper as per
taste
Potato Potato 25 gm50 gmHeat sugar in a
Crisp WafersSugar small thick
Praline pan, unless
melted
continue to
heat until goes
golden brown
on very low
heat. Crush
the wafers
with Belan and
quickly stir
into the sugar

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 26


and pour at
once in a thin
layer over a
greased
baking sheet
or Thali. Leave
to set. Crush it
when dry.
Store in
airtight jar
until required.
Combine
potato with
salt & pepper
Boiled 500-600 Form a potato
Potato– PotatoSalt gm1 Table partly covered
Rice Cooked spoonful100 with mashed
Hamburgersalted gm½ table cooked rice to
RicePepper spoonful form flat balls
Role in fine
bread crumbs
and fry.
Mesh potatoes
Soften the
bread (after
removing their
all 4 crusts) in
water and
press them
500 gm4-61within palms
Boiled
table to drain off
potatoesFresh
spoonful1 excess water
bread slicesSalt
Potato table Mix this bread
Pepper
Balls spoonful Aswith potatoes
Coriander,
per your and the herbal
Chilli,Cumin,
tasteAs perpowder
Anardana etc.
your taste Make into
patties of
heart, leaf or
any other
shape
Deep fry in
extra hot
medium.
Potato Potatoes 400-500 gmPeel and wash

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 27


potato and
other
vegetables
Cut potatoes
and carrot into
small pieces
Boil in ½ liter
water until soft

Strain and put


them into a
Carrot
pan
Piement
Add other
Fresh 115-101
vegetables,
BeansWater liter12
400 ml water
Onion table
and boil once
Chopped spoonful1-2
In another
Soup ButterCorn table
frying pan,
flourSour spoonful100
Saute onions
Cream Or ml20 gmAs
in butter until
CurdChopped per your
brown
Parsley Ortaste
Add the flour
CorianderSalt
and sauté
And Pepper
again
Mix cooked
ingredients in
a pan, Pepper
to taste, mix
curd, sprinkle
with garam
Masala and
chopped
parsley and
serve hot.
Potato orEgg per 1-225 Beat well the
Crunchy person CoursegmAs eggs
Omelet chopped potatoper your Mix with
Wafers or tasteFor pepper and
boiled frying salt
grated Heat the oil in
potatoesPepper a 8-10" pan
& SaltGhee and cover the
base with thin
layer of
crushed wafers

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 28


or grated
potatoes
Pour over the
egg mixture,
stir very lightly
cook until
golden brown
and serve.
Wash and dry
the potatoes
Wrap in
aluminum foil
to be baked
with hot coal
or burnt cows
dung or hot
Large oven at 350
potato 11 table deg F.
Baked per personspoonfulAs Pierce the fork
Potatoes ButterSauce, per your while cooking
Chutney, taste to let the
Salt, Pepper steam out
Peel and serve
with salt,
butter, and
sauce
Use small
potatoes for
quicker
cooking.
Potato Medium sized 412-31100 Peel , slice and
Salad potatoesOnion ml boil potatoes
choppedGarlic until just
cloves cooked
chopped Do not
Green overcook
chillies otherwise they
chopped will break
MayonnaiseOil Drain and mix
& vinegar potatoes with
salad remaining
dressingTo ingredients
lightly cover except
the salad mayonnaise
and chillies

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 29


Add
mayonnaise
just before
serving
Garnish it with
shaved carrot,
coriander
leaves or
cabbage or
chopped
tomato.
For oil and
vinegar
dressing: mix
2
tablespoonful
salad oil and 1
tablespoonful
vinegar, 1
spoonful salt +
2 spoonfuls
freshly ground
pepper and
shake well.
Wash, peel
and finely
grate potatoes
in salted water
Slieve grated
Potato potatoes
500 g
Egg Mix grated
(50g/person
Onion potatoes with
)
Potato PangratedSalt onion in a bowl
211
Cakes Tomato Add beaten
spoonful
Sauce or eggs and mix
As per
Mango well.
needed
Chutney Make into thick
cake and fry
until brown on
both sides.
Serve hot with
chutney

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 30


Peel and cut
potatoes after
washing
Medium potatoes.
sized Fry the poppy
potatoes paste in same
Small in the same oil
dry after frying
red chillies 24½ potatoes
halvedTurmeric spoonful200 Add potatoes,
powderWater ml6 stalks3salt, turmeric,
Potato
Coriander spoonful½ chilli powder
charchari
leaves spoonful¼ and fry 1-2
chopped spoonful1 minutes.
Poppy spoonful Add water,
seeds cover and
Salt simmer till
Chilli potatoes are
powder tender and
Lime juice water
absorbed
Add lime juice
and serve hot.

Crispy Tips to Instantly Add the Potato Flavour

• Replace French fries with the wafers. Crumble the wafers on


scrambled eggs or panion bhurji or salads for better taste.
• Enhance flavour of thick soups with a topping of broken potato
crisps.
• Finally crushed potatoes are a better substitute for bread crumbs
for the pakoras / bondas, etc.
• Add crunchiness of potato by layering broken potato wafers
between butter and / or vegetables in the bread sandwiches.

• Plain cakes taste and look better if a mixture of chopped wafers


and sugar is put on the top of plain cake before baking.
Post Harvest operations

• Post-harvest operations are assuming importance due to higher


yields and increased cropping intensity. Due to introduction of
modern technology, yield levels have substantially increased
resulting in a marketable surplus which has to be stored till
prices are favourable for sale. With increase in irrigation facilities
and easy availability of fertilizers, intensive cropping is being

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 31


practiced.
• Harvesting assumes considerable importance because the crop
has to be harvested as early as possible to make way for another
crop. Sometimes, harvesting time may also coincide with heavy
rainfall or severe cyclone and floods. In view of these situations
suitable technology is, therefore, necessary for reducing the
harvesting time and safe storage at farm level. The post-harvest
losses are estimated to be about 25 per cent.
• A recent estimate by the Ministry of Food and Civil supplies put
the total preventable post-harvest losses of food grains at about
20 million tons a year, which was nearly 10 per cent of the total
production. The principal adviser, planning commission stated
that food grains wasted during post-harvest period could have
fed up 117 million people for a year.

• The important operations carried out after harvesting of the crop


are threshing, drying, storage and processing.
Infrastructure

• Out of the total food grain production, more than 70 percent is


with the farmer and rest is stored by governmental organizations
like central warehousing corporation and Food corporation of
India and traders. The godowns are the most common structures
for above ground bag storage.
• The godowns have all the facilities for fumigation, providing
aeration and rat proof. Each of the godown can hold 5000 tonnes
of bagged food grains. Grain is also stored in bulk using large
silos.
• For want of required storage space in godowns food grains are
also stored in the open and this method of storage is known as
CAP storage. Cap stands for cover and plinth. Open spaces in
warehouses and elsewhere are used for storing produce. Crates
are placed on floor, mats are spread on the crates and finally
bags are placed over the crates.

• The stacks are built in the form of domes. As protection against


rain and sun the stacks are covered with thick (600 to 1000
guage) black polythene sheets and the cover is tied to the stack
with the help of plastic ropes.
Storage

• Harvesting of crop is seasonal, but consumption of food grain is


continuous. The market value of the produce is generally low at
harvesting time. So the grower need storage facility to hold a
portion of produce to meet the feed and seed requirements in

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 32


addition of selling surplus produce when the marketing price is
favourable.
• Traders and Co-operatives at market centres need storage
structures to hold grains when the transport facility is
inadequate.
• The government also needs storage structures to maintain buffer
reserves to offset the effects produced by the vagaries of nature.
Hence, there is necessity to store the produce for different
periods primarily for commercial reasons. The growers,
processors, transporters and warehouse men have to develop
storage facilities for proper storage of food grains, oilseeds,
commercial crops like Chillies, vegetables and fruits etc., and
seeds intended for sowing in the following seasons.

An ideal storage facility should satisfy the following


requirements

• It should provide maximum possible protection from ground


moisture, rains, insect pests, moulds, rodents, birds, fire, etc.,
• It should provide the necessary facility for inspection,
disinfection, loading, unloading, cleaning and reconditioning.
• It should protect grain from excessive moisture and temperature
favourable to both insect and mould development.

•It should be economical and suitable for a particular situation.


Types of Storage

• Holding grain in bulk in underground is an age old method of


rural storage. Wheat, Paddy, Sorghum, Fingermillet, etc., can be
stored underground for a period of 2 years. These structures are
simple underground dig-outs upto a depth of 5 m varying in sizes
to hold from a small quantity upto 50 tonnes.
• The pits are lined with brick or concrete so that moisture from
walls and bottom does not damage the grain. At the time of
filling a layer of straw is placed on all sides.
• After the pit is filled, straw is spread over the grain and then
topped with a layer of soil. Insect infestation is less in the under
ground storage and it is cheaper over above ground storage
structures.
• This underground structure is not suitable for high rainfall and
high water-table areas. Further the grain stored underground
have poor appearance and musty smell.

Several types of above ground storage structures mentioned

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 33


below are also in use in our country,

Mud Bins

• The mud bins are made of unburnt clay mixed with straw with 1
to 3 inch thick wall and are oval, rectangular or circular. A small
hole is provided at the base for taking out the grain and a larger
hole is provided at the top for filling it with grain. Both the inlet
and outlet holes are plugged while grain is stored.

Straw Bins

• For storing paddy in humid zones dried plants are used for
making temporary structures, which after being filled with grain
are further reinforced from outside by winding paddy straw ropes
around the whole structure. Each structure holds 2 to 6 quintals
of grain.

Bukhari Bins

• This is a cylindrical structure and is made of mud and split


bamboo's. The bin is always placed on a wooden or a massonary
plat form to prevent its contact with the ground. The capacity
may vary from 3 to 10 tonnes.

Kothar Type Bins

• These bins are very much similar to a timber box placed on a


raised plat form, which is generally supported on pillars. Both the
floor and walls are made of wooden planks, where the tiled or
thatched roof is placed over it as a protection against sun and
rains. The capacity may vary from 9 to 35 tonnes.

Metal Bins

• Bins made of steel, alluminium R.C.C are used for storage of


grains outside the house. These bins are fire and moisture proof.
The bins have long durability and produced on commercial scale.
The capacity ranges from 1 to 10 tonnes. Silos are huge bins
made with either steel, alluminium or concrete. Usually steel and
alluminium bins are circular in shape. The capacity of silo ranges
from 500 to 4000 tonnes. A silo has facilities for loading and
unloading grains.

• The storage structures in rural areas are not ideal from scientific-

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 34


storage point of view, as substantial losses occur during storage
of grain from insect pests, moulds, rodents, etc. ; keeping the
requirements of the farmers in view the Indian grain storage
institute (IGSI), Hapur with its branch at Ludhiana and Hyderabad
have developed several metal bins of different capacities for
scientific storage of grain in rural areas.
Methods of Storage

• The grains are stored at three different levels, viz., at the


producer's level (rural storage) trader's level and urban
organizational storage. The urban organization uses modern
facilities and structures like silos, warehouses and also
undertaken periodical inspection, processing and treatment of
grains for ensuring their quality during storage.
• Generally, there are two ways of storing grains i.e.
• Storage in bags and Loose or bulk storage.
• In the tropical regions, the grain is stored in bags. Storage in
bags requires considerable labour, but the minimum investment
is enough on permanent structures and equipment. The storage
in bags has the advantage of being short-term storage. Bag
storage can be done under a roof of Galvanized Iron sheets, a
plastic covering where grain is intended for very early onward
movement. Usually no control measures against insects is
needed for short-term storage. If bag storage produce is
intended for long time, the control measures have to be taken
against insect pests.

• The bulk storage has an advantage of greater storage capacity


per unit volume of space. Less labour is involved in loading and
unloading and there is no need of investment in purchasing
gunny bags. In bulk storage the insect infestation is also lower
over bag storage. The grain can be kept for several years in bulk
storage.
Transportation

• When once the grain is threshed and dried it will be transported


from the field to store houses by bullock carts, or tractors by the
growers. Sometimes if the market price is favourable the
produce is disposed to the traders soon after drying.
• The disposal of the produce, either at the village or at the market
yard is, however often closely connected with financial needs of
the growers and sometimes indebtedness. The traders on
purchasing, transport the produce to go-down, or shops for sale
to the consumers.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 35


•This transport mainly uses trucks i.e., lorries. Government
agencies like Food Corporation of India etc., transport the
produce from one place to another place either by road or rail
(waggons) for long term storage and sometimes to export to
other countries by sea (cargo). If the produce is not properly
bagged and handled there will be some loss during transport.
Marketing

• In general most of the producers sell the grains at their door


steps in villages, to avoid transport. At village level defective
measures and weights are used by traders and also the prices
paid to farmers are much lower than regulated market rates.
Now-a-days farmers are encouraged to sell their produce in near
by regulated markets, though some labour is involved in
transport.
• In regulated markets some amenities are provided for sellers and
the growers can secure maximum value for their produce. In
market yards several methods like cover system, open system
and auction system are adopted depending on the type of
produce sold. Since the rural banking system is improved the
farmers to a large extent they are out of clutches of greedy
private money lenders who exert pressure to dispose produce for
lower price.
• At present in some places the cold storage facilities are also
available. Farmers can utilize these cold storage facilities for
stocking their produce on payment of rent and the produce can
be disposed when there is remunerative price in the market.
• Though several measures are taken by government the
marketing of agricultural produce is facing problems and growers
are not getting the reasonable price for their produce. If
production exceeds demand, price declines until the market is
cleared. Prices raise when production fell short. Responses to
lower or higher prices occur in the next production cycle.

• Therefore, the acreage for a particular crop based on demand


and the supporting prices for each commodity need to be
monitored by the rulers based on demand and supply studies.
The government has to bring buyers and sellers together,
develop price information systems, establish consistent grades
and product quality standards for better marketing of agricultural
produce at all times.

Chapter 22 Harvesting of Banana Page 36