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AXIAL DEFORMATION OF COLUMN IN TALL STRUCTURES

By Er.P.K.Mallick, Dy.Chief Engineer,Cuttack, Odisha.


pk_mallick1962@rediffmail.com

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Concrete members experience time-dependent behaviour caused by creep and
shrinkage .During the past, much research has been made in this area providing means
for good understanding of the effect of creep and shrinkage on concrete and processes
through which they evolve. Basically, two types of behaviour are distinct because of
creep and shrinkage:
1)Creep and shrinkage lead to increased deformations in plain concrete.
2)In reinforced concrete ,creep and shrinkage cause stress redistribution between the
compressive zone in concrete and steel reinforcement. The direction of stress transfer
in reinforced concrete column is normally from concrete section to reinforcement,
leading to an increase in steel stress and decrease in concrete stress with time.
A reinforced concrete column also undergoes axial shortening due to creep and
shrinkage and this phenomenon is known as time-dependent shortening of column.
With the increase in height of buildings, the importance of time-dependent shortening
of columns and shear walls become more critical owing to cumulative nature of such
shortening. It is known that column with varying percentage of reinforcement and
varying volume to surface ratio will undergo varying strains due to creep and shrinkage
under similar stresses.
In a multistoried building, adjacent columns may have different percentage of
reinforcement due to different tributary areas or different wind loads. As a result, the
differential elastic and inelastic shortening will produce moments in the connecting
beams or slabs and will cause load transfer to the element that shortens less. As
number of stories increase, the cumulative differential shortening also increases, and
the related effect become more severe. A common example is the case of a large,
heavily reinforced column attracting additional loads from adjacent shear wall which has
higher creep and shrinkage due to lower percentage of reinforcement and lower volume
to surface ratio. Significance differential shortening may also occur due to a time gap
between a slip-formed core and the columns. In this case the columns are subjected to
full amount of creep and shrinkage, while the core may have had the bulk of its
inelastic shortening occurring prior to casting of adjacent columns.
EFFECT OF TIME DEPENDENT SHORTENING OF COLUMNS- CASE HISTORIES
AND REAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH CALCULATION OF AXIAL SHORTENING:

It is customary , at present, to neglect the effect on the frame of elastic and inelastic
shortening of columns and walls. For a low and intermediate height structures this may
be acceptable, however, neglecting the differential shortening in ultra-high-rise building
may lead to distress in the structure and in a non-structural elements of the building.

In a number of tall buildings in the United States built in the early sixties, structural
cracking and partition distress were observed as a result of differential creep between
shear walls and highly reinforced columns in close proximity to each other. Another
example of the reality of differential creep and shrinkage of vertical elements is of fifty
story building in Australia in which the measured differential shortening at the roof level
between the concrete core and peripheral column was 27.94mm after about four and
half years. Fortunately, no problems were experienced, the long span of about 11m
between the core and peripheral columns caused only small slab rotations. The elevator
rails had to be adjusted twice over the years to accommodate the shortening of
elevator shafts.
Building up to 30 stories with flexible slab systems ,such as flat plate slabs of average
spans or long span joint systems, are not adversely affected structurally by differential
shortening of supports. In those cases the knowledge of the total shortening is needed
to make allowance in architectural details to avoid further distress of partitions,
windows, cladding, and other nonstructural elements.

Differential shortening can be minimized by proportioning adjacent columns or walls to
have similar stress of the transformed section and similar percentage of reinforcement.
The volume to surface ratio has a lesser effect on differential shortening.

Although a large amount of research information is available on shrinkage and creep
strains, it is not directly applicable to columns of high-rise building. The available
shrinkage data must be modified since they are obtained on small standard prisms or
cylinders stored in controlled laboratory environment. The available creep research is
based on application of loads in one increment and such creep information , therefore,
is applicable to flexural elements of reinforced concrete and to elements of prestressed
concrete.

In the construction of high-rise building, however columns are loaded in as many
increments as there are stories above the level under consideration. If a 50 storied
building is constructed in 50weeks,then the first story columns receive 2% of their
design load every week during construction period. Incremental loading over a long
period of time makes considerable difference in this magnitude of creep too.
It has already been high- lighted that though we have lot of research data on creep and
shrinkage, those are not directly applicable for prediction of inelastic shortening of
column.

An effort has been made here for comprehensive review and comparison of method of
prediction of inelastic shortening including that developed recently. The purpose of this
review is to comment on theoretical validity and to compare them in terms of their
efficiency .accuracy and practical value. The methods are considered in more or less,
their chronological order of development. Considered roughly in their order of
sophistication, the methods reviewed are:

1)Method developed by Mark Fintel & Fazlur .R.Khan.

2)Method developed by Mark Fintel , H.Iyenger & S.K.Ghosh.

3)Method developed by Raed M.Samra.

Though the method developed by Raed M.Samra ,I call it as most recent ,but it in
reality it was first published in the year 1995 in Journal of Structural Engineering. As far
as I know there is no significant development after the work of Raed M. Samra. But if it
has happened, I would like to be updated on that.

METHOD DEVELOPED BY M.FINTEL & F.R.KHAN:

Though it is long recognized fact that in reinforced concrete columns, creep result in
gradual transfer of load from concrete to reinforcement, the procedure for prediction of
the amount of creep and shrinkage strains was first outlined in the late 1969."Effect of
creep and shrinkage in tall structures -prediction of inelastic column shortening " was
perhaps the first paper on this subject to be published in ACI Journal December 1969
issue and credit goes to M.Fintel and F.R.Khan for this publication.

The procedure takes care:

a) Loading History of Columns.

b) Volume to Surface Ratio of Sections.

c)Effect of percentage of Reinforcement.

For Structural Engineering practice, the specific creep has been considered. The specific
creep
c
is defined as the ultimate creep strain per unit of sustained stress. Since creep
decreases with age of concrete at load application, each subsequent incremental
loading contributes a smaller specific creep to the final average specific of the column.

Determination of Specific Creep, c :

There are two ways to determine the value of specific creep. It can be obtained by
extrapolation from number of laboratory samples prepared in advance from actual mix
to be used in structure. It is obvious that sufficient time for such tests must be allowed
prior to start of construction, since the reliability of the prediction improves with length
of time over which creep is actually measured.
An alternative method to predict basic creep is from elastic modulus of elasticity. In the
mentioned article a curve(we call fig-1) is shown which give the creep magnitude as
related to initial modulus of elasticity for different load durations. For design purposes
,the 20 year creep can be regarded as the ultimate creep. Thus from the specified
28days strength, the basic specific creep for loading at 28days can be determined and
then modified for construction time, member size and percentage of reinforcement.

Effect of construction time on creep:

To determine the effect of construction time on creep, this method takes the help of
curve(we call fig-2) giving relationship between creep and age at loading. The total
creep strain for an incrementally loaded column "N" stories below the roof will be

c =

N
i
f
ci
ci
Where f
ci

ci
are creep strains produced by the stress increment fci .Individual value for
specific creep can be obtained from fig-1 or from the creep of a test specimen loaded at
28days and then modified for various age at loading using fig-2.
The procedure gives formula for weighted average of specified creep where load
increments are unequal. Another formula is given for where load increments are equal.
Then the procedure gives formula for total creep strain.
The procedure explained above has been further simplified and a curve (we call fig-3)
has been developed which gives relationship between "Time of Construction" and
"Coefficient for incremental loading".
The Coefficient for incremental loading plotted in figure-3 is used to convert the 28day
creep into average specific creep for a column load with equal load increment at equal
time intervals.


In continuation to explanation of above method let us look into the rest of the issues
associated with the method.

Effect of Member size on Creep:

Creep is less sensitive to member size than shrinkage since only the drying creep
component of total creep is affected by size and shape of members,where as basic
creep is independent of size and shape. It appears from a laboratory investigation that
drying creep has its effect only during the initial three months.Beyond 100days,the rate
of creep is equal to basic creep.

Shrinkage Strains-Adjusted For Column Size:

Shrinkage of concrete is caused by evaporation of moisture from the surface. Similar to
creep,the rate of shrinkage is high at early ages,decreasing with increase of age,until
the curve becomes asymptotic to final value of shrinkage.Since evaporation occurs only
from the surface of members the volume to surface ratio of a member has a
pronounced effect on the amount of its shrinkage.
The amount of shrinkage decreases as the size of specimen increases. Much of the
shrinkage data available in the literature is obtained on 27.9 cm long prisms of a 7.6*
7.6 cm section. Obviously, such data cannot be applied to usual size columns without
considering side effect. The relationship between the magnitude of shrinkage and the
volume-to-surface ratio has been plotted in a curve (we call fig-4). The size coefficient
for shrinkage shown in fig-4 is used to convert shrinkage data obtained in 6inch
cylinders to any other size columns.

Effect of relative humidity on shrinkage:

The shrinkage specimen should be stored under conditions similar to those for actual
structures. If this is not possible, the shrinkage results of a specimen not stored under
field humidity conditions of structure must be modified to account for humidity
conditions of structure. The curve developed by C.L.Freyermuth showing relative
humidity percentage and shrinkage humidity correction factor must be used in this
regard.

Progress of Creep and Shrinkage with Time:

Both creep and shrinkage have similarity regarding the rate of progress with respect to
time. A curve (we call fig-5) is developed to show ratio of creep or shrinkage at
anytime to final value at time infinity. This curve can be used to extrapolate the
ultimate creep and shrinkage values from laboratory testing of certain duration time.

Effect of Reinforcement on creep and shrinkage:

Long term test has shown that on columns with low percentage of reinforcement the
stress in steel increased until yielding while in highly reinforced columns after entire
load had been transferred to steel ,further shrinkage actually caused some tensile
stresses in the concrete. It should be noted that despite the redistribution of load
between concrete and steel, the ultimate steel capacity of the columns remains
unchanged.

The total creep and shrinkage strains of a non-reinforced column are
= f
c

c
+ s
where
f
c
=Initial elastic stress in the concrete.

c
= ultimate specific creep strain of plain concrete

S
= Ultimate shrinkage strain of plain concrete.

A curve (we call fig-5) has been developed to determine residual creep and shrinkage
strains of reinforced column from the total creep and shrinkage strain of identical
column without reinforcement for various percentage of reinforcement,varying specific
creep and modulus of elasticity of concrete.

THEREFORE,THE TOTAL STRAIN IN COLUMN DUE TO CREEP AND SHRINKAGE
IS SUM TOTAL OF STRAINS CALCULATED DUE TO VARIOUS FACTORS
AFFECTING SHRINKAGE AND CREEP.

LIMITATION OF METHOD DEVELOPED BY M.FINTEL & F.R.KHAN:

This solution for creep and shrinkage of columns were prepared during late sixties
based on state of art in that era. Hence the limitation in the procedure is apparent.

a) Effect of relative humidity on creep is not considered.

b) Effect of water/cement ratio on creep is not considered.

c) Creep also depends on fine aggregate to total aggregate ratio. This effect is not
taken into account in the analysis.

d) Similarly percent of air content in concrete has pronounced effect on creep and this
method is silent on this aspect.

Further, the method to predict basic creep (without testing) from elastic modulus of
elasticity is based on results of limited tests on normal weight concrete conducted at
Bureau of Reclamation in Denver.
METHOD DEVELOPED BY M.FINTEL,H.IYENGER AND S.K.GHOSH:

This method is an extension of method-1. However, the procedure has been
computerized to ease the burden of meticulous arithmetical calculation and extensive
book keeping of data.

The developed computerized procedure is applicable to concrete, steel and composite
structure and consider separately the elastic and creep component due to gravity loads
and also shrinkage shortening.

Since structural effects result from differential distortions caused by column shortening
after slab has been installed, the procedure separates the shortening of supports that
occur after slab installations.

Computer utilization is particularly significant because consideration of shrinkage and
creep requires extensive computation and summations as every story -high column
segment in a multistoried building is loaded as many increments as there are stories
above and for each loading increment of each column segment has now new time
dependent properties ,modulus of elasticity, creep coefficients ,shrinkage coefficients,
changing column sizes i.e. volume to surface ratio and varying reinforcement ratios.

Since the method is similar to method-1, this does not necessitate a detailed discussion.
METHOD DEVELOPED BY RAED M.SAMRA

This method is due to Prof.Raed M. Samra and was published in Journal of Structural
Engineering in March 1995 issue. This is an improvement over his previous study of
creep model which requires the use of an iterative procedure for the solution of the
creep strain and creep stress under sustained load, published in Journal of American
Concrete Institute (1998) under the title Creep model for Reinforced Concrete
Columns. The new approach has a great advantage from practical point of view since
the results for axially loaded column are identical to those obtained by using the
iterative procedure, but can derived from a direct calculation. The best advantage of
the current procedure is that it requires little input, including creep data and section
and material properties ,which makes it useful in most case of commonly encountered
design problems. The brief outline of the procedure is as follows:
To evaluate the change in stress and deformation arising in reinforced concrete section
under sustained loads, the procedure has been evolved based on the algebraic
constitutive law to describe the creep deformation of the concrete. The law is expressed
as follows:

ct = fci /Ec (1+t ) - ft /Ec (1+ 0.8 t )

Where ,

ct = concrete strain at time t.
fci = Initial concrete stress.
ft = stress decrement in concrete at time t.
t = Creep coefficient at time t.
Ec = Modulus of elasticity of concrete.
The law is particular case of well-known age-adjusted effective modulus method.
For axially loaded columns, the requirements of strain compatibility, equilibrium and
stress-strain relationship apply at any time under load. These requirements are written
at time t > to, a long time after load application.

From the strain compatibility and equilibrium the stress in steel ,the stress in steel can
be expressed by the formula:

Fst = n Fci {(1- 0.8 ) *t + Fct/Fci (1+0.8 t)}

Hence strain in steel due to creep= Fst/ ct

The above equation completely solves the problem in closed form. A comparison
between results of tests conducted by Troxell etal. on concrete columns and results
predicted by the analytical procedure presented in the Prof.Samras paper shows a good
correlation between measured and computed value.

Although this paper only deals with creep, the most cases of practical interest it is
important to superpose the results of a shrinkage model proposed by Park and Pauley
with the outcome of the Samras creep model, because the final stresses and strains
under the combined effect of creep and shrinkage are normally of interest.

Since the equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied in the individual models, they will
be also satisfied in the final superposed model. The shrinkage model is simple to use
and is based on sound theoretical basis in which it is assumed that the restraint of
shrinkage concrete by reinforcement will induce tensile stresses in concrete
accompanied by compressive stress in steel. Since the shrinkage can occur even in the
absence of any external load, the requirement of equilibrium would dictate that total
force induced in concrete is equal and opposite of the total force in steel. Simple
mathematical derivation yields that the stress in steel, Fs, at any time equal to
Fs=Fc*Ac/As


Where Fs=Steel compressive stress due to shrinkage.
Fc =X/Y

X=sh

Y= (1+t)/Ec +( Ac/As*Es)
Analysis of Method developed by Prof. Samra.

Basically this method consists of two parts.

1) Prediction of creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage.
2) Calculation of axial deformation.

The beauty of Prof. Samra method is that the prediction of creep coefficient and
ultimate shrinkage has been separated from the main problem and therefore latest
codal practices in the field of creep and shrinkage can be accounted for where as in
earlier two methods (Method developed by M.Fintel and F.R.Khan and subsequent
method by M.Fintel,H.Iyenger & S.K.Ghosh) do not take the help of latest developments
in the field of Creep and Shrinkage and still depend on research data of late sixties.

It is mentioned in the article of Prof. Samra that accuracy of proposed method has been
checked and found to be comparable with actual measurement taken on water tower
place and lake point tower of U.S.A.

The beauty of Prof.Samras method is that it separates the issue of the prediction of
creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage from the main problem of calculation of axial
shortening. Therefore, one can use the codal provision of his own country or the output
of latest research findings to calculate creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage. This
flexibility is not available other two methods discussed (Method developed by M.Fintel &
F.R.Khan and the Method developed by M.Fintel, H.Iyenger & S.K.Ghosh.)

For solving axial deformation problem by Prof.Samras method, I prefer to use the code
of ACI 209R-92(Reapproved in 1997)-PREDICTION OF CREEP, SHRINKAGE AND
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES for calculation of creep coefficient
and ultimate shrinkage.

Hence let me explain the provisions of ACI 209R-92(Reapproved in 1997).

CALCULATION OF CREEP COEFFICIENT BY ACI 209R 92 (REAPPROVED IN
1997) METHOD

This code expresses the creep coefficient (t, t o ) as a function of time
(t, t o) = X/Y ( (t o ))

X= (t- t o ) 0.6

Y= 10 + (t- t o )0.6

Where creep coefficient is the ratio of specific creep C (t, t o ) at age t due to a unit
stress applied at the age t to a unit stress applied at the age t o , where age t o is
measured in days.
Since the initial elastic strain under a unit stress is equal to the reciprocal of the
modulus of elastically Ec (t0)

(t, t o ) = C (t, t o ) x Ec(t0)

(t, t o ) is the time since application of load and (t, t o ) is the ultimate
creep coefficient, which is given by

(t, t o ) = 2.35 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6

For age at application of load greater that 7 days for moist curing, or greater that 1 to 3
days for steam curing, the coefficient K1 is estimated from:

For moist curing:
K1 = 1.25 t o -0.118

For steam curing:
K1 = 1.13 t o -0.095

The coefficient k2 is dependent upon the relative humidity h (percent)
K2 = 1.27 0.006h
For h 40

The coefficient K3 allows for member size in terms of volume/surface ratio, V/s which
is defined as the ratio of the cross sectional area to the perimeter exposed to
drying. For values of V/s smaller that 37.5mm, K3 is given below.

Value to Surface Ratio (mm) Coefficient (K3)
12.5 1.3
19.0 1.17
25.0 1.11
31.0 1.04
37.5 1.0

When V/s is between 37.5 and 95mm, K3 is given by:
For (t-to) 1 year:
K3 = 1.14 0.00364 v/s
For (t-to) > 1 year:
K3 = 1.1 0.00268 v/s
When v/s 95mm
K3 = 2/3 [1+1.13e-0.0212(v/s) ]

The coefficients to allow for composition of concrete are K4, K5.
Coefficient K4 is given by :

K4 = 0.82 + 0.00264S
Where S = slump of fresh concrete.

Coefficient K5 depends on the fine aggregate/total aggregate ratio, Af/A, in percent and
is given by :
K5 = 0.88 + 0.0024(AF/A)

Coefficient K6 depends on the air content a (percent)
K6 = 0.46 + 0.09a 1

The elastic strain plus creep deformation under a unit stress is termed the creep
function , which is given by:
(t, t o ) = [1/Ec(t0)]* [1 + (t, t o )]

Where Ec (t0) is related to the compressive strength of test of cylinders. If the strength
at age t0 is not known, it can be found from the following relation
Fcy (t0) = (t0/(X+Yt0)) * (fcy28)

Where fcy28 is the strength at 28 days and X and Y are given below in table:

Type of cement Curing condition Constant
X Y
Ordinary Portland Moist 4 0.85
Cement

Steam 1 0.95



Rapid hardening
Portland cement Moist 2.3 0.92
Stream

Steam 0.7 0.98

Comments by Dr.N.S who has replied that

The paper New Analysis for Creep Behavior in Concrete Columns by R.M.
Samra, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 3, March 1995, pp.
399-407, referred by Er Mallick contains an example. The abstract of the paper is
given below:

This paper presents a new rational approach for the evaluation of the effects of
creep on reinforced-concrete axially loaded columns at sustained service stresses. The
analysis involves a straightforward computation based on a closed form procedure and
the assumption of linear elastic materials for both concrete and steel. The analysis may
be easily extended to cover the case of reinforcement at yield. The results of the
proposed approach may be superposed with those from a shrinkage model presented
by Park and Paulay in 1975, and the overall behavior of column axial shortening and
stress transfer from concrete to steel may be described using the combined approach.
The process involved is very convenient to use from an engineering view point since it
requires few input parameters, which are easy to estimate or measure experimentally,
such as the modulus of elasticity of concrete and the creep coefficient. The results of
the theoretical approach correlate well with experimental tests conducted on specimens
in the laboratory and with deformations of columns measured in the Water Tower Place
and Lake Point Tower in Chicago.

As I already informed Dr Taranath discusses these effects in his book- These effects
should be considered when the no. of stories exceed 30. Taranath discusses about steel
columns, the same can be applied to concrete also, which creeps more than steel. Prof.
Samra's method is more refined for RCC.

CALCULATION OF ULTIMATE SHRINKAGE BY ACI 209-R-92(REAPPROVED IN
1997) METHOD


According to AC I 209.R 92, Shrinkage Sh (t,o) at time t(days), measured from the
start of drying at o (days) is expressed as follows:

For moist curing

Sh (t, o ) =(( t- o)/(35 + (t o))) Sh

For steam curing

Sh (t, o) = ((t- o)/(55 + (t- o))) Sh

Where Sh= Ultimate shrinkage and

Sh = 780 x 10-6 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7

For curing times different from seven days for moist cured concrete,

the age coefficient K1 is given below:

Period of moist curing shrinkage coefficient (K)
1 1.2
3 1.1
7 1.0
14 0.93
28 0.86
90 0.75

and for steam curing with a period of 1 to 3 days

K1 = 1

The humidity coefficient K2 is

K2 = 1.4 (0.01)h, where 40 h 80

K2 = 3.0 0.3h, where 80 h 100

Where h = Relative humidity (Percent)

Coefficient K3 allows for the size of the member in terms of the

Volume / surface ratio V/S.

For values of the V/S <37> 50)

Where Af/A = Fine aggregate / total time aggregate ratio by mass

K6 = 0.75 + 0.00061, Where = Cement content (Kg/m3 )

K7 = 0.95 + 0.008 A, Where A = Air content (Percent)

CALCULATION OF ULTIMATE SHRINKAGE BY ACI 209-R-92(REAPPROVED IN
1997) METHOD


According to AC I 209.R 92, Shrinkage Sh (t,o) at time t(days), measured from the
start of drying at o (days) is expressed as follows:

For moist curing

Sh (t, o ) =(( t- o)/(35 + (t o))) Sh

For steam curing

Sh (t, o) = ((t- o)/(55 + (t- o))) Sh

Where Sh= Ultimate shrinkage and

Sh = 780 x 10-6 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7

For curing times different from seven days for moist cured concrete,

the age coefficient K1 is given below:

Period of moist curing shrinkage coefficient (K)
1 1.2
3 1.1
7 1.0
14 0.93
28 0.86
90 0.75

and for steam curing with a period of 1 to 3 days

K1 = 1

The humidity coefficient K2 is

K2 = 1.4 (0.01)h, where 40 h 80

K2 = 3.0 0.3h, where 80 h 100

Where h = Relative humidity (Percent)

Coefficient K3 allows for the size of the member in terms of the

Volume / surface ratio V/S.
For values of the (V/S)<37> 50)

Where Af/A = Fine aggregate / total time aggregate ratio by mass

K6 = 0.75 + 0.00061, Where = Cement content (Kg/m3 )

K7 = 0.95 + 0.008 A, Where A = Air content (Percent)

2-11-12

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE BASED ON METHOD DEVELOVED BY PROF.SAMRA.

Assumed an inside column 50 stories below the roof.
Floor to floor height is 3.5mm.
The size of column is 750*1500mm.
The column is reinforced with 4% of reinforcement.
n=Es/Ec is taken as 8.
Es=2*105Mpa.
The column is subjected to load of 16, 8000 Newton per floor.
Every fifth floor the reinforcement and size of column changes. The details of
column sizes and reinforcement are as follows-


SIZE REINFORCEMENT
Ground to 5th floor 750x1500 4%
5TH to 10th floor 650x1400 3.5%
10th to 15th floor 550x1300 3%
15th to 20th floor 450x1200 3%
20th to 25th floor 450x1100 3%
25th to 30th floor 450x1000 3%
30th to 35th floor 450x9000 3%
35th to 40th floor 450x800 3%
40th t o 45th floor 450x700 2.5%
45th to 50th floor 450x600 2%

a) Planned construction two floors per week
b) Concrete is moist cured.
c) Relative humidity 40%.
d) Slump of concrete 34%.
e) Fine contents 34%.
f) Air contents 5%
g) Cement content 356kg/m3
h) Age at loading 28 days.
SOLUTION
STEP-1: Calculation of creep Coefficient.
Since planned construction is quite fast i.e., two floors per week, the effect of
incremental loading can be neglected.
(t,to) = 2.35 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6
K1 = 1.25 t
0

-0.118


= 1.25(28
-0.118
)= 0.843
K2 = 1.27 0.006(40) = 1.03
v/s = (750x1500)/(2(750+1500)) = 250
k3 =2/3 [1+1/13 e-0.0212(v/s) ]
= 2/3 [1+1.13 e -0212(250) ]
= 0.67
K4 = 0.82+0.00264 (100)]
= 1.084
K5 = 0.88+0.0024(34)
= 0.9616
K6 = 0.46+0.09(5) = 0.91<1
Hence k6 = 1
(t,to) = 2.35 (0.843) (1.03) (0.67) (1.084) (0.9616) (1)
= 1.425= t
Step-2: Calculation of Ultimate Shrinkage
Ultimate shrinkage, Sh
= 780X10 6 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7
K1 = 1 (assumed 7 days curing)
K2= 1.4-(0.01)(40)= 1
K3 = 1.2 e -0.00743(v/s)
= 1.2 e-0.00743(v/s) =0.3678
K4 = 0.89+0.00264(100) =1.154
K5 = 0.30+0.014(34)=0.776
K6 = 0.75+0.00061 (356) =0.967
K7 = 0.95+0.008(5) = 0.99
Sh = 780x10 -6(1) (1) (0.3678) (1.154) (0.776) (0.967) (0.99) = 2.459x10 -4 = sh

APPLICATION OF PROF SAMRAS EQUATION.
As = 4/100X750X1500 = 45000mm2
Steel ratio with respect to gross section=0.04= Sr
n=8
fci = P/ (Ac+nAs) = P/ (Ag + (n-1)As )
= 50X16, 8000/1440000 = 5.8333N/mm2
fct = fci(((1-Sr)+n(1-0.2 t)Sr)/((1-Sr)+n(1+0.8 t)Sr))
By substituting
fci =5.8333N/mm2
n=8
t=1.425
Sr=0.4
We get
fct =4.216 N/mm2
fst=nfci((0.2)t+ ((fct/ fci)(1+0.8 t)))
Substituting all the values ,we get
fst=85.4778 N/mm2
Hence deformation due to creep= fst/ES =85.4778/(2*105)=4.27 *(1/ 10000) mm
Stress in steel due to shrinkage
= sh/ ( (1+ t)/Ec + (Ac/AsEs))
=27.69 N/mm2
Strain due to shrinkage=27.69/(2*105)=1.3845 *(1/10000) mm.
Hence deformation for 3.5m high column=
(1.3845+4.27)(1/10000) (3500) =1.979 mm
Hence height deformation of column 50 storied below the roof = 1.979 mm.
Going by same procedure axial deformation of each storied column i.e. column 50
storied below the roof to 1st storied below the roof can be calculated. Summation of
deformation of each segments of column is equal to total axial deformation of the
column.

COMPUTER PROGRAM
From the numerical example based on Prof.Samra's method,it is evident that the
procedure involves lot of arithmetic computation and highly repetitive as for each
column segment the procedure has to be repeated.
Back in 1997, I had developed computer program to calculate inelastic axial shortening
based on Prof.Samra's method. The computer program was developed using Q basic
language.

The basic outlines of the program are as follows:

a) The program calculates the deformation of column due to creep and shrinkage for
any number of storied buildings.

b)The program is in interactive mode and asks information to user, one by one such as
no of stories, story height, relative humidity etc. Hence it can be operated by any
person who understands basic engineering terminology.

c) The program calculates creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage by methods outlined
in ACI 209R.Then the program uses the calculated creep coefficient and ultimate
shrinkage in Prof.Samra's equations. The deformation for each segment of column is
calculated and then cumulative inelastic axial deformation is calculated.

d)The program assumes that floor to floor height of column and load coming per floor
remain constant and the size and reinforcement of column change every fifth floor.This
has been done to keep the inputs to a minimum but the program can be easily modified
to suit a particular problem.

e) The validity of the program has been checked by solving various problems and
comparing computer output with manual calculation.

References:

a) Dissertation for award of M.Tech submitted at School of Continuing and Distance
Education Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University ,Hyderabad by P.K.Mallick under
the guidance of (Late) Prof I.M.Reddy.

b) Ghali.A and Favre.R "Concrete Structures: Stresses and Deformation" Chapman and
Hall,London.

c) Neville.A.M and Brooks.J.J (1944) "Concrete Technology" Longman Singapore
Publishers.

d) Smolira.M "Analysis of tall buildings by Force-Displacement Method" McGraw
Hill,London.

e) Park.R and Paulay.T(1975) "Reinforced Concrete Structures" John Wiley and
Sons,New York.

f) ACI 209R-92 (Reapproved in 1997) Prediction of Creep ,Shrinkage and Temperature
effects in Concrete Structures.

g) Fintel.M and Khan.R (1969)-Effect of column creep and shrinkage in tall structures-
Prediction of inelastic column shortening.ACI Journal Proceedings,V.66,no-12,Dec 1969.

h) Samra.R.M.(1995) "New Analysis for Creep behaviour in Concrete Columns" Journal
of Structural Engineering.March 1995.

__________________________________________________________________
Comment by Dr.N.S :

Over a period of time I have lost the original article of Prof Samra and my memory does
not help me too. I need a confirmation from you. In the worked out example, has Prof
Samra assumed the creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage or he derived those by
method outlined in ACI 209 R ?

I had solved the same problem of Prof Samra's article by using method outlined in ACI
209 R for creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage. If Prof Samra has used ACI 209 R
for creep coefficient and ultimate shrinkage and has not assumed the data, then I will
not discuss the problem as anybody can see the worked out example in Prof Samra's
article .

In case he has assumed the data, then I will discuss the problem.
Please confirm.

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