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8.

08 Problem Set # 7
Problems:
1. By repeating the argument that leads to the Bose-Einstein condensation in 3D, show that
the transition temperature approach zero in an ideal boson gas of particles in 2D.
Solution: In 2-D case, the excited state population is
N = A

d
2
k
(2)
2
1
e
(

2
k
2
2m
)
1
= A


0
2kdk
(2)
2
1
e
(

2
k
2
2m
)
1
where A is the area of the system. Change the variable by letting x
2
=
2
k
2
/2m,
N = A
2mk
B
T
h
2


0
xdx
z
1
e
x
2
1
=
A

2
g
1
(z)
where z = e

. Therefore
n
2
= g
1
(z)
for 0 z 1, there is no upper bound to n, except for when T = 0. This means that the states of nonzero
momentum can accommodate any n, and there is no Bose-Einstein condensation. The exception occurs
at T = 0, when all particles go into the zero-momentum state.
2. If the mechanism for photon absorption or emission can be neglected as may happen in some
cosmological settings, the number of photons would be conserved. Can a photon gas undergo
Bose-Einstein condensation under there circumstance? If so, give the critical photon density
as temperatures T.
Solution: For a gas of N photons with number conservation, the number of excited photons is
N = 2V

d
3
k
(2)
3
1
e
ck
1
The factor 2 comes from the two polarizations of photons. By using the same technique of changing
variable, we obtain
n =
N
V
=
2

k
B
T
c

3
g
3
(z)
The function g
3
(z) is nite at z = 1, thus n has a upper limit. There is Bose-Einstein condensation to the
zero-momentum state when n exceeds the critical density
n
c
=
2

k
B
T
c

3
g
3
(1)
At constant density n, the condensation occurs below the critical temperature
T
c
=
c
k


2
n
2g
3
(1)

1/3
3. The interference of matter waves
1
The photograph above shows the total density of two Bose-Einstein condensates which move
towards each other (upward and downward) and start to overlap. The interference fringes
have a space of 1.5 10
5
cm. Find the relative velocity between the two condensates.
Solution: A cloud of bosons with momentum p
1
= k
1
and density
1
is described by an amplitude

1
=

1
e
ik1x
. Another cloud of bosons with momentum p
2
= k
2
and density
2
is described by an
amplitude
2
=

2
e
ik2x
. When the rst cloud overlaps with the second cloud, the total amplitude of the
combined cloud is
tot
=
1
+
2
. Thus the total density of the combined cloud is

tot
= |
tot
|
2
= |

1
e
ik1x
+

2
e
ik2x
|
2
We see that

tot
=
1
+
2
+ 2

2
cos[(k
1
k
2
)x]
From Fig. 15.4 of Huangs book, we see that |k
1
k
2
| 1.5 10
3
cm = 2. So the dierence of the
velocities between the two clouds is
|v
1
v
2
| =
|k
1
k
2
|
m
=
2
m1.5 10
3
cm
= 0.11cm/s (1)
where m is the mass of Na atom.
4. density proles of Bose-Einstein condensation
Consider a gas of bosonic sodium atoms conned in a quadratic potential well U(r) =
1
2
m
2
0
|r|
2
where m is the mass of the sodium atom. The characteristic length of the os-
cillator potential is r
0
=

/m
0
= 5 10
3
cm.
2
(a) Ignore the interaction between the sodium atoms, nd the size of the condensed sodium
atoms at T = 0. How does the size of the condensation depends on the number of particles?
(b) For interacting bosons, the shape of condensation at T = 0 is determined by


2
2m

2
r
+ (U(r) ) +g|(r)|
2

(r) = 0
In Thomas-Fermi approximation, we assume the wave function is smooth and drop the
2
r
term. In this case the shape of condensation is determined by
[(U(r) ) +g|(r)|
2
](r) = 0
Now, how does the size of the condensation depends on the number of particles?
(c) In the above, the left picture shows measured shapes of the condensation of Na atoms.
The maximum density is 10
11
cm
3
for the shape near T = 0 (labeled by T << T
c
). The
width of the peak at the base is 0.03cm. Find the interaction strength g and the scattering
length a of the sodium atom. (Note g and a are related by g =
4a
2
m
)
Solution:
(a) For 3-D quadratic potential well, ground state energy
3
2
. Without interaction, all the bosons
condensate to the ground state. Therefore the condensate size |r| satises that
1
2
m
2
0
|r|
2
=
3
2

which gives
|r| =


m
0
=

3r
0
8.7 10
3
cm
actually any result that diers from above result by an order one factor is also correct. And the size
is independent of particle number N.
(b) For interacting Bosons, the shape of condensation at T = 0 is determined by


2
2m

2
r
+ (U(r) ) +g|(r)|
2

(r) = 0
In Thomas-Fermi approximation, we drop the
2
r
term,

(U(r) ) +g|(r)|
2

(r) = 0
Thus the density of condensate is
|(r)|
2
=
U(r)
g
Using the normalization condition

|(r)|
2
d
3
r = N, we now have

rmax
0
4r
2
dr

1
2
m
2
0
r
2
g
= N
That is

rmax
0
4r
2
dr

1
2
m
2
0
r
2
g
= N
Noticing that when r = r
max
, |(r)| = 0, which means that =
1
2
m
2
0
r
2
max
,
4
15
m
2
0
r
5
max
= gN
therefore the size of the condensate is
r
max
=

15gN
4m
2
0

1/5
3
(c) The maximum density occurs at r = 0, that is,
n
max
= |(r)|
2
max
=

g
thus
g =

n
max
=
1
2
m
2
0
r
2
max
n
max
We also have g =
4a
2
m
, which could be substituted into Eq. (4) to give
a =
1
8n
max
m
2

2
o

2
r
2
max
=
1
8n
max

r
max
r
2
0

2
Putting the numbers in, r
0
= 5 10
3
cm, r
max
= 0.015 cm and n
max
= 10
11
cm
3
.
a 1.4 10
7
cm
4