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European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events
520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC
Conceptual Design of Buildings
(Course unit code 1C2)
Module C
Design of Steel Members and Joints
J.P. Jaspart (University of Lige)
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
of Buildings
2
Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
Simple joints are assumed to transfer no bending moments and should be
designed accordingly.
Main typologies: end plate of partial depth; fin plate or web cleats.
- Beyond the EC3-1-8 rules, some additional requirements are provided in the publication
n 126 of ECCS: European Recommendations for the Design of Simple Joints in Steel
Structures. These type of joints will be included in the Manual Design of Joints in Steel
and Composite Structures, ECCS (J.P. Jaspart and K. Weynand).
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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3
Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
A simple joint is designed to resist to axial and shear forces only. As a
consequence, the development of bending moment may be potentially
unsafe, in particular if the joint presents a reduced ductility.
The "hinge assumption" is safe if, beyond the joint resistance checks, the
two following requirements are fulfilled:
- the joint possesses a sufficient rotation capacity (to not develop
bending moment);
- the joint possesses a sufficient ductility (to allow redistribution of
forces by the several joint components).
With the aim to permit a rotation
without increasing too much the
bending moment which develops into
the joint, the contact between the lower
beam flange and the supporting
member has to be strictly avoided.
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
The design of a simple joint involves the verification of the resistance
(V
Ed
V
Rd
), the condition |
available
|
required
and some additional ductility
requirements, which depend of joint configuration.
Notations fin plate joint
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
EXAMPLE 1
Check the safety of the following simple joint submitted to a vertical shear
force V
Ed
= 100 kN (complete resolution may be find in P126 of ECCS).
V
Ed
= 100 kN
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
EXAMPLE 1
Requirements for sufficient rotatation capacity
(1) h
p
d
b
(2) |
available
> |
required
( )
2
e
p 2
h
h
2
h
g z
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
" "
available
= |
( )
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
= |
e
p
h
2
e
p 2
h
available
h
2
h
g z
arctg
h
2
h
g z
z
arcsin
where:
if z >
if not:
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
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under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
EXAMPLE 1
Requirements for sufficient rotatation capacity
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
Requirements to avoid
premature weld failure
yp
w M2
p
up M0
f
a t
f
2
|
>

L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
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under Natural Hazards
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Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
EXAMPLE 1
Joint shear resistance
1. Bolts in shear
2. Fin plate in bearing
3. Gross section of the fin plate in shear
4. Net section of the fin plate in shear
5. Shear block of the fin plate
6. Fin plate in bending
7. Buckling of the fin plate
8. Beam web in bearing
9. Gross section of the beam web in shear
10. Net section of the beam web in shear
11. Shear block of the beam web
Rdi
11
1 i
Rd V V
min
=
=
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
Requirements to allow a plastic redistribution of internal forces
(ductility)
Shear resistance of the joint: V
Rd
=146.18 kN
Failure Mode: Beam web in bearing
(= V
Rd8
)
(the other is for fin plate)
(If V
Rd
= V
Rd3
, V
Rd4
, V
Rd5
, V
Rd6
, V
Rd9
,
V
Rd10
, V
Rd11
then V
Rd1
>min (V
Rd2
, V
Rd8
))
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
EXAMPLE 1
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
The Eurocode 3, part 1.8 provides actual design rules for joints between
both open and hollow sections.
Design rules for hollow section joints (semi-empirical rules calibrated with
experimental tests) were developed by CIDECT (International Committee
for Research and Technical Support for Hollow Section Structures).
These type of joints are used essentially in trussed structures or lattice
girders.
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
a) Chord face failure
b) Chord web failure
c) Chord shear failure
d) Punching shear failure
e) Brace failure
f) Local buckling failure
Failure modes
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
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under Natural Hazards
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
Current typologies of column bases
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
Anchor bolts may be manufactured in
accordance with one of the following
standards:
EN 10025 (current mild steel),
EN 10080 (reinforcing bars),
EN ISO 898 or EN 14399 (bolts).
Anchor bolts
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
i) Concrete in compression + base plate in bending due to compression -
T-stub in compression (clause 6.2.5 - EC3-1-8 and EC2-1-1);
ii) Tension resistance (clause 6.2.6.12 of EC3-1-8) and lifting of anchor bolts
(EC2-1-1);
iii) Shear resistance of anchor bolts (clause 6.2.2 of EC3-1-8), including
concrete crushing (EC2-1-1);
iv) Friction resistance between base plate and concrete foundation (clause
6.2.2 of EC3-1-8).
Behaviour and active components
Steel components (column and base plate)
similar to beam-column joint with end-plate
Additional components associated with
concrete foundation:
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
i) Concrete in compression + base plate in bending due to compression - T-stub in
compression (6.2.5 - EC3-1-8 and EC2-1-1).
c =t [f
y
/ (3 f
jd

M0
)]
0.5
F
C,Rd
= f
jd
b
eff
l
eff

f
jd
c
2
2
c
jd
f
Ed
M =
6
2
t
y
f
Rd
M =
Characterization of components associated with concrete foundation
f
jd
- Design bearing strength of concrete.
Uniform pressure
in concrete f
jd
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
Characterization of components associated with concrete foundation
f
cd
- Design value of concrete compressive strength;
f
ck
- Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days.
C
ck
cd
f
f

=
cd j j d
f f | =
- The design bearing strength (f
jd
) of concrete may conservatively be taken as:
- A more accurate value of f
jd
should be obtained in accordance with clause 6.7 of
EC2-1-1, as specified in clause 6.2.5 (7) of EC3-1-8.
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
Anchor bolts with threads non-
conform with EN 1090
Minimum of:
85 . 0
9 . 0
2
.


=
M
s ub
Rd t
A f
F

2
.
6 . 0
M
u p m
Rd p
f t d
B

t
=
and resistance to lifting of anchor bolts:
- bond resistance (8.4 - EC2-1-1) anchorage by hooks;
- pull-out failure (9.2.3 - CEB) headed anchors;
- concrete cone failure (9.2.4 - CEB);
- splitting failure (9.2.5 - CEB).
ii) Tension resistance (6.2.6.12 of EC3-1-8) and lifting of anchor bolts (EC2-1-1)
Characterization of components associated with concrete foundation
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
2
1
.
M
u b
Rd b
t d f k
F

o
=
2
. , 2
M
s ub bc
Rd vb
A f
F

o
=
85 . 0
6 . 0
2
.


=
M
s ub
Rd v
A f
F

f
yb
- yield strength of the anchor bolt, within 235 N/mm
2
f
yb
640 N/mm
2
.
or
and crushing resistance of concrete:
- concrete pry-out failure (9.3.3 - CEB)
- concrete edge failure (9.3.4 - CEB);
F
v,Ed
o
v
N
Ed
- shear resistance with lever arm (9.3.2.2 - CEB)
yb bc
f 0003 . 0 44 . 0 = o
2
.
6 . 0
M
ub
Rd v
A f
F


=
iii) Shear resistance of anchor bolts (6.2.2 of EC3-1-8), including concrete
crushing (EC2-1-1)
Minimum of:
Anchor bolts with threads
non-conform with EN 1090
Characterization of components associated with concrete foundation
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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under Natural Hazards
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
The design resistance N
j,Rd
of a column base plate under axial compression may
be determined by adding the individual design resistance F
C,Rd
of the 3 T-stubs
(not overlapping) shown in the following figure.
F
f,Rd
= C
f,d
N
c,Ed

C
f,d
- the coefficient of friction between base plate and grout layer (=0.20 for sand-
cement mortar and should be obtained by testing in accordance with Annex D of
EN 1990 for other types).
N
c,Ed
- the design value of the normal compressive force in the column.
iv) Friction resistance between base plate and concrete foundation (6.2.2 of
EC3-1-8)
Compression resistance
Characterization of components associated with concrete foundation
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
Design tension and compression forces and the lever arms are defined as following:
F
T,l,Rd
- design tension resistance on the left side;
F
T,r,Rd
- design tension resistance on the right side;
F
C,l,Rd
- design compression resistance on the left side;
F
C,r,Rd
- design compression resistance on the right side.
Resistance to compression + bending moment
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
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Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
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Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
The design moment resistant M
j,Rd
(combined with N
j,Ed
) should be determined in
accordance with the following table (neglecting T-stub 2):
Resistance to compression + bending moment
Rotational stiffness
stiffness coefficients
are defined in Table 6.11
and evaluated in
accordance with Table
6.12 of EC3-1-8.
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
L21 Simple joints and hollow section joints. Behaviour and design of column bases.
European Erasmus Mundus
Master Course
Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards
and Catastrophic Events
Conceptual Design
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Modul e C Desi gn of St eel Member s
and Joi nt s
EXAMPLE 2
Design the joint of a column HEB 260 (S 275) to a concrete foundation (C25/30)
through a base-plate connected to the foundation by anchor bolts, under the
following load combinations:
a) Axial compression N
Ed
= 800 kN;
b) Axial compression N
Ed
= 800 kN combined with a bending moment
M
Ed
= 150 kNm and a shear force V
Ed
= 200 kN.
a) b)
List of contents
Simple joints
Examples
Hollow section
joints
Design of column
bases
Examples
This lecture was prepared for the Edition 1 of SUSCOS
(2012/14) by RUI SIMES (UC) and FLOREA DINU (UPT).
Adaptations brought by J.P. Jaspart (Ulg)
for Edition 2 of SUSCOS
The SUSCOS powerpoints are covered by copyright and are for the exclusive use by the
SUSCOS teachers in the framework of this Erasmus Mundus Master. They may be improved
by the various teachers throughout the different editions.
Thank you
for your attention
http://steel.fsv.cvut.cz/suscos