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1. INTRODUCTION TO PIPING.........................................................................................1
2. PIPE................................................................................................................................1
3. PIPE FITTINGS.................................................................................................................3
4. PIPING MAINTENANCE..............................................................................................12
Piping includes pipe, flanges, fittings, bolting, gaskets, valves, and the pressure-
containing portions of other piping components..
Pipe is a Tubular item made of metal, plastic, glass etc.meant for conveying Liquid, Gas
or any thing that flows.
Pipe is customarily identified by ominal Pipe !i"e #P!$ with wall thickness defined by
schedule number, and conforming to the dimensional requirement of
%!&' ()*.+,& -elded and !eamless -rought !teel Pipe
%!&' ()*.+.& !tainless !teel Pipe
2.1 Pip Si!
ominal pipe si"e #P!$ is a dimensionless designator of pipe si"e. /t indicates standard
pipe si"e when followed by the specific si"e designation number without an inch symbol.
0or e1ample, P! 2 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 2.)34 in. The P! +2
and smaller pipe has outside diameter greater than the si"e designator #say, 2, 5, *, 6$.
7owever, the outside diameter of P! +5 and larger pipe is the same as the si"e
designator in inches. 0or e1ample, P! +5 pipe has an outside diameter equal to +5 in.
The inside diameter will depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule
number. 8efer to %!&' ()*.+,& or %!&' ()*.+.&.
2.2 Pip "#$$ T%i&'())
!chedule is e1pressed in numbers #4, 4!, +,, +,!, 2,, 2,!, ),, 5,, 5,!, *,, 9,, 9,!,
+,,, +2,, +5,, +*,$. % schedule number indicates the appro1imate value of the
e1pression +,,, P:!, where P is the service pressure and ! is the allowable stress, both
e1pressed in pounds per square inch #psi$. The higher the schedule number, the thicker
the pipe is. The outside diameter of each pipe si"e is standardi"ed. Therefore, a particular
nominal pipe si"e will have a different inside diameter depending upon the schedule
number specified.
ote that the original pipe wall thickness designations of !T;, <!, and <<! have been
retained= however, they correspond to a certain schedule number depending upon the
nominal pipe si"e. The nominal wall thickness of P! +, and smaller schedule 5, pipe is
same as that of !T;. -T. pipe. %lso, P! 9 and smaller schedule 9, pipe has the same
wall thickness as <! pipe.
The schedule numbers followed by the letter ! are per %!&' ()*.+.&, and they are
primarily intended for use with stainless steel pipe. The pipe wall thickness specified by a
schedule number followed by the letter ! may or may not be the same as that specified
by a schedule number without the letter !. 8efer to %!&' ()*.+.& and %!&'
%!&' ()*.+.& does not cover all pipe si"es. Therefore, the dimensional requirements of
%!&' ()*.+,& apply to stainless steel pipe of the si"es and schedules not covered by
%!&' ()*.+.&.
0ittings permit a change in direction of piping, a change in diameter of pipe or a branch to
made from the main run of pipe. They are formed from plate or pipe, machined from
forged blanks, cast, or molded from plastics
'nd connection can be classified in common as follows,
!ocket -eld > for si"e up to +?@@
(utt -eld > for si"e greater than +?@@
Threaded > for si"e up to +?@@
;imensional !tandard
0or !ocket -eld A Threaded end> %!/:%!&' (+*.++
0or (evelled end> %!/:%!&' ( +*..
Thickness for (eveled end fittings B Thickness of pipe
3.1 E$*+,)
Csed for change in direction of pipe routing. They are of 2 types.
!hort 8adius 'lbow, 8 B +; !hort 8adius 'lbow, 8 B +;
0ig.).+a 54 'lbow 0ig.).+b ., 'lbow
Long 8adius 'lbow, 8 B +.4; Long 8adius 'lbow, 8 B +.4;
3.2 T
Csed for taking a branch.
+$ 'qual:!traight tee D %ll ) si"es are equal
2$ Cnequal:8educed tee D (ranch si"e is always smaller
3.3 R-.&/
Csed when change in pipe si"e. They are of 2 types.
+$ Eoncentric 8educer
2$ 'ccentric 8educer
/n case of 'ccentric 8educer one side is tapered while the other side is straight. 7ere the
difference in elevation of the a1is e1ists leading to eccentricity. /ts construction is like a
/n case of Eoncentric 8educer both sides are tapered and the a1is is also the same. /ts
construction is like a cone.
Thumb 8ule for 8eduction>
&a1imum Lower !i"e ---F higher si"e : 2
0or e1ample if the 7eader !i"e is *@@, then *G:2 B )G and hence the ne1t lower si"e
possible is 2?@@. 7ence it can be seen that reduction from *@@ to 2?@@ is possible. 0urther
reduction beyond 2 ?@@ is not possible.
0ig.).2 8educe Tee and Tee
Eoncentric 'ccentric
3.4 Fi00i(1) 2+/ )3#$$ $i(
3.4.1 "$-+$0
Csed to take (utt -eld branch for which 8educing tee is not possible. Csed in high
pressure, high temperature pipe class from .,, rating.
3.4.2 S+&'+$0)
!ame as -eldolet e1cept there is a !ocket weld end at (ranch side. Eaps are used at
the end of the line for the termination of the line.
0ig.).) 8educer
0ig.).5.2 !ockolet
0ig.).5.+ -eldolet
3.4.3 C+.p$i(1
0ull Eoupling 7alf Eoupling
Csed to take a branch upto +?@@ si"e. 'nd connections are !ocket -eld or Threaded
0langes are used to make a Hoint that is required to be dismantled. Iarious attributes of
0langes are described below.
3.5.1 P/))./ C$#)) (R#0i(1)
8ating is ma1imum allowable non-shock working gauge pressure. There are +4,, ),,,
*,,, .,,, +4,,, 24,, ratings. To select a pressure class the following two steps are
;ecide the group of material from Table +% of %!&' +*.4. 8efer Table 2 of %!&' +*.4 for
design condition.
3.5.2 E(- T4p
There are five end types of 0langes.
+$ -eld neck flange
8egular welding-neck flanges are used with but-welding fittings. !uitable where e1treme
temperature, shear, impact and vibratory stresses apply. 8egularity of the bore is
2$ !ocket weld flange
The socket welding flange is similar to a slip-on flange e1cept it has a bore and a counter
bore dimension.
The counter bore is slightly larger than the J.;. of the matching pipe, allowing the pipe to
be inserted into the flange similar to a slip-on flange. The diameter of the smaller bore is
the same as the /.;. of the matching pipe a restriction is built into the bottom of the bore
which sets as a shoulder for the pipe to rest on. This eliminates any restriction in flow
when using a socket welding flange.
)$ !lip-on flange
The internal weld is slightly more subHect to corrosion than the butt weld. The flange has
poor resistance to shock and vibration. /t introduces irregularily in the bore. /t is cheaper
to buy than the welding-neck flange, but is is costlier to assemble. /t is easier to align than
the welding-neck flange. Ealculated strengths under internal pressure are about one third
that of the corresponding welding-neck flanges.
0ig.).4.2. 2$ !ocket weld flange
0ig. ).4.2 +$ -elding-neck flange
5$ Threaded flange
The threaded flange is similar to the slip-on flange, but the bore is threaded. /ts chief
merit is that /t can be assembled without welding, e1plaining its use in low pressure
services at ordinary atmospheric temperatures, and in highly e1plosive areas where
welding create a ha"ard.
/t is mainly used in Galvani"ed pipes.
4$ (lind flange
The blind flange is a flange without a bore, /t is used to close off the end of a piping
system and:or pressure vessel opening. /t also permits easy access to the interior of a
line or vessel once it has been sealed and must be reopened. /t is used for ending a line.
0ig.).4.2. )$ !lip-on flange
0ig.).4.2. 5$ Threaded flange
+$ 0lat-0ace
0ig.).4.). +$ 0lat-face type
&ost commonly used for mating with non-steel flanges on the bodies of pumps, valves,
etc. The gaskets used #see Gaskets below$ have an outside diameter equal to that of the
flange itself. This ensures an even pressure distribution across the flange and reduces
the risk of cracking of cast-iron or bron"e flange on tightening or from plant vibration.
2$ 8aised 0ace
The raised face is the most common type of flange, in which the gasket covers only the
raised faces.
0ig.).4.). 2$ 8aised-face type
0ig.).4.2. 4$ (lind flange
)$ 8ing-Type Koint
0ig.).4.) )$ 8ing- type Hoint
8ing-Hoint flange is a more e1pensive facing, and considered the most efficient for high-
temperature and high-pressure service. (oth flanges of a pair are alike. The ring-Hoint
facing is not prone to damage in handling as the surfaces in contact with the gasket are
recessed. Cse of facings of this type may increase as hollow metal J-rings gain
acceptance for process chemical seals.
5$ Lap Koint
Lap-Hoint flange is shaped to accommodate to the stub end. The combination of flange
and stub end presents similar geometry to the raised-face flange and can be used where
severe bending stresses will not occur.
3.5.4 D)i1( #(- Di3()i+( S0#(-#/-
0ig.).4.) 5$ Lap Hoint type
The dimensional standards generally used are %!/:%!&' (+*.4 for si"e upto 25@
%!/:%!&' (+*.53 series % A ( for si"e above 25@@.
Gaskets are used to avoid !tatic leakage and metal to metal contact. There are two types
of gaskets from material point of view.
;esign A ;imension !tandard>
%!/:%!&' ( +*.2, 0or &etallic Gaskets
%!/:%!&' ( +*.2+ 0or on-metallic Gaskets
3.5.1 M0#$$i& G#)'0
&etal is used in the construction of Gasket either as main material or as reinforcing
material. e.g. !piral wound gasket.
3.5.2 N+(730#$$i& G#)'0
&etal is not used in the construction of gaskets. e.g. 0lat Gasket
4.1. P/p#/#0i+( ,+/'
- Prepare tool A equipment required > 7and tool #non- sparking tool for 7ydrocarbon
service$, crane, chain block, sling,6
- /nstall scaffolding, ladder, platform, remove insulation if required.
- Prepare material > gasket, bolt:nut, piping components spare parts6
- Prepare PT- #Permit to work$
4.2 C%&' &+(-i0i+( 2+/ 3#i(0(#(& ,+/'
Eheck safety condition for work > isolating,de-pressuri"ing,cooling down, venting, draining,
Purging# check 7ydricarbon:poisonous gas content before work$
4.3 S0#/0 3#i(0(#(& ,+/'
Eonfirm with General 0oreman to start maintenance work # remove piping components for
Eleaning:repair, clean flange faces, re-install with new gasket, leak test6$
8emember that> SAFETY FIRST L 'very body must be trained, understand well and
!trictly follows the !afety 8egulations during working at site, for e1ample > wear PP',
strictly follows the working at high procedure, confined space procedure, chemical safety,
!afety for welding and cutting procedurs etc6