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# Chapter 2 Exercises and Answers

For Exercises 1-5, match the following numbers with their definition.
A. Number
B. Natural number
C. nteger number
!. Negati"e number
E. #ational number
1. A unit of an abstract mathematical system subject to the laws of arithmetic.
A
2. A natural number, a negative of a natural number, or zero.
C
3. The number zero and any number obtained by repeatedly adding one to it.
B
4. An integer or the quotient of two integers division by zero e!cluded".
#
5. A value less than zero, with a sign opposite to its positive counterpart.
\$
%or #!ercises &'((, match the solution with the problem.
A. 10001100
B. 10011110
C. 1101010
D. 1100000
E. 1010001
F. 1111000
6. 1110011 + 11001 binary addition"
A
7. 1010101 + 10101 binary addition"
C
8. 1111111 + 11111 binary addition"
B
9. 1111111 111 binary subtraction"
%
10. 1100111 111 binary subtraction"
\$
11. 1010110 101 (binary subtraction)
E
For Exercises 1\$ -1%, mar& the answers true and false as follows'
A. (rue
B. False
12. Binary numbers are important in computing because a binary number can be converted into every
other base.
B
13. Binary numbers can be read off in he!adecimal but not in octal.
B
14. )tarting from left to right, every grouping of four binary digits can be read as one he!adecimal
digit.
B
15. A byte is made up of si! binary digits.
B
16. Two he!adecimal digits can be stored in one byte.
A
17. *eading octal digits off as binary produces the same result whether read from right to left as left to
right.
A
Exercises 1)- *5 are +roblems or short answer ,uestions.
18. \$istinguish between a natural number and a negative number.
A natural number is + and any number that can be obtained by repeatedly adding ( to it. A negative
number is less than +, and opposite in sign to a natural number. Although we usually do not
consider negative +.
19. \$istinguish between a natural number and a rational number.
A rational number is an integer or the quotient of integer numbers. \$ivision by + is e!cluded." A
natural number is + and the positive integers. )ee also definition in answer to #!ercise (."
20. ,abel the following numbers natural, negative, or rational.
a. (.------
rational
b. . (/-
negative, rational
c. (+00
natural
d. 1/&
rational
e. 0.1
rational
f. pi"
not any listed
21. 2f 34( is a number in each of the following bases, how many (s are there5
a. base (+
34(
b. base 3
Can6t be a number in base 3,
c. base (1
(10(
d. base (-
(78+
e. base (0
1(4-
22. #!press 34( as a polynomial in each of the bases in #!ercise (.
3 9 (+
1
: 4 9 (+ : (
Can6t be shown as a polynomial in base 3.
3 9 (1
1
: 4 9 (1 : (
3 9 (-
1
: 4 9 (- : (
3 9 (0
1
: 4 9 (0 : (
23. Convert the following numbers from the base shown to base (+.
a. ((( base 1"
8
b. 888 base 3"
&((
c. %#C base (0"
7+80
d. 888 base (0"
(4((
e. ((( base 3"
8-
24. #!plain how base 1 and base 3 are related.
Because 3 is a power of 1, base'3 digits can be read off in binary and - base'1 digits can be read off
in octal.
25. #!plain how base 3 and base (0 are related.
3 and (0 are both powers of two.
26. #!pand Table 1.( to include the numbers from (+ through (0.
binary octal decimal
000 0 0
001 1 1
010 2 2
011 3 3
100 4 4
101 5 5
110 6 6
111 7 7
1000 10 8
1001 11 9
1010 12 10
1011 13 11
1100 14 12
1101 15 13
1110 16 14
1111 17 15
10000 20 16
27. #!pand the table in #!ercise 10 to include he!adecimal numbers.
000 0 0 0
001 1 1 1
010 2 2 2
011 3 3 3
100 4 4 4
101 5 5 5
110 6 6 6
111 7 7 7
1000 10 8 8
1001 11 9 9
1010 12 10 A
1011 13 11 B
1100 14 12 C
1101 15 13 D
1110 16 14 E
1111 17 15 F
10000 20 16 20
28. Convert the following binary numbers to octal.
a. 111110110
766
b. 1000001
101
c. 10000010
202
d. 1100010
142
29. Convert the following binary numbers to he!adecimal.
a. 10101001
A9
b. 11100111
E7
c. 01101110
6E
d. 01121111
This is not a binary number
30. Convert the following he!adecimal numbers to octal.
a. A4
1&(
b. #8
-78
C. 0#
(&0
31. Convert the following octal numbers to he!adecimal.
a. 888
(%%
b. 0+&
(3&
c. 77-
(1-
d. &1(
(&(
e. (
(
32. Convert the following decimal numbers to octal.
a. 4+(
(0+&
b. -1(
&+(
c. (741
1817
d. (+00
1+&1
e. 1++(
-81(
33. Convert the following decimal numbers to binary.
a. 7&
(+((+(
b. 04
(+++(+(
c. (+00
(++++(+(+(+
d. 44
((+++((
e. (
(
34. Convert the following decimal numbers to he!adecimal.
a. (+00
71A
b. (4-4
84-
c. (
(
d. 443
-#0
e. 7-
1B
35. 2f you were going to represent numbers in base (3, what symbols might you use to represent the
decimal numbers (+ through (8 other than letters5
Any special characters would wor; or characters from another alphabet. ,et6s use < for (0 and =
for (8.
36. Convert the following decimal numbers to base (3 using the symbols you suggested in #!ercise (&.
a. (+00
-&7
b. 44+44
<=%4
c. (
(
37. >erform the following octal additions
a. 88+ : 00&
(0&&
b. (+( : 8+8
(+(+
c. 1+1 : 008
(+8(
a. (4AB0 : 7-
(4A%4
b. A#4 : %
A%3
c. (+00 : ABC\$
BC--
39. >erform the following octal subtractions.
a. (+00 . 880
8+
b. (1-7 . 80&
178
c. 8800 . &&77
1111
40. >erform the following he!adecimal subtractions.
a. ABC . (((
4AB
b. 4433 . AB
43\$\$
c. A4%3 . (741
4&00
41. ?hy are binary numbers important in computing5
\$ata and instructions are represented in binary inside the computer.
42. A byte contains how many bits5
3
43. @ow many bytes are there in a 07'bit machine5
3
44. ?hy do microprocessors such as pagers have only 3'bit machines5
>agers are not general'purpose computers. The programs in pagers are small enough to be
represented in 3'bit machines.
45. ?hy is important to study how to manipulate fi!ed'sized numbers5
2t is important to understand how to manipulate fi!ed'sized numbers because numbers are
represented in a computer in fi!ed'sized format.
46. @ow many ones are there in the number AB43 in base (-5
(-9(-9(-9(+" : (-9(-9((" : (-94" : 3" A 1-4&7
47. \$escribe how a bi'quinary number representation wor;s.
There are seven lights to represent ten numbers. The first two determine the meaning of the ne!t
five. 2f the first light is on, the ne!t five represent +, (, 1, -, and 7 respectively. 2f the second is on,
the ne!t five represent &, 0, 8, 3, and 4 respectively.