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Title Author Parameters

Results Conclusions Remarks


1. Fatty Acids
used as Phase
Change Materials
(PCMs) for
Thermal Energy
Storage in
Building Material
Applications
Chuah T. G.,
Rozanna D.,
Salmiah A.,
Thomas Choong S.
Y. and Saari M.
Melting
temperature (C)
Heat of fusion
(kJ/kg)
Thermal
conductivity
Density (kg/m3)
The absorption capacities
of PCM in the specimens
and compressive strength
tests show that the
composite was capable of
storing up to 30% wt of
PCM.

The composite can be
produced in the form of
floor, wall or ceiling tiles
capable of storing energy
up to 766 kJ/m2.

Latent heat of fusion has
contributed to the overall
heat storage capacity in a
wallboard impregnated
with the esters and their
mixtures.

Gypsum:
before impregnation, cp =
1.8 kJ/kg C;
after impregnation, cp= 2.0
kJ/kg C.
b. Brick:
before impregnation, cp =
1.6 kJ/kg C;
after impregnation, cp =
1.7 kJ/kg C.

Definition of impregnate:
to cause (a material) to be
filled or soaked with
something
(Source:
http://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/im
pregnate)
Fatty acids have good
potential thermal
characteristic as PCM since
they have desired
thermodynamic and kinetic
criteria for low temperature
latent heat storage

However, investment in fatty
acids as PCM storage in the
building materials may not
be economically justified if
only energy savings were
accounted for. The effect of
improved thermal comfort
should also be taken into
consideration.
Thus, more work should be
done on enhancing and
improving the economic
viability of such an
investment.
Fatty acids advantages
melting congruency
good chemical stability
non-toxicity
suitable melting
temperature range
in liquid phase, surface
tension in the order of
2-3 x10-4 N/cm: a value
high enough to be
retained in the structure
of the host material.
fatty acid base PCMs
are chemically, heat
and colour stable, low
corrosion activity and
nontoxic because of the
protected carboxyl
group.
Derived from the
renewable resources
common vegetable and
animals oil.

calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
in the block, since certain
organic PCMs will react with
it.

There are possible efficient
fatty acids that can be used
as PCMs but are costly so it
is not to be considered

Compounds that are suitable
for our research, due to the
melting temperature and
heat of fusion are:
Capric-lauric acids(45-55%)
- 21C , 143kJ/kg
Dimethyl sabacate 21C ,
120-135a


34% Miristic acid + 66%
Capric acid -24C, 147.7a
Vinyl stearate - 27-29C,
122a
Capric acid 32C, 52.7

where the melting
temperatures range from 29
degrees celsius to 32
degrees celsius,
room temperature in the
Philippines
2. The
Solidification
Behavior of
Phase Change
Materials for
Low-temperature
Energy Storage
Maria Natalia
Roxas Dimaano
and Takayuki
Watanabe
Temperature
Solidification
time
Discharge
energy
probe height
positions
mole fraction
The heat transfer shift
from convection to
conduction proceeds fast.

As solidification develops,
the concentration of the C-
L acid increases axially
upward. The concentration
difference is influenced by
the conductive mode of
heat transfer in C-L acid.
As C-L acid solid
accumulates at the
bottom, the pentadecane
is left rich in its liquid form.
It is shown in the figure
that pentadecane solidifies
from the outer region
inward at the higher fixed
height location while more
of C-L acid in the upper
layer solidifies first in the
inner region.
The effect of
considering the
effective thermal
conductivity to account
for the natural
convection in the heat
conduction-based
phase change model
is validated for the C-L
acid mixture on its
solidification process
The 50 vol% of C-L
acid in the C-L acid
and pentadecane
mixture exhibited
obvious heterogeneity
that is not suitable for
thermal energy
storage
It is important for a PCM
consisting of two or more
components to be
homogenous or else it would
not be suitable for thermal
energy storage.

There were lots of equation
provided in this study to
measure if the PCM under
study is effective. Examples
of the equations include
Taylor Series Approach,
Numerical integration.
There were formulas for
effective thermal conductivity
per unit of cell, temperature,
Grashof number, the
enthalpy for liquid phase,
solid phase and phase
transition.

There was not enough
notation for the equations
though. The authors might
have thought that readers
already know the formulas.
We have to study the
notations in order to further
understand how to use the
equations.



I also found out that the
greater temperature
difference between the PCM
melt and the wall
temperature corresponds to
a more effective conductive
mechanism yielding higher
discharge energy in the C-L
acid.
3. Cooling vests
with phase
change material
packs: the effects
of temperature
gradient, mass
and covering
area
Gao, Chuansi;
Kuklane, Kalev;
Holmr, Ingvar
cooling rate
temperature
gradient
mass
covering area
cooling rate of the PCM
vests tested is positively
correlated with the
temperature gradient
between the thermal
manikin and the melting
temperature of the PCMs.
The required temperature
gradient is suggested to
be greater than 6 degrees
Celsius when PCM vests
are used in hot climates.
With the same temperature
gradient, the cooling rate is
mainly determined by the
covering area.
The duration of the cooling
effect is dependent on PCM
mass and the latent heat
This article could be useful in
the field of PCM we are
interested in.
We should take not that the
duration of the cooling effect
of any PCM is dependent on
its mass and its latent heat.
4.Experimental
study on the
phase change
behavior of
phase change
material confined
in pores
Zhang, Dong; Tian,
Shengli; Xiao,
Deyan
phase change
behavior of
organic PCMs
and phase
change
composites
pore structure
of the porous
materials was
chemical
properties of
porous
materials and
phase change
materials
For capric acid with a
functional group of -COOH
, remarkable elevation of
melting temperature was
found when confined in
porous materials.
But for paraffin with only
inactive functional groups,
no elevation
or depression of the
melting temperature was
found when confined in the
porous materials
There is a different phase
change behaviors found for
each kind of PCM in porous
materials.

The interaction between
functional groups of PCM
molecules and alkaline spots
on the inner pore surface of
the porous materials and the
Clapeyron equation were
used to explain the different
shift of the phase change
temperature
of capric acid and paraffin in
porous materials.
Theres a number of
equipment used for
characterizing PCMs:

Differential
scanning calorimetry is
used to measure phase
change behavior of organic
PCMs and phase change
composites.
Mercury
Intrusion Porosimetry to
characterize the pore
structure of the porous
materials.
X-ray fluorescence
spectrometry (XRF) and
Fourier transformation
infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR) were
used to characterize the
chemical properties of
porous materials and phase


change
materials

5. Energy Saving
in Building with
Latent Heat
Storage
E.S. Mettawee, A.I.
Ead
hourly
cooling load
temperature
time
1.In summer the cooling
load peak is at 4 p.m. due
to the time that heat takes
to be conducted through
the walls.

2. PCM melting at 22-
24oC is workable for free
cooling for 6 months. For
the rest 6 months, the
peak shaving control can
be applied by a night
electric cooling unit.

3. Within 2 hours of peak
load shifting time, the
room can be kept cooled
at a comfort temperature
by cooling with off-peak
energy.

4. Using free cooling of
PCM can save 30% of the
energy used for air
conditioning.


5. Using free cooling of
PCM can maintain the
temperature within the
room between 20 to 26C.

6. The change in the air
temperature in storage
chamber is proportional to
the change in the PCM
temperature inside the
capsules.

7. The change in the air
temperature in the room is
PCM system is effective for
the peak load shifting
This is for cooling in
buildings. The PCM here
offers numerous benefits
including saving costs,
saving the environment by
minimizing consumption of
energy.


proportional to the change
of ambient air
temperature.
6. Thermal
Energy Storage
for More Efficient
Domestic
Appliances
Halime PAKSOY,
Selma YILMAZ,
Ozgul GOK, Metin
O. YILMAZ,
2Muhsin MAZMA,
Hunay EVLIYA
Temperature
Time
percent
increase in
energy
efficiency
Melting point
(C)
Heat of fusion
(J/g)
Results for a case study of
waste heat recovery in
dishwashers showed that
maximum temperature
increase in the inlet
temperature of the second
washing cycle was
13.4oC.
melting ranges
remained constant and
latent heat variations
were less than 10%.
The maximum
temperature increase in
the inlet temperature of
the second washing
cycle was measured as
13.4oC when PCM-A
was used as PCM. The
corresponding increase
in energy efficiency of
dishwasher was
calculated as 22 %.
With melting ranges of
120C to +100C and
heats of fusion in the
range of 94 J/g and 220
J/g, these PCMs can be
considered for
refrigerators.
Application of PCM to
Domestic appliances only
offers benefits in terms of
energy savings.
7. Energy
Efficiency
Assumptions and
Calculations;
Typical
Refrigerators vs.
Phase Change
Materials:
Ecofridge, UC
Berkeley
Temperature
Energy
vapor
compression
cycle
The compressor can be
run only at night when the
ambient air, especially
outside, is cooler. Thus,
the temperature difference
across which the vapor
compression cycle can be
reduced dramatically,
providing significant
energy savings

Energy savings is about
40%. (280 kWh/year - 462
kWh/year)/ 462 kWh/year
= 39.4 %
Vapor compression cycle
only needs to run once a day
to freeze the phase change
material, which will then stay
cold for the remainder of the
day. Thus, saving a lot of
energy.
This innovation saves energy
and reduces power costs.

It offers good calculation
techniques that we can use
to measure the efficiency of
our desired product
8. Achieving
Thermal Inertia in
Lightweight
Resultant
Temperature (C)
Relative Humidity (%)
with the introduction of the
Coconut Oil there was a
reduction in the interior
maximum temperature
the incorporation of
PCMs (Coconut Oil) in
lightweight constructions,
can lead to a very good
This is a journal about
coconut oil as a Phase
Change Material. It only
proves that coconut oil is an


Constructions
thermal performance of the
building. However, it was
also proved that the increase
of the thermal inertia with the
incorporation of
PCMs is not enough if not
associated with an optimized
design of the envelope. For
this situation, it
was observed that the
solution with PCM and
optimized envelope, showed
a thermal performance
70% better than a typical
lightweight solution, both in
terms of energy
consumption and
temperature
swing.
effective PCM.
Coconut oil is not only a
natural PCM but also its
temperature of melting point
range is suitable and
comfortable for humans.
9. Corrosion of
metal and
polymer
containers for
use in PCM cold
storage
Ingrid Martorella,
Mohammed M.
Faridc, Luisa F.
Cabeza
Temperature Copper and carbon
steel must be
avoided when using
the PCM tested
Aluminium is not
recommended with
the tested PCM.
Stainless steel 316 is
recommended when
in contact with the
tested PCM
There are corresponding
corrosion effects of different
metals and polymer
materials in contact with
some PCM used in low
temperature applications
Good reminders on which
materials we should not use
in encapsulation
10. Experimental
Study on Space
Cooling with PCM
Thermal Storage

Eman Bellah Sayed
Mettawee,
Eldesouki Ibrahim
Eid and
Sherif Amin
Mohammed Amin
Time
% efficiency
Temperature
Heat discharge
the variation of the
accumulated discharged
thermal energy for total
return air compared
with mix air (50% fresh
air). It is clear that during
decreasing the
accumulated stored
thermal energy is greater
than that of using 50%
fresh air
1. During discharging
processes: using total return
air leads to the increase of
the accumulated stored
thermal
energy.
2. The time required to
complete discharging
processes increases as the
ambient air temperature
decreases.
3. Using total return air
increases the discharging
time.
There are formulas to use for
the monitoring the amount of
heat charged and later,
discharged.


4. The system efficiency
increases by using total
return air.
5. During charging process
as the brine, initial
temperature increases the
accumulated stored thermal
energy
increases.
6. This system do not work
with high efficiency when the
ambient temperature
reaches to 40o
C, but it is works
with ambient temperature
range 30 to 36 o
C
11. Application of
phase change
material to
Save air
conditioning
energy in
building
Yuli S. Indartono,
Aryadi Suwono, Ari
D. Pasek,
Alexander
Christantho
secondary fluid
flow rate
inlet/outlet
temperature at
evaporator,
and electricity
consumed by
compressor
temperature
humidity
time
Coefficient of
Performance
(COP)
Heat flow
compressor energy
consumption is smaller
when TME 30% is added
into chilled-water. During
phase change, heat
transfer coefficient is
usually high.

heat transfer improvement
of water & TME 30%
(mass basis) mixture in
evaporator. This increase
is caused by higher heat
capacity of phase change
mixture

Surfactant addition into the
mixture reduces friction
drag or increases flow rate
because of that, heat
transfer to the evaporator
is increased.
PCMs as component of
secondary refrigerant
(chilled water)

With COP of chiller was
calculated by measuring
temperatures and flow rate
of secondary refrigerant, and
electricity consumed by
compressor

TME is expensive, VO is
good candidate to be used in
agricultural country like
Indonesia. However, more
experiments are needed to
ensure suitability of VO
usage as PCM in chilled-
water system.

PCMs as component of
secondary refrigerant
(chilled water)

With the Temperature of wall
with and without MEPCM
was measured for 7-8 hours
One reason why I chose to
stick to this topic was
because it can solve
environmental problems
such as global warming and
ozone layer depletion
problems.

Heat balance in phase-
change fluid can be
calculated by following
equation:


Where:
q is heat transfer of fluid
containing phase change
material
is mixture flow rate,
is specific heat at
constant pressure of the
mixture,
are inlet and
outlet fluid temperature,
respectively,


(day time).
Mixture between water and
both PCMs shows higher
COP compared with that of
water. Heat transfer
improvement and thermal
capacity increasing are
responsible for the higher
COP.
MEPCM integration into wall
model shows that the
MEPCM contribute to
suppress inner side
temperature of the wall. This
lower temperature may
reduce cooling load and then
AC energy of building.

Both technologies can
mutually contribute to save
AC energy of a building.
is flow rate of
substance which
experiences phase-changed,
and
is latent heat of the
phase-changed material

2
nd
application
I learned a new technique in
the microencapsulation of a
PCM
12. Phase-change
material
wallboard
For distributed
thermal storage
In buildings
A.F. Rudd Temperature
Latent heat
Percent by
weight
Immersion time
Small-scale tests using a
differential scanning
calorimeter showed an
average latent heat of
22.26 J/g (9.57 Btu/lb) at a
PCM loading of 25% by
weight. The average
melting point was 76.8F
(24.9C).

Room-scale
tests showed that the PCM
wallboard had an average
thermal storage capacity
of 10.4 Btu/lb (24.2 J/g).
Small-scale result vs. Room-
scale result varied by only
8.7% compared to the 9.57
Btu/lb
(22.26 J/g) recorded by the
DSC.

Small scale
differential scanning
calorimetry can adequately
predict the performance of
PCM wallboard when
installed
in full-scale applications.
Large-scale
testing is expensive thus, it
may not be required until a
PCM wallboard product
is well along in development.

The PCM wallboard had an
average of 2.1 times more
thermal heat storage
coconut fatty acid is 320F
(160C) at 6 mm
pressure. Since the boiling
point is high, it would be
expected that the compound
would be quite stable at
temperatures well above
room conditions.

amount of loading was
important in order to
maximize the useful amount
of thermal storage without
allowing weeping of excess
PCM from the wallboard.
A PCM loading of 25 % by
weight was chosen since
tests showed that there was
slight weeping of the PCM
from the wallboard at higher
loadings.

The steady-state room air


capacity
than standard wallboard
over a 20F (11.1 C)
temperature
change.
energy balance
was
Qinf + Qgen + Qac + Qwind
+ Qdoor + Qwb = Qair
(1)
where
Qinf = infiltration load,
Qgen = internal heat
generation,
Qac = air-conditioner load,
Qw/nd = window conduction,
Qdoor = door conduction,
Qwb = heat convected to
wallboard surfaces, and
Qair = thermal storage in
room air.

The values of the following
can be obtained through
various equations provided
in the journal. (Page 5)

The difference in wallboard
storage between cells B and
C
was equated to the energy
stored in the PCM:
apcmstor = awbstor,c -
awbstor, b (10)

where
Qpcmstor = thermal storage
in phase-change material;
Qwbstorc, = wallboard
storage, cell C; and
Qwbstorb, = wallboard
storage, cell B.

DSC measured the melting
point
and latent heat of selected
phase-changem aterials and
some
prototype PCM wallboard.



In this journal, problems like
odor and corrosion
developed because of
volatile impurities. It may be
possible that the volatile
impurities
in the fatty acid could be
vaporized before treating the
wallboard

Their future work involves
two possibilities in improving
the PCM wallboard:
1) silica gel desiccant with
latex paint and vinyl joint
compound
to create textured coatings
for PCM wallboard.
2) yield a two-layer
wallboard, making a
composite enthalpy storage
wallboard. The back layer
could be infused with PCM to
provide thermal storage and
the front layer would
incorporate desiccant to
increase moisture storage
and to reduce flammability
13. Thermal
analysis of PCM
based building
wall for cooling

Dhanusiya.G
Rajakumar.S
Temperature
Time
heat
For certain period PCM
converts solid state to the
liquid state attain at
melting point temperature
is 44C led to maximum
energy savings.

More amount of inside
room temperature is get
transferred to the outside
of the wallboard and
atmosphere.

when the distance is
increases it seems the wall
More amount of inside room
temperature is get
transferred to the outside of
the wallboard and
atmosphere. Not only can
reduce the cost and energy
consumption of air condition
system, but also is an
effective way of improving
building energy consumption
to environments negative
effects.
Fatty acids have good
potential thermal
characteristics PCM since
they have desired
thermodynamic and kinetic
criteria for low temperature
latent heat storage

ADVANTAGES OF PCM
(1) Freeze without much
super cooling.
(2) Ability to melt
congruently.
(3) Self nucleating
properties.


temperature also
increased
(4) Compatibility with
conventional material of
construction.
(5) No segregation.
(6) Chemically stable.
(7) High heat of fusion.
(8) Safe and non-reactive.
(9) Recyclable.
14.Characterizati
on of the Capric
and Lauric Acid
Mixture with
Additives as
Thermal energy
Storage
Medium for
Cooling
Application
M. N. R. Dimaano
and T. Watanabe
Melting Point
Depression
Molality
Time
Charged
Energy
The presence of more
composition of
pentadecane in the
mixture apparently causes
slower discharge of energy
as shown by the 50:50
CL:P. However, it
ends up having similar
values with pure
pentadecane.

the discharge performance
exhibited by
the 90:10 presents a
shorter solidification time
with slightly improved
energy storage ability
The DSC analysis of the
PCM mixtures of C-L acid
with some organic chemical
additives elucidated the
lowering of melting point of
the C-L acid. A temperature
depression constant of 10.6
Kkg/kmol provided
the C-L acid 's distinctive
characteristic.

Furthermore, the storage
assessment of the CL:P
blends signifies the
enhancement of the C-L acid
mixture in the composition of
90:10 CL:P combination for
cooling thermal energy
storage system application.
Melting and solidification
times play a vital role to
ultimately measure the
usefulness of the PCM
15. A review of
microencapsulati
on methods of
phase change
materials (PCMs)
as a thermal
energy storage
(TES) medium
A.Jamekhorshid,
S.M.Sadrameli,
M.Farid
Morphology
structure, and
thermal
properties
The results indicated that
the most effective method
to prepare microcapsules
is through the use of
prepolymer solutions and
the addition of
tetraethoxysilane
(TEOS)into the prepolymer
solution would result in
microcapsules with higher
latent
heat(H151J/g)than
those without TEOS
(H88.3J/g).
Selection of these
microencapsulation
techniques is highly
dependent on the
specifications
ofmicrocapsules; the
required capsule
size,materials of the core
and shell, thickness of the
microcapsule shell, thermal
and mechanical properties of
the capsule process must be
custom-tailored in order to
provide a satisfactory
outcome
There are various types of
encapsulation for the
purpose it will serve. The
group should take note of
that.

Excellent choices of
encapsulation techniques


16.Microencapsul
ation of PCMs in
Textiles: A
Review
Asif Rahman,
Michelle E.
Dickinson,
Mohammed M.
Farid
Mass
Length
Temperature
volume
percentage
force
displacement
microcapsules
produced using the 10
micro-m membrane are
smaller than those
produced with the 20
micro-m membrane

New process for
microencapsulating
a paraffin wax, RT21, with
poly(methyl methacrylate)
via membrane emulsification
and suspension
polymerization can be used
to increase the thermal
capacity of buildings.
As for nanocompression, it
has to be further need
investigated: the
nanocompression of
individual microcapsules and
the development of
correlation between
microcapsule size and the
force required for rupture
This journal offers new
techniques for creating
microcapsules
17. PCM
Application
Methods for
Residential
Building
Using Radiant
Floor Heating
Systems
Jisoo Jeon, Jungki
Seo, Su-Gwang
Jeong, Sumin Kim
particle
diameter shell
thickness
thermal
capacity
conductivity
durability
Indoor air
temperature
Height
PCM having a sufficiently
high melting point is
applied as an example
unlike the PCM having a
melting point between 20-
30in typical
buildings
Use of PCM decreases the
building heating and cooling
load, thus reducing the
building energy consumption
and ensuring a comfortable
indoor environment
This article offers effective
economic profit based on the
difference of electricity
charges, therefore it is a
good application for
refrigeration.
18. Improvement
of the thermal
properties of Bio-
based PCM using
exfoliated
graphite
nanoplatelets
Su-GwangJeong,
OkyoungChung,
SeulgiYu,
SughwanKim,
SuminKim
Transmittance
Wave number
Through SEM analysis, we
confirmed that Bio-based
PCM incorporated well into
the structure of xGnP,
Bio-based
PCMshavesignificantlyless
flammable properties,
compared to organic PCMs.
BioPCMs are made from
underused feed stocks, such
as soy beanoils, coconut
oils, palm oils,andbeef
tallow. Also,Bio-based PCMs
can be manufactured such
that the melting point can be
varied between 22.7 1C
and78.33 1C.
Characteristics of the Bio-
based composite PCM were
determined by using SEM,
DSC, FTIR, TGA and TCi.


19. Arizona
Inventors
Develop Phase-
Change Heat
Reservoir Device
Der Jeou Chou of
Maricopa County,
Ariz

Daniel Todd Nelson
of Cave Creek, Ariz
Heat
time
The excess heat load
during transient operation
is temporarily absorbed by
the latent heat of fusion
when the phase change
material changes its phase
from solid to liquid.
Subsequently, the
absorbed heat can be
released back to the
ambient via a heat
rejection subsystem.
This allows engineers to
design smaller heat sinks
capable of accommodating
given transient conditions.
This results in heat sinks
which are lower cost and
smaller size, or which
reduce the requirement to
provide higher airflow,
thereby also decreasing cost
and noise, and increasing
reliability.
This journal is about the
phase-change heat reservoir
device for transient thermal
management

heat reservoir device for
managing a heat input
subject to transient
conditions includes a heat
transfer subsystem having a
first end and a second end,
where the first end is
thermally coupled to the heat
input; a heat storage
subsystem coupled to the
second end of the heat
transfer subsystem, where
the heat storage subsystem
comprises a phase change
material responsive to the
transient conditions
20. Saturated
fatty acid ester
phase change
materials and
processes for
preparing the
same
Mohammed Farid Heat
Temperature
melting and
freezing
temperature
ranges
congruency of
melting
nucleation
characteristics,
supercooling
and stability to
thermal cycling
More than 300 cycles were
done on the ester and the
results show no change in
its characteristics,
indicating that the ester
produced is stable. Figure
13 shows the mass loss of
gypsum boards
impregnated with fatty acid
esters produced according
to the present invention
and the commercially
available paraffin RT21
after being kept in an oven
at 30C for one month.
Figure 14 shows a
comparison between the
vapour pressure of paraffin
and fatty acid esters
produced according to the
present invention, at
different temperatures

Fatty acid esters produced
according to the present
invention is a more fire safe
PCM than RT 21 due to a
lower PHRR(Peak Heat
Release Rate).
There are three different
types of PCMS for this
journal: organic, inorganic
and eutectic.

A technique taught here in
increasing the latent heat of
an organic PCM is through
Hydrogenation.
Hydrogenating the fatty acid
esters converts any
unsaturated fatty acids to
saturated fatty acids. This in
turn significantly increases
the latent heat of the fatt)-'
acid esters, making them
more suitable as PCMs.
Hydrogenation also both
increases the melting point
and narrows the melting
point range of the fatty acid
esters. A narrow melting
point range is a desired


Peak heat release rate
(PHRR) of the above
mentioned ester of the
invention in HDPE without
fire retardant was 1109
kW/m2 (compared to 1507
kW/m2 for RT 21). The
PHRR of esters of the
invention in HDPE with fire
retardant was 783 kW/m2
(compared to 1107 kW/m2
for RT 21 with the same
fire retardant)
characteristic of a PCM.