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Soil explorations are done for obtaining the information about subsurface

conditions at the site of proposed construction. Soil exploration consists of


determining the profle of the natural soil deposits at the site, taking the soil
samples and determining the engineering properties of soils. It also includes
in-situ testing of soils.
Soil is used as: Supporting material (Foundation) for carring the loads of the
super-structure through their foundations.!he function of a properl designed
foundation is to support loads resting on it "ithout causing excessi#e
stresses "ithin the soil mass at an depth beneath foundation. Stresses are
considered excessi#e if a complete rupture "ithin the soil mass occurs
(Shear failure), or if detrimental settlements result (failure due to excessi#e
settlement). !herefore it is apparent that one of the most important steps in
the solution of a foundation problem is determining underground conditions
that "ill a$ect the design. Field and laborator in#estigations re%uired to
obtain necessar information about geolog, hdrolog, and soil conditions&
geotechnical properties of soil at the prospecti#e building site, and the
performance of #arious soil tpes encountered "hen acted upon b
structural loads, "ater and temperature are called sub-surface in#estigations
or soil exploration programme.
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Soil exploration programme are in2uenced b a number of factors some of
these are:
') Si3e and tpe of the pro4ect&
5) -eneral characteristics of the soils in the "ork area&
() !ime a#ailable for exploration& and
6) 6egree of risk or safet in#ol#ed.
!all buildings or hea# industrial structures founded o#er a deposit of fairl
homogeneous cla re%uire an extensi#e soil exploration programme.
'de%uate and accurate sub-surface data "ill enable architects and engineers
to design foundations for both safet and econom. Sa#ings in time and
mone "ill o$er more than o$set the cost of exploration.
(0'SS+S: Sub-surface in#estigations ma be subdi#ided into three classes:
') Foundation in#estigations to in#estigate sites for ne" structures.
5) Stabilit or failure in#estigations to in#estigate causes of distress or failure
of existing structures.
() +arth"ork in#estigations to e#aluate suitabilit of natural materials for
construction purposes.
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!he procedure of exploration can be di#ided into the follo"ing steps:
8) *+(),,'ISS',(+:
I) (ollection of data about the pro4ect.
Ii) -eologic stud of the site.
Iii) Site inspection.
9) /*+0I1I,'*: +./0)*'!I),:
I) 6epth, extent, and composition of critical soil strata,
Ii) -round-"ater le#el and its 2uctuations,
Iii) 6epth of bed rock, "hen necessar,
I#) +stimate of engineering properties of soil,
;) Initial selection of foundation possibilities.
<) 6+!'I0+6 +./0)*'!I),:
I) 'dditional test borings.
Ii) 7ndisturbed sampling if compressible soils are encountered at critical
depth.
Iii) 0aborator=Field tests if data on soil strength and deformation
characteristics are needed.
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I) +#aluation of settlement characteristics of #arious soil laers.
Ii) +#aluation of bearing capacit of #arious soil laers.
/*+0I1I,'*: +./0)*'!I),
/reliminar exploration can be of t"o tpes:
') Shallo" exploration usuall used for light structures, high"as, rail"as,
airfeld etc.
5) 6eep exploration used for dams, bridges, tall buildings, hea# industrial
structures etc.
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'uger 5orings: 'uger borings are classifed soil exploration methods. !hese
are made in cohesi#e soil or in non cohesi#e soils abo#e ground"ater table.
!he soil samples so obtained b auger borings are badl disturbed. ?o"e#er,
the auger ma also be used for ad#ancing the hole do"n to the point "here
undisturbed soil samples are to be taken. 6i$erent tpes of augers are used
for auger boring as sho"n in fg. (helical auger, post-hole auger etc.). ?and-
operated augers can be used to reach depth up to 9@ ft. !o <@ ft. For greater
depths motor-dri#en auger can be used. !he si3e of boring #aries from 9 in.
!o 89 in.
Iii) !est /its ()pen pit exploration): !est pits permit a direct inspection of the
soil strata in place, and taking of ade%uate disturbed and undisturbed soil
samples.
!est pits are the most satisfactor method of disclosing the soil strata
conditions. 'lso it is possible to take e#en undisturbed samples of sands b
this method. !he cost of test pit increases rapidl "ith depth& the are
uneconomical beond a depth of 89 ft. !he are practicall impractical "hen
ground"ater is to be handled.
I#) 6eep 5orings: 6eep borings are re%uired for hea# structures, dams,
industrial buildings, bridges etc. For deep borings usuall po"er drilling rigs
are used.
!here are t"o principal tpes of e%uipment for making borings&
') (able tool drilling rigs ("ash borings)& and b) *otar drilling rigs.
Wash Boring:. Aash boring is one of the most common methods of ad#ancing
a hole into the ground. In this method a hole is started b dri#ing a casing to
a depth of B ft. !o 8@ ft. !he "ater rises bet"een the casing and drill rod,
carring suspended soil particles, and o#er2o"s at the top of the casing
through. !he hole is ad#anced b raising, rotating, and dropping the bit on to
the soil at the bottom of the hole. !his method is %uite rapid for ad#ancing
holes in all but the #er hard soil strata.
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*otar drill is another method of ad#ancing test holes. !his method uses
rotation of the drill bit "ith the simultaneous application of pressure to
ad#ance the hole. *otar drilling is the most rapid method of ad#ancing
holes in the rock..
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I) S+IS1I( 1+!?)6: and
Ii) +0+(!*I('0 *+SIS!I;I!: 1+!?)6.
!hese methods ha#e been used considerabl in recent ears for preliminar
exploration of dams sites and for high"as.
!he seismic method is based on the principle that sound tra#els more rapidl
through dense materials than through loose materials.
!he electric method consists of measuring charges in electric resistance of
the soil. 6ense rock has a #er high electrical resisti#it and soft, saturated
cla has a lo" resistance.
5ore 0og *eport: !he results of a soil boring are usuall presented in the form
of a boring log. ' boring log should contain the follo"ing informationCs:
I) 6epth belo" ground surface, ii) +le#ation of soil laers D ground"ater
table
Iii) !hickness of laers, i#) -raphical smbol of the soil tpe.
;) 6escription of soil,
;i) /osition "here soil sample is taken& "hether disturbed or undisturbed.
;ii) Sample ,o.
;iii) ,atural m.c.
Ix) S./.!. *esistance.
.) ,otes indicating position of ground"ater table, encountered tree routs or
other features.
5)*I,- *+/)*!: ' boring report should contain:
I) 0ocation plan of the pro4ect.
Ii) 0ocation plan borings.
Iii) 6escription of borings.
I#) Surface drainage conditions.
;) /robable source of free "ater,
;i) -round"ater conditions,
;ii) 5oring log dra"n to scale,
;iii) Information on diEculties met "ith during exploration.
Ix) Soil identifcation and classifcation tests results.
S'1/0I,-
') 6isturbed Samples:
' disturbed soil sample is one "hose natural conditions such as structure,
texture, densit, natural m.c. 'nd stress conditions, are disturbed. !he can
be obtained easil b sho#el, auger boring and deep borings. !hese are used
for classifcation tests, compaction test etc.
7,6IS!7*5+6 S'1/0+S: Soil samples obtained b minimum disturbance of
natural conditions such as structure, texture, densit, natural moisture
content and stress conditions are kno"n as undisturbed samples.
6i$erent !pes of Samples:
') !his "alled Shelb tubes,5) Split Spoon Samplers,() /iston
sampler etc.
S)I0 !+S!I,-
!pes of !ests 8. S)I0 I6+,!IFI('!I), D (0'SSIFI('!I), !+S!S:
') FI+06 (0'SSIFI('!I), !+S!S:i) ;isual inspection:a) -rain si3e, grain
shape, and gradation of coarse-grained, cohesion less soils.
5) !exture and colour of fne-grained soils. )rganic soils are distinguished
b their coarse, fbrous texture and dark colour.c) 1oisture content,
such as dr, moist, or "et.
Ii) 6ilatanc !est,iii) Feel !est,i#) 6r Strength !est,#) Shine !est.
5) 0'5)*'!)*: S?+'* !+S!S:i) 'tterberg limits:a) /lastic limit !est,
5) 0i%uid limit !est.c) Shrinkage limit test.ii) -rain si3e analsis !est:a)
1echanical analsis(Sie#e analsis !est)b) Aet analsis !est.
(?drometer analsis !est)
9. S!*+,-!? (?'*'(!+*IS!I(S:') FI+06 S?+'* !+S!:i) Field ;ane Shear
!est.
Ii) Standard /enetration !est.iii) /enetrometer !ests.5) 0'5)*'!)*:
S?+'* !+S!S:
I) 6irect Shear !est.