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The building I selected for this assignment was the Sakura Kristal restaurant located

at the Taman Melawati. I have paid a site visit the restaurant and captured those steel
structure photos. According to the restaurants manager Sakura Kristal restaurant had
been established since 2003. The design of the restaurant was a single floor, an open
area with good air ventilation and a curved steel beam designed roof.









Lets start from the roof structures, the curved steel had been used for support the
loads of roof and the wind loads since the roof design was an open area there must
have wind occasionally. From the bending direction of the steel beam we can notice
that the top of the beams were under tension while the bottom part of the beams were
under compression. The T-beam was used for the curved steel beams, around every 5
small horizontal steel bar spacing, had a major horizontal T-beam steel bar were
welded on the curved steel bar.

Drawing

The reason curved steel beam had used are curved steel sections that create a
smooth, consistent arc are more aesthetically appealing and less labour intensive than
fabricated sections that need to be welded or spliced together. But as an engineer we
concern about the strength of the steel beam but the facts is the bending process does
not affect the strength or structural integrity of the steel. When a shape has been
curved successfully, with no buckling or localized cracking in the steel, the strains the
member will experience under actual service conditions will be much smaller than
those associated with the curving operation. Once the curving is done, the member
can be expected to perform as needed.


However when curved steel is subject to a bending moment, revised
calculations are required. If the bending causes compression on the convex face, the
member is less stable than a straight member, which must be taken into account.
Conversely, although compression on the concave face increases the member stability
this beneficial effect is generally ignored.

Drawing




Next lets take a look on the steel brace between the main steel beams. Steel cable had
been use as the bracing between those beams. Bracing can categorize into two groups
which is vertical bracing or horizontal bracing. Vertical bracing is Bracing in vertical
planes (between lines of columns) provides load paths to transfer horizontal forces to
ground level and provide lateral stability. Horizontal bracing is bracing in a horizontal
plane, generally provided by floor plate action, provides a load path to transfer the
horizontal forces (mainly from the perimeter columns, due to wind) to the planes of
vertical bracing. From the photos we can see that the bracing is connected in certain
angles so I assumed that the bracing is both vertical and horizontal bracing and
transferring the loads to the main support, curved steel beam.


The steel cable also used to carry the loads of the fans by connects the steel structure
which installed the fan under it. We can see it by the photo above.
Drawing

Precaution for improve the safety we should check the steel cable regularly or
increase the numbers of steel cable connect to the main bar.

The end of the curved steel had been bolted into the concrete slab of the restaurant.
The type of bolt jointed was an extentetd on both compression and tension side. The
bearing and shear stress of the bolt must concerned since the bolt joint was vital to the
steel structures if the bolted failed the curved steel beam will be fail too. There have a
simple steel structure to how the discharge pipe so that the pipe can dispose waste
water into the drain.
Drawing



The other end of the curved steel beam been bolt jointed to the I- beam on the top of
the building. The type of the bolt joint was same with the other end it was the
extended plate on both compression and tension side.


In order to more conservative and increase the safety, we can increase the diameter of
the bolt and use better grade of bolt

This steel structure was found beside the entrance of the restaurant. Apparently this
structure carried no loading this explained the welding part was so rough and simply
welded on the edge. We can assumed that the structure was used as decoration
purpose and no meant to carry any load and it provide neglected load capacity